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  • 1.
    Dzikowska, M.
    et al.
    Poznan University, Poland.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    A Dynamic Framework of Subsidiary Strategic Roles2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Lunnan, Randi
    et al.
    BI Norwegian Business School, Norway.
    Tomassen, Sverre
    BI Norwegian Business School, Norway.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Benito, Gabriel R.G.
    BI Norwegian Business School, Norway.
    A Subsidiary Perspective on Organizing-Costs in Multinational Corporations: The Roles of Distance, Coordination, and Relationship Atmosphere2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies of organizing-costs in multinational corporations have taken the view of the parent corporation. In this study, we turn the table around and examine how subsidiaries experience organizing-costs as they deal with demands from and interactions with corporate headquarters. Specifically, we examine how distance, coordination mechanisms, and atmosphere influence the level of organizing-costs in the headquarter-subsidiary relationship. We focus on two types of organizing-costs; bargaining costs and information costs. Using survey data collected among subsidiary managers in two Norwegian companies in the consulting and certification services industry, we show that business atmosphere significantly reduces both types of organizing-costs, whereas distance increases bargaining costs. Organizing-costs are also influenced by the coordination mechanisms used in the headquartersubsidiary relationship. We find that centralization and formalization reduce information costs, whereas social integration, contrary to our hypothesis, increases bargaining costs.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.
    Forsgren, M.
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Holm, U.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Balancing subsidiary influence in the federative MNC: A business network view2015In: Knowledge, Networks and Power: The Uppsala School of International Business, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 393-420Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Perri, A.
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business Sc., Denmark.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Copenhagen Business Sc., Denmark.
    Nell, P.C.
    Copenhagen Business Sc., Denmark.
    Santangelo, G.
    Univ Catania, Italy.
    Balancing the Trade-off between Learning Prospects and Spillover Risks: MNC Subsidiaries Vertical Linkage Patterns in Developed Countries2013In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 503-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates local vertical linkages of foreign subsidiaries and the dual role of such linkages as conduits for learning as well as potential channels for spillovers to competitors. On the basis of data from 97 subsidiaries, we analyze the quality of such linkages under varying levels of competition and subsidiary capabilities. Our theoretical development and the results from the analysis document a far more complex and dynamic relationship between levels of competition and MNCs' local participation in knowledge intensive activities, i.e. learning and spillovers, than previous studies do. We find a curvilinear relationship between the extent of competitive pressure and the quality of local linkages confirming our argument of a trade-off between learning prospects and spillover risks. Furthermore, the level of subsidiary capabilities moderates this relationship.

  • 5.
    Najafi-Tavani, Zhaleh
    et al.
    Univ Leeds, Business Sch, Maurice Keyworth Bldg, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Robson, Matthew J.
    Univ Leeds, Business Sch, Maurice Keyworth Bldg, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Zaefarian, Ghasem
    Univ Leeds, Business Sch, Maurice Keyworth Bldg, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. BI Norwegian Business Sch, Dept Strategy & Entrepreneurship, Oslo, Norway..
    Yu, Chong
    Univ Leeds, Business Sch, Maurice Keyworth Bldg, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Building subsidiary local responsiveness: (When) does the directionality of intrafirm knowledge transfers matter?2018In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 475-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focuses on effects of subsidiary internal knowledge-based activities knowledge transfer and reverse knowledge transfer and absorptive capacity on local responsiveness. We also examine whether absorptive capacity, shared values, and psychological safety, representing constituents of the motivation-opportunity-ability model of behavior, moderate relationships of subsidiary internal knowledge-based activities with responsiveness. Based on a sample of 173 Chinese subsidiaries, the results suggest knowledge transfer and absorptive capacity facilitate local responsiveness. Shared values moderates positively and absorptive capacity negatively, the relationship between knowledge transfer and responsiveness. Psychological safety strengthens the link between reverse knowledge transfer and local responsiveness.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Athrey, Suma
    Brunel University, UK.
    Batsakis, Georgios
    Brunel University, UK.
    Complementarity and substitution in the knowledge networks of R&D subsidiaries2016In: Research in Global Strategic Management - Volume 18 (2016): Perspectives on Headquarters-Subsidiary Relationships in the Contemporary MNC / [ed] Ambos, B., Ambos, T. & Birkinshaw, J.M., London: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016, p. 247-274Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue that a foreign-based R&D subsidiary of a multinational enterprise (MNE) can potentially source knowledge from three diverse knowledge networks, namely (i) external knowledge network of the homecountry, (ii) external knowledge network of the host country, and (iii) internal (MNE) knowledge network. Drawing on the relative costs andbenefits associated with the process of synergistic knowledge, this studyexamines whether a substitutive or a complementary relationship exists when two of the aforementioned networks collaborate in order to generate new knowledge at the subsidiary level.

