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  • 51.
    Olsson, A.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lind, M.
    ZeroMission, Stockholm.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Potential for carbon sequestration and mitigation of climate change by irrigation of grasslands2014Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 136, s. 1145-1154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate change mitigation potential of irrigation powered by a photovoltaic water pumping system (PVWPS) to restore degraded grasslands has been investigated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use. The purpose of this study is to develop a generic and simple method to estimate the climate change mitigation benefit of a PVWPS. The possibility to develop carbon credits for the carbon offset markets has also been studied comparing carbon sequestration in grasslands to other carbon sequestration projects. The soil carbon sequestration following irrigation of the grassland is calculated as an annual increase in the soil organic carbon pool.The PVWPS can also generate an excess of electricity when irrigation is not needed and the emissions reductions due to substitution of grid electricity give additional climate change mitigation potential.The results from this study show that the carbon sequestration and emissions reductions benefits per land area using a PVWPS for irrigating grasslands are comparable to other carbon sequestration options such as switching to no-till practice. Soil carbon in irrigated grasslands is increased with over 60% relative to severely degraded grasslands and if nitrogen fixing species are introduced the increase in soil organic carbon can be almost 80%. Renewable electricity generation by the PVWPS will further increase the mitigation benefit of the system with 70-90%. When applying the methodology developed in this paper to a case in Qinghai, China, we conclude that using a PVWPS to restore degraded grasslands for increased grass production and desertification control has a climate change mitigation benefit of 148Mg (1Mg=1metricton) CO2-equivalents (CO2-eq) per hectare in a cold temperate, dry climate during a 20year process of soil organic carbon sequestration and emissions reductions. Leakage due to an increase in N2O emissions from the additional biomass production and introduction of nitrogen fixing species is included in this result. The most important conclusion from our case is that if soil carbon sequestration is lower than 24Mg CO2-eq per hectare including leakage, then the climate change mitigation benefit is larger if PV is used to produce electricity for the grid.

  • 52.
    Olsson, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lind, Marten
    ZeroMission, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    PV water pumping for carbon sequestration in dry land agriculture2015Ingår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 102, s. 169-179Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests a novel model for analysing carbon sequestration activities in dry land agriculture considering the water-food-energy-climate nexus. The paper is based on our on-going studies on photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) systems for irrigation of grasslands in China. Two carbon sequestration projects are analysed in terms of their water productivity and carbon sequestration potential. It is concluded that the economic water productivity, i.e. how much water that is needed to produce an amount of grass, of grassland restoration is low and that there is a need to include several of the other co-benefits to justify the use of water for climate change mitigation. The co-benefits are illustrated in a nexus model including (1) climate change mitigation, (2) water availability, (3) downstream water impact, (4) energy security, (5) food security and (6) moisture recycling. We argue for a broad approach when analysing water for carbon sequestration. The model includes energy security and food security together with local and global water concerns. This makes analyses of dry land carbon sequestration activities more relevant and accurate. Without the nexus approach, the co-benefits of grassland restoration tend to be diminished. 

  • 53.
    Prabaharan, N.
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA Deemed University, Thanjavur Tamil Nadu, India.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Jerin, A.R.A.
    School of Electrical Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore Tamil Nadu, India.
    Palanisamy, K.
    School of Electrical Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore Tamil Nadu, India.
    A new approach for grid integration of solar photovoltaic system with maximum power point tracking using multi‐output converter2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new approach for grid integration of solar photovoltaic system using modified incremental conductance maximum power point tracking algorithm with multi-output converter and multilevel inverter. The multi-output converter is a combination of boost converter and switched capacitor function to generate different self-balanced output voltages using single switch, single inductor, 2N-1 diodes and 2N-1 capacitors. This topology is proposed to be used as DC link in applications where several controlled voltage levels are required with self-balancing and unidirectional current flow, such as photovoltaic (PV) or fuel cell generation systems with multilevel inverter. The utilization of multilevel inverter in the proposed system provides better quality of output voltage and current waveform thereby reducing the size of passive filters. Also, it eliminates the requirement of bulky transformers for grid integration. Multicarrier unipolar phase disposition pulse width modulation technique is employed for triggering the switches of the multilevel inverter. The proposed system is tested with standard test conditions using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  • 54.
    Quitoras, M. R.
    et al.
    University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Crawford, C.
    University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada.
    Exploring electricity generation alternatives for Canadian Arctic communities using a multi-objective genetic algorithm approach2020Ingår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 210, artikel-id 112471Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Indigenous peoples in the Northern communities of Canada are experiencing some of the worst catastrophic effects of climate change, given the Arctic region is warming twice as fast as the rest of the world. Paradoxically, this increasing temperature can be attributed to fossil fuel-based power generation on which the North is almost totally reliant. At the moment, diesel is the primary source of electricity for majority of Arctic communities. In addition to greenhouse gas and other airborne pollutants, this situation exposes risk of oil spills during fuel transport and storage. Moreover, shipping fuel is expensive and ice roads are harder to maintain as temperatures rise. As a result, Northern governments are burdened by rising fuel prices and increased supply volatility. In an effort to reduce diesel dependence, the multi-objective microgrid optimization model was built in this work to handle the complex trade-offs of designing energy system for an Arctic environment and other remote communities. The tool uses a genetic algorithm to simultaneously minimize levelised cost of energy and fuel consumption of the microgrid system through dynamic simulations. Component submodel simulation results were validated against an industry and academic accepted energy modeling tool. Compared to previous energy modeling platforms, proposed method is novel in considering Pareto front trade-offs between conflicting design objectives to better support practitioners and policy makers. The functionality of the method was demonstrated with a case study on Sachs Harbour, in the Northernmost region of the Northwest Territories. The algorithm selected a fully hybrid wind-solar-battery-diesel system as the most suited technically, economically and environmentally for the community. The robustness of the results was assessed by performing system failure analysis of the model results. Overall, the modeling framework can help decision makers in identifying trade-offs in energy policy to transition the Canadian Arctic and other remote communities towards more sustainable and clean sources of energy.

