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  • 1.
    Aarts, Marcel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Using Kinect to interact with presentation software2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Imagination Studios is a company specialized in motion capturing and animation. Part of their daily business is working at trade shows where they have a booth to keep close contact with existing customers and also to find new ones. However, usually only two to three people will be working at the booth, and frequently, these people will be in meetings with potential customers. During a time like this, nobody is free to attend to other people checking out the booth. This can result in a potential loss of a new customer. This project seeks a way to alleviate that problem.The idea behind this project was to create an application that trade show visitors can interact with in a playful and innovative way while also giving them a feel of what Imagination Studios is all about while looking for information about the company. To do this it was decided to let users interact with the system by using a Microsoft Kinect. The Kinect allows for easy implementation of a user interface based on motion capturing while also being very cost effective. A new user interface was to be designed as well, without copying already existing solutions and without simply expanding a traditional UI with new elements. To achieve this several design sketches were made, and the most interesting ones were then turned into storyboards. These were then used to decide on the final design, which was then elaborated on by use of video sketches and a collage in Adobe Photoshop.Several tools were used during the actual implementation. For the actual visualization and graphical design, the Unreal Engine 3 in combination with UDK was decided upon. To connect Kinect and Unreal Engine 3, a third party addon called NIUI which makes use of the open source SDK OpenNI was used. For ease of debugging and programming in Unrealscript, the programming language used by the Unreal Engine 3, an addon for Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 called nFringe (Pixel Mine, Inc., 2010) was used.

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  • 2.
    Abbas, Muhammad
    et al.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Västerås, Sweden..
    Ferrari, Alessio
    CNR, ISTI, Pisa, Italy..
    Shatnawi, Anas
    Berger Levrault, Montpellier, France..
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Västerås, Sweden..
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Correction to: On the relationship between similar requirements and similar software A case study in the railway domain (Jan, 10.1007/s00766-021-00370-4, 2022)2022Ingår i: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 399-399Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cyberattacks: Modeling, Analysis, and Mitigation2022Ingår i: Proceedings - 2022 6th International Conference on Computer, Software and Modeling: ICCSM 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, s. 80-84Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial cybersecurity has risen as an important topic of research nowadays. The heavy connectivity by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the growth of cyberattacks against industrial assets cause this risen and attract attention to the cybersecurity field. While fostering current software applications and use-cases, the ubiquitous access to the Internet has also exposed operational technologies to new and challenging security threats that need to be addressed. As the number of attacks increases, their visibility decreases. An attack can modify the Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) quality to avoid proper quality assessment. They can disrupt the system design process and adversely affect a product’s design purpose. This working progress paper presents our approach to modeling, analyzing, and mitigating cyberattacks in CPS. We model the normal behavior of the application as well as cyberattacks with the help of Microsoft Security Development Lifecycle (SDL) and threat modeling approach (STRIDE). Then verify the application and attacks model using a model checking tool and propose mitigation strategies to decrease the risk of vulnerabilities. The results can be used to improve the system design to overcome the vulnerabilities.

  • 4.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Eldh, S.
    Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Concurrency bugs in open source software: a case study2017Ingår i: Journal of Internet Services and Applications, ISSN 1867-4828, E-ISSN 1869-0238, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikel-id 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Concurrent programming puts demands on software debugging and testing, as concurrent software may exhibit problems not present in sequential software, e.g., deadlocks and race conditions. In aiming to increase efficiency and effectiveness of debugging and bug-fixing for concurrent software, a deep understanding of concurrency bugs, their frequency and fixing-times would be helpful. Similarly, to design effective tools and techniques for testing and debugging concurrent software, understanding the differences between non-concurrency and concurrency bugs in real-word software would be useful. This paper presents an empirical study focusing on understanding the differences and similarities between concurrency bugs and other bugs, as well as the differences among various concurrency bug types in terms of their severity and their fixing time, and reproducibility. Our basis is a comprehensive analysis of bug reports covering several generations of five open source software projects. The analysis involves a total of 11860 bug reports from the last decade, including 351 reports related to concurrency bugs. We found that concurrency bugs are different from other bugs in terms of their fixing time and severity while they are similar in terms of reproducibility. Our findings shed light on concurrency bugs and could thereby influence future design and development of concurrent software, their debugging and testing, as well as related tools.

  • 5.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Engineering Department, University of Qom, Iran.
    Fotouhi, F.
    Engineering Department, University of Qom, Iran.
    Sedaghatbaf, A.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A comparative analysis of hybrid deep learning models for human activity recognition2020Ingår i: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 20, nr 19, s. 1-14, artikel-id 5707Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in artificial intelligence and machine learning (ML) led to effective methods and tools for analyzing the human behavior. Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is one of the fields that has seen an explosive research interest among the ML community due to its wide range of applications. HAR is one of the most helpful technology tools to support the elderly’s daily life and to help people suffering from cognitive disorders, Parkinson’s disease, dementia, etc. It is also very useful in areas such as transportation, robotics and sports. Deep learning (DL) is a branch of ML based on complex Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) that has demonstrated a high level of accuracy and performance in HAR. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) are two types of DL models widely used in the recent years to address the HAR problem. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of their integration in recognizing daily activities, e.g., walking. We analyze four hybrid models that integrate CNNs with four powerful RNNs, i.e., LSTMs, BiLSTMs, GRUs and BiGRUs. The outcomes of our experiments on the PAMAP2 dataset indicate that our proposed hybrid models achieve an outstanding level of performance with respect to several indicative measures, e.g., F-score, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 6.
    Abdi, Somayeh
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Task Offloading in Edge-cloud Computing using a Q-Learning Algorithm2024Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Task offloading is a prominent problem in edge−cloud computing, as it aims to utilize the limited capacityof fog servers and cloud resources to satisfy the QoS requirements of tasks, such as meeting their deadlines.This paper formulates the task offloading problem as a nonlinear mathematical programming model to maximizethe number of independent IoT tasks that meet their deadlines and to minimize the deadline violationtime of tasks that cannot meet their deadlines. This paper proposes two Q-learning algorithms to solve theformulated problem. The performance of the proposed algorithms is experimentally evaluated with respect toseveral algorithms. The evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed Q-learning algorithms perform wellin meeting task deadlines and reducing the total deadline violation time.

  • 7.
    Abdullah, Syed Md Jakaria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Virtual Clustered-based Multiprocessor Scheduling in Linux Kernel2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advancements of multiprocessor architectures have led to increasing use of multiprocessors in real-time embedded systems. The two most popular real-time scheduling approaches in multiprocessors are global and partitioned scheduling. Cluster based multiprocessor scheduling can be seen as a hybrid approach combining benefits of both partitioned and global scheduling. Virtual clustering further enhances it by providing dynamic cluster resource allocation duringrun-time and applying hierarchical scheduling to ensure temporal isolation between different software components. Over the years, the study of virtual clustered-based multiprocessor scheduling has been limited to theoretical analysis. In this thesis, we implemented a Virtual-Clustered Hierarchical Scheduling Framework (VC-HSF) in Linux without modifying the base Linux kernel. This work includes complete design, implementation and experimentation of this framework in a multiprocessor platform. Our main contributions are twofold: (i) to the best of our knowledge, our work is the first implementation of any virtual-clustered real-time multiprocessor scheduling in an operating system, (ii) our design and implementation gives practical insights about challenges of implementing any virtual-clustered algorithms for real-time scheduling.