    Our study’s sample is based on asurvey questionnaire addressed to foreign-based R&D subsidiaries of Fortune 500 companies. We assess the existence of complementarity/substitutability using the “production function approach.” Our results indicate that a complementary relationship exists between external knowledge network of the host and the home country, as well as between external knowledge network of the host country and internal knowledge network. On the other hand, external knowledge network of the home country and internal knowledge network form a substitutive relationship. Our study offers a more comprehensive view of the diverse sources/knowledge networks that R&D subsidiaries are sourcing knowledge from when compared to existing research. We also specify and account for the costs/benefits involved in knowledge sourcing and thereby detect possible substitution/complementarity between different sources ofknowledge. So far, there has been limited to nonexistent research into the diversity of knowledge networks of R&D subsidiaries and the examination of potential substitutabilities and complementarities. Hence our empirical study contributes to the development of this particular research stream.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Benito, Gabriel R. G.
    BI Norwegian Business School, Norway.
    Lunnan, Randi
    BI Norwegian Business School, Norway.
    Costs and Performance Implications from HQs Intervention in Subsidiaries’ Affairs2014In: Strategies in a World of Networks, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on HQ intervention and the costs associated with it. Extant literature specifies HQ interventions inareas such as organizing lateral knowledge transfers, strategic planning,support functions, transfer of knowledge to subsidiaries, control mechanisms as means to reduce incentive problems. We link MNC organization with the magnitude of HQ intervention in subunits’ affairs, and examine types of costs such meddling gives rise to. This gives us the possibility ofteasing out how increased costs of specific intrusions will affect the netvalue of HQ action. HQ intervention effects the motivation of subunits and influences the different types of costs. We argue that the scope and type of intervention as well as subsidiary characteristics affect the severity of cost increases, ultimately influencing MNC performance.

  • 8.
    Lunnan, Randi
    et al.
    Norwegian Business School.
    Tomassen, Sverre
    Norwegian Business School.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. Norwegian Business School.
    Benito, Gabriel R. G.
    Norwegian Business School.
    Dealing with headquarters in themultinational corporation: a subsidiaryperspective on organizing costs2019In: Journal of Organization Design, E-ISSN 2245-408X, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how subsidiaries in multinational corporations (MNCs) experienceinteractions with corporate headquarters. We conceptualize such interactions in termsof organizing costs, focusing on two key types of costs: bargaining costs andinformation costs. Specifically, we examine how distance, coordination mechanisms,and atmosphere influence the level of organizing costs in the headquarter-subsidiaryrelationship. Using survey data collected among 104 subsidiary managers in two MNCs,we show that relationship atmosphere significantly reduces both types of organizingcosts, whereas distance increases bargaining costs. We also find that centralization andformalization reduce information costs, whereas social integration, contrary to ourhypothesis, increases bargaining costs.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Persson, M.
    Experience and Performance in Inter-unit Knowledge Transfer2010In: Resources, efficiency and Globalization / [ed] Marian Jones & Pavlos Demitratos, London: Palgrave , 2010, p. 133-155Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Cuervo-Cazura, Alvaro
    Northeastern University, Boston, USA.
    Nielsen, Bo
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Explaining Interaction Effects Within and Across Levels of Analysis2014In: Journal of International Business Studies, ISSN 0047-2506, E-ISSN 1478-6990, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 1063-1071Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manuscripts submitted to the Journal of International Business Studies propose an interaction effect in their models in an effort to explain the complexity and contingency of relationships across borders. In this article, we provide guidance on how best to explain the interaction effects theoretically within and across levels of analysis. First, in the case of interactions within the same level of analysis, we suggest that authors provide an explanation of the mechanisms that link the main independent variable to the dependent variable, and then explain how the interaction variable modifies these mechanisms. Moreover, to ensure that the arguments are theoretically complete, we suggest that authors theoretically rule out the potential reverse interaction effect between the main variable and moderating variable. Second, in the case of interactions across levels of analysis, we suggest that authors identify the cross-level nature of the moderating relationships, specify the level of analysis of the main relationship and the nested nature of the cross-level influences, and theoretically explain these cross-level influences. Additionally, we suggest that authors pay particular attention to nesting in order to theoretically rule out reverse interactions.

  • 11.
    Dike, M.
    et al.
    Aalto Business School, Finland.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Rose, Elisabeth
    Leeds University Business School, UK.
    Foreign Direct Investment Location Choices and Multimarket Competition: Boundary Conditions of the Mainstream Literature and the Challenges of Unforeseen Empirical Contexts2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Dike, M.
    et al.
    Aalto Business School, Finland.
    Rose, E.
    Leeds University Business School, UK.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Foreign Investment Location Choices: Key Theoretical Considerations and Unforeseen New Realities2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Cuervo-Cazurral, Alvaro
    et al.
    Northeastern Univ, DAmore McKim Sch Business, 313 Hayden Hall,360 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. BI Norwegian Business Sch, Dept Strategy, Oslo, Norway..
    Brannen, Mary Yoko
    Univ Victoria, Gustavson Sch Business, Victoria, BC, Canada..
    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard
    Univ Sydney, Sch Business, Discipline Int Business, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Copenhagen Business Sch, Dept Strateg Management & Globalizat, Copenhagen, Norway..
    Reuber, A. Rebecca
    Univ Toronto, Rotman Sch Management, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    From the Editors: Can I trust your findings? Ruling out alternative explanations in international business research2016In: Journal of International Business Studies, ISSN 0047-2506, E-ISSN 1478-6990, Vol. 47, no 8, p. 881-897Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex nature of international business research, with its cross-country and multilevel nature, complicates the empirical identification of relationships among theoretical constructs. The objective of this editorial is to provide guidance to help international business scholars navigate this complexity and ensure that readers can trust their findings. We provide suggestions for how to rule out alternative explanations, explaining key considerations not only in empirical analyses, but also in theory building and in research design. Our discussion covers both qualitative and quantitative studies, because we believe that it is imperative to understand how trustworthiness is established in both traditions, even for international business researchers who self-identify with only one. This enables scholars to have a broader scope of knowledge when interpreting past research in the field and to be more adept at explaining their design choices to a diverse audience.

