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Configuration and Timing Analysis of TSN-based Distributed Embedded Systems
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. (Heterogeneous systems - hardware software co-design)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3949-666X
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The set of IEEE Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) standards is an emerging candidate for backbone communication in modern applications of real-time distributed embedded systems. TSN provides various traffic shaping mechanisms that aim at managing the timing requirements of traffic. Emerging applications of these systems, particularly in the automotive domain, often run complex distributed software that requires low-latency and high-bandwidth communication across multiple onboard electronic control units. Using TSN in these systems introduces multiple challenges. Specifically, the developers of these systems face a lack of development techniques and tools, as TSN standards only offer general recommendations for the use of its features and mechanisms. There is an urgent need for development techniques, tools, and methods to assist the developers in effectively leveraging the features outlined in TSN standards. In this thesis, we identify and address several challenges encountered in the development of TSN-based distributed embedded systems, particularly focusing on the stages of system and software modeling, network configuration, and timing analysis. The overall goal of this thesis is to support the development of these systems in the aforementioned stages while considering the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements of all traffic classes in TSN. We present techniques to facilitate the system and software modeling of TSN-based distributed embedded systems. These techniques enable performing timing analysis in the early stages of system and software development. In the stage of network configuration, we propose techniques for managing the configuration complexity and supporting the automatic configuration of mechanisms in TSN. The proposed configuration techniques consider achieving acceptable QoS in various traffic classes. In the stage of timing analysis, we address the challenges of incorporating various TSN traffic classes and mechanisms by extending the existing timing analyses. The results indicate that the proposed techniques effectively facilitate the system and software modeling, network configuration, and timing analysis of TSN-based distributed embedded systems.

Abstract [sv]

IEEE Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) är en framväxande kommunikationsteknik för moderna tillämpningar inom distribuerade inbyggda realtidssystem. TSN definerar olika mekanismer för trafikomformning som syftar till att ge flexibilitet i hur fördröjningar och bandbredd fördelas mellan olika användare. Nya tillämpningar av distribuerade inbyggda system i realtid har ofta mycket komplex distribuerad programvara som kräver kommunikation med låg latens och hög bandbredd över flera enheter (ECU I automotiv system). Att anpassa sig till TSN för att utveckla sådana system innebär många utmaningar. Dessutom finns det en brist på stödtekniker för utvecklare eftersom TSN-standarder endast ger generaliserade rekommendationer för tillämpningen av dess mekanismer. Därför finns det ett behov av tekniker och metoder för att stödja utvecklare att använda tillgängliga funktioner i TSN-standarderna. I den här avhandlingen angriper vi några av utmaningarna i utvecklingsstadierna av TSN-baserade distribuerade inbyggda system som är modellering, konfiguration av nätverk och tidsanalys. Målet med avhandlingen är att stödja utvecklingen av TSN-baserade distribuerade inbyggda system i dessastadier, samtidigt som man tar hänsyn till Quality of Service (QoS) krav inom alla trafikklasser i TSN. Vi tillhandahåller tekniker för att underlätta system- och mjukvarumodellering av TSN-baserade distribuerade inbyggda system som ger ett verktyg för utvecklare att designa sina system i tidiga stadier av systemutveckling. Inom konfiguration av nätverk föreslår vi tekniker för att hantera komplexiteten och den automatiska konfigurationen av TSN-formningsmekanismer. Under tiden tar vi hänsyn till att nå en acceptabel QoS i olika trafikklasser. Inom tidsanalysen tar vi itu med utmaningarna med att införliva olika TSN-trafikklasser och mekanismer genom att utöka de befintliga tidsanalysmetoderna. Genom de tre bidragna tillvägagångssätten underlättar våra resultat processen att utveckla TSN-baserade distribuerade inbyggda system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2024. , p. 259
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 402
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65958ISBN: 978-91-7485-634-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-65958DiVA, id: diva2:1835982
Public defence
2024-03-12, Gamma och via Zoom, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
VinnovaAvailable from: 2024-02-08 Created: 2024-02-07 Last updated: 2024-02-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. An Automated Configuration Framework for TSN Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Automated Configuration Framework for TSN Networks
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2021 (English)In: 22nd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT'21) ICIT 2021, 2021, p. 771-778Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Designing and simulating large networks, based on the Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) standards, require complex and demanding configuration at the design and pre-simulation phases. The existing configuration and simulation frameworks support only the manual configuration of TSN networks. This hampers the applicability of these frameworks to large-sized TSN networks, especially in complex industrial embedded system applications. This paper proposes a modular framework to automate offline scheduling in TSN networks to facilitate the design time and pre-simulation automated network configurations as well as interpretation of the simulations. To demonstrate and evaluate the applicability of the proposed framework, a large TSN network is automatically configured and its performance is evaluated by measuring end-to-end delays of time-critical flows in a state-of-the-art simulation framework, namely NeSTiNg.