  • 55.
    Shinde, Amar Mohan
    et al.
    Indian Inst Technol, Ctr Environm Sci & Engn, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Dikshit, Anil Kumar
    Indian Inst Technol, Ctr Environm Sci & Engn, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Singh, Rajesh Kumar
    Thinkstep Sustainabil Solut Pvt Ltd, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Life cycle analysis based comprehensive environmental performance evaluation of Mumbai Suburban Railway, India2018Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 188, s. 989-1003Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Suburban railway systems are recognized as one of the most promising options to improve the environmental footprint of urban passenger transport in developing countries. In the present study, life cycle assessment has been performed for the Mumbai Suburban Railway with the objective of developing a comprehensive methodology for environmental evaluation of suburban railway projects in terms of energy consumption and relevant impact categories. The system boundary comprises the construction and maintenance of railway infrastructure such as tracks, power supply installations, foot over bridges and platforms, in addition to manufacturing, maintenance and operation phase of Electric Multiple Unit (EMU). The functional unit identified for this study is per Passenger Kilometer Travelled within a service lifetime of EMU of 25 years. The results show that operation phase is the main contributor (87-94%) to the total environmental impact, whereas the contribution of remaining life cycle phases is relatively insignificant (6-13%). It is mainly due to electricity production from non-renewable sources in India. The material and energy intensive rails entail the major contribution to construction phase (24-57%) and maintenance phase (46-71%), whereas the contribution from fastenings, ballast and on-site energy consumption is less significant. The increasing utilization of renewable energy, lightweighting of coach bodies, enhancing the service life and reuse potential of rails and fastenings and enhancing train occupancy are fundamental to accomplish suburban railways as a clean transportation mode. This comprehensive study can serve as a preeminent support and benchmark for the future environmental performance assessments of public transportation in India. Eventually, decision makers and regional transport planners can more effectively craft the strategic decisions and priorities of measures for providing sustainable mobility options.

  • 56.
    Sun, Q.
    et al.
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Ma, Z.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Wang, C.
    Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Zhang, Q.
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Guo, J.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    A Comprehensive Review of Smart Energy Meters in Intelligent Energy Networks2016Ingår i: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 464-479, artikel-id 7365417Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The significant increase in energy consumption and the rapid development of renewable energy, such as solar power and wind power, have brought huge challenges to energy security and the environment, which, in the meantime, stimulate the development of energy networks toward a more intelligent direction. Smart meters are the most fundamental components in the intelligent energy networks (IENs). In addition to measuring energy flows, smart energy meters can exchange the information on energy consumption and the status of energy networks between utility companies and consumers. Furthermore, smart energy meters can also be used to monitor and control home appliances and other devices according to the individual consumer's instruction. This paper systematically reviews the development and deployment of smart energy meters, including smart electricity meters, smart heat meters, and smart gas meters. By examining various functions and applications of smart energy meters, as well as associated benefits and costs, this paper provides insights and guidelines regarding the future development of smart meters. 

  • 57.
    Tian, Z.
    et al.
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Hao, Y.
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, W.
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH, Sweden.
    Li, H.
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH, Sweden.
    Jin, H.
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Integrating concentrating PVs in biogas upgrading2018Ingår i: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2018, s. 598-603Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas produced from anaerobic digestion processes has been considered as an important alternative to natural gas and plays a key role in the emerging market for renewable energy. By removing CO2, biogas can be upgraded to vehicle fuel. Chemical absorption is one of the widely used upgrading technologies, which advantages include high purity and low loss of biomethane. However, chemical absorption usually suffers from the high consumption of thermal energy, which is required by the regeneration of the solvent. Aiming at achieving a more sustainable and efficient biomethane production, this work proposed a novel system, which integrate concentrating photovoltaic/thermal hybrid (C-PV/T) in the upgrading of biogas. Due to the ability to produce electricity and heat simultaneously and efficiently, C-PV/T can provide the demands of both the electricity and heat. By doing dynamic simulation of the energy production of C-PV/T, the technical feasibility of such a system is analyzed. Based on the design to meet the heat demand of solvent regeneration, without energy storage, the produced heat can cover 17% of the heat demand of the solvent regeneration, but 51.1% of the electricity demand; meanwhile, 140.3 MWh excess electricity can be sold for one year.

