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  • 601.
    Alorda, B.
    et al.
    Electronic System Group, Illes Balears University, Spain .
    Pujol-Nadal, R.
    Physics Department, Illes Balears University, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Navas, G.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Mathematics and Computer Science Dept, Illes Balears University, Spain .
    Moià-Pol, A.
    Physics Department, Illes Balears University, Spain .
    Martínez-Moll, V.
    Physics Department, Illes Balears University, Spain .
    Collaborative distributed sun-tracking control system for building integration with minimal plant area and maximum energy-conversion efficiency2015In: International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, ISSN 0142-0615, E-ISSN 1879-3517, Vol. 70, p. 52-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a collaborative distributed sun-tracking control system for a novel Fixed Mirror Solar Concentrator (FMSC) structure, which increases the energy-conversion efficiency of the FMSC and reduces the space between solar collectors units, a positive aspect for in-building integration. The improved FMSC uses solar concentration collectors suited for mid-range thermal applications (90-200 °C) and is designed for easy installation in buildings because of its relatively small extension. The proposed solar orientation system (ORSYS) relies on a two-step algorithm to increase the energy captured by the receiver, which provides tolerance to common logical and mechanical errors in the estimation of the receiver position. ORSYS is implemented as a CAN-based distributed system, extended with web-interface features for supervision and configuration of the overall system. ORSYS also includes a coordination algorithm that allows adjacent collectors to share the physical space between them, thus reducing the total plant area. Experimental evaluation has been performed using an industrial-scale solar collector prototype, showing its feasibility and efficiency in terms of energy conversion in real environments.

  • 602.
    Alpstedt, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Tladi, Lesedi
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Att byta livsstil: En hermeneutisk studie om vad som krävs av ex-kriminellaför att skapa en livsstil som accepteras av samhället2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En hermeneutisk studie som syftar till att i mötet med ex-kriminella skapa förståelse och kunskap kring vad som krävs, av dessa personer, för att skapa sig en livsstil som accepteras av samhället. Studien bygger på intervjuer med 10 män i åldrarna 20-41 år som levt ett liv utan kriminalitet i maximalt 10 år och är bosatta i Sverige. Studiens data analyseras i tre steg. Det första steget, preliminär tolkning, ger en överblick av materialet. I det andra steget, fördjupad tolkning, förklaras studiens förändringsmodell som bygger på respondenternas upplevelser. Slutligen presenteras materialets huvudtolkning där vi med hjälp av studiens teorier abstraherar tolkningarna. Analysen av materialet gav följande resultat: respondenterna behöver gå igenom en förändringsspiral för att byta från en kriminell livsstil till en livsstil som är mer accepterad av samhället. Först sker en händelse som leder till reflektion kring händelsen. Reflektionen leder till insikt, utifrån insikten sker ett val av faktorer. Valet påverkar självkänslan positivt eller negativt. En positiv självkänsla leder till en förändring i riktingen personen vill gå, medan en negativ självkänsla leder till en förändring bort från det tänkta målet. Förändringsprocessen består av flera varv i förändringsspiralen. Processen är olika lång för varje person och är kantrad av svårigheter.

  • 603.
    AL-QAISI, HANNEY
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    KURRE, BHUPESH REDDY
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    The Effect of Social Relationships on Company Internationalization2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Title:

    The Effect of Social Relationships on Company Internationalization

    Course:

    Master’s level Thesis (EFO705) in International Business and Entrepreneurship 10 Swedish credit points  (15 ECTS)

    Authors:

    Hanney Al-Qaisi & Bhupesh Reddy Kurre

    Tutor:

    Leif Linnskog

    Problem:

    How did social relationships affect the internationalization of a German IVF centre to the UAE? Using this case example, the thesis will be focused on studying the different social factors that could have affected the internationalization process.

    Purpose:

    The aim of this thesis was to describe the way that a local company in Germany went through internationalization to become a successfulmultinational company. We wanted to find out if there were any social factors that influenced the company. In particular, we wanted to investigate whether there were any entrepreneurial activities or barriers that influenced the company’s internationalisation and why it chose to open its subsidiary in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), which is far from Germany.

    Methods:

    This thesis is based on a qualitative methodology for gathering and analysis of the data around the internationalization of the German company.Qualitative methods are the best techniques for looking into social relationships and whether they have an effect on the internationalization process.

    Theories:

    Uppsala-Model; Network Theory; Social, Business & Professional Relationships and International Entrepreneurship

    Target Group:

    This research provides knowledge and information to entrepreneurs businessowners, managers, general readers, and academics who would like to understand the influence of social relationships on internationalization. 

    Conclusion:

    Having searched through the published literature for relevant articles on the internationalization process, social relationships and entrepreneurial activities, we were able to inform our thesis with a theoretical framework for analyzing social relationships and internationalization. Social relationships do indeed have an influence on the internationalization process, and using our case example, it was possible to outline the patterns and nature of the influence. The theories (and patterns) are interlinked, and could be related in practical terms to the establishment of a satellite fertility centre in the UAE by a German head company.

  • 604.
    Alqaysi, Mustafa
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hangar of the future - digital scanning & analysis2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This final thesis is made by a student at Mälardalens högskola in Västerås from the academy of Innovation, Design and Engineering. This report examines the possibility of upgrading and modernizing current aircraft maintenance hangars by using the latest technologies.

     

    Aircraft maintenance is essential to keep aircraft’s continuing airworthiness, and making sure it’s always declared fit for flight. But the maintenance procedures in hangars today can be seen as a bit old-fashioned. This report is therefore aiming to explore the possibilities of building the hangar of the future, where the latest technologies is used for an easier, more accurate and faster maintenance. A big problem that this project could solve in case that it could be a reality is damage assessment. In flight industry is it a bit tricky to assess a damage that had happened to an aircraft with the current methods that are used in today’s maintenance hangars. Taking measures for damages isn’t easy, and it’s even harder to look into the Structure Repair Manual (SRM) in theory and follow it in reality to assess the damage. It is something that technicians and engineers suffer from, because of the big responsibility that it withholds.

     

    In the process of writing this thesis, and with the help of literature studies, an interview with the SAS engineer Anders Dalén, researches about the subject and the term of HOF at other companies the purpose of this thesis was reached. Which is exploring if HOF can be a reality in the near future. As for the technology of the project, it could be explained as a process or a chain that contains some steps. The idea is that an aircraft would roll into the hangar and get scanned by a stationary 3D scanner that is placed in the top of the hangar entrance. The data that the scanner later sends into a computer system gets processed by two or more programs in order to detect possible damage. If damage is found, then it would get measured with a portable 3D scanner. The analyzing programs would process its data and give an assessment on the damage, and also suggestions for reparations.

     

    The conclusion for this thesis is that it is, in theory, possible that “Hangar of the future” can be a reality in the future. Because the technologies that is required for it do exist in our time, though they exist in other forms/ branches.

