mdh.sePublikationer
Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
12 51 - 84 av 84
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 51.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Svensson, Kalle
    SLU.
    Pell, Mikael
    SLU.
    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for assessment of spatial soil variation in an agricultural field2005Ingår i: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 126, nr 3-4, s. 193-202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 52.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Svensson, Kalle
    SLU.
    Pell, Mikael
    SLU.
    Organic residues – a resource or risk in plant cropping?2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 53.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Svensson, Kalle
    SLU.
    Pell, Mikael
    SLU.
    Torstensson, Lennart
    SLU.
    Organic residues in circulation (ORC) – a new field experiment in Sweden2000Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 54.
    Olga, Chusova
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Adsorption of trinitrotoluene (TNT) by pine bark2015Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 55.
    Ribe, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Assessment of mobility and bioavailability of contaminants in MSW incineration ash with aquatic and terrestrial bioassays2014Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 34, nr 10, s. 1871-1876Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a waste treatment method which can be sustainable in terms of waste volume reduction as well as a source of renewable energy. In the process fly and bottom ash is generated as a waste material. The ash residue may vary greatly in composition depending on the type of waste incinerated and it can contain elevated levels of harmful contaminants such as heavy metals. In this study, the ecotoxicity of a weathered, untreated incineration bottom ash was characterized as defined by the H14 criterion of the EU Waste Framework Directive by means of an elemental analysis, leaching tests followed by a chemical analysis and a combination of aquatic and solid-phase bioassays. The experiments were conducted to assess the mobility and bioavailability of ash contaminants. A combination of aquatic and terrestrial bioassays was used to determine potentially adverse acute effects of exposure to the solid ash and aqueous ash leachates. The results from the study showed that the bottom ash from a municipal waste incineration plant in mid-Sweden contained levels of metals such as Cu, Pb and Zn, which exceeded the Swedish EPA limit values for inert wastes. The chemical analysis of the ash leachates showed high concentrations of particularly Cr. The leachate concentration of Cr exceeded the limit value for L/S 10 leaching for inert wastes. Filtration of leachates prior to analysis may have underestimated the leachability of complex-forming metals such as Cu and Pb. The germination test of solid ash and ash leachates using T. repens showed a higher inhibition of seedling emergence of seeds exposed to the solid ash than the seeds exposed to ash leachates. This indicated a relatively low mobility of toxicants from the solid ash into the leachates, although some metals exceeded the L/S 10 leaching limit values for inert wastes. The Microtox (R) toxicity test showed only a very low toxic response to the ash leachate exposure, while the D. magna immobility test showed a moderately high toxic effect of the ash leachates. Overall, the results from this study showed an ecotoxic effect of the solid MSW bottom ash and the corresponding ash leachates. The material may therefore pose an environmental risk if used in construction applications. However, as the testing of the solid ash was rather limited and the ash leachate showed an unusually high leaching of Cr, further assessments are required in order to conclusively characterize the bottom ash studied herein as hazardous according to the H14 criterion.

  • 56.
    Ribé, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Aulenius, Elisabet
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Martell, Ulrika
    Structor Environmental Engineering.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Applying the Triad method in a risk assessment of a former surface treatment and metal industry site2012Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 207, nr SI, s. 15-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With a greater focus on soil protection in the EU, the need for ecological risk assessment tools for cost-effective characterization of site contamination is increasing. One of the challenges in assessing the risk of soil contaminants is to accurately account for changes in mobility of contaminants over time, as a result of ageing. Improved tools for measuring the bioavailable and mobile fraction of contaminants is therefore highly desirable. In this study the Triad method was used to perform a risk characterization of a former surface treatment and metal industry in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The risk assessment confirmed the environmental risk of the most heavily contaminated sample and showed that the toxic effect was most likely caused by high metal concentrations. The assessment of the two soil samples with low to moderate metal contamination levels was more complex, as there was a higher deviation between the results from the three lines of evidence; chemistry, (eco)toxicology and ecology. For the slightly less contaminated sample of the two, a weighting of the results from the ecotoxicological LoE would be recommended in order to accurately determine the risk of the metal contamination at the sampling site as the toxic effect detected in the Microtox® test and Ostracodtoxkit™ test was more likely to be due to oil contamination. The soil sample with higher total metal concentrations requires further ecotoxicological testing, as the integrated risk value indicated an environmental risk from metal contamination. The applied methodology, the Triad method, is considered appropriate for conducting improved environmental risk assessments in order to achieve sustainable remediation processes.