  • 58.
    Varini, Maria
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden..
    Lindbergh, Goran
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    A semi-empirical, electrochemistry-based model for Li-ion battery performance prediction over lifetime2019Ingår i: Journal of Energy Storage, E-ISSN 2352-152X, Vol. 25, artikel-id UNSP 100819Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting the performance of Li-ion batteries over lifetime is necessary for design and optimal operation of integrated energy systems, as electric vehicles and energy grids. For prediction purposes, several models have been suggested in the literature, with different levels of complexity and predictability. In particular, electrochemical models suffer of high computational costs, while empirical models are deprived of physical meaning. In the present work, a semi-empirical model is suggested, holding the computational efficiency of empirical approaches (low number of fitting parameters, low-order algebraic equations), while providing insights on the processes occurring in the battery during operation. The proposed model is successfully validated on experimental battery cycles: specifically, in conditions of capacity fade > 20%, and dynamic cycling at different temperatures. A comparable performance to up-to-date empirical models is achieved both in terms of computational time, and correlation coefficient R-2. In addition, analyzing the evolution of fitting parameters as a function of cycle number allows to identify the limiting processes in the overall battery degradation for all the protocols considered. The model suggested is thus suitable for implementation in system modelling, and it can be employed as an informative tool for improved design and operational strategies.

  • 59.
    Wilhelmsen, O.
    et al.
    Sintef Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Skaugen, G.
    Sintef Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Jørstad, O.
    tatoil ASA, Trondheim, Norway.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Evaluation of SPUNG# and other equations of state for use in carbon capture and storage modelling2012Ingår i: Energy Procedia, 2012, s. 236-245Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, Equations of State (EoS) relevant for carbon capture and storage modelling have been evaluated for pure CO2 and CO 2-mixtures with particular focus on the extended corresponding state approach, SPUNG/SRK. Our work continues the search of an EoS which is accurate, consistent and computationally fast for CO2-mixtures. These EoS have been evaluated: Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK), SRK with Peneloux shift, Peng-Robinson, Lee-Kesler, SPUNG/SRK and the multi-parameter approach GERG-2004. The EoS were compared to the accurate reference EoS by Span and Wagner for pure CO2. Only SPUNG/SRK and GERG-2004 predicted the density accurately near the critical point (< 1.5 % Absolute Average Deviation (AAD)). For binary mixtures, Lee-Kesler and SPUNG/SRK had similar accuracy in density predictions. SRK had a sufficient accuracy for the gas phase below the critical point (<2.5%), and Peng Robinson had a decent accuracy for liquid mixtures (<3%). GERG-2004 was the most accurate EoS for all the single phase density predictions. It was also the best EoS for all the VLE predictions except for mixtures containing CO2 and O2, where it had deviations in the bubble point predictions (∼20 % AAD). Even though multi-parameter EoS such as GERG-2004 are state-of-the-art for high accuracy predictions, this work shows that extended corresponding state EoS may be an excellent compromise between computational speed and accuracy. The SPUNG approach combines high accuracy with a versatile and transparent methodology. New experimental data may easily be taken into account to improve the predictive abilities in the two phase region. The approach may be improved and extended to enable applications for more difficult systems, such as polar mixtures with CO2 and H 2O.

  • 60.
    Yan, J.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Yang, Ying
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    He, J.
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    City-level analysis of subsidy-free solar photovoltaic electricity price, profits and grid parity in China2019Ingår i: Nature Energy, ISSN 2058-7546, Vol. 4, nr 8, s. 709-717Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, China has become not just a large producer but a major market for solar photovoltaics (PV), increasing interest in solar electricity prices in China. The cost of solar PV electricity generation is affected by many local factors, making it a challenge to understand whether China has reached the threshold at which a grid-connected solar PV system supplies electricity to the end user at the same price as grid-supplied power or the price of desulfurized coal electricity, or even lower. Here, we analyse the net costs and net profits associated with building and operating a distributed solar PV project over its lifetime, taking into consideration total project investments, electricity outputs and trading prices in 344 prefecture-level Chinese cities. We reveal that all of these cities can achieve—without subsidies—solar PV electricity prices lower than grid-supplied prices, and around 22% of the cities’ solar generation electricity prices can compete with desulfurized coal benchmark electricity prices.