  • 605.
    Al-Ramahi, Fatima
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Jashari, Veronika
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Kontroversiella bolags bibehållande av legitimitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Date: 2019-06-11

    Level: Bachelor thesis in Business Administration, 15 cr

    Institution: School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University

    Authors: Fatima Al-Ramahi Veronika Jashari96/10/03 97/05/16

    Title: Controversial industries maintenance of legitimacy

    Tutor: Angelina Sundström

    Keywords: Legitimacy, CSR-reporting, Sustainability reporting, Controversialindustries

    Researchquestions: What similarities and differences exist between how; Svenska Spel, Spendrups, Saab, Swedish Match and Systembolaget work to maintain legitimacy?

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare how five Swedish controversial firms work with their CSR-information through sustainability reports to maintain legitimacy.

    Method: The study is based on a qualitative research method in which a content analysis is used to examine the CSR-information in sustainability reports.

    Conclusion: The study showed that the similarities between how controversial firms worked with its CSR information to maintain legitimacy were; everyone had information in their sustainability reports that could be charted from Carroll's four dimensions; the economic, the legal, the ethical and the philanthropic dimension. Other clear similarities between the firms were; maintenance of good relations with stakeholders, rewarding investors, following laws and legal norms, presenting information from a social and environmental perspective, collaborating with other firms and donating large sums in form of donations. The differences that existed were that the firms choose to work differently on how, for example, they would reduce carbon dioxide emissions and how they worked to ensure that laws were followed in the business. Other conclusions that could be seen were that all firms worked with its CSR information based on the economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic dimension in order to maintain legitimacy through pragmatic, cognitive or moral legitimacy.

  • 606.
    Al-Rawi, M. S.
    et al.
    Departamento de Eletrónica, Telecomunicações e Informática (DETI), Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Galdrán, A.
    Departamento de Eletrónica, Telecomunicações e Informática (DETI), Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Yuan, X.
    Research Center on Software Technologies and Multimedia Systems for Sustainability (CITSEM), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Eckert, M.
    Research Center on Software Technologies and Multimedia Systems for Sustainability (CITSEM), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Martínez, J. -F
    Research Center on Software Technologies and Multimedia Systems for Sustainability (CITSEM), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Elmgren, Fredrik
    DeepVision AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rodriguez, J.
    Departamento de Eletrónica, Telecomunicações e Informática (DETI), Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Bastos, J.
    Instituto de Telecomunicações, Pólo de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Pinto, M.
    ECA Robotics, La Garde, France.
    Intensity normalization of sidescan sonar imagery2016In: 2016 6th International Conference on Image Processing Theory, Tools and Applications, IPTA 2016, 2016, article id 7820967Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sonar imaging is currently the exemplary choice used in underwater imaging. However, since sound signals are absorbed by water, an image acquired by a sonar will have gradient illumination; thus, underwater maps will be difficult to process. In this work, we investigated this phenomenon with the objective to propose methods to normalize the images with regard to illumination. We propose to use MIxed exponential Regression Analysis (MIRA) estimated from each image that requires normalization. Two sidescan sonars have been used to capture the seabed in Lake Vattern in Sweden in two opposite directions west-east and east-west; hence, the task is extremely difficult due to differences in the acoustic shadows. Using the structural similarity index, we performed similarity analyses between corresponding regions extracted from the sonar images. Results showed that MIRA has superior normalization performance. This work has been carried out as part of the SWARMs project (http://www.swarms.eu/).

  • 607.
    Al-Rawi, Mohammed
    et al.
    Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal.
    Elmgren, Fredrik
    DeepVision AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Frasheri, Mirgita
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Yuan, Xin
    Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Martínez, José-Fernán
    Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Bastos, Joaquim
    Instituto de Telecomunicações - Pólo de Aveiro, Portugal.
    Rodriguez, Jonathan
    Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal.
    Pinto, Marc
    ECA Robotics, France.
    Algorithms for the Detection of First Bottom Returns and Objects in the Water Column in Side-Scan Sonar Images2017In: OCEANS '17 A Vision for our Marine Future OCEANS '17, Aberdeen, United Kingdom, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Underwater imaging has become an active research area in recent years as an effect of increased interest in underwater environments and is getting potential impact on the world economy, in what is called blue growth. Since sound propagates larger distances than electromagnetic waves underwater, sonar is typically used for underwater imaging. One interesting sonar image setting is comprised of using two parts (left and right) and is usually referred to as sidescan sonar. The image resulted from sidescan sonars, which is called waterfall image, usually has to distinctive parts, the water column and the image seabed. Therefore, the edge separating these two parts, which is called the first bottom return, is the real distance between the sonar and the seabed bottom (which is equivalent to sensor primary altitude). The sensory primary altitude can be measured if the imaging sonar is complemented by interferometric sonar, however, simple sonar systems have no way to measure the first bottom returns other than signal processing techniques. In this work, we propose two methods to detect the first bottom returns; the first is based on smoothing cubic spline regression and the second is based on a moving average filter to detect signal variations. The results of both methods are compared to the sensor primary altitude and have been successful in 22 images out of 25.

  • 608.
    Alricson, Kristina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Brandehav, Helen
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Det är lätt att man tänker för stort: En kvalitativ studie om hur några speciallärare främjar elevernas autonomi i träningsskolan2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I svenska och internationella styrdokument framhålls elevens rätt till inflytande och medbestämmande och att dessa är avgörande för elevens hälsa. Syftet med studien var att beskriva och analysera hur lärare utformar gynnsamma lärmiljöer som främjar elevernas autonomi i träningsskolan. Vad är det som befrämjar elevens möjlighet att påverka, ha inflytande och medbestämmande som i sin tur medverkar till friskare elever? Den kvalitativa studien byggde på elva observationer och elva intervjuer med lärare i träningsskolan. Resultatet analyserades ur ett relationellt- och systemteoretiskt perspektiv. Sammantaget visade resultatet att förutsättningarna i lärmiljön har starka samband med speciallärarnas förståelse både för utformningen av lärmiljön och för att skapa relationer med och runt eleven. Resultatet tyder också på att utformningen av lärmiljön och samspelet påverkas av speciallärarens sensitivitet, lyhördhet, nyfikenhet och uppfinningsrikedom. De slutsatser som vi utifrån studiens resultat drog, visade att det är lätt att man tänker för stort när man arbetar för att främja elevernas autonomi i träningsskolan.

  • 609.
    Alsammarraie, Farah
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Davidsson, Elin
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Ateljén – En miljö för barns utveckling och lärande.: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med åtta förskollärare.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur förskollärare beskriver ateljén som en miljö för barns utveckling och lärande. Vi har i denna kvalitativa studie intervjuat åtta förskollärare från förskolor med olika inriktningar, för att få insikt i förskollärares förhållningssätt, tankar, och erfarenheter kring de aktiviteter som sker i ateljén. Resultatet synliggör tre teman; ateljéns fysiska rum, ateljéns möjligheter och förhållningssätt. Förskollärarna i studien beskriver ateljén som en betydelsefull miljö för barns lärande och utveckling där pedagoger och barn samspelar, inspirerar och utmanar varandra. En inbjudande och tillåtande miljö i ateljén med rikt och stimulerande material beskrivs av förskollärarna som viktiga delar för att främja flera olika aspekter av barns utveckling och lärande. 

