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  • 1.
    Ameri, Afshin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Miloradović, Branko
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Planning and Supervising Autonomous Underwater Vehicles through the Mission Management Tool2020In: Global OCEANS 2020 OCEANS, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex underwater missions involving heterogeneous groups of AUVs and other types of vehicles require a number of steps from defining and planning the mission, orchestration during the mission execution, recovery of the vehicles, and finally post-mission data analysis. In this work the Mission Management Tool (MMT), a software solution for addressing the above-mentioned services is proposed. As demonstrated in the real-world tests the MMT is able to support the mission operators. The MMT hides the complex system consisting of software solutions, hardware, and vehicles from the user, and allows intuitive interaction with the vehicles involved in a mission. The tool can adapt to a wide spectrum of missions assuming different types of robotic systems and mission objectives.

  • 2.
    Ameri, Afshin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Miloradović, Branko
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dreo, J.
    Computational Biology dept., Université Paris Cité, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Interplay of Human and AI Solvers on a Planning Problem2023In: Conf. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Syst. Man Cybern., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 3166-3173Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapidly growing use of Multi-Agent Systems (MASs), which can exponentially increase the system complexity, the problem of planning a mission for MASs became more intricate. In some MASs, human operators are still involved in various decision-making processes, including manual mission planning, which can be an ineffective approach for any non-trivial problem. Mission planning and re-planning can be represented as a combinatorial optimization problem. Computing a solution to these types of problems is notoriously difficult and not scalable, posing a challenge even to cutting-edge solvers. As time is usually considered an essential resource in MASs, automated solvers have a limited time to provide a solution. The downside of this approach is that it can take a substantial amount of time for the automated solver to provide a sub-optimal solution. In this work, we are interested in the interplay between a human operator and an automated solver and whether it is more efficient to let a human or an automated solver handle the planning and re-planning problems, or if the combination of the two is a better approach. We thus propose an experimental setup to evaluate the effect of having a human operator included in the mission planning and re-planning process. Our tests are performed on a series of instances with gradually increasing complexity and involve a group of human operators and a metaheuristic solver based on a genetic algorithm. We measure the effect of the interplay on both the quality and structure of the output solutions. Our results show that the best setup is to let the operator come up with a few solutions, before letting the solver improve them.

  • 3.
    Frasheri, M.
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Digit, Dep. of Elect. and Comp. Eng., Denmark.
    Miloradović, Branko
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Esterle, L.
    Aarhus University, Digit, Dep. of Elect. and Comp. Eng., Denmark.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    GLocal: A Hybrid Approach to the Multi-Agent Mission Re-Planning Problem2023In: IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, SSCI, IEEE, 2023, p. 1696-1703Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-agent systems can be prone to failures during the execution of a mission, depending on different circumstances, such as the harshness of the environment they are deployed in. As a result, initially devised plans for completing a mission may no longer be feasible, and a re-planning process needs to take place to re-allocate any pending tasks. There are two main approaches to solve the re-planning problem (i) global re-planning techniques using a centralized planner that will redo the task allocation with the updated world state and (ii) decentralized approaches that will focus on the local plan reparation, i.e., the re-allocation of those tasks initially assigned to the failed robots, better suited to a dynamic environment and less computationally expensive. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach, named GLocal, that combines both strategies to exploit the benefits of both, while limiting their respective drawbacks. GLocal was compared to a planner-only, and an agent-only approach, under different conditions. We show that GLocal produces shorter mission make-spans as the number of tasks and failed agents increases, while also balancing the tradeoff between the number of messages exchanged and the number of requests to the planner.

  • 4.
    Frasheri, Mirgita
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Miloradović, Branko
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    GLocal: A Hybrid Approach to the Multi-Agent Mission Re-Planning Problem2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-robot systems can be prone to failures during plan execution, depending on the harshness of the environment they are deployed in. As a consequence, initially devised plans may no longer be feasible, and a re-planning process needs to take place to re-allocate any pending tasks. Two main approaches emerge as possible solutions, a global re-planning technique using a centralized planner that will redo the task allocation with the updated world state information, or a decentralized approach that will focus on the local plan reparation, i.e., the re-allocation of those tasks initially assigned to the failed robots.The former approach produces an overall better solution, while the latter is less computationally expensive.The goal of this paper is to exploit the benefits of both approaches, while minimizing their drawbacks. To this end, we propose a hybrid approach {that combines a centralized planner with decentralized multi-agent planning}. In case of an agent failure, the local plan reparation algorithm tries to repair the plan through agent negotiation. If it fails to re-allocate all of the pending tasks, the global re-planning algorithm is invoked, which re-allocates all unfinished tasks from all agents.The hybrid approach was compared to planner approach, and it was shown that it improves on the makespan of a mission in presence of different numbers of failures,as a consequence of the local plan reparation algorithm.