  • 61.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Chen, B.
    Beijing Normal University, China.
    Wennersten, R.
    Shandong University, China.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yang, J.
    China University of Geosciences, China.
    Cleaner energy for transition of cleaner city2017Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 196, s. 97-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 62.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Desideri, U.
    Universita’ di Perugia, Università degli Studi di Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    Chou, S. K.
    National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Energy solutions for a sustainable world2016Ingår i: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 13, nr 8, s. 757-758Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 63.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Kaldellis, P. J. K.
    University of West Attica, Greece.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    REM2018: Renewable Energy Integration with Mini/Microgrid2019Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 159Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 64.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sun, F.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Peoples R China..
    Chou, S. K.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore..
    Desideri, U.
    Univ Pisa, Pisa, Italy..
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Xiong, R.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Peoples R China.
    Transformative Innovations for a Sustainable Future2017Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 204, s. 867-872Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 65.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Sun, F.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Chou, S. K.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore.
    Desideri, U.
    Univ Pisa, Italy..
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Xiong, R.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Natl Engn Lab Elect Vehicles, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    Transformative innovations for a sustainable future2018Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 231, s. 1383-1388Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 66.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sun, F.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Natl Engn Lab Elect Vehicles, Peoples R China..
    Chou, S. K.
    Natl Univ Singapore.
    Desideri, U.
    Univ Pisa, Italy..
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Xiong, R.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Peoples R China..
    Transformative innovations for a sustainable future - Part III2018Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, s. 1-6Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 67.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Energy, S-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Sun, F.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Natl Engn Lab Elect Vehicles, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    Choug, S. K.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Mech Engn, 9 Engn Dr 1,Blk EA 04-12, Singapore 117576, Singapore..
    Desideri, U.
    Univ Pisa, Dept Energy Syst Terr & Construct Engn, I-56122 Pisa, Italy..
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Xiong, R.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Natl Engn Lab Elect Vehicles, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    Transformative Innovations for a Sustainable Future - Part II2017Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 207, s. 1-6Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 68.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhai, Y.
    Asian Development Bank, Philippines .
    Wijayatunga, P.
    Asian Development Bank, Philippines .
    Mohamed, A. M.
    Minister of State for Environment and Energy, Maldives.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Renewable Energy Integration with Mini/Microgrid2016Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 103, s. 1-2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 69.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhai, Y.
    Asian Development Bank, Philippines.
    Wijayatunga, P.
    Asian Development Bank, Philippines.
    Mohamed, A. M.
    Minister of State for Environment and Energy, Maldives.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Renewable energy integration with mini/micro-grids2017Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 201, s. 241-244Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 70.
    Yang, Ying
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    He, J.
    Wang, S.
    Kang, X.
    Zhang, Y.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yan, J
    Industrial And Commercial Distributed Solar PV Grid Parity Map: Based On The Analysis Of 345 Prefecture‐ Level Cities In China2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 71.
    Yang, Ying
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Zhang, Y.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Peak-shaving and profit-sharing model by Aggregators in residential buildings with PV- a case study in Eskilstuna, Sweden2017Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, s. 3182-3193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, photovoltaic (PV) system combined with energy storage systems is playing increasing significant role in residential buildings in Sweden. At the same time it brings reliability problems because of the intermittency of electricity production and exceptionally distributed reservoir which is followed by the peak-valley electricity prices and power grid fluctuations. There is an increasing need for new business model and economic paradigm for a third party aggregator to bridge the gap between Power Grid and end-users. Providing the valuable electricity services at scale and breaking regulatory arbitrage, aggregators help to deliver desired levels of residents’ engagements, value-added services and feasible level of unbundling of electricity market. This paper analyzes how the aggregators grab the indisputable business opportunity to interact between residents and Power Grid from the perspective of physical electricity flows and benefits share of peak-shaving. We employ a real case in Eskilstuna in Sweden to design new business model and validate using data. And the result indicates the compatibility of the aggregator service and its business model. It further sheds light on the pricing model of generated electricity by PV system, and benefits share ratio design.

  • 72.
    Zhang, C.
    et al.
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liu, C.
    Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, K.
    Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Crowdfunding preferences for a sustainable milk product with integrated photovoltaic water pumping system in China2019Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 255, artikel-id 113694Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the role of potential investors in financing renewable energy systems—specifically, relating to crowdfunding as a financing mechanism, with the enhancement of internet and social-media tools. The research question in this study is whether crowdfunding with a novel socio-technical product reward program attracts potential customers to a more sustainable milk product with a specific integrated photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) system. The particular case study we empirically investigated is product reward crowdfunding in dairy milk production in China. The milk production chain was supplied by PVWP system integration, which generated solar energy both for feed production for dairy cows and for the operation of dairy farms. 48 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted between the research team and customers in order to perform qualitative analyses of the determinants of customers’ milk purchase behaviors. In addition, 357 online surveys were collected for quantitative analysis. Binary and ordered probit regressions were employed to use survey date to systematically estimate purchase intention and willingness-to-pay for sustainable milk. Customer behaviors, environmental consciousness, and individual socio-demographic factors were investigated as potential explanatory variables. Over 82% of the survey participants showed intentions to purchase the sustainable milk with the PVWP system. In the survey and interview samples, results showed that milk quality, nutrition improvement, emissions reduction, and environmental benefits attributed to the integrated PVWP system were the major factors considered by interviewees who showed intentions to purchase the crowdfunded dairy milk. Regression model results suggested that potential customers with higher income levels, and those of parenting age, and those with young children or planning to have children, had a higher willingness-to-pay than other customers for the crowdfunded sustainable dairy milk. The familiarity with and popularity of online shopping and pre-sale purchases in China made customers more open to and proactive towards pre-pay and crowdfunding mechanisms. This article evaluated key factors which may influence potential customers for crowdfunding, and used a discrete choice model to estimate customers’ willingness-to-pay for reward-based projects. These results could help producers of sustainable milk products to identify potential target groups in China and estimate market demand. This exploratory study could provide a framework with both quantitative and qualitative assessment of crowdfunding for renewable energy systems in a national or international context. 

  • 73.
    Zhang, C.
    et al.
    School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44, Stockholm Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University, 721 23 Västerås, Sweden; School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44, Stockholm Sweden.
    Liu, C.
    Division of Traffic Analysis and Logistics, Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, K.
    Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research & School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081 Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Y.
    School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44, Stockholm Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University, 721 23 Västerås, Sweden; School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44, Stockholm Sweden.
    Purchase Intention for Crowd-funded Milk Products with Integrated Photovoltaic Water Pumping Systems in China2019Ingår i: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 159, s. 503-508Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In comparison with current financing mechanisms for renewable energy systems, crowd-funding financing mechanism offers a new potential source of financing with recent use of social media. Crowd-funding financing mechanism can also increases the social supports for renewable energy systems as users and investors turn to be more actively engaged in energy systems. As a new potential source of financing, crowd-funding mechanism has different forms, including donation, lending, equity and product reward approaches. In this paper, discrete choice model was used to explore whether crowd-funding financing with a novel sociotechnical product reward practice, has the attractions for potential customers to pay for a more sustainable milk product with distributed photovoltaic (PV) system. We empirically investigated the reward-base crowd funding with the specific integrated photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) system in dairy milk production in China. 48 in-depth interviews were adopted for qualitative analysis of determinants of customer milk purchase decision. The ordered probit regression was employed with 357 online surveys to systematically estimate the purchase intention for the online-crowd-funding sustainable milk. Customer behaviours, environmental consciousness, and the individual socio-demographic factors were tested as potential explanatory variables. In the survey and depth interview samples, we found interviewees as potential customers showed strong purchase intentions to the crowd funding dairy milk for noticing milk quality and nutritious improvement, emission reduction and environmental benefits by the integrated PVWP system. In our findings of the regression results, the females, customers with young children or planning to have children were found with higher willing to purchase than other customers for crowd funding the sustainable dairy milk. The familiarity and popularity with online shopping and pre-sale purchase in China made customers more open and active towards pre-pay and crowd-funding mechanism.