  • 610.
    Alshahbaz, Saba
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Lundhe, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Kommunikation i vårdandet: Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av kommunikation i vården2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In each care situation, the nurse communicates with the patient. The concept of communication is more suitable to use than conversation when communication is related to caring in more ways in comparison with conversations. Previous research shows that when communicating with the nurse the patient wants the nurse to provide information, take time and listen and show openness and interest in what the patient tells. The basis for communication between caregiver and patient is based on relationship and community between the two. The Patient Act (2014: 821) strengthens that the patient should receive information about different care elements if the patient wants it. Problem: In some situations, the nurse's knowledge and experience of communication fails, and the nurse cannot therefore help the patient, resulting in the nurse's guilt and frustration. Aim: To describe nurses' experiences of communication in caring. Method: The work has been carried out as a systematic literature study according to Evans (2002) of scientific, qualitative articles Result: The nurse needed to show empathy and love to communicate with the patient but experienced shame and frustration in non-verbal communication. The nurse wanted more education and felt that more understanding is needed in communication. Conclusions: Being able to communicate with the patient as a nurse is considered one of the most important components for the patient's well-being, but the nurse was perceived to be task-centered.

    Keywords: communication, experiences, nurse

  • 611.
    Alshaibi, Alsedieg
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Business Relationships Between Local Firms and MNCs in a less Developing Country: The Case of Libyan Firms2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    International business relationships have been widely researched over the last three decades. Themajor attention of these studies, no matter what their theoretical perspective, concerns the MNCs inthe less developing countries (LDCs). Studies that illustrate how firms in LDCs behave regardinginteraction with MNCs are slim. Therefore, this study focuses on firms in LDCs, namely Libyan firms,and their relationships with MNCs. The study reflects not only on the relationships between the localfirms with MNCs but also the impacts of other interrelated business and non-business units on theserelationships. The study employs business network theory for industrial marketing and develops amodel applicable for studying such a market.The empirical study employs a survey method which examines 60 Libyan firms’ relationships withforeign suppliers containing more than 300 questions. In the empirical part, the study shows that therelationships like technological adaptation, technological cooperation and information exchange wereawarded low values. The measures on the other hand show a high value of impact from the politicalactors and even activities in the contextual environment. The study shows in detail where and howthe political actions influence business relationships. These impacts from the local environment affectlocal firms more than the foreign suppliers, and thus have some bearing on the MNCs and local firms’relationship weaknesses and strengths.The thesis’ conceptual contribution stands on development of new notions in business network theoryby integration of the contextual environment, in other words, network environment, and examinationof their impact on the strength of the focal business relationship. The study further contributesknowledge, not only for firms and politicians in LDCs to understand the consequence of their actions,but also provides deep information for MNCs to understand issues like why firms in LDCs behave ina specific way. Such understandings facilitate the development of cooperation. The study providesinformation about a number of characteristics which are specific for the business networks of such amarket which is dependent on only one resource like oil. While most studies in the field ofinternational business regard the business activities of MNCs, more research is needed to also observethe behaviour of firms from LDCs to gain deeper knowledge on the relationship between the MNCsand local firms from LDCs. The role of political actors and the influence of dependency on one soletype of resources and aspects like change in the prices of this resource seem to be important, but arequite neglected in research in international business.

  • 612.
    Al-shegagi, Mariam
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Känslan av utanförskap: Om rasifiering ur gymnasietjejers perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utifrån tidigare forskning om rasifiering undersöktes i denna studie hur elever med invandrarbakgrund gav mening åt erfarenheter och upplevelser av rasifiering. Rasifiering är en process där man skapar raskategoriseringar och genom vilken icke-vita har blivit socialt konstruerade. Syftet med studien var att undersöka om det finns en relation mellan rasifiering och självkänsla. Ambitionen var att ge en ny kunskap och ökad medvetenhet om rasifiering och dess påverkan på elevers självkänsla. Semistrukturerade intervjuer med nio gymnasieelever genomfördes. Intervjuerna transkiberades och analyserades med en tematisk analys. Genomgången av intervjuerna visade att gymnasieeleverna upplevde att de någon gång under sitt liv blivit rasifierade då de upplever känslor som utanförskap och underlägsenhet i förhållande till svenskheten. Resultatet visade att intervjupersonerna har en självbild i form av en rasifierad sådan. Självkänslan är intimt sammankopplad med kategorierna ”svensk” och ”invandrare” eftersom att man inte ser sig själv som ”svensk” då man har föräldrar födda utanför Sverige. 

  • 613.
    Alshiekh, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    OPTIMIZING ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF CLOUD COMPUTING SYSTEMS2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of network devices in cloud data-centers consume huge amount of energy. This has emerged as a matter of concern for data center operators. Cloud computing finds its application in various elds such as telecommunication, multimedia, video gaming and etc. Most of these applications require a timing guarantee which are reffed to as real-time applications. Once cloud providers aim to guarantee Quality of Service (QoS) parameters such as deadlines, more hard-ware resources are required because of using a higher number of servers, switches, higher network bandwidth, more cooling and power distribution systems. As a consequence of the use of a higher number of devices and communication links, power consumption and operational cost. This thesis aims to optimize the network energy consumption, which in turn results in reduction of the energy consumption of a data-center while respecting the network constraints. The energy reduction of the network is achieved by turning off idle network devices and playing with the allocation of the workload among the servers to minimize the communication load. Thereby, it increases the number of idle devices. Our experimental results demonstrate a full performance by using Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol. OSPF creates a routing table to nd the nest tasks paths and the address of the idle devices. It provides 22.75% reduction in energy consumption by applying Elastic Tree mechanism.

    The performance of the method is also examined in terms of the network load. The results reveal a trade-off between network energy consumption and the load of the network. The results show that although the Elastic Tree mechanism optimizes energy consumption of the network, it increases the network load.

