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  • 1. Haglund, L.
    et al.
    Kovala, Tommy
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Lindh, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Managing complexity through business relationships: The case of the Swedish electricity market2019In: International Journal of Management and Decision Making, ISSN 1462-4621, E-ISSN 1741-5187, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 209-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the industrial market, electricity is an essential resource for production, as a stop in its flow may cause expensive production loss and thus tremendous cost. This strong resource dependence and the inevitable competition that comes with deregulation of the market, makes the electricity business complex and relationships of long-term orientation to form. To study such relationships, a mixed method is applied to provide contextual knowledge: by four interviews and a descriptive model and a structural model with three hypotheses developed (n = 122). Managers of products that may seem simple and traded in a market where low cost prevails should think again - stable relationships are a necessity for rational decisions also in this case, particularly since interdependence is influential. 

  • 2.
    Kovala, Tommy
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    This electricity price is too high for my household: Why are some households sensitive to the electricity price, when others barely are sensitive at all?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The key-solution for a sustainable electricity system is demand flexibility. If we use technology to distribute the information, demand flexibility could be incentivized by dynamic pricing, so that real problems and costs in the electricity system become transparent for electricity consumers.

    Utilities and electricity retailers have tried to offer such contracts before, but deemed the necessary educative interventions for consumers too expensive and retreated to nominal price competition (Flaim et al., 2013). Using a questionnaire, collecting intentions for demand flexibility, we reveal that lacking knowledge is just one of many areas that could be targeted with interventions.

  • 3.
    Kovala, Tommy
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Deciding about electricity usage: A thesis on market incentives to steal focus from electricity consumers2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The electricity systems in the world will go through dramatic development to reach the sustainable and fully-renewable state of which politicians aim for. Flexibility is a key-word in such a system, and to achieve high levels of flexibility in a cost-efficient way the demand-side of the electricity system and electricity market has to be activated, the common name for this approach is Demand Response. The purpose in the thesis proposal is to analyse the ways residential electricity consumer-behaviour can be changed, depending on the setup of the Demand Response program implemented in the electricity market, and in turn predict the potential flexibility of consumers in Swedish electricity system context. The analysis will contribute to the development of consumer behaviour research for markets connected to infrastructural systems, with its focus on market setup parameters beyond market price, specifically incorporating multiple aspects of time. The main research topics which could contribute to this analysis are primarily economic preference theory together with bounded rationality incorporating aspects of time and intuitive decisions. The analysis is built up by an understanding of the context of these decisions through service management theory in the specific practice of a national infrastructure. These theories have all been used separately to understand market behaviour and will be combined in this interdisciplinary analysis of future behaviour on the electricity market.

  • 4.
    Kovala, Tommy
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Hallin, Anette
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Factors influencing industrial excess heat collaborations2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 88, p. 595-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden there is a potential to double the amount of industrial excess heat from todays 5 TWh that is delivered into district heating networks. This paper investigates factors that are influencing industrial excess heat collaborations. The paper presents result from qualitative interviews as well as answers through a more quantitative web based survey which has been sent out to stakeholders in existing Swedish industrial excess heat collaborations. This work provides new evidence on that economic motivations are the most common driver for starting up a collaboration, but well in place factors like transparency as well as investment sharing between the partners becomes important for a long-term successful collaboration.

  • 5.
    Kovala, Tommy
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Flexibla elkunders roll i ett framtida förnybart kraftsystem: Hur kommer framtidens elkunder besluta om sin elanvändning?2016Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Erbjud elkunderna rätt service!

    Framtidens elkunder kommer möta ett bredare utbud av tjänster, avtal och produktpaket som bland annat ska kunna uppmuntra en högre grad av efterfrågeflexibilitet. En av flera viktiga aspekter för hur elkunderna kommer agera, är marknadens signal för efterfrågeflexibilitet. Bland annat är elkundernas möjlighet att planera och förbereda sin flexibilitet en mycket intressant variabel för den framtida efterfrågeflexibilitetens potential.