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  • 5.
    Lager, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Miloradović, Branko
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Spampinato, Giacomo
    ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Scalable Heuristic for Mission Planning of Mobile Robot Teams2023In: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Elsevier B.V. , 2023, no 2, p. 7865-7872Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we investigate a task planning problem for assigning and planning a mobile robot team to jointly perform a kitting application with alternative task locations. To this end, the application is modeled as a Robot Task Scheduling Graph and the planning problem is modeled as a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP). We propose a heuristic approach to solve the problem with a practically useful performance in terms of scalability and computation time. The experimental evaluation shows that our heuristic approach is able to find efficient plans, in comparison with both optimal and non-optimal MILP solutions, in a fraction of the planning time.

  • 6.
    Miloradović, Branko
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Multi-Agent Mission Planning2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-Agent Systems (MASs) have been utilized in various settings and frameworks, and have thus been successfully applied in many applications to achieve different goals. It has been shown that MASs are more cost-effective as compared to building a single agent with all the capabilities a mission may require. Moreover, the cost is not the only driving factor for the adoption of MASs, e.g., safety is another important aspect: Deploying a group of agents, in a harsh or extreme environment, instead of a human team decreases the safety risks. Furthermore, MASs offer more flexibility and robustness when compared to a single-agent solution. The flexibility comes from dividing resources into separate groups, while robustness comes from the fact that a critical error in one agent does not necessarily endanger the success of a mission. Note that a mission may have many different constraints and aspects, however, the most trivial case has a single agent and a single task. 

    These kinds of missions can be planned by a human operator, overseeing a mission, without the need for an automated planner. On the other hand, more complex missions, that are utilizing a large number of heterogeneous agents and tasks, as well as constraints (precedence, synchronization, etc.) are not that trivial to plan for a human operator. These complex problems pose a great challenge to making a feasible plan, let alone the best possible one. Moreover, the increase in the power of available computing platforms in robotic systems has allowed the utilization of parallel task execution. More specifically, it allowed for possible parallelism in sensing, computation, motion, and manipulation tasks. This in turn had the benefit of allowing the creation of more complex robotic missions. However, it came at the cost of increased complexity for the optimization of the task allocation problem. To circumvent these issues, an automated planner is necessary. These types of problems are notoriously difficult to solve, and it may take too long for an optimal plan to be found. Therefore, a balance between optimality and computation time taken to produce a plan become very important.

    This thesis deals with the formal definition of two particular Multi-Robot Task Allocation (MRTA) problem configurations used to represent multi-agent mission planning problems. More specifically, the contribution of this thesis can be grouped into three categories. 

    Firstly, this work proposes a model to represent different problem configurations, also referred to as missions, in a structured way. This model is called TAMER, and it also allows the addition of new dimensions in a more systematic way, expanding the number of problems that can be described compared to previously proposed MRTA taxonomies.

    Secondly, this thesis defines and provides two different problem formulations, in a form of Mixed-Integer Linear Problem formulation, of the Extended Colored Travelling Salesman Problem (ECTSP). These models are implemented and verified in the CPLEX optimization tool on the selected problem instances. In addition, a sub-optimal approach to solving these complex problems is devised. Proposed solutions are based on the Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach, and they are compared to the solutions obtained by state-of-the-art (and state-of-practice) solvers, i.e., CPLEX. The advantage of using GA for planning over classical approaches is that it has better scalability that enables it to find solutions for large-scale problems. Although those solutions are, in the majority of cases, sub-optimal they are obtained much faster than with other exact methods. Another advantage is represented in a form of "anytime stop" option. In time-critical operations, it is important to have the option to stop the planning process and use the sub-optimal solution when it is required. 

    Lastly, this work addresses the one dimension of the MRTA problem that has not caught much of the research attention in the past. In particular, problem configurations including Multi-Task (MT) robots have been neglected. To overcome the aforementioned problem, first, the cases in which task parallelism may be achieved have been defined. In addition, the distinction between physical and virtual tasks and their mutual relationship in terms of parallel task execution has been introduced. Two models have been proposed and compared. The first one is expressed as ILP and implemented in the CPLEX optimization tool. The other one is defined as a Constraint Programming (CP) model and implemented in CP optimization tools. Both solvers have been evaluated on a series of problem instances.