  • 614.
    Alsin, Ulla
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Boozon, Stellan
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Bedömning för kontroll eller utveckling?2009In: Lärande på vuxnas vis: vetenskap och beprövad erfarenhet / [ed] Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine., & Carlsson, Irma., Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, 1:1, p. 101-121Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 615.
    Al-Siyamer, Akram Dahham
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Energieffektivisering av Byggnader: En kartläggning av energianvändningen på två förskolor och två skolor i Västerås med hjälp av timvärden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the development of society towards renewable energy sources, the target in Sweden is 100% energy supply from renewable energy sources by the year 2040. This requires increased energy production from renewable, but also energy optimization of existing buildings. The housing and service sector which includes households and the public services account for about 40 % of Sweden’s total energy use. It is estimated that preschools and schools have an area of 35 million m² which have an energy savings potentials of 0,7-1 TWh in the electricity consumption and 0,9 TWh in energy use for heating. With regard to energy optimization, it is not only interesting to investigate a buildings total energy use on an annual or monthly basis, but also on shorter time intervals such hourly energy use, because of the uneven energy production of some renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. The purpose of this work is to study the energy usage for some of Västerås preschools and schools, and on the basis of it propose some energy optimization actions. To achieve this a literature study has been carried out to get knowledge about how energy usage is at preschools and schools, as well as to gain insight into what actions are appropriate to perform and how they savings look like. Other than that four objects has been studied, two preschools and two schools, one of each kind were chosen amongst those with the highest energy usage among Västerås city’s preschools and schools and one of each kind amongst those with the lowest usage. The annual energy usage have been calculated and been compared to the actual usage, and the monthly and hourly energy usage for district heating have been studied as well as the electricity usage along the day for different periods. The studied periods and energy usage shows that the energy usage, both for the monthly and hourly,  for the district heating moves with regards to the outdoor temperature with some exceptions. As for the electricity usage it shows that the energy usage is even with some exceptions and there is a difference between different outdoor temperature intervals. Some conclusions could be drawn among others that the objects with higher energy usage where older buildings and the objects with lower energy usage where newer ones. There are some energy optimizations actions for the objects which would lower the energy consumption, both for district heating and electricity usage.

  • 616.
    Al-sumasum, Rawia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Faías Ponce, Lara
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    ÅTERANVÄNDBARA PARKERINGSHUS: En studie om att utveckla konceptet TempoDeck2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s situation new methods are constantly evolving in the construction industry where the sustainability of a construction is of utmost importance. Prefabricated concrete is a type material that is highly durable in terms of long life without producing damaging effects. As a result, the material has been used increasingly in the manufacture of construction. Construction industry is continuously developing, which means new ways to construct buildings. Within construction, usage of prefabricated concrete is a method that has become increasingly successful. With this method, the construction period is shortened considerably and the construction process will be more beneficial for the environment and the various safety aspects. This master thesis was written in cooperation with AB Strängbetong, is one of the largest companies in Sweden that uses prefabricated elements. The company has a concept called TempoDeck and is currently building a parking garage in Ullared, with the life with a life expectancy of 50 years, that is life class L50. The objective of the study was to check whether the construction work fulfilled the requirements of the standards. In addition, the purpose was also to investigate the possibility of a different type of facade design by reducing the height of the joists and beams. The thesis includes a literature review, a case study, an archive analysis as well as calculations with the Norwegian program E – bjelke. A guidance from AB Strängbetong has also been used. The results showed that the existing structure fulfilled the life class L50 according to the requirements. In addition, the results showed that it was aesthetically possible to modify the car park, to make it more appealing. However, it would be more profitable to keep the design as it is to the future constructions. 

  • 617.
    Al-Swiri, Said
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Arbetsmotivationen i arbetslivet: Faktorer som kan främja medarbetarnas arbetsmotivation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 618.
    Alt, Mattheus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Battery Connector - Examensarbete, Produktutveckling - konstruktion2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet är utfört inom produktutveckling – konstruktion och omfattar 15 högskolepoäng. Arbetet utfördes på halvtid under perioden januari – juni 2013. Examensarbetet utfördes för       OJOP Sweden AB i Eskilstuna av en student på Mälardalens Högskola. Examensarbetet startades den 6/1 – 2013 vid ett uppstartsmöte då uppdraget togs emot av OJOP Sweden AB´s ägare Anders Larsson. Uppdraget var att konstruera om eller konstruera en produkt med samma huvudegenskaper som företagets batterikontakt QuickPower. Detta för att reducera tillverkningskostnaderna som upplevdes för höga från företagets sida. Definitionen av problemet gjordes genom att undersöka den befintliga produkten och dess konkurrenter men också andra föremål som fäster på olika sätt. Undersökningarna resulterade i kunskap om hur problemet tidigare lösts och gav inspiration till en mängd idéer som bearbetades mentalt vilket ledde till skisser.  De olika skisserna sågs redan från början som potentiella koncept och redovisades för OJOP Sweden AB som fick utrymme att ge respons på koncepten. Ett koncept som innan redovisningen visat sig vara det bästa i både Pugh´s matris och QFD valdes gemensamt ut och fortsattes med. Det gjordes en enkel prototyp av det framtagna konceptet vilket bevisade en mycket bra funktionsduglighet. Med detta noterat och testat gjordes CAD-modeller som utgick ifrån prototypens dimensioner. Den slutgiltiga konstruktionen består av 6 (gånger två) komponenter, en huvudkomponent (spiralfäste), en kabelplatta, två plastkåpor och två skruvar. Dessa bearbetas på olika sätt och monteras samman för att vara redo att användas när kunden plockar dessa ur förpackningen. I jämförelse med den nuvarande produkten QuickPower håller sig resultatet på en nivå som matchar QP. En nackdel är att den inte fäster lika hårt som QP men resultatets enkla användning och resursbesparing höjer produkten.

  • 619.
    Altarabichi, Mohammed Ghaith
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Supervised Learning for Road Junctions Identification using IMU2019In: First International Conference on Advances in Signal Processing and Artificial Intelligence ASPAI' 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 620.
    Altblom, Filip
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Pálfi, György Simon
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Åhlander, Johanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    An Analysis of a Changing Society and its Impact on Pharmaceutical Companies’ Supply Chain Management2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Date: 2018-06-03

    Level: Bachelor thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS

    Institution: School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University

    Authors: Filip Altblom György Simon Pálfi Johanna Åhlander

    (96/11/14) (83/11/02) (96/07/24)

    Title: An Analysis of a Changing Society and its Impact on a Pharmaceutical

    Company’s Supply Chain Management

    Supervisor: Edward Gillmore

    Keywords: supply chain management, pharmaceutical industry, AstraZeneca,

    context, strategic decisions

    Research

    Question: How does the pharmaceutical companies’ context affect their supply chain

    management?

    Purpose: The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to examine different changes within the context

    of the pharmaceutical industry and how these changes affect companies’ supply

    chain management.

    Method: To investigate the research question of this thesis, the data collected was of secondary

    nature and was gathered from governmental authorities, scientific articles, annual

    reports, press releases and newspapers. The secondary data was used to achieve a

    broad view of the investigated subject and to interpret, analyse and make an objective

    conclusion regarding the research question of this thesis.

    Conclusion: The conclusion of this thesis is that the analysed context forces AstraZeneca to

    modify the strategy of their supply chain. This in order to maximize their profit and

    performance and to reduce the risk of a market loss and/or eventually a shortage of

    supply, compared to the increasing demand of medicine and treatment. It could be

    argued that this goes for all market leading pharmaceutical companies since this

    context most likely affect every company within the industry.