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    VC-HSF Thesis
  • 8.
    Abed Jaser, Zaid
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Al-Braichi, Osamah Haitham Sabhan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Measuring Test Coverage in Embedded Software Development Branches2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the hardware products today, especially those that people interact with, are controlled by software. There are many devices with inbuilt software which many people do not bother to notice. Software may be critical in terms of strict quality requirements due to failures which enable risks of endangering the production and more importantly the lives of people. The testing team of Westermo Network Technologies AB faced a challenge with not being able to identify the coverage of tested cases in software. Identifying the coverage of total executed test cases enables the possibility of knowing the potential future quality of a software. By reaching such a stage a software will likely not suffer from failures due to higher quality, therefore the lives of people and the production at stake will not get harmed. The essential problem is that test cases are both tested and skipped, which makes it more difficult for the company to identify what has been actually tested and skipped. The purpose of this thesis is to identify and calculate the coverage of test cases, the process was mainly to understand the essence in the identification of executed test cases. The ethical aspect of putting people's lives at stake is what inspired us to investigate software failures. Software is typically tested before a release, therefore our investigation was to research testing process of software. When investigating test result over many days and test systems we developed a coverage calculator system which helps Westermo to decide and determine the release of tested software, either the software test result is acceptable for a release or not.

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  • 9.
    Abedini, M.
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Ahmadzadeh, Farzaneh
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Noorossana, R.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Customer credit scoring using a hybrid data mining approach2016Ingår i: Kybernetes, ISSN 0368-492X, E-ISSN 1758-7883, Vol. 45, nr 10, s. 1576-1588Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A crucial decision in financial services is how to classify credit or loan applicants into good and bad applicants. The purpose of this paper is to propose a four-stage hybrid data mining approach to support the decision-making process. Design/methodology/approach: The approach is inspired by the bagging ensemble learning method and proposes a new voting method, namely two-level majority voting in the last stage. First some training subsets are generated. Then some different base classifiers are tuned and afterward some ensemble methods are applied to strengthen tuned classifiers. Finally, two-level majority voting schemes help the approach to achieve more accuracy. Findings: A comparison of results shows the proposed model outperforms powerful single classifiers such as multilayer perceptron (MLP), support vector machine, logistic regression (LR). In addition, it is more accurate than ensemble learning methods such as bagging-LR or rotation forest (RF)-MLP. The model outperforms single classifiers in terms of type I and II errors; it is close to some ensemble approaches such as bagging-LR and RF-MLP but fails to outperform them in terms of type I and II errors. Moreover, majority voting in the final stage provides more reliable results. Practical implications: The study concludes the approach would be beneficial for banks, credit card companies and other credit provider organisations. Originality/value: A novel four stages hybrid approach inspired by bagging ensemble method proposed. Moreover the two-level majority voting in two different schemes in the last stage provides more accuracy. An integrated evaluation criterion for classification errors provides an enhanced insight for error comparisons.

  • 10.
    Abelli, Björn
    Mälardalens högskola, Ekonomihögskolan.
    Directing and Enacting the Information System2007Ingår i: Advances in Information Systems Development: New Methods and Practice for the Networked Society, Volume 2, Issue PART 2, 2007, s. 13-23Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Abelli, Björn
    Mälardalens högskola, Ekonomihögskolan.
    Enacting the e-Society2006Ingår i: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference e-Society 2006, 2006, s. 285-298Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Abelli, Björn
    Mälardalens högskola, Ekonomihögskolan.
    Programmeringens grunder - med exempel i C#2004Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Detta är en lärobok i grundläggande programmering. Den fokuserar på att lära ut det som är gemensamt för de flesta programmeringsspråk – de grundläggande elementen och programkonstruktionerna och hur dessa relaterar till varandra, oberoende av språket. Vilket språk programmet skrivs i måste vara underordnat den uppgift programmet skall lösa. Boken går därför igenom grunderna i strukturerad programmering och visar otaliga exempel i såväl flödesdiagram, strukturdiagram, pseudokod som i källkod. I slutet av boken finns kapitel som går igenom grunderna även i objektorienterad programmering.

    Boken tonar ner inlärningen av ett specifikt programmeringsspråk, men i slutändan måste program ändå skrivas i något språk. Exemplen är skrivna i C# som har slagit igenom som ett praktiskt programmeringsspråk på mycket kort tid och redan börjat göra sitt intåg i högskolekurser i programmering.

    I första hand är boken avsedd för nybörjare i programmering på högskolenivå, som vill lära sig programmeringens grunder.

  • 13.
    Abelli, Björn
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Ekonomihögskolan.
    Révay, Péter
    Mälardalens högskola, Ekonomihögskolan.
    To Be or Not To Be Computer Based2004Ingår i: Proceedings of microCAD 2004, 2004, s. 1-8Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Aboradan, Anas
    et al.
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Landing, Josef
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Finding Bad Smells in natural language Test Specifications Using NALABS2022Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Tests are important artifacts in the software development process. Testing activities such as test automation, test maintenance, and test suite optimization mainly rely on an in-depth understanding of test specifications. The manual process of writing testspecifications in natural language can create many different quality issues such as ambiguous, incomplete, redundant, or inconsistent test cases. Nowadays, the concept of test smells is proposed by several researchers to be used as indicators of low-qualityattributes in test specifications. Quality assurance processes for test specifications often rely on manual reviews to detect these smells. The manual process of detecting these smells is considered time consuming and costly. However, there is currently no work that implements a comprehensive quality model that classifies and identifies these smells by using a systematic strategy. As a result, there is a need for machine-supported analytical measures that decrease the time and effort needed to detect these smells manually, especially when it comes to reviewing and validating large test specifications.This study aims to investigate which natural language smell metrics implemented in NALABS can be found in test specifications and to measure the sufficiency of those smellmetrics. It also aims to extend these smell metrics by exploring, proposing, or combining with new bad smell metrics to cover more aspects of natural language test quality. The results of the study show that the smell metrics exists in real-world test specifications and can uncover many potential quality issues by assisting test designers in identifying certain types of quality issues pertaining to for example the understandability and complexity of test specifications. Moreover, the results show thatthe list of smell metrics implemented in NALABS is incomplete and can be extended to cover more aspects of test quality.

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  • 15.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Internet Traffic Management2008Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Network overload avoidance by traffic engineering and content caching2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet traffic volume continues to grow at a great rate, now driven by video and TV distribution. For network operators it is important to avoid congestion in the network, and to meet service level agreements with their customers.  This thesis presents work on two methods operators can use to reduce links loads in their networks: traffic engineering and content caching.

    This thesis studies access patterns for TV and video and the potential for caching.  The investigation is done both using simulation and by analysis of logs from a large TV-on-Demand system over four months.

    The results show that there is a small set of programs that account for a large fraction of the requests and that a comparatively small local cache can be used to significantly reduce the peak link loads during prime time. The investigation also demonstrates how the popularity of programs changes over time and shows that the access pattern in a TV-on-Demand system very much depends on the content type.

    For traffic engineering the objective is to avoid congestion in the network and to make better use of available resources by adapting the routing to the current traffic situation. The main challenge for traffic engineering in IP networks is to cope with the dynamics of Internet traffic demands.

    This thesis proposes L-balanced routings that route the traffic on the shortest paths possible but make sure that no link is utilised to more than a given level L. L-balanced routing gives efficient routing of traffic and controlled spare capacity to handle unpredictable changes in traffic.  We present an L-balanced routing algorithm and a heuristic search method for finding L-balanced weight settings for the legacy routing protocols OSPF and IS-IS. We show that the search and the resulting weight settings work well in real network scenarios.

