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  • 51.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    The Effect of Air Velocity on Heat Release Rate and Fire Development during Fires in Tunnels2008Inngår i: Fire Safety Science, 2008, 2008, s. 701-712Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Model scale fire tests using wood cribs of different porosity in a ventilated tunnel are presented. The study focuses on the effect of air velocity on maximum Heat Release Rate (HRR) and fire growth rate. To study the influence of different parameters, free burn tests and fire tests inside a model-scale tunnel were performed. The tunnel was 10 m long, the widths used were 0.3 m, 0.45 m, and 0.6 m and the heights used were 0.25 m and 0.4 m. If compared to a normal traffic tunnel, these measures can correspond to a tunnel with a scale of 1:20. The tests show that for a higher porosity wood crib and higher velocities than 0.45 m/s an increasing ventilation rate increases the maximum HRR in the range of 1.3 to 1.7 timesthe value measured outside the tunnel under ambient conditions. For the lower porosity wood crib and higher velocities, the corresponding increase in the maximum HRR was 1.8 and 2.0, respectively. When compared to ambient conditions inside the tunnel based mass loss rate, this increase was found lower. For all cases when the velocity was 0.22 m/s and the low ceiling height was used, the ratio was found to be lower than one. This was not the case when high ceiling height was used. For the case with a velocity of 0.67 m/s, the fire growth rate increased by a factor of 5-10 times the free burn case. The value depends on the dimensions of the tunnel cross section. Copyright © 2008 International Association For FireSafety Science.

  • 52.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    The Influence of Tunnel Cross Section on Temperatures and Fire Development2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During a fire in a tunnel, the temperature is a crucial parameter for the occupants of the tunnel, for the ability of the rescue service to approach the fire, and for the tunnel structure. Therefore, it is of importance to be able to derive information on temperature development and the maximum temperature for different fire scenarios and tunnels with different heights and widths. Fire tests in a model-scale tunnel have been performed to study the effect of the width and height of a tunnel on the gas temperature inside a tunnel during a fire. The model-scale tunnel was 10 m long. The widths used were 0.3 m, 0.45 m, and 0.6 m and the heights 0.25 m and 0.4 m.  Fire tests with heptane and wood cribs, respectively, were performed. There was an effect on the gas temperature of the tunnel dimension, generally decreasing temperature with increasing dimensions, even if the effect varied at different positions in the tunnel and the effect in some positions was relatively small. Also, the effect in the vicinity of the fire was opposite to the effect further downstream of the fire.

  • 53.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    The Safety and Security of Underground Hubs as an Emerging Risks Representative2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2008, the EU-project ”Early Recognition, Monitoring and Integrated Management of Emerging, New Technology Related Risks (iNTeg-Risk)” started. It focuses on the problem of emerging risks, i.e. the identification of risks that might emerge through the use of future applications. To ensure acceptance of technologies and products within EU there is a need of finding an agreed way to deal with emerging risks. The main objective of iNTeg-Risk is to improve the management of safety related to emerging risks.

    Selected case studies will be used to reach the iNTeg-Risk vision of a new concept for integrated management of industrial safety. It will be based on a unified set of methods for risk management and a new common language. The case studies, called Emerging Risks Representative (industrial) Applications (ERRA), will include both technology development and risk methodology development. The work on each selected ERRA should lead to the development of reference solutions, reference documents, methods, and tools. One such ERRA deals with the Safety and Security of underground hubs with interconnected transportation services and shopping centres. In the paper the ERRA on underground hubs is presented together with a description of the included activities and the application of the Emerging Risk Management Framework (ERMF) and the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) framework. Objects to be analysed are for example different fire loads, escape routes or air supply ducts.

  • 54.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Brandteknik.
    Öppningar i vägg och tak styr hur brand sprids2009Inngår i: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, nr 3, s. 18-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 55.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Letalick, Dietmar
    Larsson, Håkan
    Ingason, Haukur
    Measurement with Laser Radar during Fire Experiments in a Tunnel2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The conditions during a fire in a tunnel can become very severe due to flames and dense smoke. The rescue service may have difficulties to find tunnel occupants in need of assistance. IR cameras are often used to find occupants, but they have limitations. It maybe very problematic to bypass or see through flames with IR cameras. Therefore, it is of interest to develop other methods that may solve the problem of optically seeing through flames.

    Fire tests were performed where the ability of different systems to register a target(blasted aluminium bucket) behind a fire was evaluated. During the measurements three different types of optical instruments were added to the test set-up: 1) a system for gated viewing (GV), Aqua Lynx, 2) a 3D laser scanner, ILRIS-3D (ILRIS), and 3) a thermovision camera (THV), ThermaCam® SC2000. A DV camera was also used forvisual documentation.

    The tests show that the gated viewing system had problems registering the target whenthe smoke became dense. Some improvement could be made by optimising the setting of detector parameters, etc. However, the gated viewing system needs to be set to a specific distance which is a limitation.

    The 3D laser radar (scanner) proved to be able to see through smoke, provided it was not too dense, and flames and was in that sense better at detecting the target than both the thermal vision system and the visual technique of the DV camera. This means that this system should have the ability to help the rescue services in situation where the IRcameras or visual aids have limitations.