  • 14. Cuervo-Cazurra, A.
    et al.
    Caligiuri, P.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Brannen, M.Y
    From the Editors: How to write articles that are relevant to practice’2013In: Journal of International Business Studies, ISSN 0047-2506, E-ISSN 1478-6990, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 285-289Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Gillmore, Edward
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Going Against the Grain: The Impact of Mandate Loss on Subsidiary Evolutionary Trajectories2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weexaminethe event ofsubsidiary R&D mandate lossand processes that determine a subsidiary’s subsequent evolutionary trajectory. R&D mandates reflect a value adding activity, and the loss of such mandates corresponds to responsibilities being reassigned from a fully-fledged subsidiary. In order to explore what happens to subsidiaries that lose their mandates we make use of exploratory cases that centers on the interplay between the drivers of mandate loss and subsidiaries response postmandate loss. We observe that subsidiaries regularly survive and prosper post mandate loss, unpacking these counterfactuals is the core of the present paper. This allows us to elucidate how a subsidiary can exhibit a positive evolutionary trajectory post mandate loss.

    We make two distinct contributions. Firstly, we find that the informal dimensions of the mandates interact with the formal in a maner that facilitates influence over the resource and relationship portfolios that a subsidiary manages and develops. Secondly we findt hat the deployment of a subsidiary’s combining capabilities and slack resources are vestigial post mandate loss and that they are complimentarty to the freed-up resources post loss, allowing positive trajectories.

  • 16.
    Lunnan, Randi
    et al.
    BI Norwegian Business School, Norway.
    Tomassen, Sverre
    BI Norwegian Business School, Norway.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Benito, Gabriel R.G.
    BI Norwegian Business School, Norway.
    Governance and the Role of Distance, Coordination, and Relationship Atmosphere in the MNC: a View from the Periphery: A Subsidiary Perspectiveon Organizing Costs in Multinational Corporations: The Roles of Distance, Coordination, and Relationship Atmosphere2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies of organizing costsin multinational corporations have taken the view of the parent corporation. In this study, we turn the table around and examine how subsidiaries experience organizing costs as they deal with demands from and interactions with corporate headquarters. Specifically, we examine how distance, coordination mechanisms, and atmosphere influence the level of organizing costs in the headquarter-subsidiary relationship. We focus on two types of organizing costs; bargaining costs and information costs.