  • 57.
    Ribé, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Fredriksson, Karin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Ljunggren, Isabell
    VAFAB Miljö, Sverige.
    Stenberg, Sara
    VAFAB MILJÖ, Sverige.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Assessment of the final cover system of a closed landfill in Sweden2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 58.
    Ribé, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Aulenius, Elisabet
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Martell, Ulrika
    Structor Miljöteknik.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    RISK CHARACTERISATION OF A FORMER SURFACE TREATMENT AND METAL INDUSTRY SITE USING THE TRIAD METHOD2010Ingår i: Crete 2010, 2nd International Conference, Hazardous and Industrial Waste Management, Proceedings / [ed] E. Gidarakos; R. Cossu; R. Stegmann, 2010, s. 451-452Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With a greater focus on soil protection in the EU, in combination with the ever-growing pressures of redevelopment of contaminated and former brownfield sites, the need for ecological risk assessment tools for cost-effective characterization of site contamination is increasing. One of the greatest challenges in assessing the actual risk of soil contaminants is to accurately account for the reduced or increased mobility of contaminants over time, as a result of bioavailability. Improved tools for measuring the bioavailable and mobile fraction of the contaminants, as opposed to total concentrations, is therefore highly desirable. In this study the triad method was used to perform a risk characterization of a former surface treatment and metal industry, now used for the student union buildings of the Mälardalen University in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The risk assessment with the TRIAD method confirmed the environmental risk of sample D and showed that the toxicity of the sample was most likely caused by the high metal concentrations in the soil. The risk assessment of sample B and C was more complex, as there was a higher deviation between the results from the chemical analyses, ecotoxicological bioassays and the ecological inventory for these two samples. Further ecotoxicological bioassays are therefore suggested, in order to accurately determine the risk and potential remediation requirements of these soils.

  • 59.
    Ribé, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Structor Environmnetal Technology, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Eneroth, Peder
    Flexiclean, Growhouse, Kista, Sweden.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FIVE FILTER TYPES FOR STORMWATER TREATMENT: USING A WHOLE EFFLUENT ASSESSMENT APPROACH TO EVALUATE FILTER PERFORMANCEManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of hazardous substances to the environment from industrial activities in Sweden is heavily restricted due to pieces of legislation such as the Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU). In the directive, the whole effluent assessment (WEA) methodology is included as a suitable approach to characterization of effluent waters. The use of WEA methods in the evaluation of treatments for complex effluent waters has great advantages when comparing to using chemical analysis of individual substances alone. In this comparative study the WEA methodology of combining toxicity testing with chemical analysis was applied to evaluate the performance, stability and safety of four stormwater filter types in comparison with the conventional filter material active carbon. The filter materials were the two sorbent filter materials pine bark and polonite; and the two combination filters pine bark/polonite (filtration through pine bark followed by filtration through polonite) and polonite/pine bark (filtration through polonite followed by filtration through pine bark). The stormwater treated in the study was sampled from two points at a metals manufacturing site in mid-Sweden. A preliminary analysis of the water showed high concentrations of heavy metals and in particular of Zn, with concentrations exceeding 36 mg/L. The stormwater pH was neutral (7.5) and suspended solids content was approximately 130 mg/l. Samples of the stormwater, corresponding to ten filter bed volumes, were filtered through a pilot-scale 250 ml filter columns with the four filters or activated carbon. The filtered water samples were analysed for Zn and pH. An aquatic ecotoxicity test battery was used to measure acute and chronic toxic effects of the untreated and treated stormwater samples. The test battery assessed luminescent bacteria acute toxicity (30-min Microtox® ISO 11348-3 using Vibrio fischeri), growth inhibition of the green unicellular algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and genotoxicity with the bacterial umu assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 (ISO 13829). The pine bark sorbent showed the highest average Zn removal efficiency of the single filter materials after activated carbon. The results from the stormwater filtration with combination materials were difficult to interpret. All filter types, except pine bark, increased pH of the treated waters > 9. Pine bark lowered the pH of the treated water below 5 even after filtration of 10 bed volumes of stormwater. Although pH of the treated waters was only adjusted for the Microtox test, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between the response of this test and the algal assay. Activated carbon showed the highest reduction of Zn contamination and toxicity of the treated waters. There was no significant correlation between the level of zinc contamination and toxic response of the treated waters. Although pine bark lowered pH significantly, in comparison to the other filter types, there was no significant correlation between the pH and the toxic response of the filtered waters.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 60.
    Ribé, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Using an ecotoxicological bioassay battery for assessing the performanc eand safety of a pine bark filter material for landfill leachate treatment2009Ingår i: SETAC Europe 19th Annual Meeting Abstract Book, Göteborg 31 May - 4 June, 2009, 2009, s. 144-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of ecotoxicological bioassays in hazardous waste management and the water treatment industry is growing in order to meet increasingly stringent legislative requirements. Ecotoxicological tests are particularly useful for assessing the safety of samples with a complex contaminant matrix, as interactive effects between contaminants, which may affect sample toxicity, can go undetected if chemical analyses alone are used in the assessment process. By combining a wide range of tests it is possible to assess non-specific acute and chronic effects, as well as specific toxic effects such as genotoxicity, in vertebrates and invertebrates and in aquatic and terrestrial organisms over several trophic levels. Ecotoxicological tests are less commonly used during method and process development, where they may be used as a rapid and cost-effective way to evaluate performance and safety. This paper describes current and future work with a battery of ecotoxicological bioassays evaluating the use of a pine bark sorbent for treating landfill leachate and polluted process water. The results presented in the paper are from the first phase of the ecotoxicological evaluation of the filter, where the leaching properties of the filter material itself were investigated. Batch leaching tests were performed to determine the release of several metals, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phenol. Toxicity of the leachate to Daphnia magna was measured in acute toxicity tests, with and without pH adjustment of the leachate. To determine the duration and extent of the initial desorption of organic material from the pine bark filter serial batch leaching experiments were carried out. The change in toxicity of the leachates to Daphnia magna was assessed in acute toxicity tests.