Series
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, ISSN 2643-2978
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-53948 (URN)10.1109/ICIT46573.2021.9453628 (DOI)000687856000119 ()2-s2.0-85112508272 (Scopus ID)
Conference
22nd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT'21) ICIT 2021, 10 Mar 2021, Valencia, Spain
Projects
DESTINE: Developing Predictable Vehicle Software Utilizing Time Sensitive Networking
Available from: 2021-05-24 Created: 2021-05-24 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
2. Synthesising Schedules to Improve QoS of Best-effort Traffic in TSN Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesising Schedules to Improve QoS of Best-effort Traffic in TSN Networks
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2021 (English)In: 29th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems (RTNS'21) RTNS 2021, 2021, p. 68-77Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The IEEE Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) standards' amendment 802.1Qbv provides real-time guarantees for Scheduled Traffic (ST) streams by the Time Aware Shaper (TAS) mechanism. In this paper, we develop offline schedule optimization objective functions to configure the TAS for ST streams, which can be effective to achieve a high Quality of Service (QoS) of lower priority Best-Effort (BE) traffic. This becomes useful if real-time streams from legacy protocols are configured to be carried by the BE class or if the BE class is used for value-added (but non-critical) services. We present three alternative objective functions, namely Maximization, Sparse and Evenly Sparse, followed by a set of constraints on ST streams. Based on simulated stream traces in OMNeT++/INET TSN NeSTiNg simulator, we compare our proposed schemes with a most commonly applied objective function in terms of overall maximum end-to-end delay and deadline misses of BE streams. The results confirm that changing the schedule synthesis objective to our proposed schemes ensures timely delivery and lower end-to-end delays in BE streams.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-53964 (URN)10.1145/3453417.3453423 (DOI)000933139900007 ()2-s2.0-85111981322 (Scopus ID)9781450390019 (ISBN)
Conference
29th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems (RTNS'21) RTNS 2021, 07 Apr 2021, Nantes , France
Projects
DESTINE: Developing Predictable Vehicle Software Utilizing Time Sensitive Networking
Available from: 2021-05-28 Created: 2021-05-28 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
3. Schedulability Analysis of Best-Effort Traffic in TSN Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Schedulability Analysis of Best-Effort Traffic in TSN Networks
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2021 (English)In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a schedulability analysis for the Best-Effort (BE) traffic class within Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) networks. The presented analysis considers several features in the TSN standards, including the Credit-Based Shaper (CBS), the Time-Aware Shaper (TAS), and the frame preemption. Although the BE class in TSN is primarily used for the traffic with no strict timing requirements, some industrial applications prefer to utilize this class for the non-hard real-time traffic instead of classes that use the CBS. The reason mainly lies in the fact that the complexity of TSN configuration becomes significantly high when the time-triggered traffic via the TAS and other classes via the CBS are used altogether. We demonstrate the applicability of the presented analysis on a vehicular application use case. We show that a network designer can get information on the schedulability of the BE traffic, based on which the network configuration can be further refined with respect to the application requirements. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021
Keywords
Electric circuit breakers, Best-effort, Best-Effort Traffic, Hard real-time, Hard-real-time, Realtime traffic, Schedulability analysis, Time triggered, Timing requirements, Traffic class, Vehicular applications, Real time systems
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-56348 (URN)10.1109/ETFA45728.2021.9613511 (DOI)000766992600161 ()2-s2.0-85122932892 (Scopus ID)9781728129891 (ISBN)
Conference
26th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2021, 7 September 2021 through 10 September 2021
Available from: 2021-11-09 Created: 2021-11-09 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