    Using survey data collected among subsidiary managers in two Norwegian companies in the consulting and certification services industry, we show that business atmosphere significantly reduces both types of organizing costs, whereas distance increases bargaining costs. Organizing costs are also influenced by the coordination mechanisms used in the headquarter-subsidiary relationship. We find that centralization and formalization reduce information costs, whereas social integration, contrary to our hypothesis, increases bargaining costs.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Dellestrand, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Pedersen, Torben
    Bocconi University, Italy.
    Headquarters’ orchestration of Subsidiaries’ Contribution to MNCPerformance2014In: Local Contexts in Global Business, Vancouver: Academy of International Business , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anchored in a subsidiary evolutionary framework,this paper analyzes how headquarters of multinational corporations canorchestrate its network of subsidiaries. Headquarters orchestration is a valueadding activity aimed at increasing the performance of the organization. Grantingsubsidiaries autonomy and giving them attention is found to positivelyinfluence the scope of subsidiary activities as well as the level of subsidiarycompetencies. This corresponds to how headquarters, as a hub-type of firm, canadd value by orchestrating for subsidiary evolution. Furthermore, our resultsindicate that if subsidiaries evolve it has positive effects on the overall performanceof the multinational corporation. Thus, our findings help to explain howheadquarters may create value within the multinational corporation in terms ofincreasing subsidiaries’ contribution to performance. The results, based on asample of 2107 subsidiaries, elucidate the entrepreneurial role and function ofheadquarters as an important orchestrator of the multinational corporation forsubsidiary evolution and value creation. Theoretically, this extends theunderstanding of drivers and effects of subsidiary evolution and assigns animportant role and function to headquarters in the orchestration of networkedmultinational corporations.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Kappen, P.
    Headquarters potential value-adding by cherry-picking sub-unit technology development projects2010In: The Headquarters Role in the Contemporary Multinationa / [ed] Ulf Andersson & Ulf Holm, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, p. 160-181Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Mudambi, Ram
    et al.
    Fox School of Business, USA.
    Pedersen, Torben
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    How subsidiaries gain power in multinational corporations2014In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 101-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on how power is gained within large organizations, such as the intra-organizational network of MNCs. Drawing on resource dependence literature, this study develops and empirically tests a set of hypotheses aimed at explaining the multifaceted nature of power and decision making in multinational firms. Data collected from 2107 foreign-owned subsidiaries in seven European countries is used to test the hypotheses. The results indicate that mutual dependence and dependence imbalance provide strong explanations for subsidiary power. Furthermore, subsidiary power over strategic decisions in the MNC is gained through functional power, notably the possession of technological, rather than business-related, power or by the possession of both as they reinforce each other in strengthening the subsidiary's strategic power in the MNC network. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Edward, Gillmore
    et al.
    Dundee University, United Kingdom.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Memar, Noushan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    How subsidiaries influence innovation in the MNE value chain2018In: TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS, ISSN 978-92-1-112927-4, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 73-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As multinational enterprises increasingly disaggregate their value chains and assign functional responsibilities to foreign subsidiaries, they are increasingly focused on augmenting spatially distant activities and resources. At the same time, despite subsidiary managers operating at the “middle” of the organization and having awareness of operational and strategic contexts, they have received significant criticism for hindering the successful coordination and integration of value chain activities. This appears counterintuitive as, on the one hand, MNEs are increasingly disaggregating their value chains and, on the other, subsidiary managers act as frontline managers, at the intersection of their local context and the MNE. We examine the resource stocks of six subsidiaries and the activities of subsidiary managers locally and across global value chains. The results indicate that integration responsibilities are decentralized, as properties of subsidiary mandates, and that the subsidiary managers' connectivity activities significantly affect the strategic influence that they subsidiary can exercise locally and globally. The results also contain important information for policymakers.

  • 21.
    Gillmore, Edward
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    How Subsidiaries Sustain Their Charters Despite Loss of Mandate: The Mediating Role of Internal Relational Attributes.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.
    Buckley, Peter
    Leeds University Business School, UK.
    Dellestrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    In the Right Place at the Right Time! The Influence of Knowledge Governance Tools on Knowledge Transfer and Utilization in MNEs2015In: Global Strategy Journal, ISSN 2042-5791, E-ISSN 2042-5805, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 27-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the utilization of knowledge transferred between sending and receiving subsidiaries within multinational enterprises. A model was developed and tested on 169 specific knowledge transfer projects. The model explains the utilization of knowledge subject to transfer in terms of hierarchical governance tool efficacy and lateral relationships within the multinational enterprise. The results show that headquarters' involvement during knowledge development does not have any significant impact on subsequent knowledge utilization in the receiving units and, in fact, hierarchical governance forms have a negative impact on knowledge utilization. However, lateral relationships are positive stimuli to building subsidiary capabilities in the knowledge transfer process that enhance receiving unit knowledge utilization. 

  • 23.
    Lund, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hodzic, Sandi
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Influencer marketing: Consumer's willingness to rely on product information provided by influencers on YouTube2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research question: How does influencers on YouTube affect the consumers' willingness to rely on provided information and which factor has the most effect?

    Purpose: This study intends to capture an understanding of online consumer behavior regarding influencer marketing on YouTube and the way viewers build trust towards influencers.

    Method: A quantitative study based on an online survey with a total of 324 respondents. Collected data was analyzed through correlations and linear regressions with the help of SPSS.

    Conclusion: The study discovered that influencers have a positive effect on consumers’ willingness to rely on product information, whereas the quality of the information that is provided by the influencers is the most influential factor.

  • 24.
    Santangelo, G. D.
    et al.
    Department of Strategy and Innovation, Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Dellestrand, H.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Institutional antecedents of subsidiary external embeddedness: Coping with regulatory competitive constraints2019In: Long range planning, ISSN 0024-6301, E-ISSN 1873-1872, Vol. 52, no 4, article id 101851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate institutional antecedents to subsidiary external embeddedness and relate regulation constraining competition in local service sectors to subsidiary embeddedness with local partners in complementary sectors. Combining research on business networks with arguments derived from transaction cost economics, we argue that subsidiary external embeddedness depends on the extent of transaction costs originating from small numbers bargaining, which regulatory competitive constraints in local service sectors are a source of. Based on this logic, we suggest that low and high levels of regulatory competitive constraints are associated with greater subsidiary external embeddedness. We also suggest that this U-shaped relationship is more pronounced for subsidiaries that are centers of excellence within the multinational enterprise because these subsidiaries heavily depend on the local context as a source of their competitive advantage over their sister subsidiaries.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Erixon, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Internal MNC structures’ bearing on externally embedded subsidiaries’ organizational performance2015In: Handbook on International Alliance and Network Research / [ed] Larimo, J & Nummela, N, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 155-170Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theoretical research stream that depicts multinational companies (MNCs) as networked organizations has offered new insights on contemporary enterprises’ way of functioning. However, the majority of the research has focused on external embeddedness, that is, MNC subsidiaries’ local business relationships, and its impact on subsidiary organizational performance. This conceptual chapter addresses the lack of research focusing on internal embeddedness, that is, subsidiary relationships with headquarters and sister subsidiaries. Internal embeddedness is discussed from two dimensions: the internal production network and the MNC manager’s social network. The characteristics of each dimension and how they relate to earlier research, leads to a number of theoretical propositions. The chapter concludes with a discussion on how external and internal embeddedness relate, as well as how they may impact the subsidiary’s (organizational) performance.