  • 61.
    Ribé, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Berglind, Rune
    FOI CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Forsberg, Åke
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE AND SAFETY OF A PINE BARK FILTER FOR LANDFILL LEACHATE AND STORMWATER TREATMENT: TOXICITY TESTING AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS2011Ingår i: Sardinia 2011 Symposium, Thirteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Proceedings / [ed] R. Cossu, CISA Publisher , 2011, s. 1143-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial by-product pine bark has been used successfully as a low-cost sorbent for removing heavy metals from wastewaters such as stormwaters and landfill leachates. Although the water treatment efficiency of pine bark is high, one reported drawback with using the filter material for water treatment is the potential leaching of organic compounds, e.g. tannines and other polyphenols. This phenomenon is likely to be particularly pronounced during the initial start-up phase of filtration with unused pine bark. The results from preliminary serial leaching tests with the filter material, has shown that the toxicity of the pine bark leachates to Daphnia magna (48 hr) decreases after each successive round of leaching. The aim of this study was to further investigate the leaching properties and stability of pine bark filter. In this study, parallel serial batch leaching experiments were performed with either doubly deionised or U.S. EPA moderately hard reconstituted water as leachant to determine the duration and extent of the initial desorption of organic material, analysed as DOC (Dissolved Organic Carbon), from the filter material. To further investigate the changes in toxicity of the pine bark leachates from each successive round of leaching, a more extensive toxicity assessment was performed with an aquatic ecotoxicity test battery consisting of an acute luminescent bacteria test (ROTAS) and a genotoxicity test (the Umu assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002). 

  • 62.
    Ribé, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Gustavsson, Lillemor
    Karlskoga Energi & Miljö AB.
    Berglind, Rune
    FOI CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Forsberg, Åke
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Ecotoxicological assessment and evaluation of a pine bark biosorbent treatment of five landfillleachates2012Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 32, nr 10, s. 1886-1894Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When selecting a landfill leachate treatment method the contaminant composition of theleachate should be considered in order to obtain the most cost-effective treatment option. In this studythe filter material pine bark was evaluated as a treatment for five landfill leachates originating fromdifferent cells of the same landfill in Sweden. The objective of the study was to determine the uptake,or release, of metals and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during a leaching test using the pine barkfilter material with the five different landfill leachates. Furthermore the change of toxicity aftertreatment was studied using a battery of aquatic bioassays assessing luminescent bacteria (Vibriofischeri) acute toxicity (30-min Microtox®), immobility of the crustacean Daphnia magna, growthinhibition of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the aquatic plant Lemna minor; andgenotoxicity with the bacterial Umu-C assay. The results from the toxicity tests and the chemicalanalysis were analyzed in a Principal Component Analysis and the toxicity of the samples before andafter treatment was evaluated in a toxicity classification. The pine bark filter material reduced theconcentrations of metal contaminants from the landfill leachates in the study, with some exceptions forCu and Cd. The Zn uptake of the filter was high for heavily contaminated leachates (≥73%), althoughsome desorption of zinc occurred in less contaminated waters. Some of the leachates may requirefurther treatment due to discharge into a natural recipient in order to reduce the risk of possiblebiological effects. The difference in pH changes between the different leachates was probably due tovariations in buffering capacity, affected by physicochemical properties of the leachate. The greatestdesorption of phenol during filtration occurred in leachates with high conductivity or elevated levels ofmetals or salts. Generally, the toxicity classification of the leachates implies that although filtertreatment with pine bark removes metal contaminants from the leachates effectively, it does not alterleachate toxicity noticeably. The leachates with the highest conductivity, pH and metal concentrationsare most strongly correlated with an increased toxic response in the score plots of both untreated andtreated leachates. This is in line with the toxicity classification of the leachate samples. The results fromthis study highlight the importance of evaluating treatment efficiency from the perspective of potentialrecipient effects, rather than in terms of residual concentrations of individual contaminants whentreating waters with a complex contamination matrix, such as landfill leachates.