  • 621.
    Altenbernd, Peter
    et al.
    University of Applied Sciences Darmstadt, Germany.
    Ermedahl, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Automatic Generation of Timing Models for Timing Analysis of High-Level Code2011In: 19th International Conference on Real-Time and Network Systems (RTNS2011), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional timing analysis is applied only in the late stages of embedded system software development, when the hardware is available and the code is compiled and linked. However, preliminary timing estimates are often needed already in early stages of system development, both for hard and soft real-time systems. If the hardware is not yet fully accessible, or the code is not yet ready to compile or link, then the timing estimation must be done for the source code rather than for the binary. This paper describes how source-level timing models can be derived automatically for given combinations of hardware architecture and compiler. The models are identified from measured execution times for a set of synthetic "training programs" compiled for the hardware platform in question. The models can be used to derive source-level WCET estimates, as well as for estimating the execution times for single program runs. Our experiments indicate that the models can predict the execution times of the final, compiled code with a deviation up to 20%.

  • 622.
    Altenbernd, Peter
    et al.
    University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Stappert, Friedhelm
    Siemens VDO Automotive AG, Germany.
    Early execution time-estimation through automatically generated timing models2016In: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 731-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional timing analysis, such as worst-case execution time analysis, is normally applied only in the late stages of embedded system software development, when the hardware is available and the code is compiled and linked. However, preliminary timing estimates are often needed in early stages of system development as an essential prerequisite for the configuration of the hardware setup and dimensioning of the system. During this phase the hardware is often not available, and the code might not be ready to link. This article describes an approach to predict the execution time of software through an early, source-level timing analysis. A timing model for source code is automatically derived from a given combination of hardware architecture and compiler. The model is identified from measured execution times for a set of synthetic training programs, compiled for the hardware platform in question. It can be used to estimate the execution time for code running on the platform: the estimation is then done directly from the source code, without compiling and running it. Our experiments show that, using this model, we can predict the execution times of the final, compiled code surprisingly well. For instance, we achieve an average deviation of 8 % for a set of benchmark programs for the ARM7 architecture.

  • 623.
    Altis, Lotta
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att acceptera en tvetydig livlina: Erfarenheter av att vara bärare av en implanterbar defibrillator utifrån ett fenomenologiskt livsvärldsperspektiv2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) has shown to prolong survival in patients with life threatening tachyarrythmias. The number of implantable cardioverter defibrillators is expected to increase. Several studies have already described ICD-recipents life-situation and quality of life. However, additional qualitative studies concerning ICD-recipients everyday experiences are required. The phenomenon of living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator is described in this paper from a phenomenological approach and its reflecting lifeworld perspective. The data collection was made out of nine in depth interviews. The purpose was to describe the meaning of living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The result, the phenomenon’s general structure, describes an ambiguous acceptance of a security and insecurity in the life-situation. The active and unpredictable body is exposed to something unique, an ambiguous lifeline. The phenomenon’s general structure is highlighted through five constituents; the good and bad shock, the experience of support in those around, knowledge - a safety in the every day life, the active and unpredictable body and the exposed body. The conclusion is seen as an acceptance of an ambiguous lifeline. To accept the lifeline appeared from the result as the obvious choice.

  • 624. Altman, D.
    et al.
    Ragnar, Inga
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Eksrom, A.
    Tydén, T.
    Olsson, S-E.
    Anal sphincter lacerations and upright delivery postures: a risk analysis from a randomized controlled trial.2007In: International Urogynecology Journal, ISSN 0937-3462, E-ISSN 1433-3023, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 141-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate obstetric sphincter lacerations after a kneeling or sitting position at second stage of labor in a multivariate risk analysis model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-one primiparous women with normal pregnancies and spontaneous labor were randomized, 138 to a kneeling position and 133 to a sitting position. Medical data were retrieved from delivery charts and partograms. Risk factors were tested in a multivariate logistic regression model in a stepwise manner. RESULTS: The trial was completed by 106 subjects in the kneeling group and 112 subjects in the sitting group. There were no significant differences with regard to duration of second stage of labor or pre-trial maternal characteristics between the two groups. Obstetrical sphincter tears did not differ significantly between the two groups but an intact perineum was more common in the kneeling group (p<0.03) and episiotomy (mediolateral) was more common in the sitting group (p<0.05). Three grade IV sphincter lacerations occurred in the sitting group compared to none in the kneeling group (NS). Multivariate risk analysis indicated that prolonged duration of second stage of labor and episiotomy were associated with an increased risk of third- or fourth-degree sphincter tears (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). Delivery posture, maternal age, fetal weight, use of oxytocin, and use of epidural analgesia did not increase the risk of obstetrical anal sphincter lacerations in the two upright postures. CONCLUSION: Obstetrical anal sphincter lacerations did not differ significantly between a kneeling or sitting upright delivery posture. Episiotomy was more common after a sitting delivery posture, which may be associated with an increased risk of anal sphincter lacerations. Upright delivery postures may be encouraged in healthy women with normal, full-term pregnancy.

  • 625.
    Altmeyer, S.
    et al.
    University of Luxembourg.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Maiza, C.
    Université Grenoble Alpes, Verimag, France.
    Reineke, J.
    Saarland University, Germany.
    Rochange, C.
    University of Toulouse, France.
    WCET and mixed-criticality: What does confidence in WCET estimations depend upon?2015In: OpenAccess Series in Informatics, 2015, p. 65-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed-criticality systems integrate components of different criticality. Different criticality levels require different levels of confidence in the correct behavior of a component. One aspect of correctness is timing. Confidence in worst-case execution time (WCET) estimates depends on the process by which they have been obtained. A somewhat naive view is that static WCET analyses determines safe bounds in which we can have absolute confidence, while measurement-based approaches are inherently unreliable. In this paper, we refine this view by exploring sources of doubt in the correctness of both static and measurement-based WCET analysis.

  • 626.
    Altmeyer, Sebastian
    et al.
    Saarland University.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hümbert, Christian
    AbsInt GmbH, Saarbrücken, Germany .
    Wilhelm, Reinhard
    Saarland University.
    Parametric timing analysis for complex architectures2008In: Proceedings - 14th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, RTCSA 2008, 2008, p. 367-376Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hard real-time systems have stringent timing constraints expressed in units of time. To ensure that a task finishes within its time-frame, the designer of such a system must be able to derive upper bounds on the task's worst-case execution time (WCET). To compute such upper bounds, timing analyses are used. These analyses require that information such as bounds on the maximum numbers of loop iterations are known statically, i.e. during design time. Parametric timing analysis softens these requirements: it yields symbolic formulas instead of single numeric values representing the upper bound on the task's execution time.

    In this paper, we present a new parametric timing analysis that is able to derive safe and precise results. Our method determines what the parameters of the program are, constructs parametric loop bounds, takes processor behaviour into account and attains a formula automatically. In the end, we present tests to show that the precision and runtime of our analysis are very close to those of numeric timing analysis.