  • 26.
    Mäkelä, K.
    et al.
    Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Seppäle, T.
    Aalto University School of Economics, Finland.
    Interpersonal similarity and knowledge sharing within multinational organizations’2012In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 439-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has established that interpersonal similarity can influence knowledge sharing in such a way that similar people are more likely to share knowledge than those who are dissimilar. We contribute to the literature by showing that in the MNC context, cultural and functional similarity can become more powerful sources of bias than more commonly assumed demographic characteristics such as gender or seniority. This may be driven by the salience of such boundaries in the MNC: while demographic characteristics are more broadly distributed, cultural and functional barriers create more defined and observable faultlines, often coinciding with unit boundaries. We further argue that it may not be similarity as such that matters but rather its positive impact on different dimensions of social capital, which mediate the relationship between similarity and knowledge sharing. These microfoundations of inter-unit knowledge exchange point to important theoretical and practical implications for international management.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Holm, U.
    Introduction and Overview2010In: Managing the Contemporary Multinational: The Role of Headquarters / [ed] Ulf Andersson & Ulf Holm, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, p. 1-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Memar, Noushan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. BI Norwegian Business School, Norway.
    IT’S SIMPLY COMPLICATED!: On the Consequences of Subsidiary Strategic Activities During Change Period2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today indeed MNEs are relying on the knowledge of many countries around the globe. Considering this, many MNEs fine-slice their value chain even R&D activities and send them across different subsidiaries [1, 2]. Although international R&D is not a new phenomenon [3] but interestingly, there is little evidence on how R&D mandate gain of the subsidiary increases the likelihood of subsidiary innovation. In this study, we explain the strategic boundary spanning activities of subsidiary’s managers ex-post gaining an R&D mandate on strategic learning of the subsidiary to explain the effects of these activities and capability enhancements on the subsidiary’s innovation. This research contributes to the existing literature by studying the effects of subsidiary managers’ different activities on subsidiary innovation. Additionally, this study enables the HQs’ executives to foresee the innovation potential of a subsidiary and at the same time gives the subsidiary’s managers, the ability to maximize innovations by designing an appropriate strategy within their internal and external environments during the change period. 

  • 29.
    Memar, Noushan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. BI Norwegian Business School.
    IT’S SIMPLY COMPLICATED!: On the Subsidiary Strategic Activities Post Mandate Gain2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Giblin, Majella
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Perri, Alessandra
    Ca' Foscari, University of Venice, Italy.
    Ryan, Paul
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Knowledge Creation and Protection in Subsidiaries Embedded in Local Technology Clusters2016In: International Business in a Multi-speed Global Economy / [ed] Kevin Ibeh, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MNE subsidiariesface a trade-off between the ambition to source knowledge that is embedded in the host-location and the need to protect their corporation’s knowledge-based assets from external appropriationby close competitors. In this paper, we explore how foreign subsidiaries operating in a highly competitive knowledge-based cluster or chestrate their local linkages with non-value chain partners to strategically manage the knowledge imperatives to which they are exposed.

    Our results show that subsidiaries establish heterogeneous patterns of interaction with different non-value chain agents in the host location, as their perception regarding the role these agents may play varies. More specifically, in the presence of fierce competition, when higher spillover risks should compel them to refrain from local interaction, subsidiaries do shy away from competitors. However, some simultaneously pursue their knowledge creation objectives by linking to agents that minimize spillover risks while still offering learning opportunities, such as the local university. This leads us to conclude that spillover risks, by themselves, do not automatically drive the choice to avoid interaction, as subsidiaries are able to strategically differentiate between various types of partners. In so doing we reconcile the extant contradiction between the strategic deterrence and physical attraction theses

  • 31.
    Perri, Alessandra
    et al.
    Ca' Foscari University of Venice, Italy.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Knowledge outflows from foreign subsidiaries andthe tension between knowledge creation and knowledge protection: Evidence from the semiconductor industry2014In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 63-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the MNC subsidiaries’ trade-off between the need for knowledge creation and the need for knowledge protection, and relates it to the extent of knowledge outflows generated within the host location. Combining research in International Business with Social Theory, we build a conceptual framework suggesting that subsidiaries that extensively draw on external knowledge sources are also more likely to generate knowledge outflows to local firms. We argue that this may be explained by the subsidiaries’ willingness to build the trust that facilitates the establishment of reciprocal knowledge linkages. However, when the value of the subsidiary’s knowledge stock is very high, the need for knowledge protection restrains reciprocity mechanisms in knowledge exchanges, thus reducing the extent of knowledge outflows to the host location. This study contributes to the literature on the firmlevel antecedents of FDI-mediated local knowledge outflows, as well as to the broad IB literature in the relationship between subsidiaries and their host regions. The implications for managers and policymakers are also discussed.