  • 63.
    Ribé, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Leaching of contaminants from untreated pine bark in a batch study: Chemical analysis and ecotoxicological evaluation2009Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 163, nr 2-3, s. 1096-1100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Low cost sorbents have been widely studied in recent years in the search for filter materials that retain contaminants from water. One promising, low cost material is pine bark, a by-product from the forest industry. Many studies have shown that pine bark has great potential for the treatment of metals and organic substances, as a replacement for other commercial sorbents such as active carbon. However, some potential problems are introduced through the use of natural materials and by-products. One such problem that must be addressed is the possibility of leaching of contaminants from the filter material, especially in the initial filtration step or during flushes of lightly contaminated water, e.g. during rainfall for on-site treatment of stormwater or landfill leachate. The aim of this preliminary studywas therefore to identify potential risks and limitations of using pine bark as a filter material. Leachate from a standardized batch test was analysed for metals, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phenols. In addition to these chemical analyses, an ecotoxicological test was conducted using the test organism

    Daphnia magna. The results showed significant leaching of DOC and some metals. Only a small fraction of the DOC was present as phenols. The leachate was however found to be toxic to the test organism without pH adjustment, and the EC 50 was established at an approximate leachate concentration of 40%. This was concluded to be related to the low pH in the eluate, since no toxicity was observed after pH adjustment before the toxicity tests.

  • 64.
    Ribé, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Forsberg, Åke
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet.
    Assessment of the safety and performance of a low-cost filter material for treatment of landfill leachate and industrial wastewater using an integrated approach based on ecotoxicological testing and chemical analysis2009Ingår i: 12th EuCheMS International Conference on Chemistry and the Environment, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner (pdf)
    SUMMARY01
  • 65.
    Ribé, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Gustavsson, Lillemor
    Karlskoga Energi & Miljö AB.
    Forsberg, Åke
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    USING ECOTOXICOLOGICAL TESTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW-COST FILTERING SYSTEM FOR LANDFILL LEACHATE2009Ingår i: Sardinia 2009 Symposium, Twelth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Proceedings / [ed] R. Cossu; L.F. Diaz; R. Stegmann, CISA Publisher , 2009, s. 435-436Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the use of aquatic ecotoxicological tests, in combination with chemical analysis, in the evaluation of the application of low-cost pine bark sorbent, a by-product of the forestry industry, to treat low-strength landfill leachate. Initially, leaching batch tests with the untreated filter material were carried out to investigate the leaching properties of the filter material and the safety of using the material for water treatment. The test showed that leaching of metals, such as Cu, occurs, although at levels below the US EPA MCL limits. The DOC concentration in the leachate from pine bark was 69 mg/l (SD = 0.62). Phenols were measured to 4.4 mg/l (SD=0.35), which represents 7% of the DOC. 24 h and 48 h EC50 values for acute toxicity of leachates without pH adjustment to Daphnia magna were determined to 38% and 42% leachate concentration, respectively. All the test organisms were immobilised in the batch test with 100 % of the leachate concentration. The pH adjusted leachate samples showed no toxicity to Daphnia magna during 24 h or 48 h exposure. Subsequently, a tentative study with serial batch leaching tests was performed to further investigate the extent and duration of the leaching of organic material from the unused filter material. The preliminary results from the serial batch leaching showed that pH of the leachates decreased to below 5 even after three successive rounds of leaching of the pine bark. Desorption of DOC was not reduced by serial leaching of the filter material and did not appear to correlate with the observed decrease in toxicity after sequential leaching rounds. The toxicity of leachates from the untreated, unused filter material decreases after the first initial flush of water through the filter. There is a trend of reduced toxicity after each successive round of leaching for the 48 hour exposure of Daphnia magna to the leachates. All the test organisms were immobilised in the batch test with 100 % of the leachate concentration. Future research will focus on further investigation of the initial leaching duration and on chemical characterization of the leachate, with an emphasis on organic compounds.

  • 66.
    Ribé, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Ecotoxicological assessment of anaerobic bioremidiation of sludge contaminated by the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 67.
    Ribé, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Berglind, Rune
    FOI CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    ECOTOXICOLOGICAL INVENTORY OF A CONTAMINATED EXPLOSIVES DESTRUCTION SITE2010Ingår i: :  , 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 68.
    Ribé, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Berglind, Rune
    FOI CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    HAZARD SCREENING BY CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ECOTOXICITY BIOASSAYS OF SEDIMENT, GROUND AND SURFACE WATER SAMPLED FROM A FIRE POND AND THE SURROUNDING AREA AT AN EXPLOSIVES DESTRUCTION SITE2010Ingår i: Crete 2010, 2nd International Conference, Hazardous and Industrial Waste Management, Proceedings / [ed] E. Gidarakos; R. Cossu; R. Stegmann, 2010, s. 243-244Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A hazard assessment of sediment, surface and groundwater samples from the burning ground fire pond and the wetland linking the fire pond with a nearby lake at an explosives destruction site was carried out. The assessment was performed on sediment, surface and groundwater samples from the site by a comparison of the results from a chemical analysis (metals, energetic materials (EM) and EM metabolites) with the results from an ecotoxicity test battery. Sediment and water samples were analysed for metals (ICP-MS) and EM and EM metabolites (HPLC-PDA). The explosive substances analysed were TNT, 2-A-4,6-DNT, 2,4-DANT, 2,4-DNT, RDX and HMX. An aquatic ecotoxicity test battery consisting of an acute luminescent bacteria bioassay using (Vibrio fischeri), a direct-contact sediment chronic freshwater benthic crustacean bioassay (Ostracodtoxkit) and a bacterial genotoxic bioassay, Umu-C, using genetically modified Salmonella typhimurium pSk 1002 assessed the toxicity of water, sediment and sediment leachate samples. The results from the chemical analysis and the ecotoxicity testing were evaluated in a principal component multivariate analysis (PCA) using Unscrambler®. The results from the chemical analysis generally showed low contamination levels, apart from samples 2W and 2S, sampled in the fire pond. The toxicity tests showed a low to very low toxicity of the samples, with the exception of an elevated mortality rate and growth inhibition of the sediment sample taken from the lake. In general, the results from the study indicated a low environmental hazard of the samples taken from the destruction site.