  • 56.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Lindström, Johan
    Li, Y. Z.
    Claesson, Alexander
    Kumm, Mia
    Ingason, Haukur
    Full-scale fire tests with a commuter train in a tunnel2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Three large scale fire tests were performed with a commuter train inside a tunnel. Two of

    the tests used an ignition source inside the train carriage and in one test a pool fire was

    placed under the carriage. Both tests wire a fire initiated inside the carriage developed to

    flashover conditions. The difference between the two cases was that in one test a standard

    X1 carriage was used, while in the second case an X1 carriage was refurbished with more

    modern seats and a non-combustible aluminium lining on the walls and in the ceiling. The

    time to flashover was significantly different between the two test cases. In the test with

    the original seats and linings (test 2) the maximum heat release rate (HRR) was 76.7 MW

    and occurred 12.7 min after ignition. The maximum HRR in the case where more modern

    seats and aluminium lining were used (test 3), was 77.4 MW and occurred after 117.9

    min. For these HRR calculations, the maximum gas temperature near the tunnel ceiling

    was used. The corresponding HRR calculated with oxygen consumption calorimetry was

    approximately 75 MW in test 3. Based on the temperature measurements in the carriage,

    the carriage was flashed over after 12 min in test 2 and after 119 min in test 3.

    The main reason for the difference was the difference in initial combustion behaviour

    between the case with combustible wall and ceiling lining, and the case with noncombustible

    (aluminium) lining as the exposed interior surface. In the case with

    combustible lining a ceiling flame was developed, radiating towards the seats and the

    luggage spreading the fire more rapidly than in the case without exposed combustible

    lining.

    The maximum HRR calculated from the experimental results are significantly higher than

    those obtained in other documented test series. The luggage in, under or between different

    seats was found to increase the fire spread significantly in both cases. This conclusion

    was drawn from other tests performed within the same project prior to the full-scale tests

    which are reported in full elsewhere.

  • 57.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Lindström, Johan
    Li, Y. Z.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Kumm, Mia
    Large-scale Commuter Train Tests - Results from the METRO Project2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Three fire tests wereperformed under and inside commuter train carriages in a tunnel. Both tests initiatedinside the carriage developed to fully flashover conditions. The time toflashover was significantly different between the two cases. In the test with theoriginal seats and linings the maximum heat release rate (HRR) was 76.7 MW and occurred12.7 min after ignition. The maximum HRR in the case where more modern seatsand aluminium lining were used, occurred after 117.9 min. The main reason forthe difference was the difference in initial combustion behaviour between thecase with combustible wall and ceiling lining, and the case with aluminium as theexposed interior surface. In the case with combustible lining a ceiling flame wasdeveloped, radiating towards the seats and the luggage spreading the fire morequickly than in the case without exposed combustible lining. When the growthrate of the fire was rapidly increasing, a flame was observed at the ceiling.The maximum HRR calculated from the experimental results are significantlyhigher than those obtained in other documented test series. The luggage in,under or between different seats is presumed to increase the fire spreadsignificantly in both cases. This was obvious from results performed within thesame project prior to the full-scale tests.

  • 58.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Vylund, Lotta
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Palm, Anders
    Storstockholms Brandförsvar, Sweden.
    Palmkvist, Krister
    Södra Älvsborgs Räddningstjänstförbund, Sweden.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Fridolf, Karl
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Rekommendationer för räddningsinsatser i undermarksanläggningar2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The report contains recommendations for firefighting in underground facilities. This implies results from a research project and the recommendations are based on case studies, interviews, experiments and discussion with different fire departments. The recommendations are structured in accordance to the time period of the actual incident occurrence or the time period during which some specific measures are taken. These periods are project period, construction phase and finally when the facility is in operation. The recommendations are based on the work in the TMU project (Tactics and methodologies for firefighting in underground facilities), results from other research projects and experience from real fire and rescue operations.  

  • 59.
    Nyman, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Temperature stratification in tunnels2012Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 48, nr 1, s. 30-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation of previously established correlations between gas temperature distribution and smoke stratification in mines has been carried out for tunnel applications. The investigated correlations are based on excess gas temperature ratios and Froude number scaling. This paper describes a comparison between two large scale tests carried out in a road tunnel and two well defined model scale tests. In each of the tests, a longitudinal flow was maintained. The temperature data obtained at different locations and different heights have been used for the comparison. A good correspondence between the experimental data and the correlations has been found when the gas temperature data were used. However, the correspondence between the previously established correlation of gas temperature stratification and Froude number, was not reliable. It is postulated that the main reason for this may be the way the experiments were carried out. New correlations between the temperature stratification and the Froude number are also explored.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 60.
    Palm, Anders
    et al.
    Greater Stockholm Fire Brigade, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Fire Res, SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, Borås, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden..
    Full Scale Firefighting Tests in the Tistbrottet Mine2016Inngår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 1519-1537Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes full-scale fire-fighting tests performed in an underground mine. A total of six different methods to fight a full scale fire in a mine tunnel were tested. The methods involved different fire-fighting equipment but were comparable regarding fundamental conditions such as length of response-route, fire-fighting set-up, and smoke and fire size. The aim was to compare different equipment and methods to reach and eventually extinguish the fire. Fire fighters using breathing apparatus (BA) were monitored regarding air consumption, movement speed and local actions and decisions. The results are presented and analyzed in respect to fire-fighting efficiency, front BA operations including moving speed and performed actions, as well as the time to successfully put out the fire. Measurements of heat release rates, temperatures and moving speeds are given in order to quantify the efficiency of the operation. Results indicate that a timespan of 15-30 min is needed for the firefighters to reach the fire source and achieve the extinguishing criteria in five of the tests. The standard equipment and nozzles shows good performance in the tests. A limiting factor on the firefighter's endurance is the amount of air that is available. As a result from these findings the endurance of BA-teams could improve if focus is put on team organization, lightweight equipment and air supply.

  • 61.
    Palm, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Storstockholms brandförsvar.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Full-scale tests of alternative methods for fire fighting in underground structures2014Inngår i: Proceedings from the sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security ISTSS 2014, 2014, s. 573-582Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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