  • 32. Perri, A.
    et al.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    La casa-madre e le sussidiarie nell’impresa internazionalizzata2011In: Gestione delle imprese internazionali / [ed] Caroli, M., Milano: McGraw-Hill, 2011, 2, p. 217-237Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Holm, Ulf
    Managing the Contemporary Multinational: The Role of Headquarters,2010Book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Gilmore*, Edward
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Reilly, Marty
    Dublin City University, Ireland.
    Sharkey Scott, Pamela
    Dublin City University, Ireland.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Mandate Transition Capabilities: How Subsidiaries in The Multinational Enterprise Evolve from Competence Exploiting to Competence Creating Mandates2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35. O’Brien, D.
    et al.
    Sharkey-Scott, D.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Microfoundations of Global Strategy: Managerial Cognition and Behavior2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Ryan, Paul A.
    National University of Ireland, Galway.
    Clancy, Johanna
    Galway Business School.
    MNESubsidiary Relationships and R&D role evolution at the Dual Context Nexus2014In: ACHIEVING A NEW BALANCE:The Rise of Multinationals from Emerging Economiesand the Prospects for Established Multinationals / [ed] Annie Wei and Frank McDonald, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsidiaries ofmultinational enterprises operate in an often conflicting dual context. Theyare at the same time a part of the external local host country environment andthe internal (MNE) global network. There is as yet limited integratedexplanation of the simultaneous co-evolution of internal subsidiary R&D andknowledge density and breadth in this dual network in particular, theconditions under which subsidiaries tap into local knowledge sources and whichnetwork partners are most useful and the attendant relations and role evolution(or diminution) within the MNE. This paper reports on a qualitative study offour MNE subsidiaries that are both internal MNE ‘centre of excellence’ andlong-serving and leading members of a mature high-tech cluster. In a series ofsemi-structured interviews with key knowledge holders the evolution ofsubsidiary R&D roles were teased out and the importance and quality ofrelations in the dual context are identified.

  • 37.
    Andersen, Torben J
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Multinational Corporate Strategy-making: Integrating International Business and Strategic Management2017In: The Responsive Global Organization: New Insightsfrom Global Strategy and International Business / [ed] Andersen, Torben J, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017, 1, p. 13-33Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter contends that the international business (IB) and strategic management (SM) fields have many commonalities that should be considered in a turbulent globalized business context. IB studies refer to the need for local integration and local adaptation whereas empirics in SM pinpoint the complementary effects of central planning and decentralized decisionmaking. We present and synthesize these rather field specific perspectives and try to synthesize insights from both fields in an adaptive strategy-making model including the effects of autonomous subsidiary initiatives and intended mandates from corporate headquarters. The model considers local subsidiary actions of both operational and strategic nature and we argue that it may be futile to distinguish between these effects as incremental operational responses can cumulate into more substantial changes over time with dimensions of strategic adaptation. The model provides a foundation for further considerations about how to combine central intent and direction with decentralization and autonomous initiatives in the multinational corporation.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Dimitratos, Pavlos
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Liouka, Ioanna
    International University in Geneva, Suisse.
    Network Influence on MNC Subsidiary Initiativ2014In: The Intersection of International Entrepreneurship Knowledge: Bridging the Gap Between Entrepreneurship and International Business / [ed] Valerie Bell, Yang-Pei Lin, Spiros Batas, Denis Frydrych and Elizabeth Montoya Martinez., 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Value-chain networks are of major importance to multinational subsidiaries, yet they have failed to receive significant attention in the literature. We extend the knowledge-based view of the firm by exploring whether three different types of multinational subsidiary networks have dissimilar impact on their initiatives. The level and degree of subsidiary entrepreneurial activities enhances subsidiary performance and generate positive externalities in both the wider multinational corporation (MNC) system and the host country (Birkinshaw, 2000; Dimitratos et al., 2009). Despite the increased interest in the determinants of subsidiary initiative and knowledge integration, the existing literature has primarily focused on the characteristics of the knowledge, e.g. tacitness, stickiness, causal ambiguity, and attributes of the sender and receiver, such as, motivation and absorptive capacity; while the location, or sources, of the knowledge remain largely un-researched with a few exceptions (see e.g. Forsgren, 1999; Foss and Pedersen, 2002). Likewise, network theorists have emphasized different forms of networks as productive for entrepreneurial initiatives (Coleman, 1998; Burt, 2000); and described structural characteristics impeding entrepreneurial activity leading to organizational myopia (Uzzi, 1997; Hansen 1999). Very few, if any, attempts have been pursued to explain how the different types of networks a subsidiary is simultaneously involved affect its entrepreneurial initiatives. We develop four hypotheses based on MNC network and initiative literature streams.