4. Supporting end-to-end data propagation delay analysis for TSN-based distributed vehicular embedded systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting end-to-end data propagation delay analysis for TSN-based distributed vehicular embedded systems
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2023 (English)In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 141, article id 102911Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we identify that the existing end-to-end data propagation delay analysis for distributed embedded systems can calculate pessimistic (over-estimated) analysis results when the nodes are synchronized. This is particularly the case of the Scheduled Traffic (ST) class in Time-sensitive Networking (TSN), which is scheduled offline according to the IEEE 802.1Qbv standard and the nodes are synchronized according to the IEEE 802.1AS standard. We present a comprehensive system model for distributed embedded systems that incorporates all of the above mentioned aspect as well as all traffic classes in TSN. We extend the analysis to support both synchronization and non-synchronization among the ECUs as well as offline schedules on the networks. The extended analysis can now be used to analyze all traffic classes in TSN when the nodes are synchronized without introducing any pessimism in the analysis results. We evaluate the proposed model and the extended analysis on a vehicular industrial use case.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2023
Keywords
Distributed embedded systems, Real-time systems, Time-sensitive networking, Data communication systems, Data flow analysis, Data transfer, Embedded systems, IEEE Standards, Interactive computer systems, Real time systems, Data propagation, Delay analysis, Distributed embedded system, End to end, Extended analysis, Offline, Propagation delays, Real - Time system, Traffic class, Synchronization
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-63666 (URN)10.1016/j.sysarc.2023.102911 (DOI)001024619100001 ()2-s2.0-85162169933 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-06-28 Created: 2023-06-28 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
5. End-to-end Timing Modeling and Analysis of TSN in Component-Based Vehicular Software
Open this publication in new window or tab >>End-to-end Timing Modeling and Analysis of TSN in Component-Based Vehicular Software
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2023 (English)In: Proc. - IEEE Int. Symp. Real-Time Distrib. Comput., ISORC, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 126-135Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present an end-to-end timing model to capture timing information from software architectures of distributed embedded systems that use network communication based on the Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) standards. Such a model is required as an input to perform end-to-end timing analysis of these systems. Furthermore, we present a methodology that aims at automated extraction of instances of the end-to-end timing model from component-based software architectures of the systems and the TSN network configurations. As a proof of concept, we implement the proposed end-to-end timing model and the extraction methodology in the Rubus Component Model (RCM) and its tool chain Rubus-ICE that are used in the vehicle industry. We demonstrate the usability of the proposed model and methodology by modeling a vehicular industrial use case and performing its timing analysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
Embedded systems, Network architecture, Software architecture, Timing circuits, Automated extraction, Component based, Component-based software architecture, Distributed embedded system, End to end, Modelling and analysis, Network communications, Timing Analysis, Timing information, Timing modeling, Extraction
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64173 (URN)10.1109/ISORC58943.2023.00025 (DOI)001044268900013 ()2-s2.0-85168757094 (Scopus ID)9798350339024 (ISBN)
Conference
Proceedings - 2023 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Real-Time Distributed Computing, ISORC 2023
Available from: 2023-09-06 Created: 2023-09-06 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
6. Bandwidth Reservation Analysis for Schedulability of AVB Traffic in TSN
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bandwidth Reservation Analysis for Schedulability of AVB Traffic in TSN
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65965 (URN)
Available from: 2024-02-08 Created: 2024-02-08 Last updated: 2024-02-08Bibliographically approved

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12342 of 4
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