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  • 7.
    Miloradović, Branko
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bigorra, E. M.
    Northvolt Revolt AB, Discharge and Dismantling Department, Sweden.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Challenges in the Automated Disassembly Process of Electric Vehicle Battery Packs2023In: IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Technol. Factory Autom., ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surge in the development and adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs) globally is a trend many countries are paying close attention to. This inevitably means that a significant number of EV batteries will soon reach their End-of-Life (EoL). This looming issue reveals a notable challenge: there's currently a lack of sustainable strategies for managing Lithium-ion Batteries (LiBs) when they reach their EoL stage. The process of disassembling these battery packs is challenging due to their intricate design, involving several different materials and components integrated tightly for performance and safety. Consequently, effective disassembly and subsequent recycling procedures require highly specialized methods and equipment, and involve significant safety and health risks. Moreover, existing recycling technologies often fail to recover all valuable and potentially hazardous materials, leading to both economic and environmental loss. This paper provides an overview and analysis of possible challenges arising in the domain of automated battery disassembly and recycling of EV batteries that reached their EoL. We provide insight into the disassembly process as well as optimization of the disassembly sequence with the goal of minimizing the overall cost and environmental footprint.

  • 8.
    Miloradović, Branko
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Genetic Algorithm Approach to Multi-Agent Mission Planning Problems2020In: Operations Research and Enterprise Systems / [ed] Parlier G.; Liberatore F.; Demange M., Springer, Cham , 2020, p. 109-134Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-Agent Systems (MASs) have received great attention from scholars and engineers in different domains, including computer science and robotics. MASs try to solve complex and challenging problems (e.g., a mission) by dividing them into smaller problem instances (e.g., tasks) that are allocated to the individual autonomous entities (e.g., agents). By fulfilling their individual goals, they lead to the solution to the overall mission. A mission typically involves a large number of agents and tasks, as well as additional constraints, e.g., coming from the required equipment for completing a given task. Addressing such problem can be extremely complicated for the human operator, and several automated approaches fall short of scalability. This paper proposes a genetic algorithm for the automation of multi-agent mission planning. In particular, the contributions of this paper are threefold. First, the mission planning problem is cast into an Extended Colored Traveling Salesperson Problem (ECTSP), formulated as a mixed integer linear programming problem. Second, a precedence constraint reparation algorithm to allow the usage of common variation operators for ECTSP is developed. Finally, a new objective function minimizing the mission makespan for multi-agent mission planning problems is proposed.

  • 9.
    Miloradović, Branko
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Exploiting Parallelism in Multi-Task Robot Allocation Problems2021In: 2021 IEEE International Conference on Autonomous Robot Systems and Competitions (ICARSC), 2021, p. 197-202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-Agent Systems (MASs) have been widely adopted in robotics, as a means to solve complex missions by subdividing them into smaller tasks. In such a context, Multi-Robot Task Allocation (MRTA) has been a relevant research area, with the main aim of providing formulations and solutions to different mission configurations, in order to optimize the planning and the execution of complex missions utilizing multiple robots. In recent years, robotic systems have become more powerful thanks to the adoption of novel computing platforms, enabling an increased level of parallelism, in terms of sensing, actuation, and computation. As a result, more complex missions can be achieved, at the cost of an increased complexity for the optimization of the mission planning. In this paper, we first introduce the distinction between physical and virtual tasks of the robots, and their relation in terms of parallel execution. Therefore, we propose a mathematical formalization of the mission planning problem for Multi-Task (MT) robots, in the presence of tasks that require only a Single-Robot (SR) to complete, and in the presence of Time-Extended Assignments (TAs). The problem is modeled with a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulation, with the objective of minimizing the total makespan of the mission, exploiting the potential (physical and virtual) parallelism of the robots. The model is validated over some representative scenarios, and their respective solutions are obtained with the CPLEX optimization tool, showing the generality of the proposed formulation.

  • 10.
    Miloradović, Branko
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Extended colored traveling salesperson for modeling multi-agent mission planning problems2019In: ICORES 2019 - Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Operations Research and Enterprise Systems, SciTePress , 2019, p. 237-244Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, multi-agent systems have been widely used in different missions, ranging from underwater to airborne. A mission typically involves a large number of agents and tasks, making it very hard for the human operator to create a good plan. A search for an optimal plan may take too long, and it is hard to make a time estimate of when the planner will finish. A Genetic algorithm based planner is proposed in order to overcome this issue. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) formulation of a novel Extensive Colored Traveling Salesperson Problem (ECTSP) is given. Second, a new objective function suitable for multi-agent mission planning problems is proposed. Finally, a reparation algorithm to allow usage of common variation operators for ECTSP has been developed. 