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  • 17.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Caching for IPTV distribution with time-shift2013Ingår i: 2013 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications, ICNC 2013, IEEE , 2013, s. 916-921Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today video and TV distribution dominate Internet traffic and the increasing demand for high-bandwidth multimedia services puts pressure on Internet service providers. In this paper we simulate TV distribution with time-shift and investigate the effect of introducing a local cache close to the viewers. We study what impact TV program popularity, program set size, cache replacement policy and other factors have on the caching efficiency. The simulation results show that introducing a local cache close to the viewers significantly reduces the network load from TV-on-Demand services. By caching 4% of the program volume we can decrease the peak load during prime time by almost 50%. We also show that the TV program type and how program popularity changes over time can have a big influence on cache hit ratios and the resulting link loads

  • 18.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Simulation of IPTV caching strategies2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2010 International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems, 2010, s. 187-193Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IPTV, where television is distributed over the Internet Protocol in a single operator network, has become popular and widespread. Many telecom and broadband companies have become TV providers and distribute TV channels using multicast over their backbone networks. IPTV also means an evolution to time-shifted television where viewers now often can choose to watch the programs at any time. However, distributing individual TV streams to each viewer requires a lot of bandwidth and is a big challenge for TV operators. In this paper we present an empirical IPTV workload model, simulate IPTV distribution with time-shift, and show that local caching can limit the bandwidth requirements significantly.

  • 19.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Nordmark, Mattias
    TeliaSonera AB, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Program popularity and viewer behaviour in a large TV-on-Demand system2012Ingår i: IMC '12 Proceedings of the 2012 ACM conference on Internet measurement conference, New York: ACM , 2012, s. 199-210Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today increasingly large volumes of TV and video are distributed over IP-networks and over the Internet. It is therefore essential for traffic and cache management to understand TV program popularity and access patterns in real networks.

    In this paper we study access patterns in a large TV-on-Demand system over four months. We study user behaviour and program popularity and its impact on caching. The demand varies a lot in daily and weekly cycles. There are large peaks in demand, especially on Friday and Saturday evenings, that need to be handled.

    We see that the cacheability, the share of requests that are not first-time requests, is very high. Furthermore, there is a small set of programs that account for a large fraction of the requests. We also find that the share of requests for the top most popular programs grows during prime time, and the change rate among them decreases. This is important for caching. The cache hit ratio increases during prime time when the demand is the highest, and aching makes the biggest difference when it matters most.

    We also study the popularity (in terms of number of requests and rank) of individual programs and how that changes over time. Also, we see that the type of programs offered determines what the access pattern will look like.

  • 20.
    Abukhader, Rami
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Kakoore, Samer
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR VERTICAL FARMING – CONTROLLING THE FOOD PRODUCTION2021Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Covid-19 crisis has highlighted the vulnerability of access to food and the need for local and circular food supply chains in urban environments. Nowadays, Indoor Vertical Farming has been increased in large cities and started deploying Artificial Intelligence to control vegetations remotely. This thesis aims to monitor and control the vertical farm by scheduling the farming activities by solving a newly proposed Job-shop scheduling problem to enhance food productivity. The Job-shop scheduling problem is one of the best-known optimization problems as the execution of an operation may depend on the completion of another operation running at the same time. This paper presents an efficient method based on genetic algorithms developed to solve the proposed scheduling problem. To efficiently solve the problem, a determination of the assignment of operations to the processors and the order of each operation so that the execution time is minimized. An adaptive penalty function is designed so that the algorithm can search in both feasible and infeasible regions of the solution space. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and how it can be applied for monitoring the farm remotely.

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    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR VERTICAL FARMING
  • 21.
    Achrenius, William
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Bergman Törnkvist, Martin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    GRAPH GENERATION ALGORITHMS FOR THE GRADE DECISION CANVAS2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 12 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Development in the field of software architecture, from the early days in the mid-80’s, has been significant. From purely technical descriptions to decision based architectural knowledge, software architecture has seen fundamental changes to its methodologies and techniques. Architectural knowledge is a resource that is managed and stored by companies, this resource is valuable because it can be reused and analysed to improve future development. Companies today are interested in the reasoning behind the software architecture. This reasoning is mainly formulated through the architectural decisions made during development. For architectural decisions to be easier to analyse they need to be stored in a way that enables use of common analytical tools so that comparisons between decisions are consistent and relevant. Additionally, it is also important to have enough data, which leads us to the problem that, preferably, all the individual architectural knowledge cases must be structured and stored. To do this we present a tool that uses graph generation algorithms to generate architectural knowledge as graphs based on an architectural decision canvas called GRADE. This enables multiple decision cases to be encoded through graphs that can be used to analyse relationships and balances between different architectural knowledge elements represented through nodes and edges within a graph.

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  • 22.
    Achuthan, Krishnashree
    et al.
    Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amrita Ctr Cybersecur Syst & Networks, Kollam, Kerala, India..
    Ramesh, Maneesha V.
    Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amrita Ctr Int Programs, Kollam, Kerala, India..
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Raman, Raghu
    Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Ctr Res Adv Technol Educ, Kollam, Kerala, India..
    Internationalizing Engineering Education With Phased Study Programs: India-European Experience2014Ingår i: 2014 IEEE FRONTIERS IN EDUCATION CONFERENCE (FIE), IEEE , 2014, s. 295-301Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the critical challenges seen in the past decades have impacted citizens in a global way. Given shrinking resources, educationists find preparing students for the global market place a formidable challenge. Hence exposing students to multi-lateral educational initiatives are critical to their growth, understanding and future contributions. This paper focuses on European Union's Erasmus Mundus programs, involving academic cooperation amongst international universities in engineering programs. A phased undergraduate engineering program with multiple specializations is analyzed within this context. Based on their performance at the end of first phase, selected students were provided opportunities using scholarship to pursue completion of their degree requirements at various European universities. This paper will elaborate the impact of differing pedagogical interventions, language and cultural differences amongst these countries on students in diverse engineering disciplines. The data presented is based on on the feedback analysis from Eramus Mundus students (N = 121) that underwent the mobility programs. The findings have given important insights into the structure of the initiative and implications for academia and education policy makers for internationalizing engineering education. These included considering digital interventions such as MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) and Virtual Laboratory (VL) initiatives for systemic reorganization of engineering education.

  • 23.
    Adach, Malina
    et al.
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Combined Security Ontology based on the Unified Foundational Ontology2022Ingår i: Proceedings - 16th IEEE International Conference on Semantic Computing, ICSC 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, s. 187-194Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While ontology comparison and alignment have been extensively researched in the last decade, there are still some challenges to these disciplines, such as incomplete ontologies, those that cover only a portion of a domain, and differences in domain modeling due to varying viewpoints. Although the literature has compared ontological concepts from the same domain, comparisons of concepts from different domains (e.g., security and safety) remain unexplored. To compare the concepts of security and safety domains, a security ontology must first be created to bridge the gap between these domains. Therefore, this paper presents a Combined Security Ontology (CSO) based on the Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO) that could be compared to or aligned with other ontologies. This CSO includes the core ontological concepts and their respective relationships that had been extracted through a previous systematic literature review. The CSO concepts and their relationships were mapped to the UFO to get a common terminology that facilitates to bridge the gap between the security and safety domains. Since the proposed CSO is based on the UFO, it could be compared to or aligned with other ontologies from different domains.