  • 74.
    Zhang, C.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yang, J.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Analysis of Distributed Photovoltaic Financing: A Case Study Approach of Crowd-funding with Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in Microgrids2016Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 103, s. 387-393Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed photovoltaic (PV) system is playing an increasingly significant role in the fast growing global PV market, as a renewable power supply source. In rural and remote areas, the integrated PV technology with remote micro-grid offers a potential solution for agriculture and small businesses to access to clean, reliable and efficient energy source. As the cost of solar PV modules continues to show a downward tendency, the distributed PV systems with remote micro-grid are capable to meet growing energy demand with affordable price. Meanwhile, a series of policies and actions have been enacted in China since 2013, to motivate the distributed-generation PV development as equal as large-scale PV development. However, compared to coal-fired power plants or large-scale PV systems, a barrier exists in securing financing of distributed PV systems, which has high up-front costs and the risk of commercializing renewable energy initiatives. Under current market incentives and barriers, this paper studies the existing financing methods in distributed PV systems with remote distributed micro-grids. In comparison with other financing sources, a case study approach is employed with distributed PV water pumping system in China to introduce crowd-funding as a new source of financing in distributed PV systems. Through the SWOT analysis, this paper identifies a capacity for new financial approach of crowd-funding with PVWP deployment. The scenario is modelled for different stakeholders and organization forms that target social network interactions in crowd-funding, and the results provide insights for incentives and policy.

  • 75.
    Zhang, C.
    et al.
    Energy Processes Division, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Energy Processes Division, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yang, J.
    School of Humanities and Economic Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, China.
    Yu, C.
    Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Energy Processes Division, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Economic assessment of photovoltaic water pumping integration with dairy milk production2018Ingår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 177, s. 750-764Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As dairy consumption grows, domestic dairy farms face challenges in reducing the cost of feeds and the production of high-quality milk for market demands. This paper aims to introduce and integrate solar energy into the milk production chain to investigate its economic performance. By collecting data on milk production processes from 11 dairy farms in China, we quantified electricity usage and costs of milk production to identify the best and worst cases. Crop yields response to the water demand and the electricity requirements of the dairy farms were considered. The study simulated scenarios of self-sufficiency at 20%, 80%, and 100%, in the identified farms by integrating a photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) system to provide both power and water for alfalfa and other feeds’ irrigation and subsequent milk production. We evaluated annual discounted cost, revenue and net profit under each scenario and case. The results showed that a dairy farm with an integrated PVWP system and self-sufficient feeds would lead to value add-ins, such as electricity saving with solar energy generation, economic cost saving of crops, and CO2 emission reduction. The analysis on return on investment (ROI) and internal rate of return (IRR) revealed that not all the self-sufficient feeds can bring positive marginal profit. Among the investigated scenarios and cases, the dairy farm marked out by the highest ROI with 3.12 and IRR with 20.4%, was the farm where the integrated PVWP system was used to reach 20% self-sufficiency (self-production of only alfalfa). The other scenarios and cases with higher levels of self-sufficiency showed lower ROIs and IRRs. This indicates that high self-production levels of feeds decrease the total profit due to high investment cost. Sensitivity analyses of crop price and operational cost were conducted for ROI with single and double factor approaches. Scale and production of feeds proportions should be carefully considered in improving the economic performance of dairy milk production.

  • 76.
    Zhang, C.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yang, J.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, J.
    China Petroleum Daily, Jia NO.3, AnHuali 2, ChaoYang District, Beijing, China Petroleum Daily, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Can Solar Energy be an Alternative Choice of Milk Production in Dairy Farms?: -A Case study of Integrated PVWP System with Alfalfa and Milk Production in Dairy Farms in China2017Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, s. 3953-3959Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As China's dairy consumption grows, both the domestic milk production and the importation of dairy products are increasing to meet market demands. The objective of this study was to quantify electricity usage and cost of milk production with data analysis of dairy farms and evaluate the potential alternative energy supply-solar energy generated by PV water pumping system (PVWP). We collected data in milk production processes from 11 dairy farms in China. By selecting the optimal dairy farm, we simulate the scenario of solar power generation with PVWP system to provide power both for milk and alfalfa production. With estimations of electricity saving, economic cost saving and CO2 saving on every kg milk produced under PVWP system, we conclude that scenario PVWP with alfalfa and milk production can results in value add-ins, new sources of revenue, energy supply and emission reductions. 