  • 627.
    Altola, Juha
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    MOLAU, U
    EFFECT OF ALTITUDE ON THE SEX-RATIO IN POPULATIONS OF SILENE ACAULIS (CARYOPHYLLACEAE)1995In: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 251-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicted increase of female frequencies in gynodioecious Silene acaulis was tested along an altitude gradient in northern Sweden. Average female frequencies for the four sites increased with altitude from 42% to 59% within a short geographical distance. This follows the outcrossing hypothesis, that female frequencies should be positively correlated with selfing rates of hermaphrodites in populations. More adverse environmental conditions should favour gynodioecy in areas where reproduction to a greater part relies on vegetative reproduction or selfing. Further, a significant difference in corolla width was found between females and the larger hermaphrodites, but not between sites. Cushion size and the number of flowers per cushion decreased with altitude.

  • 628.
    Altoumaimi, Rasha Talal
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Nonlinear Least-Square Curve Fitting of Power-Exponential Functions: Description and comparison of different fitting methods2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how to find the best fit to a series of data points when curve fitting using power-exponential models. We describe the different numerical methods such as the Gauss-Newton and Levenberg-Marquardt methods to compare them for solving non-linear least squares of curve fitting using different power-exponential functions. In addition, we show the results of numerical experiments that illustrate the effectiveness of this approach.Furthermore, we show its application to the practical problems by using different sets of data such as death rates and rocket-triggered lightning return strokes based on the transmission line model.

  • 629.
    Altun, Aysin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Mohammadi, Farin
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Bolagsstyrningsregler : Erfarenheter från implementering av bolagsstyrningsregler i tre stora svenska bolag2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bolagsstyrning beskriver, hur ett bolag ska styras på bästa sätt, för att uppnå

    ägarnas krav på avkastning på kapitalet som investerats genom köpta aktier.

    Men även hur företaget agerar för att öka, kommande eller aktuella inverteras förtroende för bolaget. De bolagsskandaler som har ägt rum de senaste åren och bolagsledningarnas brisfälliga företagsstyrningar har medfört att bolagsstyrningen aktualiserats både nationellt och internationellt. Detta har aktualiserat de ramverk och regler som reglerar bolagsstyrning 

  • 630.
    Aluebhosele, Dandy
    et al.
    Mälardalen University. Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Anobah, George
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    CHIEF INFORMATION OFFICERS EVOLVING ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES "From Operational to Strategic"2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Chief information officer (CIO) position has been seen as very important to every organization; this includes organizations that have either outsourced   or Insourced their IT function. Various studies have shown that this role emerged as a critical executive position in most organization which helps to shape organizations strategy. CIO has a major responsibility of aligning IT with business strategy that leads to an organization achieving a higher competitive advantage. This  work describeD the various roles of the CIO in organizations with a special focus on IT-business strategy alignment.

    Based on our investigations from previous research, case studies and current interviews with CIOs, we were able to see that the CIO roles are shifting from operational to more strategic one. The CIO is seen to be the bridge between IT strategy and business strategy. As a result of this, they have close collaboration with the CEOs in order to be successful in aligning IT strategy to the business objectives. In view of this, the CIO plays the role of both the chief architect who designs future possibilities for business and the technology provocateur (Intelligent officer) that aligns IT with business.

  • 631.
    Alvaro, Alexandre
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Software Component Evaluation: A Theoretical Study on Component Selection and Certification2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software components need to be evaluated at several points during their life cycle, by different actors and for different purposes. Besides the quality assurance performed by component developers, there are two main activities which include evaluation of components: component selection (i.e. evaluation performed by the system developer in order to select the best fit component to use in a system) and an envisioned component certification (i.e. evaluation made by an independent actor in order to increase the trust in the component). This paper examines the fundamental similarities and differences between these two types of component evaluations and elaborates how these fit in the overall process views of component-based development for both COTS-based development and software product line development.

  • 632.
    Alvarsson, Rebecka
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Bodare, Olivia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Syns klimatsmart mat i konsumenters varukorgar?: En studie om ICA Sveriges konsumenters beteende och förhållande till klimatsmarta livsmedel2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to investigate whether a grocery operator’s communication of its CSR activities on climate issues has influenced consumers to a changed behaviour regarding food purchases. The study is based on previous studies and scientific articles. A qualitative and quantitative method has been used during the collection of primary data, conducted through a survey based on ICA Sweden AB’s consumers, and with an interview with a representative from ICA Sweden AB. It was discovered that the majority of the consumers purchases climate-smart food based on their attitude. However, ICA Sweden AB does not affect the consumers to make purchases of climatesmart food. Nevertheless, they provide a wide range of climatesmart food that encourage consumers to do so.

  • 633.
    Alvebris, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Anknytning: - dess betydelse för individens personlighetsutvecklng och förhållningssätt till relationer.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Anknytning handlar om betydelsen av tidig kontakt med närmast anhörig. Barndomsupplevelser skapar mönster inom individen, bild av själv och bild av andra, vilket uttrycks via anknytningsstilarna säker, rädd, upptagen och avfärdande. En enkätundersökning genomfördes på en högskola i Mellansverige, 75 studenter deltog. Syftet med studien var att se samband mellan val av anknytningsstil och medvetenhet om stiltillhörighet samt vilken betydelse stiltillhörighet har för individens relationer. Studien bekräftade den tidigare forskningen, majoriteten av populationen svenska studenter tillhör den säkra stilen. Starkt samband fanns mellan vilken stil deltagarna tror sig tillhöra och verklig stiltillhörighet. Anknytning har stor betydelse för individens relationer livet ut. Vidare forskning är viktig, den skapar medvetenhet om barns behov av god omvårdnad och konsekvenserna av brist på densamma.

  • 634.
    Alvehus, Johan
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Crevani, Lucia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Micro-ethnography and closed vignettes: Eight propositions for fieldwork and write-work in multimodal leadership studies2018In: Co-Lead workshop 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 635.
    Alvengren, Martin Eric
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Flodström, Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Interventioner vid rehabilitering av idrottare efter operation av främre korsbandsruptur sett ur ett biopsykosocialt perspektiv: En systematisk litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 636.
    Alvhäll, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Etableringsstrategier på arbetsmarknaden: En intervjustudie av unga akademiker två år efter examen2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsmarknadsläget är idag hårdare än det tidigare varit för nyutexaminerade akademiker. Vägen till drömyrket är krokig och kantas av flera val som måste göras, i fråga om strategier och mobilitet. Denna uppsats belyser yngre akademikers rumsliga mobilitet och nuvarande situation på arbetsmarknaden samt strategier under etableringsprocessen i förhållande till olika aspekter såsom ålder och familjebildning. En kvalitativ metod i form av intervjuer användes. Uppsatsens teoretiska referensram präglas av Becks individualiseringsteori samt andra teorier av Bourdieu, Giddens och Bäck-Wiklund. Tidigare forskning visar bland annat att individualiseringen och kravet på flexibilitet leder till ökade svårigheter att både förvärva och behålla en anställning. Undersökningens resultat och analys genomfördes på 6 respondenter som alla tagit examen från Mälardalens högskola under hösten 2004. Studiens resultat präglas av de val som respondenterna gjort, både före, under och efter utbildningstiden. Alla respondenter i studien har arbete men några anser att de är överkvalificerade för de tjänster de nu har. De upplevde sig också vara osäkra i sina anställningar men hade en hög mobil vilja under förutsättning att flytt eller pendling leder till en anställning. Gemensamt för alla var dock att de anser att de i och med sin unga ålder saknar erfarenhet vilket ökar svårigheterna på arbetsmarknaden. Respondenterna hade i flera fall haft en stor hjälp av det nätverk som de förvärvat på sina arbetsplatser då de sökte andra jobb. I diskussionen resoneras kring undersökningens resultat som bland annat rörde respondenternas mobila vilja, hur olika val påverkat arbetslivet och etableringsprocessen, betydelsen av det personliga nätverket och attityder till den egna åldern.