  • 24.
    Adach, Malina
    et al.
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Concepts and Relationships in Safety and Security Ontologies: A Comparative Study2022Ingår i: 2022 6th International Conference on System Reliability and Safety, ICSRS 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, s. 357-364Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety and security ontologies quickly become essential support for integrating heterogeneous knowledge from various sources. Today, there is little standardization of ontologies and almost no discussion of how to compare concepts and their relationships, establish a general approach to create relationships or model them in general. However, concepts with similar names are not semantically similar or compatible in some cases. In this case, the problem of correspondence arises among the concepts and relationships found in the ontologies. To solve this problem, a comparison between the Hazard Ontology (HO) and the Combined Security Ontology (CSO) is proposed, in which the value of equivalence between their concepts and their relationships was extracted and analyzed. Although the HO covers the concepts related to the safety domain and the CSO includes securityrelated concepts, both are based on the Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO). For this study, HO and CSO were compared, and the results were summarized in the form of comparison tables. Our main contribution involves the comparisons among the concepts in HO and CSO to identify equivalences and differences between the two. Due to the increasing number of ontologies, their mapping, merging, and alignment are primary challenges in bridging the gaps that exist between the safety and security domains. 

  • 25.
    Adach, Malina
    et al.
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Security Ontologies: A Systematic Literature Review2022Ingår i: Lecture Notes In Computer Science: 26th International Conference on Enterprise Design, Operations, and Computing, EDOC 2022, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2022, s. 36-53Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Security ontologies have been developed to facilitate the organization and management of security knowledge. A comparison and evaluation of how these ontologies relate to one another is challenging due to their structure, size, complexity, and level of expressiveness. Differences between ontologies can be found on both the ontological and linguistic levels, resulting in errors and inconsistencies (i.e., different concept hierarchies, types of concepts, definitions) when comparing and aligning them. Moreover, many concepts related to security ontologies have not been thoroughly explored and do not fully meet security standards. By using standards, we can ensure that concepts and definitions are unified and coherent. In this study, we address these deficiencies by reviewing existing security ontologies to identify core concepts and relationships. The primary objective of the systematic literature review is to identify core concepts and relationships that are used to describe security issues. We further analyse and map these core concepts and relationships to five security standards (i.e., NIST SP 800-160, NIST SP 800-30 rev.1, NIST SP 800-27 rev.A, ISO/IEC 27001 and NISTIR 8053). As a contribution, this paper provides a set of core concepts and relationships that comply with the standards mentioned above and allow for a new security ontology to be developed.

  • 26.
    Addazi, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Systematic Evaluation of Model Comparison Algorithms using Model Generation2020Ingår i: Journal of Object Technology, E-ISSN 1660-1769, Vol. 19, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-Driven Engineering promotes the migration from code-centric to model-based software development. Systems consist of model collections integrating different concerns and perspectives, while semi-automated model transformations analyse quality attributes and generate executable code combining the information from these. Raising the abstraction level to models requires appropriate management technologies supporting the various software development activities. Among these, model comparison represents one of the most challenging tasks and plays an essential role in various modelling activities. Its hardness led researchers to propose a multitude of approaches adopting different approximation strategies and exploiting specific knowledge of the involved models. In this respect, almost no support is provided for the systematic evaluation of comparison approaches against specific scenarios and modelling practices, namely benchmarks. In this article we propose Benji, a framework for the automated generation of model comparison benchmarks. In particular, by giving a set of difference patterns and an initial model, users can generate model manipulation scenarios resulting from the application of the patterns on the model. The generation support provided by the framework obeys specific design principles that are considered as essential properties for the systematic evaluation of model comparison solutions, and are inherited from the general principles coming from evidence-based software engineering. The framework is validated through representative scenarios of model comparison benchmark generations.

  • 27.
    Addazi, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Using Benji to systematically evaluate model comparison algorithms2020Ingår i: Proceedings - 23rd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, MODELS-C 2020 - Companion Proceedings, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2020, s. 56-60Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Model comparison is a critical task in model-driven engineering. Its correctness enables an effective management of model evolution, synchronisation, and even other tasks, such as model transformation testing. The literature is rich as concerns comparison algorithms approaches, however the same cannot be said for their systematic evaluation. In this paper we present Benji, a tool for the generation of model comparison benchmarks. In particular, Benji provides domain-specific languages to design experiments in terms of input models and possible manipulations, and based on those generates corresponding benchmark cases. In this way, the experiment specification can be exploited as a systematic way to evaluate available comparison algorithms against the problem under study.

  • 28.
    Addazi, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Blended graphical and textual modelling for UML profiles: A proof-of-concept implementation and experiment2021Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 175, artikel-id 110912Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Domain-specific modelling languages defined by extending or constraining the Unified Modelling Language (UML) through the profiling mechanism have historically relied on graphical notations to maximise human understanding and facilitate communication among stakeholders. Other notations, such as text-, form-, or table-based are, however, often preferred for specific modelling purposes, due to the nature of a specific domain or the available tooling, or for personal preference. Currently, the state of the art support for UML-based languages provides an almost completely detached, or even entirely mutually exclusive, use of graphical and textual modelling. This becomes inadequate when dealing with the development of modern systems carried out by heterogeneous stakeholders. Our intuition is that a modelling framework based on seamless blended multi-notations can disclose several benefits, among which: flexible separation of concerns, multi-view modelling based on multiple notations, convenient text-based editing operations (inside and outside the modelling environment), and eventually faster modelling activities. In this paper we report on: (i) a proof-of-concept implementation of a framework for UML and profiles modelling using blended textual and graphical notations, and (ii) an experiment on the framework, which eventually shows that blended multi-notation modelling performs better than standard single-notation modelling.

  • 29.
    Afshar, Sara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lock-Based Resource Sharing in Real-Time Multiprocessor Platforms2014Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems are typically resource constrained, i.e., resources such as processors, I/O devices, shared buffers or shared memory can be limited for tasks in the system. Therefore, techniques that enable an efficient usage of such resources are of great importance.

    In the industry, typically large and complex software systems are divided into smaller parts (applications) where each part is developed independently. Migration towards multiprocessor platforms has become inevitable from an industrial perspective. Due to such migration and to efficient use of system resources, these applications eventually may be integrated on a shared multiprocessor platform. In order to facilitate the integration phase of the applications on a shared platform, the timing and resource requirements of each application can be provided in an interface when the application is developed. The system integrator can benefit from such provided information in the interface of each application to ease the integration process. In this thesis, we have provided the resource and timing requirements of each application in their interfaces for applications that may need several processors to be allocated on when they are developed.

    Although many scheduling techniques have been studied for multiprocessor systems, these techniques are usually based on the assumption that tasks are independent, i.e. do not share resources other than the processors. This assumption is typically not true. In this thesis, we provide an extension to such systems to handle sharing of resources other than processor among tasks. Two traditional approaches exist for multiprocessor systems to schedule tasks on processors. A recent scheduling approach for multiprocessors has combined the two traditional approaches and achieved a hybrid more efficient approach compared to the two previous one. Due to the complex nature of this scheduling approach the conventional approaches for resource sharing could not be used straight forwardly. In this thesis, we have modified resource sharing approaches such that they can be used in such hybrid scheduling systems. A second concern is that enabling resource sharing in the systems can cause unpredictable delays and variations in response time of tasks which can degrade system performance. Therefore, it is of great significance to improve the resource handling techniques to reduce the effect of imposed delays caused by resource sharing in a multiprocessor platform. In this thesis we have proposed alternative techniques for resource handling that can improve system performance for special setups.