  • 69.
    Rodriguez, Adrian
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Påhlson, Carl
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Färm, Carina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for quantification of species of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in wastewater treatment activated sludge.2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 70.
    Rodriguez Caballero, Adrian
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Hallin, S
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci.
    Påhlson, Carl
    Uppsala Univ.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Ammonia oxidizing bacterial community composition relates to process performance in wastewater treatment plants under low temperature conditions2012Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 65, nr 2, s. 197-204Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrification can be difficult to maintain at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) during cold periods resulting in disrupted nitrogen removal. The aim of this study was to relate nitrification process performance to abundance and composition of the ammonia oxidizer communities in two closely located municipal WWTPs in Sweden during an eight month period covering seasonal changes and low temperature conditions. Both facilities showed lower NH4+-N removal efficiency and nitrification rates as temperature decreased. However, one of the plants had a more stable nitrification rate and higher ammonia removal efficiency throughout the entire period. The differences in performance was related to a shift in the composition of the bacterial ammonia oxidizing community from a Nitrosomonas oligotropha-dominated community to a mixed community including also Nitrosomonas ureae-like ammonia oxidizers. This was likely a response to differences in NH4+-N and organic loading.

  • 71.
    Rodriguez Caballero, Adrian
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Ramond., J-B
    Cape Peninsula University of Technology .
    Welz, P.J
    Cape Peninsula University of Technology .
    Cowan, D.A.,
    Cape Peninsula University of Technology .
    Treatment of high ethanol concentration wastewater by constructed wetlands: enhanced COD removal and bacterial community dynamics.2010Ingår i: Microbes in Wastewater & Waste Treatment, Bioremediation and Energy Production, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 72.
    Rodriguez-Caballero, Alina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Ramond, J. -B
    Univ Western Cape, Inst Microbial Biotechnol & Metagen, ZA-7535 Bellville, South Africa.
    Welz, P. J.
    Cape Peninsula Univ Technol, Biocatalysis & Tech Biol Res Grp, ZA-7535 Bellville, South Africa.
    Cowan, D. A.
    Univ Western Cape, Inst Microbial Biotechnol & Metagen, ZA-7535 Bellville, South Africa.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Burton, S. G.
    Cape Peninsula Univ Technol, Biocatalysis & Tech Biol Res Grp, ZA-7535 Bellville, South Africa.
    Treatment of high ethanol concentration wastewater by biological sand filters: Enhanced COD removal and bacterial community dynamics2012Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 109, s. 54-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Winery wastewater is characterized by its high chemical oxygen demand (COD), seasonal occurrence and variable composition, including periodic high ethanol concentrations. In addition, winery wastewater may contain insufficient inorganic nutrients for optimal biodegradation of organic constituents. Two pilot-scale biological sand filters (BSFs) were used to treat artificial wastewater: the first was amended with ethanol and the second with ethanol, inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). A number of biochemical parameters involved in the removal of pollutants through BSF systems were monitored, including effluent chemistry and bacterial community structures. The nutrient supplemented BSF showed efficient COD, N and P removal. Comparison of the COD removal efficiencies of the two BSFs showed that N and P addition enhanced COD removal efficiency by up to 16%. Molecular fingerprinting of BSF sediment samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that amendment with high concentrations of ethanol destabilized the microbial community structure, but that nutrient supplementation countered this effect.