  • 637.
    Amalokwu, Obiajulum
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ngoasong, Lawrence Njilefack
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Budgetary and Management control Process in a Manufacturing2008Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Date : June, 2008.

    Level : Master Thesis EF0705, 10 points (15credits)

    Authors : Amalokwu Obiajulum John (820821)

    Lawrence Njilefack Ngoasong (770901)

    Title : Budgetary and Management control Process in a Manufacturing

    Organization.

    Supervisor: Roland Almqvist.

    Problem : What is the budgeting practice in the Nigerian Manufacturing companies?

    Purpose : The aim of this study is to investigate the management control practice

    (budget being the tool for management control) in Guinness Nigeria Plc and

    to suggest what seems to us the most appropriate practice based on findings

    from literatures and empirics

    Method : The study was described based on a qualitative approach. Furthermore, we

    described why we chose the company, sources of literature, techniques

    employed in data collection (primary data), research purpose,

    data analysis as well as critiques to the method use.

    Conclusion : The Integration of strategic Management and Budgeting enhances

    competitiveness which when attained is translated as high performance.

    Keywords : Management Control, Budgeting, strategy, High performance and

    Competitive advantage.

  • 638.
    Amanatidou, Rebeka
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    CFD Measurements of the Cooling Air in a DC-Motor2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    The cooling system of a DC-motor is examined in this thesis. A change of direction of the cooling air is desired to prevent the generated coal dust from entering into the windings of the machine. Ultimately this will have a negative effect on the cooling in the machine and the loss of cooling needs to be compensated through other ways. The purpose of this thesis is to work for an improved operational safety and performance of the DC-motor and to make it more competitive in the market. By modelling the interior geometry of the machine and defining the boundaries in the software programs Gambit and FLUENT respectively, the motion and the heat transfer of the airflow could be simulated. The simulation results would give us an understanding of the flow pattern which later could be used to develop design modifications on the cooling system of a DC-motor. In this thesis the main focus lies on creating a simulation model with a sufficiently fine mesh size.

  • 639.
    Amaral, Vasco
    et al.
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Deshayes, Romuald
    Université de Mons-Hainaut, Belgium .
    A Multiparadigm Approach to Integrate Gestures and Sound in the Modeling Framework2013In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Vol. 112, 2013, p. 57-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the essential means of supporting Human-MachineInteraction is a (software) language, exploited to input commands andreceive corresponding outputs in a well-dened manner. In the past,language creation and customization used to be accessible to softwaredevelopers only. But today, as software applications gain more ubiquity,these features tend to be more accessible to application users themselves.However, current language development techniques are still based on tra-ditional concepts of human-machine interaction, i.e. manipulating textand/or diagrams by means of more or less sophisticated keypads (e.g.mouse and keyboard).In this paper we propose to enhance the typical approach for dealing withlanguage intensive applications by widening available human-machine in-teractions to multiple modalities, including sounds, gestures, and theircombination. In particular, we adopt a Multi-Paradigm Modelling ap-proach in which the forms of interaction can be specied by means ofappropriate modelling techniques. The aim is to provide a more advancedhuman-machine interaction support for language intensive applications.

  • 640.
    Ambainis, A.
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Bonner, R.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Mathematics and Physics.
    Freivalds, R.
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Golovkins, M.
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Karpinski, M.
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Quantum finite multitape automata1999In: SOFSEM’99: Theory and Practice of Informatics: 26th Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Informatics Milovy, Czech Republic, November 27 — December 4, 1999 Proceedings, 1999, Vol. 1725, p. 340-348Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantum finite automata were introduced by C. Moore, J. P. Crutchfield [4], and by A. Kondacs and J. Watrous [3]. This notion is not a generalization of the deterministic finite automata. Moreover, in [3] it was proved that not all regular languages can be recognized by quantum finite automata. A. Ambainis and R. Freivalds [1] proved Chat for some languages quantum finite automats may be exponentially more concise rather than both deterministic and probabilistic finite automata. In this paper we introduce the notion of quantum finite multi-tape automata and prove that there is a language recognized by a quantum finite automaton but not by deterministic or probabilistic finite automats. This is the first result on a problem which can be solved by a quantum computer but not by a deterministic or probabilistic computer. Additionally we discover unexpected probabilistic automata recognizing complicated languages.

  • 641.
    Ambainis, A.
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Bonner, Richard
    Mälardalen University, Department of Mathematics and Physics.
    Freivalds, R.
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Kikuts, A.
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Probabilities to Accept Languages by Quantum Finite Automata1999In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): 5th Annual International Conference on Computing and Combinatorics, COCOON 1999; Tokyo; Japan; 26 July 1999 through 28 July 1999; Code 151649, 1999, Vol. 1627, p. 174-183Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We construct a hierarchy of regular languages such that the current language in the hierarchy can be accepted by 1-way quantum finite automata with a probability smaller than the corresponding probability for the preceding language in the hierarchy. These probabilities converge to 1/2.

  • 642.
    Ambjörn, Fanny
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Camilla, Söderroos
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Skolbibliotekets betydelse: En jämförelse mellan fyra olika skolbibliotek2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     Syftet med studien är att diskutera och jämföra skolbibliotek och hur dessa används av svensklärare i F−3. Vi har valt att göra en metodtriangulering där vi undersökt skolbibliotekets funktion och användning. Detta genom att observera fyra skolbibliotek i Mellansverige, intervjua rektorerna samt utföra enkäter med skolans F−3-lärare som undervisar i ämnet svenska. Resultatet visade att samtliga rektorer anser att skolbiblioteken är viktiga. Det var en stor variation mellan lärarna huruvida de anser att skolbiblioteket är en viktig resurs eller inte samt hur de använder sig av skolbiblioteket i sin svenskundervisning.