  • 77. Zhang, Chi
    et al.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Liu, C.
    Zhang, Yang
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH, Sweden.
    Wang, K.
    Choice Preferences And Willingness‐To‐Pay For Crowd‐Funding With Integrated Photovoltaic Water Pumping System In Dairy Milk Production In China2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 78.
    Zhang, Chi
    et al.
    School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yang, Jan
    School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Economic performance of photovoltaic water pumping systems with business model innovation in China2017Ingår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 498-510Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Expansion by photovoltaic (PV) technologies in the renewable energy market requires exploring added value integrated with business model innovation. In recent years, a pilot trial of PV water pumping (PVWP) technologies for the conservation of grassland and farmland has been conducted in China. In this paper, we studied the added value of the PVWP technologies with an emphasis on the integration of the value proposition with the operation system and customer segmentation. Using the widely used existing PV business models (PV-roof) as a reference, we evaluated discounted cash flow (DCF) and net present value (NPV) under the scenarios of traditional PV roof, PVWP pilot, PVWP scale-up, and PVWP social network, where further added value via social network was included in the business model. The results show that the integrated PVWP system with social network products significantly improves the performance in areas such as the discounted payback period, internal rate of return (IRR), and return on investment (ROI). We conclude that scenario PVWP social network with business model innovation, can result in value add-ins, new sources of revenue, and market incentives. The paper also suggests that current policy incentives for PV industry are not efficient due to a limited source of revenue, and complex procedures of feed-in tariff verification.

  • 79.
    Zhang, J.
    et al.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Liu, J.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Zhang, R.
    Institute of Water Resources for Pastoral Areas, Hohhot, China .
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Gao, X.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Model of evapotranspiration and groundwater level based on photovoltaic water pumping system2014Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 136, s. 1132-1137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic (PV) water pumping system has been proved being environmental-friendly and low energy-cost, which has a promising prospect in arid areas which are rich in solar energy resources. However, water resources remain to be one of the main restraints to the application of PV water pumping system widely. Models to evaluate the evapotranspiration and groundwater level in the well are estimated based on the data of a field trip, which was conducted in Wulanchabu grassland, Inner Mongolia, China. Data about the performance of the PV water pumping system, including evapotranspiration and the groundwater level variation were collected. In this paper, evapotranspiration is calculated by Penman-Monteith method and Theis formula is introduced to calculate the soil characters and simulate the groundwater level variation. PRMSE and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency are used to validate the model performance with the collected lysimeter data and groundwater level. The results show that the modeling of the evapotranspiration and groundwater level is reliable. According to the water demand and energy demand, the method to optimize the pumping system is introduced. Based on the calculated result and collected data of water demand and groundwater level, groundwater in the site is abundant to support the system. However, due to the stickiness of the soil condition, the recharge rate is smaller than the pumping rate. According to the comparison, the current system is oversized. In this condition, the pump would run out of water, and have to stop pumping. Therefore, not only the water quantity is an important factor to be considered, the soil condition and recharge rate are also of great significance to the optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems.

  • 80.
    Zhang, Jie
    et al.
    Univ Maryland, USA..
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yao, Tian
    Univ Space Res Assoc, Columbia, USA..
    Zhang, Yang
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundblad, Anders
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Melton, Forrest
    NASA ARC CREST, Calif State Univ Monterey Bay, USA..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The water-food-energy nexus optimization approach to combat agricultural drought: a case study in the United States2018Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, s. 449-464Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The frequent recent drought events in the Great Plains of United States have led to significant crop yield reductions and crop price surges. Using an integrated water-food-energy nexus modelling and optimization approach, this study laid the basis for developing an effective agricultural drought management system by combining real-time drought monitoring with real-time irrigation management. The proposed water-food-energy simulation and optimization method is spatially explicit and was applied to one major corn region in Nebraska. The crop simulations, validated with yield statistics, showed that a drought year like 2012 can potentially reduce the corn yield by 50% as compared to a wet year like 2009. The simulation results show that irrigation can play a key role in halting crop losses due to drought and in sustaining high yields of up to 20 t/ha. Nevertheless, the water-food-energy relationship shows that significant investments on water and energy are required to limit the negative effects of drought. The multi-criteria optimization problem developed in this study shows that the optimal crop yield does not necessarily correspond to the maximum yield, resulting in potential water and energy savings. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 81.
    Zhang, Qi
    et al.
    China University of Petroleum.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Zhu, Lijing
    China University of Petroleum.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lu, Huihui
    China University of Petroleum.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Sun, Qie
    Shandong University.
    Factors influencing the economics of public charging infrastructures for EV: A review2018Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 97, s. 500-509Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing concerns about energy conservation and the environmental impacts of greenhouse gas emissions over the world have promoted the development of the electric vehicles (EVs) market. However, one of the biggest barriers in the development of the EV market is the lack of the public charging infrastructure. This paper reviews the factors that can directly and indirectly influence the economics of the public charging infrastructure. The knowledge gaps, barriers and opportunities in the development of the charging infrastructure have been identified and analyzed. In order to promote the development of the public charging infrastructure, more research efforts should be paid on the impacts of psychological factors of customers and the technical development of charging infrastructures and EV batteries. The government support has been proved to play an important role, so that how the government policy can be tailored for the development of the charging infrastructure market should receive more attentions. In addition, the charging price as an endogenous factor should be considered more carefully in modelling the charging infrastructure market. New business models are also urgently needed to accelerate the future development of the public charging infrastructure.