    750 UK based subsidiaries originating from the US, EU and Japan were randomly selected, adding up to a total sample of 2,250 subsidiaries. After excluding subsidiaries that were not eligible to participate in the survey, the actual sample of subsidiaries ended up being 1,770 subsidiaries. A structured questionnaire was pretested by academics and subsidiary managers in order to check its comprehensibility and clarity before the launch of the survey. The data collection from the 1,770 subsidiaries included three postal waves and two rounds of follow-up phone calls in between. The total number of usable responses that we employed to test our hypotheses was 268 subsidiaries. A structured questionnaire was posted to each subsidiary’s managing director; while a second top management respondent also participated in the survey

    in 10% of the sample to establish inter-rater reliability. The overall response rate across the entire sample of subsidiaries was 16%. The Likert scales draw from previously developed measures. We also took measures to control for common method variance following the suggestions of Podsakoff et al. (2003).

    Based on this sample of 268 subsidiaries and a moderated regression analysis, we find that value-chain networks have a higher positive impact than multinational corporation networks and non value-chain networks; because they may provide the subsidiary knowledge with market opportunities that it lacks and that the other types of networks cannot effectively provide. However, value-chain networks have a negative effect on initiative of a subsidiary operating in an environment of high uncertainty; because they can constrain the exploration and creation of new knowledge that cannot be provided by any of the networks. Contrary to our expectations, the combined effect of value-chain and non-value chain networks has a negative influence on enhancing initiatives; and, the combined effect of value-chain and MNC networks does not affect entrepreneurial initiatives.

    This paper has considerable research implications. As regards the knowledge based view, the paper argues that not all firm-external knowledge is equally valuable in developing entrepreneurial initiatives. The value of this knowledge may depend on whether the subsidiary needs that knowledge. Since an MNC subsidiary tends to lack knowledge about its local and foreign country market opportunities and such knowledge is difficult for it to acquire because it is tacit, establishing networks with value-chain partners that have this knowledge generates entrepreneurial initiatives. This is especially the case when subsidiaries operate in an environment of high certainty. Furthermore, knowledge accessed through both value-chain and other types of networks may not bring synergistic effects as it is likely to be complex and time consuming to manage.

    The paper also contributes to the theme of subsidiary entrepreneurship. This is the first study to more fully examine the role of subsidiary value-chain networks in enhancing entrepreneurial initiatives. Prior studies focus primarily on MNC networks and host-country networks. Additionally, this is seemingly the first study that compared the relative effects of all three types of networks on subsidiary entrepreneurial initiatives. It shows that, after considering the effects of other types of networks, value-chain networks appear to have the largest positive influence, especially when the subsidiaries operate in an environment of high certainty.

    The paper also contributes to managerial practice. Subsidiary managers who wish to develop initiatives are advised to establish value-chain networks with customers, suppliers and distributors. This is especially the case for subsidiaries operating in a stable environment. In addition, managers are advised to pursue networking activities with solely value-added partners since the simultaneous implementation of all types of value added activities is seemingly detrimental for entrepreneurial initiatives.

  • 39.
    Gillmore, Edward
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Sundström, Angelina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    OLD SWEDISH BUSINESS IN NEW INTERNATIONAL CLOTHES: Historical transitions in Organizational Memory and Resource Management Processes2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Memar, Noushan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Gillmore, Edward
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.
    On the hidden Consequences of Captive Offshoring: A managerial attention-based approach2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Pedersen, T.
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Organizational design mechanisms for the R&D function in a world of offshoring2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 431-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Later years' globalization and increased competition has forced firms to re-evaluate their current configuration and location of activities An emerging shortage of talent and a recognition of knowledge sources far more spread around the globe have Induced firms to re-think their configuration of knowledge-intensive activities, such as R&D Disaggregation and dispersion of activities is though a double edged sword as it simultaneously enhances the access to resources and talent increasing the value of knowledge development activities in the firm, but also add to the costs of management and coordination In this article we discuss how designing the configuration of R&D activities and the utilization of organizational coordination and control mechanisms help firms to stay on top of the costs induced by inter-task interdependencies among the disaggregated R&D activities and thereby leveraging the knowledge and capabilities developed in the offshored activities We utilize the Danish wind mill company Vestas as an empirical example to illustrate our discussion.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Pedersen, T.
    Progress in International Business Research Volume 22008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 43. Nell, P.
    et al.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Ambos, B.
    Redundancies in External Relationships of Multinational Corporations: A Firm Level Conceptual Model and Preliminary Evidence2013In: The Changing Geography of International Business / [ed] Cook, G. & Johns, J., Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, p. 181-199Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Drogendijk, R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Relationship Development in Greenfield Expansions2013In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 381-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates conceptually how new Greenfield subsidiaries develop relationships over time. We focus our analysis on the earliest start-up stage of new Greenfield subsidiaries, and on the dynamics of relationships development with five different groups of actors within the MNC and the local environment of the new Greenfield. We argue that relationship strength, or the intensity of interaction and resource exchange, depends on the new Greenfield's degree of dependence or interdependence within these relationships and develop propositions based on institutional theory, resource dependency theory and network approaches. In the concluding sections we suggest directions for future work to enhance understanding of the dynamics of relationship management in new Greenfield expansions.