  • 6.
    Herre, Lars
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH), Sweden.
    Kovala, Tommy
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Söder, Lennart
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH), Sweden.
    Papahristodoulou, Christos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    ON THE FLEXIBILITY OF ELECTRICTY CONSUMERS: Modelling, Quantification and Analysis of Notice Time2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power systems with a large share of inherently intermittent renewable energy sources require new approaches to system operation. Demand response is seen as a potential possibility for contributing to maintaining power balance in a future energy system with large amounts of volatile renewable energy generation (Bartusch et al., 2011; Torriti, Hassan & Leach, 2010). It would be a measure to reduce costs for maintaining the power balance, which is believed to become more expensive if traditional measures is to handle the increasing intermittency (Albadi & El-Saadany, 2008; Kirschen, 2003; Siano, 2014). The study of the flexibility of electricity demand is an essential key to exploring the current and future potential of demand side response for power system services.  

    For both solar and wind power, forecasts for several hours ahead may have a lower accuracy. Statistically, the forecasts become better the closer they approach real operation. In practice however, this does not happen in each case. This means that the flexibility need for a certain hour will be different, depending on when the need is identified, i.e. different notice times.

    For consumers to be flexible, there are several parameters that impact their ability and willingness to react to incentives with a change of load. Elasticity (self- and cross-elasticity) has been defined in literature to describe consumer flexibility with respect to a change of electricity price and is often referred to when modelling the flexibility of consumers (Albadi & El-Saadany, 2008; Lijesen, 2007). Flexibility with respect to electricity prices or other financial incentives has been widely studied in literature on smart grids and demand response.

    Another important parameter for electric demand to be flexible is the notice time, i.e. the time span between informing the consumer about a future need for reorganizing their consumption and providing a change of consumption as a system service. The impact of notice time on the flexibility of electricity consumers has not yet been systematically researched. It is logical that the willingness and ability of certain consumers to provide flexibility decreases as notice time becomes shorter. There are, however, some loads that even may become more flexible, the shorter the notice time, such as e.g. the charging of electric vehicles.  

    An essential basis for flexible consumers is the communication infrastructure that is used for sending price signals, bids and further market parameters depending on the demand response program. The type and information content of such communication is enabled through technological devices. These smart devices – which in most cases must exceed the function of only smart metering (Siano, 2014) – can have different properties and requirements that are determined by the demand response program and its respective requirements on data exchange. Therefore, the technological implementation and the impact of the limitations originating from the same are discussed in this study as well.  

    For a quantitative analysis of customer flexibility, both price and notice time are imperative parameters. Former has been studied in numerous references (Bartusch et al., 2011; Gyamfi, Krumdieck & Urmee, 2013; Kirschen et al., 2000; Lijesen, 2007) whereas the impact of the latter has not yet been examined in depth. In this paper, a study on consumer flexibility with respect to notice time is presented. It is analyzed how the ability to reschedule electricity demand during a time interval in the future is impacted by terms of notifying and updating flexible consumers. For this, a market and demand response program optimizing social welfare is developed that allows for an analysis of notice time dependent consumers.

  • 7.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Torstensson, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kovala, Tommy
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Sandberg, Alexander
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Using an Energy Intervention Framework to Evaluate End-User Willingness to Participate in Demand-Response Activities2016In: IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, Vol 2016, 2016, article id 7741517Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the results from implementing an energy intervention framework, a novel method to evaluate consumers' willingness to participate in demand-response actions. An energy intervention scenario encouraged consumers to change consumption behaviour during peak hours in December. Consumers' participation was measured through a web-based survey as well as using smart meter data. The study included 528 consumers divided into three groups: i) participation with economic compensation; ii) participation without economic compensation; and iii) control group. In total 106 households responded to the survey, 53 stated that they actively took part in the energy intervention. When analysing smart meter data it was evident that the groups that had received the intervention and confirmed their participation had lowered the load compared to the control group by 19%. The monetary incentive did not have a positive effect on either participation rate or reduced consumption. None of the participants claimed the economic compensation

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