  • 73.
    Skvaril, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Rapid Characterization of Feedstock Material in Pulp and Paper Industry2015Ingår i: Book of abstracts, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulp digesters can be continuous or batch reactors with significant residence time which are fed with woodchips and cooking chemicals. They deliver the pulp-fibers that are used in the production of paper, as well as black liquor that is combusted in the chemical recovery boiler. The possibility to measure what is happening inside the digester is limited. The most important quality properties of the feedstock material is content of lignin, which is being dissolved during the process, and related material reactivity. Pulp quality after the process is measured by Kappa number which is a measure of residual lignin in the pulp. One of the biggest challenges in pulp production process is the great variability in feedstock material properties. If the process is not adjusted by well-timed and appropriate operational control measures i.e. control of inlet and outlet flows and setting of the cooking recipe, it will result in the large variations in Kappa number, lower fiber quality or excess use of environmentally harmful cooking chemicals. This becomes particularly important during the swing between softwood and hardwood as part of meeting the final paper product quality requirements. Therefore, a rapid method that is capable of continuous feedstock material characterization is required.Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy can be used for non-destructive characterization of the feedstock material. In this study, both Fourier transform and grating NIR spectrophotometers were used for NIR absorbance spectra acquisition. Each spectrum was recorded in the range between 700 and 2500 nm. During the calibration of spectra of various wood species with known lignin content, wood samples were placed on a tray so that the tray may move horizontally in a reciprocating manner underneath the sensor while maintaining the constant distance between the sensor and sample. This was done in order to simulate the movement of a real conveyor belt as used for transporting feedstock to the digester. In the on-line application the NIR meter is situated above the conveyor belt that wood up to the digester.Spectral data were pretreated with different methods such as normalization, scatter correction, smoothing, first and second derivative (Savitzky-Golay algorithm), selection of different spectral ranges and its combinations. Mathematical models to estimate lignin content were constructed using Partial Least Square Regression (PLS-R) and Principle component regression (PCR) statistical methods. Response data for model build-up were determined in the chemical laboratory according to standardized procedures including test repetitions. Different combinations of NIR instrument used, pre-treatment methods and statistical methods were evaluated in order to find the model with the best prediction performance.Results are promising and demonstrate that it is possible to characterize the lignin content and reactivity of the feedstock material by NIR spectrophotometers with reasonable prediction model performance. Improved prediction can be obtained if only selected spectral ranges are included as an input for statistical modelling; similarly using derivatives is better than using the raw spectrum. In the next step, developed statistical models for rapid lignin content prediction will be used as a feed-forward input for dynamic process control.

    Ladda ner (pdf)
    attachment
  • 74.
    Skvaril, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Effect of wood chip moving velocity on NIR spectra acquisition and model calibration for lignin quantificationManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 75.
    Skvaril, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Fast Determination of Fuel Properties in Solid Biofuel Mixtures by Near Infrared Spectroscopy2017Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, s. 1309-1317Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the characterization of highly variable biofuel properties such as moisture content, ash content and higher heating value by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Experiments were performed on different biofuel sample mixtures consisting of stem wood chips, forest residue chips, bark, sawdust, and peat. NIR scans were performed using a Fourier transform NIR instrument, and reference values were obtained according to standardized laboratory methods. Spectral data were pre-processed by Multiplicative scatter correction correcting light scattering and change in a path length for each sample. Multivariate calibration was carried out employing Partial least squares regression while absorbance values from full NIR spectral range (12,000–4000 cm-1), and reference values were used as inputs. It was demonstrated that different solid biofuel properties can be measured by means of NIR spectroscopy. The accuracy of the models is satisfactory for industrial implementation towards improved process control. 

  • 76.
    Skvaril, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Fast Determination of Lignin Content in Feedstock Material for Pulping Process Monitoring and Optimization2015Ingår i: ICAVS 8 - Abstracts poster, 2015, s. 556-557Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulping process is delivering pulp fibers which are further used in the production of paper. The reactor is fed with feedstock material in the form of wood chips. Moreover, cooking chemicals are brought at several points into the reactor. Previous studies have shown that the knowledge of the feedstock material properties which are highly variable is limited. One of the most important parameters is the lignin content, which has to be dissolved, this requires a significant residence time. The residual lignin in the resulting pulp after the process is measured in the form of Kappa number. Inappropriate application of cooking chemicals could lead to large variations in the Kappa number, low fiber quality and other issues. Therefore continuous characterization of the feedstock material is required. One of the available methods for nondestructive characterization of feedstock material is NIR spectroscopy. Presented study is conducted in order to assess the possibility of determining lignin content using NIR method. The spectroscopy workflow consist of four major steps i.e. sample preparation, spectral data acquisition, data pre-processing and multivariate calibration. We used test samples from 13 different tree species, which were tested in the form of wood chips, pulverized wood and mixture of both. Acquired spectral data were pre-processed mainly by second derivative and standard normal variate transformation. PLS regression with full cross validation was used for the development of a calibration model based on selected wavelengths. Acquisition of reference variable has been done according to standardized procedures and it represents the total amount of lignin in the sample.

    The results of lignin characterization in feedstock material by NIR are very promising. The resulting PLS regressionmodel includes 2-factors and uses 16 predicting variables, resulting in R2 = 0,975, RMSE = 0,885 wt%. In the next step, presented work will be improved by applying large amount of samples, independent validation data set and by simulation of conveyor belt movements. The objective of this research is to test the NIR method at a real pulp digester, in order to improve monitoring andoptimization of the process. Furthermore, continuous characterization of the feedstock materials is intended to be used for the improvement of the control process. The measured lignin content will be compared to the content calculated within the pulp digester physical model and the Kappa number. This will be used for improving the digester physical model accuracy and as an input to advanced model based control, where the correlation will be made not only to lignin content but also with the feedstock material reactivity.