  • 45.
    Sharkey-Scott, Pamela
    et al.
    Maynooth University, Ireland.
    Reilly, Marty
    Dublin City University, Ireland.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Strategic Initiatives: Entrepreneurship and Strategy Development Working Together2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationship between entrepreneurship, strategy development and the generation of strategic initiatives at the subsidiary level. Propositions are tested using data generated from surveying the total population of Irish subsidiaries of foreign MNCs, supported by interviews with subsidiary senior managers and other key informants.

    We show that while entrepreneurial subsidiaries generate initiatives even when headquarters imposes strategic constraints - that engaging in formal strategy development activities - can further unlock the potential of entrepreneurial subsidiaries to generate initiatives. Overall our findings confirm that subsidiaries actively engage in strategy development and demonstrate that entrepreneurial subsidiaries which develop formal strategies are better at generating initiatives.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    O'Brien, Donal
    Dublin City University.
    Strategy Creativity in Multinational Subsidiaries2018In: Contemporary Issues in International Business / [ed] Castellani, D. , Narula, R., Nguyen, Q.T.K., Surdu, I. & Walker, J., London: Palgrave , 2018, p. 191-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    O’Brien, Donal
    et al.
    Dublin City University, Ireland.
    Sharkey Scott, Pamela
    Dublin City University, Ireland.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.
    Strategy Creativity in Multinational Subsidiaries2018In: Contemporary Issues in International Business / [ed] Castellani, D. , Narula, R., Nguyen, Q.T.K., Surdu, I. & Walker, J., London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, p. 191-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Johansson, Henric
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Franklin, Oliver
    Strengthening the Relationship Between Universities and their Graduates: A Case Study and Project on a Swedish University’s Relationship-Building with the Alumni Network2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Date:                                   2018-06-04

    Level:                                 Master Thesis in Business Administration (EFO704),

    15 ECTS

    Institution:                         School of Business, Society and Engineering –

    Mälardalen University

    Authors:                             Franklin, Oliver (940104)

    Johansson, Henric (950614)

    Title:                                   Strengthening the Relationship Between Universities

    and the Graduates: A Case Study and Project on a Swedish University’s Relationship-Building with the Alumni Network

    Supervisor:                       Dr. Andersson, Ulf

    Co-Assessor:                    Lampou, Konstantin

     

    Research Questions:                         What are the reasons for alumni increasing personal engagement

    in university alumni associations?

    What are the opportunities and challenges for universities when

    attempting to increase engagement and create closer relationships with the alumni?

     

    Purpose:                            The purpose of this study is to investigate how universities can

    strengthen and revitalise their contact with the alumni network to create feeling of belonging, enhanced sense of engagement for the alumni and to build long-lasting relationships between the university and the alumni.

     

    Method:                              Using a quantitative method, an online questionnaire was

    conducted with Mälardalen University's graduates as respondents.

    The questions and statements in the questionnaire were connected to Heckman and Guskey’s (1998) model of alumni discretionary collaborative behaviour, created to gain an understanding of underlying reasons alumni had for engaging further in the alumni network.

     

    Conclusion:                       From conducting this study, suggestions that might increase

    alumni engagement was to outline and gather a data-set, while confirming that the communication is received correctly to the specific graduates and alumni that has graduated from specific educational programmes.

    Feedback from the graduates showed that there was a demand for alumni activities in different geographical destinations for international graduates and not require a personal or security number to sign up as alumni, which restricted international students to be part of the alumni network. There was also a demand for more personal communication and invitations to alumni activities such as annual alumni reunion events, and more opportunities to create meaningful long-distance engagement for international alumni.

  • 49.
    Clancey, Johanna
    et al.
    National University of Ireland Galway.
    Ryan, Paul
    Trinity College Dublin.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Giblin, Majella
    National University of Ireland Galway.
    Subsidiary Combinative Capability for Knowledge Creation as a Co-evolutionary Development Process2018In: Contemporary Issues in International Business / [ed] Castellani, D., Narula, R., Nguyen, Q.T.K., Surdu, I. & Walker, J., London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, p. 211-229Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 50. Nell, P.
    et al.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Schlegelmilch, B.B.
    Subsidiary contribution to firm-level competitive advantage: disentangling the effects of MNC external embeddedness2010In: Reshaping the Boundaries of the Firm in an Era of Global Interdependence / [ed] Pla Barber, J. & Alegre, J., London: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2010, p. 173-195Chapter in book (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 71
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