  • 82.
    Zhang, Y.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lundblad, A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, L.
    Chongqing University, Chongqing, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Swed.
    The Influence of Photovoltaic Models and Battery Models in System Simulation and Optimization2017Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, s. 1184-1191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting accurate and robust models is important for simulation and optimization of a clean energy system. This paper compares two photovoltaic (PV) models and two battery models in an open-source code, Opti-CE. The PV models are single diode model and its simplified model. The battery models are Improved Shepherd model and energy balance model. The models are compared from a perspective of overall system simulation and optimization in particular on both accuracy and computational time. The results indicate that simplified PV model causes 0.86% normalized root mean square error (nRMSE) compared with the single diode model, while decreases the simulation time from more than 800s to less than 0.01s. The energy balance battery model reduces simulation time from more than 5s to less than 0.03s. The energy balance model tends to underestimate the battery State of Charge (SOC) compared with the Improved Shepherd model. However, the error is not accumulative during the simulation. Compared to the Pareto front with single diode model and Improved Shepherd model, the simplified PV model increases the Pareto front values and result in both higher Self Sufficiency Ratio (SSR) and Net Present Value (NPV), while the energy balance battery model decreases the part of Pareto front, where individuals have low NPV. 

  • 83.
    Zhang, Y.
    et al.
    KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yang, Ying
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lundblad, A.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Energy flexibility from the consumer: Integrating local electricity and heat supplies in a building2018Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 223, s. 430-442Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing penetration level of renewable energy requires more flexibility measures to be implemented in future energy systems. Integrating an energy consumer’s local energy supplies connects multiple energy networks (i.e., the electrical grid, the district heating network, and gas network) in a decentralized way. Such integration enhances the flexibility of energy systems. In this work, a Swedish office building is investigated as a case study. Different components, including heat pump, electrical heater, battery and hot water storage tank are integrated into the electricity and heat supply system of the building. Special focus is placed on the flexibility that the studied building can provide to the electrical grid (i.e., the building modulates the electricity consumption in response to the grid operator’s requirements). The flexibility is described by two metrics including the flexibility hours and the flexibility energy. Optimization of the component capacities and the operation profiles is carried out by using Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). The results show that the system fully relies on electricity for the heat demand when not considering the flexibility requirements of the electrical grid. This suggests that district heating is economically unfavorable compared with using electricity for the heat demand in the studied case. However, when flexibility requirements are added, the system turns to the district heating network for part of the heat demand. The system provides great flexibility to the electrical grid through such integration. The flexibility hours can be over 5200 h in a year, and the flexibility energy reaches more than 15.7 MWh (36% of the yearly electricity consumption). The yearly operation cost of the system slightly increases from 62,273 to 65,178 SEK when the flexibility hours increase from 304 to 5209 h. The results revealed that flexibility can be provided from the district heating network to the electrical grid via the building.

  • 84.
    Zhang, Y.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundblad, A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comparative Study of Battery Storage and Hydrogen Storage to Increase Photovoltaic Self-sufficiency in a Residential Building of Sweden2016Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 103, s. 268-273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic (PV) is promising to supply power for residential buildings. Battery is the most widely employed storage method to mitigate the intermittence of PV and to overcome the mismatch between production and load. Hydrogen storage is another promising method that it is suitable for long-term storage. This study focuses on the comparison of self-sufficiency ratio and cost performance between battery storage and hydrogen storage for a residential building in Sweden. The results show that battery storage is superior to the hydrogen storage in the studied case. Sensitivity study of the component cost within the hydrogen storage system is also carried out. Electrolyzer cost is the most sensitive factor for improving system performance. A hybrid battery and hydrogen storage system, which can harness the advantages of both battery and hydrogen storages, is proposed in the last place.

  • 85.
    Zhang, Y.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Benavente, F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Battery sizing and rule-based operation of grid-connected photovoltaic-battery system: A case study in Sweden2017Ingår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 133, s. 249-263Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The optimal components design for grid-connected photovoltaic-battery systems should be determined with consideration of system operation. This study proposes a method to simultaneously optimize the battery capacity and rule-based operation strategy. The investigated photovoltaic-battery system is modeled using single diode photovoltaic model and Improved Shepherd battery model. Three rule-based operation strategies—including the conventional operation strategy, the dynamic price load shifting strategy, and the hybrid operation strategy—are designed and evaluated. The rule-based operation strategies introduce different operation parameters to run the system operation. multi-objective Genetic Algorithm is employed to optimize the decisional variables, including battery capacity and operation parameters, towards maximizing the system's Self Sufficiency Ratio and Net Present Value. The results indicate that employing battery with the conventional operation strategy is not profitable, although it increases Self Sufficiency Ratio. The dynamic price load shifting strategy has similar performance with the conventional operation strategy because the electricity price variation is not large enough. The proposed hybrid operation strategy outperforms other investigated strategies. When the battery capacity is lower than 72 kW h, Self Sufficiency Ratio and Net Present Value increase simultaneously with the battery capacity.