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  • 30.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bril, R. J.
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands .
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Flexible spin-lock model for resource sharing in multiprocessor real-time systems2014Ingår i: Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Ind. Embedded Syst., SIES, 2014, s. 41-51Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Various approaches can be utilized upon resource locking for mutually exclusive resource access in multiprocessor platforms. So far two conventional approaches exist for dealing with tasks that are blocked on a global resource in a multi-processor platform. Either the blocked task performs a busy wait, i.e. spins, at the highest priority level until the resource is released, or it is suspended. Although both approaches provide mutually exclusive access to resources, they can introduce long blocking delays to tasks, which may be unacceptable for many industrial applications. In this paper, we propose a general spin-based model for resource sharing in multiprocessor platforms in which the priority of the blocked tasks during spinning can be selected arbitrarily. Moreover, we provide the analysis for two selected spin-lock priorities and we show by means of a general comparison as well as specific examples that these solutions may provide a better performance for higher priority tasks.

  • 31.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bril, Reinder J.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Resource Sharing Under Global Scheduling with Partial Processor Bandwidth2015Ingår i: 2015 10th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2015 - Proceedings, 2015, s. 195-206Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Resource efficient approaches are of great importance for resource constrained embedded systems. In this paper, we present an approach targeting systems where tasks of a critical application are partitioned on a multi-core platform and by using resource reservation techniques, the remaining bandwidth capacity on each core is utilized for one or a set of non-critical application(s). To provide a resource efficient solution and to exploit the potential parallelism of the extra applications on the multi-core processor, global scheduling is used to schedule the tasks of the non-critical applications. Recently a specific instantiation of such a system has been studied where tasks do not share resources other than the processor. In this paper, we enable semaphore-based resource sharing among tasks within critical and non-critical applications using a suspension-based synchronization protocol. Tasks of non-critical applications have partial access to the processor bandwidth. The paper provides the systems schedulability analysis where blocking due to resource sharing is bounded. Further, we perform experimental evaluations under balanced and unbalanced allocation of tasks of a critical application to cores.

  • 32.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    J. Bril, Reinder
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Per Processor Spin-Lock Priority for Partitioned Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Two traditional approaches exist for a task that is blocked on a global resource; a task either performs a non-preemptive busy wait, i.e., spins, or suspends and releases the processor. Previously, we have shown that both approaches can be viewed as spinning either at the highest priority HP or at the lowest priority on the processor LP, respectively. Based on this view, previously we have generalized a task's blocking behavioral model, as spinning at any arbitrary priority level. In this paper, we focus on a particular class of spin-lock protocols from the introduced flexible spin-lock model where spinning is performed at a priority equal to or higher than the highest local ceiling of the global resources accessed on a processor referred to as CP spin-lock approach. In this paper, we assume that all tasks of a specific processor are spinning on the same priority level. Given this class and assumption, we show that there exists a spin-lock protocol in this range that dominates the classic spin-lock protocol which tasks spin on highest priority level (HP). However we show that this new approach is incomparable with the CP spin-lock approach. Moreover, we show that there may exist an intermediate spin-lock approach between the priority used by CP spin-lock approach and the new introduced spin-lock approach that can make a task set schedulable when those two cannot. We provide an extensive evaluation results comparing the HP, CP and the new proposed approach.

  • 33.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    J. Bril, Reinder
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Per Processor Spin-Lock Priority for Partitioned Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems2017Ingår i: Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems, ISSN 2199-2002, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Two traditional approaches exist for a task that is blocked on a global resource; a task either performs a non-preemptive busy wait, i.e., spins, or suspends and releases the processor. Previously, we have shown that both approaches can be viewed as spinning either at the highest priority HP or at the lowest priority on the processor LP, respectively. Based on this view, previously we have generalized a task's blocking behavioral model, as spinning at any arbitrary priority level. In this paper, we focus on a particular class of spin-lock protocols from the introduced flexible spin-lock model where spinning is performed at a priority equal to or higher than the highest local ceiling of the global resources accessed on a processor referred to as CP spin-lock approach. In this paper, we assume that all tasks of a specific processor are spinning on the same priority level. Given this class and assumption, we show that there exists a spin-lock protocol in this range that dominates the classic spin-lock protocol which tasks spin on highest priority level (HP). However we show that this new approach is incomparable with the CP spin-lock approach. Moreover, we show that there may exist an intermediate spin-lock approach between the priority used by CP spin-lock approach and the new introduced spin-lock approach that can make a task set schedulable when those two cannot. We provide an extensive evaluation results comparing the HP, CP and the new proposed approach.

  • 34.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bruneliere, H.
    IMT Atlantique – LS2N (CNRS) – ARMINES, France.
    Di Ruscio, D.
    Università degli Studi dell'Aquila - DISIM | Center of Excellence DEWS, Italy.
    Sadovykh, A.
    Softeam, France.
    Mazzini, S.
    Intecs, Italy.
    Cariou, E.
    Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, LIUPPA, France.
    Truscan, D.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Cabot, J.
    ICREA, Spain.
    Gómez, A.
    Internet Interdisciplinary Institute (IN3), Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC), Spain.
    Gorroñogoitia, J.
    ATOS, Spain.
    Pomante, L.
    Università degli Studi dell'Aquila - DISIM | Center of Excellence DEWS, Italy.
    Smrz, P.
    Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic.
    The MegaM@Rt2 ECSEL project: MegaModelling at Runtime – Scalable model-based framework for continuous development and runtime validation of complex systems2018Ingår i: Microprocessors and microsystems, ISSN 0141-9331, E-ISSN 1872-9436, Vol. 61, s. 86-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge for the European electronic industry is to enhance productivity by ensuring quality of development, integration and maintenance while reducing the associated costs. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) principles and techniques have already shown promising capabilities, but they still need to scale up to support real-world scenarios implied by the full deployment and use of complex electronic components and systems. Moreover, maintaining efficient traceability, integration, and communication between two fundamental system life cycle phases (design time and runtime) is another challenge requiring the scalability of MDE. This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL 1 project entitled “MegaModelling at runtime – Scalable model-based framework for continuous development and runtime validation of complex systems” (MegaM@Rt2), whose aim is to address the above mentioned challenges facing MDE. Driven by both large and small industrial enterprises, with the support of research partners and technology providers, MegaM@Rt2 aims to deliver a framework of tools and methods for: 1) system engineering/design and continuous development, 2) related runtime analysis and 3) global models and traceability management. Diverse industrial use cases (covering strategic domains such as aeronautics, railway, construction and telecommunications) will integrate and demonstrate the validity of the MegaM@Rt2 solution. This paper provides an overview of the MegaM@Rt2 project with respect to its approach, mission, objectives as well as to its implementation details. It further introduces the consortium as well as describes the work packages and few already produced deliverables.

