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Towards Early Validation and Verification of System Behaviour with Heterogenous Models in Systems Engineering
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2021-8341
2024 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Systems Engineering (SE) is an established paradigm for developing complex systems across several domains. As systems are becoming more complex, partly due to the increase in software-related considerations, traditional methods of SE are becoming less effective and struggle to handle the development complexity of modern systems, and more recently, the shift towards model-centric development is taking over and becoming the standard practice. The early availability of models from the very start of system development has several potential benefits, such as increased traceability, clarity from model diagrams, and improved analytical capabilities due to underlying semantics. An essential and often argued benefit of using models is the increased ability to perform Validation and Verification (V&V) activities on systems described using model-based representations, particularly employed in early stages of development processes. The use of model-based approaches needs to be carefully integrated into the SE process, as a model with too little detail cannot provide an analysis of worth, however, a detailed model takes considerable effort to implement. This research investigates early V&V of system behaviour in Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE). Notably, the research investigates the analysis of low-fidelity system descriptions in the form of one or several semi-formal models described through standard languages, often by several different stakeholders. The research discusses how common artefacts found in the early stages of MBSE can be leveraged for system behaviour analysis and how system modelling can be promoted for SE practitioners to deploy early V&V capabilities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalens universitet, 2024.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 352
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65937ISBN: 978-91-7485-633-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-65937DiVA, id: diva2:1835707
Presentation
2024-03-11, Gamma, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-02-07 Created: 2024-02-07 Last updated: 2024-02-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Early Validation and Verification of System Behaviour in Model-Based Systems Engineering: A Systematic Literature Review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early Validation and Verification of System Behaviour in Model-Based Systems Engineering: A Systematic Literature Review
2023 (English)In: ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, ISSN 1049-331X, E-ISSN 1557-7392Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In the Systems Engineering (SE) domain there has been a paradigm shift from document-based to model-based system development artefacts; in fact, new methodologies are emerging to meet the increasing complexity of current systems and the corresponding growing need of digital workflows. In this regard, Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is considered as a key enabler by many central players of the SE community. MBSE has reached an adequate level of maturity and there exist documented success stories in its adoption in industry. In particular, one significant benefit of utilising MBSE when compared to the traditional manual and document-centric workflows is that models are available from early phases of systems development; these enable a multitude of analyses prior any implementation effort together with other relevant capabilities, like the automation of development tasks. Nonetheless, it is noticeable there is a lack of a common understanding for how formal analyses for the verification and validation (V&V) of systems behaviour, specifically in the early phases of development, could be placed in an MBSE setting.

In this article, we report on the planning, execution, and results of a systematic literature review regarding the early V&V of systems behaviour in the context of model-based systems engineering. The review aims to provide a structured representation of the state-of-the-art with respect to motivations, proposed solutions, and limitations. From an initial set of potentially relevant 701 peer-reviewed publications we selected 149 primary studies, which we analysed according to a rigorous data extraction, analysis, and synthesis process. Based on our results, early V&V has usually the goal of checking the quality of a system design to avoid discovering flaws when parts are being concretely realised; SysML is a de facto standard for describing the system under study, while the solutions for the analyses tend to be varied; also V&V analyses tend to target varied properties with a slight predominance of functional concerns, and following the variation mentioned so far the proposed solutions are largely context specific; the proposed approaches are usually presented without explicit limitations, while when limitations are discussed, readiness of the solutions, handling of analyses simplifications/assumptions, and languages/tools integration are among the most frequently mentioned issues.

Based on the survey results and the standard SE practices, we discuss how the current state-of-the-art MBSE supports early V&V of systems behaviour with a special focus on industrial adoption, and identify relevant challenges to be researched further.