  • 86.
    Zhang, Y.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Employing battery storage to increase photovoltaic self-sufficiency in a residential building of Sweden2016Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 88, s. 455-461Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic (PV) or hybrid PV-battery systems are promising to supply power for residential buildings. In this study, the load profile of a multi apartment building in Gothenburg and the PV production profile under local weather conditions are compared and analyzed. Three different types of batteries, including lead acid, NaNiCl (Sodium-Nickel-Chloride) and Lithium ion, are studied in combination with the PV systems. It is found that Lithium ion battery system is superior in achieving higher Self-Sufficiency Ratio (SSR) with the same Life Cycle Cost (LCC). Achieving high SSR with the hybrid PV-battery system is unrealistic because of the seasonal mismatch between the load and electricity production profile. The capacity match between the PV and battery to maximize SSR was investigated, showing different trends under system LCC range of 0.1-40 Million SEK (1SEK≈0.12USD). The system LCC should be lower than 10.6 Million SEK (at the SSR of 36%) in order to keep the payback time positive. 

  • 87.
    Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Anders, Lundblad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Comparative study of hydrogen storage and battery storage in grid connected photovoltaic system: Storage sizing and rule-based operation2017Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 201, s. 397-411Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper studies grid-connected photovoltaic (PV)-hydrogen/battery systems. The storage component capacities and the rule-based operation strategy parameters are simultaneously optimized by the Genetic Algorithm. Three operation strategies for the hydrogen storage, namely conventional operation strategy, peak shaving strategy and hybrid operation strategy, are compared under two scenarios based on the pessimistic and optimistic costs. The results indicate that the hybrid operation strategy, which combines the conventional operation strategy and the peak shaving strategy, is advantageous in achieving higher Net Present Value (NPV) and Self Sufficiency Ratio (SSR). Hydrogen storage is further compared with battery storage. Under the pessimistic cost scenario, hydrogen storage results in poorer performance in both SSR and NPV. While under the optimistic cost scenario, hydrogen storage achieves higher NPV. Moreover, when taking into account the grid power fluctuation, hydrogen storage achieves better performance in all three optimization objectives, which are NPV, SSR and GI (Grid Indicator). 

  • 88. Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Anders, Lundblad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Zhang, Chi
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH, Sweden.
    Building Energy System: From System Planning To Operation2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 89.
    Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Energy Proc, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Energy Proc, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.; Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Lundblad, Anders
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Safety & Transport Elect, SE-50462 Boras, Sweden..
    Zheng, Wandong
    Tianjin Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Technol, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Energy Proc, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.; Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Planning and operation of an integrated energy system in a Swedish building2019Ingår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 199, artikel-id 111920Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    More flexibility measures are required due to the increasing capacities of variable renewable energies (VRE). In buildings, the integration of energy supplies forms integrated energy systems (IES). IESs can provide flexibility and increase the VRE penetration level. To upgrade a current building energy system into an IES, several energy conversion and storage components are needed. How to decide the component capacities and operate the IES were investigated separately in studies on system planning and system operation. However, a research gap exists that the system configuration from system planning is not validated by actual operation conditions in system operation. Meanwhile, studies on system operation assume that IES configurations are predetermined. This work combines system planning and system operation. The IES configuration is determined by mixed integer linear programming in system planning. Actual operation conditions and forecast errors are considered in system operation. The actual operation profiles are obtained through year-round simulations of different energy management systems. The results indicate that the system configuration from system planning can meet energy demands in system operation. Among different energy management systems, the combination of robust optimization and receding horizon optimization achieves the lowest yearly operation cost. Meanwhile, two scenarios that represent high and low forecast accuracies are studied. Under the high and low forecast accuracy scenarios, the yearly operation costs are about 4% and 6% higher than that obtained from system planning.

  • 90.
    Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yang, Ying
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lundblad, Anders
    Division Safety and Transport/Electronics, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, SE-50462 Borås, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Energy Flexibility through the Integrated Energy Supply System in Buildings: A Case Study in Sweden2018Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 145, s. 564-569Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing penetration level of renewable energies requires more flexibility measures at the consumption side. Flexible energy prices have been placed by energy providers to promote flexibility measures from energy users. However, because of the current energy supply system in buildings, these flexible energy prices haven’t been fully taken advantage of. This study focuses on the integrated energy supply system in buildings. A Swedish office building is used as the case study. The integrated energy supply system is built by installing new components, including battery, heat pump and electrical heater, and hot water tank. Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problems are solved to determine the optimal component capacities and operation profiles. The results indicate that all the studied system configurations achieve lower net present cost (NPC) than the current system. It suggests that the integrated energy supply system can take advantage of the flexible energy prices and lower the overall energy cost in the building. Among the studied configurations, the combination of air source heat pump (ASHP) and electrical heater (EH) has the lowest investment cost. This combination also has the lowest NPC except in the scenario with low borehole cost.

  • 91.
    Zhu, K.
    et al.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Xueqiang
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. School of Chemical Science & Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Techno-economic feasibility of integrating energy storage systems in refrigerated warehouses2018Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 216, s. 348-357Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work evaluates the techno-economic feasibility of integrating the cold energy storage system and the electrical energy storage system in a refrigerated warehouse for shifting the power consumption. A dynamic model has been developed in TRNSYS®. Based on the dynamic simulation, the performance and benefit of those two types of energy storage systems were compared. Results showed that, the integration of a cold energy storage can reduce the electricity consumption and operational cost by 4.3% and 20.5%, respectively. Even though integrating a battery system will increase the electricity consumption by 3.9%, it can reduce the operational cost by 18.7%. The capacity of the energy storage systems, the battery price and the peak electricity price had been identified as key parameters affecting the performance and benefit. To achieve a payback period less than 3 year, for the integration of a cold energy storage system, the peak electricity price should be increased by 25% from the current level, while for the integration of a battery system, the battery price should drop to 0.7 kRMB/kWh.

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