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  • 35.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Caporuscio, M.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Conboy, H.
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA, United States.
    Di Marco, A.
    University of l'Aquila, Italy.
    Duchien, D. L.
    University of Lille, France.
    Pérez, D.
    University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Seceleanu, C.
    Kyushu University, Japan.
    Shahbazian, A.
    University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States.
    Spalazzese, R.
    Microsoft, WA, United States.
    Tivoli, M.
    Florida State University, FL, United States.
    Vasilescu, B.
    University College Dublin and Lero, Ireland.
    Washizaki, Hironori
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Weyns, D.
    University of Southern California, CA, United States.
    Pasquale, L.
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Nistor, A.
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Muşlu, K.
    Waseda University, Japan.
    Kamei, Y.
    Waseda University, Japan.
    Hanam, Q.
    Carnegie Mellon University, PA, United States.
    Ying, A. T. T.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
    Program committee for icse 2018 posters track2018Ingår i: Proceedings / International Conference of Software Engineering, ISSN 0270-5257, E-ISSN 1558-1225, Vol. Part F137351Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 36.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ghazi, Nauman
    Blekinge Institute of Technolog.
    Itkonen, Juha
    Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Torkar, Richard
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Andrews, Anneliese
    University of Denver, USA.
    Bhatti, Khurram
    Blekinge Institute of Technolog.
    An experiment on the effectiveness and efficiency of exploratory testing2015Ingår i: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 844-878Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The exploratory testing (ET) approach is commonly applied in industry, but lacks scientific research. The scientific community needs quantitative results on the performance of ET taken from realistic experimental settings. The objective of this paper is to quantify the effectiveness and efficiency of ET vs. testing with documented test cases (test case based testing, TCT). We performed four controlled experiments where a total of 24 practitioners and 46 students performed manual functional testing using ET and TCT. We measured the number of identified defects in the 90-minute testing sessions, the detection difficulty, severity and types of the detected defects, and the number of false defect reports. The results show that ET found a significantly greater number of defects. ET also found significantly more defects of varying levels of difficulty, types and severity levels. However, the two testing approaches did not differ significantly in terms of the number of false defect reports submitted. We conclude that ET was more efficient than TCT in our experiment. ET was also more effective than TCT when detection difficulty, type of defects and severity levels are considered. The two approaches are comparable when it comes to the number of false defect reports submitted.

  • 37.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan .
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Towards benchmarking feature subset selection methods for software fault prediction2016Ingår i: Computational Intelligence and Quantitative Software Engineering / [ed] Witold Pedrycz, Giancarlo Succi and Alberto Sillitti, Springer-Verlag , 2016, s. 33-58Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the general acceptance that software engineering datasets often contain noisy, irrele- vant or redundant variables, very few benchmark studies of feature subset selection (FSS) methods on real-life data from software projects have been conducted. This paper provides an empirical comparison of state-of-the-art FSS methods: information gain attribute ranking (IG); Relief (RLF); principal com- ponent analysis (PCA); correlation-based feature selection (CFS); consistency-based subset evaluation (CNS); wrapper subset evaluation (WRP); and an evolutionary computation method, genetic program- ming (GP), on five fault prediction datasets from the PROMISE data repository. For all the datasets, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve—the AUC value averaged over 10-fold cross- validation runs—was calculated for each FSS method-dataset combination before and after FSS. Two diverse learning algorithms, C4.5 and na ??ve Bayes (NB) are used to test the attribute sets given by each FSS method. The results show that although there are no statistically significant differences between the AUC values for the different FSS methods for both C4.5 and NB, a smaller set of FSS methods (IG, RLF, GP) consistently select fewer attributes without degrading classification accuracy. We conclude that in general, FSS is beneficial as it helps improve classification accuracy of NB and C4.5. There is no single best FSS method for all datasets but IG, RLF and GP consistently select fewer attributes without degrading classification accuracy within statistically significant boundaries.

  • 38.
    Afzali, Seyed Mahmoodreza
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Design and Evaluation of Visualizations for API Testing in Mobile Networks2023Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In enterprise-scale companies, where processing complex test results is often a time-consuming task for testers and developers, the need for an Application Programming Interface (API) testing visualization tool is vital. Furthermore, as various stakeholders require insights into the API testing results, a clear dashboard can facilitate effective communication among them. 

    This thesis aims to fulfill the need for a generic API testing visualization tool within the mobile network industry through the implementation of TestUp, a user-friendly solution. TestUp simplifies the analysis of complex API test results for various stakeholders, including testers, developers, managers, and product owners. To accomplish the objectives of this thesis, an industrial case study was conducted at Nokia, beginning with a pre-study phase to explore industry needs and challenges. TestUp was designed based on the Agile methodology, evolving through feedback from industry and academia. Additionally, a post-tool questionnaire was employed to gather data on the tool’s effectiveness and limitations. Subsequently, the data analysis was conducted using the thematic analysis approach. 

    The thesis demonstrates that TestUp provides valuable benefits to stakeholders by effectively addressing critical issues found in existing tools. TestUp is compatible with a range of test automation frameworks and serves as a user-friendly tool for visualizing test coverage. These facts fulfill the company's requirements. All in all, this thesis improves the analysing of API testing results within the mobile network management sector. Additionally, future work can involve enhancing the tool by adding extra features, such as export functionality and the ability to indicate timeout requests. Also, integrating TestUp with the continuous integration pipelines is a potential area for future work.

  • 39.
    Agbamuche, Joy
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    How does the alignment of IT to business strategy affect the organisation of the IT function?2008Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Date: 2008-06-04

    Purpose: The primary goal of this research is to describe the IT function and examine how its alignment to an organisations strategy affects the way it is organised.

    Method: The chosen method was a purely theoretical examination with the use of the case study of Windham International as primary resource and secondary resources such as book and literature review used for the thesis.

    Research Questions: How does the alignment of IT to business strategy affect the organisation of the IT function?

    Conclusion: One of the findings was that a few researchers seem to suggest that the centralized mode of organising IT was symbolic of the past, while outsourcing and decentralization are the modern approach to organising IT. Wyndham International shows the opposite, after the introduction of the CIO in 2002, centralization was the chosen mode of organisation because that was what would best fit the new strategic approach of the organisation. Insourcing rather than outsourcing proved to be a winning formula.

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  • 40.
    Agirman, Isabelle
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Agil utveckling inom mindre utvecklingsteam2022Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingsmetoder är olika arbetsprocesser som företag kan använda för att förbättra och effektivisera sitt arbete. Idag är de agila utvecklingsmetoderna Scrum och Kanban två av de mer använda metoderna inom företag som utvecklar mjukvara. I mitt arbete undersöks det hur nära små utvecklingsteam inom mindre företag förhåller sig till Scrum eller Kanban i verkligheten. Undersökningen görs för att se om det finns förbättringar som mindre företag med små utvecklingsteam kan ta till sig från litteratur för att efterlikna hur teorin är beskriven, samt kunna diskutera kring delar relevans som inte efterlevs.

    Syftet med detta arbete är att identifiera hur nära agila utvecklingsmetoder som Scrum eller Kanban efterlevs i praktiken, hos mindre företag med små utvecklingsteam, enligt hur metoderna är teoretiskt beskrivna. Målet i detta arbete är se om det finns förbättringar som små utvecklingsteam kan ta till sig från litteratur om utvecklingsmetoderna, Scrum eller Kanban, för att effektivisera sin arbetsprocess genom att efterleva mer enligt hur dessa utvecklingsmetoder beskrivs i litteraturen.

    För att uppnå arbetets syfte och mål undersökas tre frågeställningar. Ena frågeställningen är om hur litteratur beskriver metoderna för agil mjukvaruutveckling för små utvecklingsteam i mindre företag, vilket besvarades genom en litteraturstudie. Genom intervjuer besvarades frågeställningen om hur utvecklare i små utvecklingsteam inom mindre företag beskriver sin utvecklingsmetod. Tillsammans med intervjuerna och en observationsstudie besvarades den sista frågeställningen angående hur små utvecklingsteam i mindre företag arbetar med utveckling av mjukvara i praktiken.