  • 11.
    Miloradović, Branko
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ES (Embedded Systems).
    GMP: A Genetic Mission Planner for Heterogeneous Multirobot System Applications2022In: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics, ISSN 2168-2267, E-ISSN 2168-2275, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 10627-10638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of multiagent systems (MASs) in real-world applications keeps increasing, and diffuses into new domains, thanks to technological advances, increased acceptance, and demanding productivity requirements. Being able to automate the generation of mission plans for MASs is critical for managing complex missions in realistic settings. In addition, finding the right level of abstraction to represent any generic MAS mission is important for being able to provide general solution to the automated planning problem. In this article, we show how a mission for heterogeneous MASs can be cast as an extension of the traveling salesperson problem (TSP), and we propose a mixed-integer linear programming formulation. In order to solve this problem, a genetic mission planner (GMP), with a local plan refinement algorithm, is proposed. In addition, the comparative evaluation of CPLEX and GMP is presented in terms of timing and optimality of the obtained solutions. The algorithms are benchmarked on a proposed set of different problem instances. The results show that, in the presence of timing constraints, GMP outperforms CPLEX in the majority of test instances.

  • 12.
    Miloradović, Branko
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Optimizing Parallel Task Execution for Multi-Agent Mission Planning2021Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-Agent Systems have received a tremendous amount of attention in many areas of research and industry, especially in robotics and computer science. With the increased number of agents in missions, the problem of allocation of tasks to agents arose, and it is one of the most fundamental classes of problems in robotics, formally known as the Multi-Robot Task Allocation (MRTA) problem. MRTA encapsulates numerous problem dimensions, and it aims at providing formulations and solutions to various problem configurations, i.e., complex multi-robot missions.

    One dimension of the MRTA problem has not caught much of the research attention. In particular, problem configurations including Multi-Task (MT) robots have been neglected. However, the increase in computational power, in robotic systems, has allowed the utilization of parallel task execution. This in turn had the benefit of allowing the creation of more complex robotic missions; however, it came at the cost of increased problem complexity. 

    To overcome the aforementioned problem, we introduce the distinction between physical and virtual tasks and their mutual relationship in terms of parallel task execution. To fill in the gap in the literature related to MT robot problem configurations, we provide a formalization of the mission planning problem, using MT robots, in the form of Integer Linear Programming and Constraint Programming (CP), to minimize the mission makespan. The models are validated in CPLEX and CP Optimizer on the set of benchmarks. Moreover, we provide a comprehensive performance analysis of both solvers, exploring their scalability and solution quality.

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  • 13.
    Miloradović, Branko
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Optimizing Parallel Task Execution for Multi-Agent Mission Planning2023In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 11, p. 24367-24381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-agent systems have received a tremendous amount of attention in many areas of research and industry, especially in robotics and computer science. With the increased number of agents in missions, the problem of allocation of tasks to agents arose, and it is one of the most fundamental classes of problems in robotics, formally known as the Multi-Robot Task Allocation (MRTA) problem. MRTA encapsulates numerous problem dimensions, and it aims at providing formulations and solutions to various problem configurations, i.e., complex multi-agent missions. One dimension of the MRTA problem has not caught much of the research attention. In particular, problem configurations including Multi-Task (MT) robots have been neglected. However, the increase in computational power, in robotic systems, has allowed the utilization of parallel task execution. This in turn had the benefit of allowing the creation of more complex robotic missions; however, it came at the cost of increased problem complexity. Our contribution to the aforementioned domain can be grouped into three categories. First, we model the problem using two different approaches, Integer Linear Programming and Constraint Programming. With these models, we aim at filling the gap in the literature related to the formal definition of MT robot problem configuration. Second, we introduce the distinction between physical and virtual tasks and their mutual relationship in terms of parallel task execution. This distinction allows the modeling of a wider range of missions while exploiting possible parallel task execution. Finally, we provide a comprehensive performance analysis of both models, by implementing and validating them in CPLEX and CP Optimizer on the set of problems. Each problem consists of the same set of test instances gradually increasing in complexity, while the percentage of virtual tasks in each problem is different. The analysis of the results includes exploration of the scalability of both models and solvers, the effect of virtual tasks on the solvers' performance, and overall solution quality.