National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65935 (URN)10.1145/3631976 (DOI)
Available from: 2024-02-07 Created: 2024-02-07 Last updated: 2024-02-13Bibliographically approved
2. Light-Weight MBSE Approach for ConstructionEquipment Domain - An Experience Report
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Light-Weight MBSE Approach for ConstructionEquipment Domain - An Experience Report
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has emerged as a de facto standard practice for complex systems development. However, despite standard frameworks, methods, and tools, the MBSE practices in industrial contexts are far from mature. This is particularly true for traditionally hardware-intensive industrial systems and complex products such as heavy construction machinery. This paper outlines a light-weight MBSE methodology developed within the construction equipment domain. The approach is based on customizing a general MBSE methodology, such as RFLP, guided by a core ontology for architecture modeling. The ontology defines the main architecture concepts and corresponding modeling views to develop an architecture baseline for the corresponding system model. The initial architecture baseline is developed bottom-up instead of a traditional top-down approach. As we demonstrate in this paper, the minimalist approach paves the way for faster deployment of MBSE in industrial contexts with low modeling experience and legacy development silos across electronics, software, and hardware domains.

National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65936 (URN)
Conference
Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC)
Available from: 2024-02-07 Created: 2024-02-07 Last updated: 2024-02-13Bibliographically approved
3. Barriers for Adopting FMI-Based Co-Simulation in Industrial MBSE Processes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barriers for Adopting FMI-Based Co-Simulation in Industrial MBSE Processes
Show others...
2023 (English)In: Proceedings - 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion, MODELS-C 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 510-519Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is a growing paradigm for system development where models are the primary considered artefacts. However, MBSE often relies on semi-formal modelling languages and methods, limiting analytical capabilities. Co-Simulation is argued in the literature to be a promising technology in the simulation domain for integrating heterogeneous models in unified simulations. The most commonly used standard for Co-Simulation is currently the Functional-Mockup-Interface (FMI), supported by many tools in the industry. Recently there has been increasing interest in utilizing co-simulation in MBSE processes to enable simulation capabilities earlier in development, mainly via instantiating simulations using the FMI standard from system architecture views. This paper briefly argues the case for co-simulation for industrial MBSE and presents several barriers to integration from a holistic point of view. The paper highlights the need for further research and progress to improve the maturity of the industrial adoption for MBSE workflows while discussing the current outlook for FMI-based co-simulation orchestrated from architecture models. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
Co-simulation, FMI, MBSE, SysML, Systems Engineering
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65682 (URN)10.1109/MODELS-C59198.2023.00088 (DOI)001137051500071 ()2-s2.0-85182405065 (Scopus ID)9798350324983 (ISBN)
Conference
2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, MODELS-C 2023, Vasteras, 1 October 2023 through 6 October 2023
Available from: 2024-01-24 Created: 2024-01-24 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
4. Early validation of heterogeneous battery systems in the railway domain
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early validation of heterogeneous battery systems in the railway domain
2022 (English)In: SysCon 2022 - 16th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In general, trains are referred to as environment-friendly transportation means when compared e.g. to cars, busses, or aircraft, being modern trains electrified systems. Unfortunately, the costs due to creation and maintenance of railway infrastructures, notably the overhead lines to power the trains, impose boundaries to their expansion potentials. In this respect, the advances in battery technologies are disclosing new opportunities, like serving partially electrified tracks. In particular, on board batteries can be used as backup energy where overhead lines are not available. In such scenarios, analysing battery requirements and evaluating possible solutions is of critical importance.This paper proposes a model-based systems engineering methodology for evaluating the feasibility of heterogeneous battery systems in the railway domain. The methodology leverages separation of concerns to reduce the complexity of the problem and abstracts the different railway system components by means of corresponding simulation models. The methodology is illustrated through a study performed at an industrial partner; in particular, the paper discusses how simulation models have been conceived, refined, validated, and integrated to analyse the properties of various battery configurations for several passenger trains operating on commercial lines in France. Interestingly, the results demonstrate that heterogeneous battery systems provide a suitable trade-off alternative when compared to homogeneous batteries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022
Keywords
Heterogeneous Battery Systems, Model-Based System Engineering, Railway, Simulation, Simulink, Trade-off analysis
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-58659 (URN)10.1109/SysCon53536.2022.9773852 (DOI)000838702900042 ()2-s2.0-85130823867 (Scopus ID)9781665439923 (ISBN)
Conference
SysCon 2022 - 16th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference
Available from: 2022-06-08 Created: 2022-06-08 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved

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Cederbladh, Johan

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