    Resultatet visade att utvecklarna från det medverkande företaget i praktiken endast följde vissa delar från Scrum men inte alla centrala delar, trots att Scrum enligt litteratur är anpassad till att användas inom små utvecklingsteam. Genom att inte följa Scrum centrala delar går det inte att säga att de använder Scrum, och därmed riskerar att inte leva upp till alla de fördelar Scrum kan bidra med.

  • 41.
    Ahlberg, Carl
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Embedded high-resolution stereo-vision of high frame-rate and low latency through FPGA-acceleration2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Autonoma agenter är beroende av information från den omgivande miljön för att agera. I en mängd av tillgängliga sensorer är troligtvis bildsensorn den mest mångsidiga, då den möjliggör särskillnad av färg, storlek, form och djup. För det sistnämnda är, i en dynamisk miljö utan krav på förkunskaper, stereovision en vanligt tillämpad teknik. Tolkning av bildinnehåll och extrahering av relevant information går under benämningen datorseende. Datorseende, och specifikt stereoalgoritmer, är redan för ett enskilt bildpar komplexa och beräkningsmässigt kostsamma, och ger resultat som, i termer av noggrannhet, är kvalitativt svåra att jämföra. Problematiken utökas vidare av kontinuerlig ström av bilder, med allt högre bildfrekvens och upplösning. För autonoma agenter krävs dessutom överväganden vad gäller realtidskrav, inbyggda system/resursbegränsade beräkningsplattformar, strömförbrukning och fysisk storlek, vilket summerar till ett otvetydigt utmanande problem.

    Den här avhandlingen syftar till att åstadkomma högupplöst stereovision med hög uppdateringsfrekvens och låg latens på inbyggda system. Genom att närma sig problemet från två olika vinklar, hårdvaru- och algoritmmässigt, kan ett symbiotiskt förhållande däremellan säkerställas.Avhandlingens första bidrag är GIMME och GIMME2 inbyggda visionsplattformar, som erbjuder FPGA-baserad hårdvaruaccelerering, med särskilt fokus på stereoseende, i kontrast till för tidpunkten kommersiellt tillgängliga system.Det andra bidraget, härrörande stereoalgoritmer, är tudelat.Först hanteras skalbarhetproblemet, sammankopplat med disparitetsomfånget, genom att föreslå en segmentbaserad stereoalgoritm.I segmentrymden är matchningen oberoende av bildupplösningen, samt att disparitetsomfånget definieras i termer av segment, vilket antyder att relativt få hypoteser behövs för att omfatta hela scenen.I det andra bidraget på algoritmnivå, mer i linje med konventionella stereoalgoritmer för FPGAer, har Censustransformen (CT) identifierats som ett återkommande kostnadsmått för likhet. Här föreslås en optimering av CT genom att tillämpa genetisk algoritm (GA) - Genetisk Algoritm Census Transform (GACT). GACT visar lovande resultat för referensdataset jämfört med etablerade CT-metoder, men är samtidigt resurseffektiv.

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  • 42.
    Ahlberg, Carl
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Leon, Miguel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ekstrand, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Unbounded Sparse Census Transform using Genetic Algorithm2019Ingår i: 2019 IEEE WINTER CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER VISION (WACV), IEEE , 2019, s. 1616-1625Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Census Transform (CT) is a well proven method for stereo vision that provides robust matching, with respect to object boundaries, outliers and radiometric distortion, at a low computational cost. Recent CT methods propose patterns for pixel comparison and sparsity, to increase matching accuracy and reduce resource requirements. However, these methods are bounded with respect to symmetry and/or edge length. In this paper, a Genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to find a new and powerful CT method. The proposed method, Genetic Algorithm Census Transform (GACT), is compared with the established CT methods, showing better results for benchmarking datasets. Additional experiments have been performed to study the search space and the correlation between training and evaluation data.

  • 43.
    Ahlström, Louise
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Informationsmaterial till Europaskolan2008Studentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är resultatet av mitt examensarbete i Textdesign vid Mälardalens högskola. På uppdrag av Europaskolan i Strängnäs har ett informationsmaterial utvecklats och resulterat i en broschyr. Målgruppen är elever i årskurs nio som ska söka gymnasieutbildning. Rapporten beskriver det tillvägagångssätt som använts vid

    framtagningen av det nya informationsmaterialet. Med utgångspunkt i begreppen läsligt, läsbart och läsvärt har text, bild och layout utformats för att skapa en informativ och målgruppsanpassad broschyr. Metoder som använts är komparation, textanalys och litteraturstudier. Utprovningsmetoden som tillämpats är enskilda intervjuer med elever

    på Europaskolan. Slutsatser som dragits är att behovet av designad information ökar i dagens mediebrus och att sändarens budskap till mottagaren måste genomgå en hermeneutisk process.

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  • 44.
    Ahmad, A.
    et al.
    Ericsson AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Neto, F. G. D. O.
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sandahl, K.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Leifler, O.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    The Comparative Evaluation of Test Prioritization Approaches in an Industrial Study2023Ingår i: Proc. - IEEE Int. Conf. Softw. Qual., Reliab., Secur. Companion, QRS-C, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, s. 35-44Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many test prioritisation techniques have been proposed in order to improve test effectiveness of Continuous Integration (CI) pipelines. Particularly, diversity-based testing (DBT) has shown promising and competitive results to improve test effectiveness. We report on a case study considering the CI pipeline of Axis Communications in Sweden. We compared three different prioritisation approaches (i.e., diversity, failure history and time) in terms of their impact on coverage, failure detection rates and reduction on test execution time. Our results reveal that DBT is the best candidate to provide feature coverage, whereas failure rate prioritisation yields better failure coverage. Time-based prioritisation is not a reliable approach to provide cost-effective testing. Moreover, DBT would allow stakeholders to receive quick feedback on many combinations of integrated features to verify their code changes. Our participants report that developers are mainly interested in: (i) receiving quick feedback on a high combination of integrated features to verify their code changes, and (ii) associate their test suites to confidence scores representing the risk of missing failures given that fewer tests are executed.

  • 45.
    Ahmadi, Dara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Panin, Vadim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Skissamarbete på digitala plattformar2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Datorstött kooperativt arbete (hädanefter förkortat CSCW efter engelskans Computer-Supported Cooperative Work) är när ett system underlättar datorbaserat arbete i grupp på distans och söker lämplig teknik för att uppnå optimal effektivitet i gruppens arbetsprocess. Ett exempel på ett sådant system kan vara skissamarbete på digitala plattformar. Inom interaktionsdesign finns ett intresse för skissamarbete på digitala plattformar. Vi har därför valt att inom ramen för vårt arbete undersöka om skissamarbete på digitala plattformar är ett effektivt arbetssätt för designers och vilka funktioner en sådan plattform bör ha. För att få svar på våra frågor har vi valt att skapa en Android samt en Webbapplikation för skissamarbete. I våra applikationer har vi beaktat designers önskemål gällande funktioner. Applikationerna användes i en undersökning för att kunna grundligt analysera hur designers skissamarbetar på digitala plattformar. Resultatet har visat att skissamarbete på digitala plattformar är ett smidigt och mobilt arbetssätt som medför aktiva diskussioner, skapar nya idéer och bättre lösningar, bidrar till kunskapsöverföring, bättre arbetsmiljö och samspel mellan designers.