  • 14.
    Miloradović, Branko
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Frasheri, Mirgita
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    TAMER: Task Allocation in Multi-robot Systems Through an Entity-Relationship Model2019In: PRIMA 2019: Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems, 2019, p. 478-486Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-robot task allocation (MRTA) problems have been studied extensively in the past decades. As a result, several classifications have been proposed in the literature targeting different aspects of MRTA, with often a few commonalities between them. The goal of this paper is twofold. First, a comprehensive overview of early work on existing MRTA taxonomies is provided, focusing on their differences and similarities. Second, the MRTA problem is modelled using an Entity-Relationship (ER) conceptual formalism to provide a structured representation of the most relevant aspects, including the ones proposed within previous taxonomies. Such representation has the advantage of (i) representing MRTA problems in a systematic way, (ii) providing a formalism that can be easily transformed into a software infrastructure, and (iii) setting the baseline for the definition of knowledge bases, that can be used for automated reasoning in MRTA problems.

  • 15.
    Miloradović, Branko
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Osaba, E.
    TECNALIA, Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), Derio, Spain.
    Del Ser, J.
    TECNALIA, Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), Derio, Spain University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Bilbao, Spain.
    Vuk, Vujović
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    On the Design and Performance of a Novel Metaheuristic Solver for the Extended Colored Traveling Salesman Problem2023In: IEEE Conf Intell Transport Syst Proc ITSC, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 1955-1962Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent transportation systems face various challenges, including traffic congestion, environmental pollution, and inefficient transportation management. Optimizing routes and schedules for efficient delivery of goods and services can mitigate the aforementioned problems. Many transportation and routing problems can be modeled as variants of the Traveling Salesmen Problem (TSP) depending on the specific requirements of the scenario at hand. This means that to efficiently solve the routing problem, all locations have to be visited by the available salesmen in a way that minimizes the overall makespan. This becomes a non-trivial problem when the number of salesmen and locations to be visited increases. The problem at hand is modeled as a special TSP variant, called Extended Colored TSP (ECTSP). It has additional constraints when compared to the classical TSP, which further complicates the search for a feasible solution. This work proposes a new metaheuristic approach to efficiently solve the ECTSP. We compare the proposed approach to existing solutions over a series of test instances. The results show a superior performance of our metaheuristic approach with respect to the state of the art, both in terms of solution quality and algorithm's runtime.

  • 16.
    Miloradović, Branko
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Multi-Criteria Optimization of Application Offloading in the Edge-to-Cloud Continuum2023In: Proc IEEE Conf Decis Control, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 4917-4923Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applications are becoming increasingly data-intensive, requiring significant computational resources to meet their demand. Cloud-based services are insufficient to meet such demand, leading to a shift of the computation towards the devices closer to the edge of the network, leading to the emergence of an Edge-to-Cloud computing Continuum (E2C). An application can offload part of its computation toward the E2C. The allocation of applications to a set of available computing nodes is a challenging problem, as the allocation needs to take into account several factors, including the application requirements and demands as well as the optimization of the resource utilization in the E2C infrastructure and the minimization the CO2 footprint of the executed applications. Control and optimization techniques provide a vast array of tools for optimizing the Edge-to-Cloud continuum's management. This paper provides a mathematical formulation for the application offloading with specific requirements in the cloud computing domain. The problem is modeled as integer linear programming and constraint programming models and implemented in commercially available software. Finally, we provide the results of performed comparison between the two models.

  • 17.
    Stojanovic, D.
    et al.
    University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Vujovic, M.
    Universitat Pompeu, Spain.
    Miloradović, Branko
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Indoor positioning system for occupation density control2020In: Proc. Annu. Conf. Assoc. Comput. Aided Des. Archit.: Distrib. Prox., ACADIA, ACADIA , 2020, p. 102-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reported research focuses on occupational density as an increasingly important archi tectural measure and uses occupancy simulation to optimize distancing criteria imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. The paper addresses the following questions: How to engage computational techniques (CTs) to improve the accuracy of two existing types of indoor positioning systems? How to employ simulation methods in establishing critical occupation density to balance social distancing needs and the efficient use of resources? The larger objective and the aim of further research is to develop an autonomous system capable of establishing an accurate number of people present in a room and informing occupants if space is available according to prescribed sanitary standards. The paper presents occupancy simulation approximating input that would be provided by the outlined multisensor data fusion technique aiming to improve the accuracy of the existing indoor localization solutions. The projected capacity to capture information related to social distancing and occupants' positioning is used to ground a method for determining a room-specific occupational density threshold. Our early results indicate that the type of activities, equipment, and furniture in a room, addressed through occupants' positioning, may impact the frequency of distancing incidents. Our initial findings centered on simulation modeling indicate that data, composed of the two sets (occupant count and the number of recorded distancing incidents) can be overlapped to help establish room-specific standards rather than apply generic measures. In conclusion, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of the nrnnnsed system and its role after the nandemin.

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