  • 643.
    Ambjörn, Fanny
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Söderroos, Camilla
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Läsning för alla2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårt syfte med studien har varit att undersöka hur några elever i årskurs 3 upplever den

    självständiga läsningen. Vårt resultat har vi kommit fram till genom två gruppintervjuer

    som skett med 12 elever fördelat lika på två olika skolor. De två skolorna som

    intervjuerna har genomförts på har inget samarbete med varandra, då de ligger i två

    olika kommuner. Resultatet visade att de flesta elever var intresserade och motiverade

    till den självständiga läsningen.

  • 644.
    Ambos, T.
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler University, Austria.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg, Denmark .
    Birkinshaw, J.
    London Business School, London, United Kingdom.
    What are the consequences of initiative taking in multinational subsidiaries?2010In: Journal of International Business Studies, ISSN 0047-2506, E-ISSN 1478-6990, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 1099-1118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of subsidiary initiative has received increasing attention in recent years, but the consequences of initiatives and the associated dynamics of headquarters subsidiary relationships have received much less research attention. Building on resource dependence theory and self-determination theory we argue that two basic goals subsidiary managers pursue are to achieve autonomy vis-a-vis corporate headquarters, and influence over other units. We investigate how a subsidiary's past initiatives contribute to its bargaining power, and how headquarters' response through granting attention or monitoring affects the realization of the subsidiary's goals. Using structural equation modeling, our hypotheses are tested by drawing on a sample of 257 subsidiaries located in three different countries (Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom). Our results show that subsidiaries are not able to increase their influence through initiatives unless they get headquarters' attention. We also find that subsidiary initiatives have a direct effect on subsidiary autonomy, but the caveat is that initiatives also evoke headquarters monitoring, which in turn decreases the subsidiary's autonomy. In addition to providing insights into how subsidiaries can achieve their goals, the paper also sheds light on the critical role headquarters plays in leveraging initiatives, and the influence of individual subsidiaries in the multinational enterprise. 

  • 645. Ambos, T.C.
    et al.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Birkinshaw, J.
    The Consequences of Subsidiary Entrepreneurship2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 646.
    Amedi, Lahijan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Faili, Vian
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att möta patienter med en annan etnicitet: Upplevelser ur ett sjuksköterskeperspektiv2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background describes cultural aspects and how nurses relate to patients' ethnicity. Patients' view on health care varies depending on cultural background, which affects the encounter with health care. Nurse's responsibility is to provide care for and treat patients with respect and dignity regardless of ethnicity. During the encounter with patients difficulties may arise in meeting these needs when the understanding of what caused the disease may differ from the nurse. Difficulties in communication and in understanding each culture can lead to misunderstandings. There is a fine line to cultural sensitivity as the patient can easily be treated differently or discriminated against because of their ethnicity. The aim of the thesis is to describe nurse’s experience in encounters between patients with another ethnic background than the majority ethnic population. The method used was a systematic literature review where scientific articles were analyzed. The result is presented in four themes: Understanding the gender perspective in caring, understanding of different modes of expression, knowledge of insight to disease and Educational needs. The result shows that nurses desire more knowledge about culture in their training, and a broader understanding of differences in gender dynamics as cultural encounters were perceived as difficult resulting in a non-caring encounter especially when communication deficiencies were found. Nurses need and want more training about different cultures.

  • 647.
    Ameerjan, Sharvathul Hasan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Predicting and Estimating Execution Time of Manual Test Cases - A Case Study in Railway Domain2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Testing plays a vital role in the software development life cycle by verifying and validating the software's quality. Since software testing is considered as an expensive activity and due to thelimitations of budget and resources, it is necessary to know the execution time of the test cases for an efficient planning of test-related activities such as test scheduling, prioritizing test cases and monitoring the test progress. In this thesis, an approach is proposed to predict and estimate the execution time of manual test cases written in English natural language. The method uses test specifications and historical data that are available from previously executed test cases. Our approach works by obtaining timing information from each and every step of previously executed test cases. The collected data is used to estimate the execution time for non-executed test cases by mapping them using text from their test specifications. Using natural language processing, texts are extracted from the test specification document and mapped with the obtained timing information. After estimating the time from this mapping, a linear regression analysis is used to predict the execution time of non-executed test cases. A case study has been conducted in Bombardier Transportation (BT) where the proposed method is implemented and the results are validated. The obtained results show that the predicted execution time of studied test cases are close to their actual execution time.

  • 648.
    Amela, Jadadic
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Angineh Angie, Karimi
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Ingen kommer att tro mig...: En studie om kvinnors våld mot män i nära relationer2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande kvalitativa studie var att undersöka kvinnors våld mot män i nära relationer. Undersökningen bestod av fem intervjuer med våldsutsatta män i nära relationer. Dessa analyserades med hjälp av tidigare forskning samt viktimologi, genusteori och Connells maskuliniteter som teoretiska utgångspunkter. Under arbetets gång framträdde tre teman, vilka var männens upplevelser och erfarenheter av: våld i nära relationer, hjälpinsatser och bemötande samt männens syn på maskulinitet och manlighetsnormer. Resultatet visade i vilken omfattning våld utövas mot män samt vilken form av våld som var den mest förekommande. Vidare visade resultatet att det råder en brist på hjälpinsatser för våldsutsatta män och i bemötandet av professionella inom socialt arbete. Slutligen belyste undersökningen männens syn på maskulinitet och manlighetsnormer samt hur detta påverkat dem under perioden de var våldsutsatta. 

  • 649.
    Ameri E., Afshin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Akan, Batu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Incremental Multimodal Interface for Human-Robot Interaction2010In: Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2010, 2010, p. Art.nr. 5641234-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Face-to-face human communication is a multimodal and incremental process. An intelligent robot that operates in close relation with humans should have the ability to communicate with its human colleagues in such manner. The process of understanding and responding to multimodal inputs has been an interesting field of research and resulted in advancements in areas such as syntactic and semantic analysis, modality fusion and dialogue management. Some approaches in syntactic and semantic analysis take incremental nature of human interaction into account. Our goal is to unify syntactic/semantic analysis, modality fusion and dialogue management processes into an incremental multimodal interaction manager. We believe that this approach will lead to a more robust system which can perform faster than today's systems.

  • 650.
    Ameri E., Afshin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Akan, Batu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A General Framework for Incremental Processing of Multimodal Inputs2011In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference on multimodal interfaces, New York: ACM Press, 2011, p. 225-228Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans employ different information channels (modalities) such as speech, pictures and gestures in their commu- nication. It is believed that some of these modalities are more error-prone to some specific type of data and therefore multimodality can help to reduce ambiguities in the interaction. There have been numerous efforts in implementing multimodal interfaces for computers and robots. Yet, there is no general standard framework for developing them. In this paper we propose a general framework for implementing multimodal interfaces. It is designed to perform natural language understanding, multi- modal integration and semantic analysis with an incremental pipeline and includes a multimodal grammar language, which is used for multimodal presentation and semantic meaning generation.

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