    Ladda ner (pdf)
    attachment
  • 77.
    Skvaril, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Multivariate analysis models for wood properties combined with Open Modelica model for process performance monitoring2015Ingår i: IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), 2015, Vol. 48:1, s. 898-899Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    To perform advanced model based control it is important to know what is fed into a system such as a waste or biomass fired boiler or a pulp digester. In this paper, we present correlations between the lignin content of different types of wood chips and their Near-infrared (NIR) spectra. The Principal Component Regression (PCR) method is used for deriving the correlation, as well as selecting certain wave lengths. Analysis is made including different parts of the spectra in the wave length range 700 – 2500 nm. The model is then used as input to an Open Modelica pulp digester model to tune the reactivity constant of the dissolution of lignin. The lignin content of wood-chips is determined on-line through the NIR measurement at the feed to the digester. Simulations are carried out to determine the content of residual lignin on fibers at the exit (continuous digester) or at the end of a cook (batch digester). By comparing the deviation between predicted values and actual measured values the reactivity constant of the lignin is determined. The regression can be made to the NIR spectrum aside of the lignin content as such. The original content of lignin together with reactivity may then be used for optimized on-line control of the digester. It can also be used for diagnostic purposes with regard to process issues like hang-ups or channeling, as well as possible sensor faults and data reconciliation.

  • 78.
    Skvaril, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Rapid Determination of Selected Compounds in Waste-based Fuel by Near Infrared Spectroscopy2015Ingår i: Book of abstracts, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Composition of the waste-based fuel intended for incineration has substantial effect on combustion process performance and formation of environmentally harmful emissions. Fuel composition vary significantly depending on the material source, waste sorting and recycling procedures and other waste pretreatment methods. In general, it typically contains paper, plastics, wood, textile, other organic material and further undesired substances including glass and metals. The knowledge of actual composition of the material fed into the boiler is limited to the direct or indirect continuous moisture content measurements and periodic fuel sampling providing elementary composition. This information is not sufficient for process control and performance optimization, particularly when considering strongly heterogeneous fuel feed. Therefore a rapid and reliable technique for fuel characterization is needed.The work presented here is focused to the quantitative determination of selected plastic materials and glass content. Incomplete combustion of different plastics may lead to the formation of carbon monoxide, hydrogen-cyanides, acid compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons etc. If the waste contains chlorine then highly chlorinated polycyclic compounds such as dioxins and furans may be formed. Plastics often contain flame retardants which can also contribute to production of harmful emissions. On the other hand, the highly corrosive deposits of alkali chlorides and other compounds may be formed on the heat exchangers, this lowers the heat transfer and boiler efficiency and decrease life-time of the equipment. Moreover, increased content of glass in the fuel supports the formation of agglomerates in the fuel bed, defluidization of the bed or ash removal problems which result in malfunction or failure of the combustion equipment.Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy can be used for non-destructive quantitative determination of plastics and glass in waste-based fuel. Experimental work was performed on two types of spectrophotometers i.e. grating and Fourier transform instruments. Samples of known content of glass and different plastics were placed on a moving tray that reciprocated horizontally back and forth underneath the NIR sensor. This was done in order to replicate online application where the NIR spectrophotometer is places above the conveyor belt that transport the fuel to the boiler.Spectra were recorded in the range between 700 and 2500 nm. Acquired spectral data were pretreated with different methods such as normalization, scatter correction, smoothing, first and second derivative (Savitzky-Golay algorithm), selection of different spectral ranges and its combinations. Mathematical models to estimate content of glass and different plastics were constructed using Partial Least Square Regression (PLS-R) and Principle component regression (PCR) statistical methods. Different combinations of spectrophotometer type, pre-treatment methods and statistical methods were evaluated in order to find the model with the best prediction performance.Results prove the potential of the method to quantitatively determine the content of different types of plastics as well as glass with reasonable prediction accuracy. The ultimate goal of this research is to test the method at a real industrial boiler in order to improve process monitoring and control.

    Ladda ner (pdf)
    attachment
  • 79.
    Skvaril, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Utilization of Near Infrared (NIR) Spectrometry for Detection of Glass in the Waste-based Fuel2015Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, s. 734-741Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of experimental measurements and multivariate statistical modeling concerning detection of soda-lime glass using near infrared (NIR) spectrometry technique. The purpose is to test if the glass is quantitatively detectable in a waste-based material and to assess what method of spectral data pretreatment is the most suitable in order to develop prediction models. The experiments were performed on six test samples containing a specific amount of glass distributed in background material. Pretreatment methods such as normalization and first and second derivatives were applied on the acquired absorbance spectral data. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed in order to describe the relationship between pretreated data and the amount of glass in the test samples. Subsequently, principal component regression (PCR) was utilized for the development of prediction models. The results from the models show strong correlation between the pretreated data and the glass content. The most promising results were obtained from the model based on 1st derivative pretreatment when only absorbance spectral data from selected wavelengths are included. 