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  • 46.
    Ahmadilivani, M. H.
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Taheri, M.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Raik, J.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Jenihhin, M.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Enhancing Fault Resilience of QNNs by Selective Neuron Splitting2023Ingår i: AICAS 2023 - IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Circuits and Systems, Proceeding, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The superior performance of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) has led to their application in various aspects of human life. Safety-critical applications are no exception and impose rigorous reliability requirements on DNNs. Quantized Neural Networks (QNNs) have emerged to tackle the complexity of DNN accelerators, however, they are more prone to reliability issues.In this paper, a recent analytical resilience assessment method is adapted for QNNs to identify critical neurons based on a Neuron Vulnerability Factor (NVF). Thereafter, a novel method for splitting the critical neurons is proposed that enables the design of a Lightweight Correction Unit (LCU) in the accelerator without redesigning its computational part.The method is validated by experiments on different QNNs and datasets. The results demonstrate that the proposed method for correcting the faults has a twice smaller overhead than a selective Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) while achieving a similar level of fault resiliency. 

  • 47.
    Ahmadilivani, Mohammad Hasan
    et al.
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Tallinn, Estonia..
    Taheri, Mandi
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Tallinn, Estonia..
    Raik, Jaan
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Tallinn, Estonia..
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Tallinn Univ Technol, Tallinn, Estonia.;Mälardalen Univ, Västerås, Sweden..
    Jenihhin, Maksim
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Tallinn, Estonia..
    DeepVigor: VulnerabIlity Value RanGes and FactORs for DNNs' Reliability Assessment2023Ingår i: 2023 IEEE EUROPEAN TEST SYMPOSIUM, ETS, IEEE, 2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) and their accelerators are being deployed ever more frequently in safety-critical applications leading to increasing reliability concerns. A traditional and accurate method for assessing DNNs' reliability has been resorting to fault injection, which, however, suffers from prohibitive time complexity. While analytical and hybrid fault injection-/analyticalbased methods have been proposed, they are either inaccurate or specific to particular accelerator architectures. In this work, we propose a novel accurate, fine-grain, metric-oriented, and accelerator-agnostic method called DeepVigor that provides vulnerability value ranges for DNN neurons' outputs. An outcome of DeepVigor is an analytical model representing vulnerable and non-vulnerable ranges for each neuron that can be exploited to develop different techniques for improving DNNs' reliability. Moreover, DeepVigor provides reliability assessment metrics based on vulnerability factors for bits, neurons, and layers using the vulnerability ranges. The proposed method is not only faster than fault injection but also provides extensive and accurate information about the reliability of DNNs, independent from the accelerator. The experimental evaluations in the paper indicate that the proposed vulnerability ranges are 99.9% to 100% accurate even when evaluated on previously unseen test data. Also, it is shown that the obtained vulnerability factors represent the criticality of bits, neurons, and layers proficiently. DeepVigor is implemented in the PyTorch framework and validated on complex DNN benchmarks.

  • 48.
    Ahmadpanah, M. M.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Balliu, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedin, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olsson, L. E.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sabelfeld, A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Securing Node-RED Applications2021Ingår i: Protocols, Strands, and Logic: Essays Dedicated to Joshua Guttman on the Occasion of his 66.66th Birthday / [ed] Daniel Dougherty, José Meseguer, Sebastian Alexander Mödersheim, Paul Rowe, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2021, s. 1-21Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Trigger-Action Platforms (TAPs) play a vital role in fulfilling the promise of the Internet of Things (IoT) by seamlessly connecting otherwise unconnected devices and services. While enabling novel and exciting applications across a variety of services, security and privacy issues must be taken into consideration because TAPs essentially act as persons-in-the-middle between trigger and action services. The issue is further aggravated since the triggers and actions on TAPs are mostly provided by third parties extending the trust beyond the platform providers. Node-RED, an open-source JavaScript-driven TAP, provides the opportunity for users to effortlessly employ and link nodes via a graphical user interface. Being built upon Node.js, third-party developers can extend the platform’s functionality through publishing nodes and their wirings, known as flows. This paper proposes an essential model for Node-RED, suitable to reason about nodes and flows, be they benign, vulnerable, or malicious. We expand on attacks discovered in recent work, ranging from exfiltrating data from unsuspecting users to taking over the entire platform by misusing sensitive APIs within nodes. We present a formalization of a runtime monitoring framework for a core language that soundly and transparently enforces fine-grained allowlist policies at module-, API-, value-, and context-level. We introduce the monitoring framework for Node-RED that isolates nodes while permitting them to communicate via well-defined API calls complying with the policy specified for each node. 

  • 49.
    Ahmadpanah, M. M.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedin, Daniel
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sabelfeld, Andrei
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Poster: Data Minimization by Construction for Trigger-Action Applications2023Ingår i: CCS 2023 - Proceedings of the 2023 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2023, s. 3522-3524Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Trigger-Action Platforms (TAPs) enable applications to integrate various devices and services otherwise unconnected. Recent features of TAPs introduce additional sources of data such as queries in IFTTT. The current TAPs, like IFTTT, demand that trigger and query services transmit excessive amounts of user data to the TAP. To limit the data to what is actually necessary for the execution to comply with the principle of data minimization, input services should send no more than the necessary data. LazyTAP proposes a new paradigm of data minimization by construction in TAPs, introducing a novel perspective for data collection from input services. While the existing push-all approach of TAPs entails coarse-grained data over-approximation, LazyTAP pulls input data on-demand at the level of attributes, once accessed by the app execution. Thanks to the fine granularity provided by LazyTAP, multiple trigger and query services can be naturally minimized while the behavior of app executions is preserved. In addition, a great benefit of LazyTAP is being seamless for third-party app developers. By leveraging laziness, LazyTAP defers computation and proxies objects to load necessary remote data behind the scenes. Our evaluation study on app benchmarks shows that on average LazyTAP improves minimization by 95% over IFTTT and by 38% over minTAP, with a tolerable performance overhead. This poster goes into further details about LazyTAP and elaborates on its prototype implementation. 

  • 50.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A case-based multi-modal clinical system for stress management2010Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A difficult issue in stress management is to use biomedical sensor signal in the diagnosis and treatment of stress. Clinicians often make their diagnosis and decision based on manual inspection of physiological signals such as, ECG, heart rate, finger temperature etc. However, the complexity associated with manual analysis and interpretation of the signals makes it difficult even for experienced clinicians. Today the diagnosis and decision is largely dependent on how experienced the clinician is interpreting the measurements.  A computer-aided decision support system for diagnosis and treatment of stress would enable a more objective and consistent diagnosis and decisions.

    A challenge in the field of medicine is the accuracy of the system, it is essential that the clinician is able to judge the accuracy of the suggested solutions. Case-based reasoning systems for medical applications are increasingly multi-purpose and multi-modal, using a variety of different methods and techniques to meet the challenges of the medical domain. This research work covers the development of an intelligent clinical decision support system for diagnosis, classification and treatment in stress management. The system uses a finger temperature sensor and the variation in the finger temperature is one of the key features in the system. Several artificial intelligence techniques have been investigated to enable a more reliable and efficient diagnosis and treatment of stress such as case-based reasoning, textual information retrieval, rule-based reasoning, and fuzzy logic. Functionalities and the performance of the system have been validated by implementing a research prototype based on close collaboration with an expert in stress. The case base of the implemented system has been initiated with 53 reference cases classified by an experienced clinician. A case study also shows that the system provides results close to a human expert. The experimental results suggest that such a system is valuable both for less experienced clinicians and for experts where the system may function as a second option.

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