  • 80.
    Svensson, Kalle
    et al.
    SLU, Sweden.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Pell, Mikael
    SLU, Sweden.
    The fertilizing effect of compost and anaerobic digestion residues from source separated household waste.2003Ingår i: Biological Processing of Organics: Advances for a Sustainable Society., 2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 81.
    Svensson, Kalle
    et al.
    SLU.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Pell, Mikael
    SLU.
    The fertilizing effect of compost and anaerobic residues from source separated household waste2004Ingår i: Journal of Agricultural Science, ISSN 0021-8596, E-ISSN 1469-5146, Vol. 142, nr 4, s. 461-467Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 82.
    Thorin, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Nordlander, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Kastensson, Jan
    Mercatus Engineering AB.
    Leksell, Niklas
    Svensk Växtkraft AB.
    Pettersson, Carl-Magnus
    Svensk Växtkraft AB.
    Performance Optimization of the Växtkraft Biogas Production Plant2011Ingår i: ICAE2011 - International Conference on Applied Energy, 2011, s. 1833-1844Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    All over the world there is a strong interest and also potential for biogas production fromorganic residues as well as from different crops. However, to be commercially competitive withother types of fuels, efficiency improvements of the biogas production process are needed. In this paper the results of the project BioGasOpt, Performance optimization of the Växtkraft biogas production plant and surrounding system, are summarized. The project is performed in cooperation between Mälardalen University, the biogas plant Svensk Växtkraft AB, the membrane filtration company Mercatus Engineering AB and the farm Nibble Lantbruk AB.

    In the Växtkraft biogas plant organic wastes from households and restaurants are mixed and digested with crops from graze land. Four areas of importance for the performance of the plant are addressed in the BioGasOpt project: treatment of the feed material to enhance the fermentation rate, transport performance of gas and nutrients in the reactor, limitation of the ballast of organics in the water stream recirculated in the process, and use of the biogas plant residues at farms.

    The results indicate a potential to increase the biogas yield from the process with up to 40 % with pre-treatment of the feed and including membrane filtration in the process. The possibilities to improve the mixing in the digester also show a significant potential for even higher biogas yields. Modelling of the biogas process for better process control is also identified as a possible way to further improve the biogas yield. However, model development taking into account what input data is possible to get at a biogas plant in operation is needed.

    Further, the results from the project show that the residues from biogas production can be used as fertilizers but that the emission of N2O from the fertilised soil is dependent on the soil type and spreading technology.

  • 83.
    Thorin, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Nordlander, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Kastensson, Jan
    Mercatus Engineering AB.
    Leksell, Niklas
    Svensk Växtkraft AB.
    Pettersson, Carl-Magnus
    Svensk Växtkraft AB.
    Performance optimization of the Växtkraft biogas production plant2012Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 97, s. 503-508Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    All over the world there is a strong interest and also potential for biogas production from organic residues as well as from different crops. However, to be commercially competitive with other types of fuels, efficiency improvements of the biogas production process are needed. In this paper, results of improvements studies done on a full scale co-digestion plant are presented

     

    In the plant organic wastes from households and restaurants are mixed and digested with crops from graze land. The areas for improvements of the plant addressed are treatment of the feed material to enhance the digestion rate, limitation of the ballast of organics in the water stream recirculated in the process, and use of the biogas plant residues at farms. Results from previous studies on pre-treatment and membrane filtration of recirculated process water are combined for estimation of the total improvement potential. Further, the possibility to use neural networks to predict biogas production using historical data from the full-scale biogas plant was investigated. Results from investigation of using the process residues as fertilizer are also presented.

     

    The results indicates a potential to increase the biogas yield from the process with up to over  30 % with pre-treatment of the feed and including membrane filtration in the process. Neural networks have the potential to be used for prediction of biogas production. Further, it is shown that the residues from biogas production can be used as fertilizers but that the emission of N2O from the fertilised soil is dependent on the soil type and spreading technology.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 84.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    The impact of consumers' feedback preferences on domestic electricity consumption2012Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 93, nr SI, s. 575-582Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite all initiatives introduced for maximizing energy savings domestic energy consumption is in constant increase. However, very little investigation has been carried out on the integration of household' consumption trends, the parameters influencing them and the characteristics of the provided feedback. 2000 Swedish households were included in this study. Electricity consumption data for apartments and houses has been analyzed for a 4 year period as well as possible household socio-economic factors affecting it. The data has been further compared to other households located in different cities in Sweden. The effects of the different ways of presenting feedback used for the different households groups have also been evaluated. From the results obtained from the questionnaire used, several households' characteristics were proposed together with consumers' preferences to be considered during the development of feedback. Web based feedback resulted in being the most effective (when compared to display and bills), achieving electricity savings of approximately 15% within households that visited the web-site. The monthly income is amongst the most influential factors determining electricity consumption although only in high and low income groups

12 51 - 84 av 84
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf