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  • 51.
    Allander, Karl
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för innovation, design och produktutveckling.
    Svanberg, Jim
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för innovation, design och produktutveckling.
    Klittmark, Mattias
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för innovation, design och produktutveckling.
    Intresseväckande Animation: Utställningsmaterial för Mälsåkerprojektet2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Under sommaren 2006 öppnar Mälsåker Slott för allmänheten och ett av de planerade projekten är en multimedial utställning om norrmän som tränades där i hemlighet under andra världskriget.

    Författarna till denna rapport är alla studenter av informationsdesign, med inriktning mot illustration på Mälardalens Högskola. Då vi har ett stort intresse av animation föreföll detta projekt mycket intressant.

    Vi ingick i en projektgrupp som innefattade dataloger, textdesigners samt illustratörer. Illustratörernas del av projektet var att skapa det visuella materialet på ett intresseväckande sätt. I rapporten undersöks möjliga lösningar för animation, manér, bilddramaturgi samt de tekniska förutsättningar som krävs för att skapa ett lyckat slutresultat. Rapporten beskriver tillvägagångssättet för att uppnå dessa mål vilket inkluderar metoder som litteraturstudier, diskussioner samt utprovningar. Utställningsformen är experimentell och arbetet har därför givit ett slutresultat som kan ses som en

    fallstudie i sig.

    Utprovningar av det färdiga materialet visar att vi efter förutsättningarna lyckats uppnå ett gott resultat. Animerat bildspel fungerar i sammanhanget bra som informativt utställningsmaterial.

  • 52.
    Allotey, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Ojeabulu, Godspower
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Potential Benefits Organizations Derive From Using Enterprise Content Management Systems: A Study of Selected Nigerian Organizations 2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Benefits Organizations derive from Using Enterprise Content Management Systems as a Business Strategy: A study of Selected Nigerian Organizations

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to critically analyze and evaluate the benefits associated with using ECMS within an organization in a developing country like Nigeria

    Method: This study is based on qualitative research using the case study and survey method.

    Target Audience: Organizations in Nigeria that are using or not using ECMS and also academic scholars and practitioners of IT

    Conclusion: The adoption or implementation of ECMS results in benefits ranging from compliance, cost reduction, return on investment, amongst others. Organizations in Nigeria that have adopted the ECMS have acquired the benefits that have been stated in this research. The findings have shown that compliance to government regulations is also a key factor in adoption of ECMS

    Keywords: Enterprise Content Management Systems (ECMS), ECMS Benefits, Cost-Benefit Analysis, ECMS Benefit framework.

  • 53.
    Alm, Kristin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för innovation, design och produktutveckling.
    Öberg, Alice
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för innovation, design och produktutveckling.
    Logotyper och företagsmärken: Att lägga märke till märkliga märken2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    C-uppsats vars huvudsyfte var att undersöka hur stor igenkänning människor har av företagsmärken utan att logotypen finns med. Genom att arbeta med både en kvalitativ och kvantitativ metod har vi fått fram våra resultat, detta genom att våra respondenter besvarade en enkät. Våra teoretiska perspektiv kommer från en blandning av olika ämnesområden, så som psykologi och informationsdesign med fördjupningar i bland annat perception, objektsigenkänning, symbolik och färgers betydelse. Genom våra undersökningar kom vi fram till att det inte finns något enkelt svar på huruvida märken känns igen eller inte. Bland våra utvalda märken var könsbundenheten låg, och ålder har viss betydelse för igenkänningen. Detta genom att äldre respondenter hade en högre igenkänning än de yngre.

  • 54.
    Almeida, Luis
    et al.
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pedreiras, Paulo
    University of Aveiro, Portugal.
    Managing end-to-end resource reservations2014Inngår i: 7th International Workshop on Compositional Theory and Technology for Real-Time Embedded Systems CRTS'14, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 55.
    Alnestig, Henrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    On the Feasibility of Low Cost Computer Vision: Building and Testing SimpleEye2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores a novel approach to the computer vision eld in the form of lowcost computer vision intended for industrial use. The system proposed in this thesis, calledSimpleEye, is implemented and tested against an existing system. Dierent approachesto object detection and data extraction from a scene, as well as common applications ofcomputer vision in the industry, are examined. Three algorithms are implemented, aimedat dierent industrial applications. These are two types of object recognition, using CannyEdge detection and connected-component labeling, as well as barcode scanning. The tests,each targeting one of the implemented approaches, show promising results for low costcomputer vision. While the system is expectedly lacking in speed, it has no diculties inachieving good result in applications which are not highly time critical. SimpleEye yieldedaccuracy and precision comparable to commercial systems, with parts costing approximately100 USD. The tests show that the system is able to function in several computer visionapplications used today, including visual servoing, blob detection, blob tracking, and barcodescanning.

  • 56.
    AL-Ramadan, Aymen
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Evaluating Bluetooth Radio for Physiological Monitoring2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, population numbers are growing, and the lifespan of the elderly is increasing. Therefore, this phenomenon requires that society commit more money, facilities, and staff for health care. The Internet of Things (IoT) can be employed to cover the financial shortfall in healthcare resources by using sensors for remote health monitoring such as the Shimmer device. The Shimmer physiological sensor is a Bluetooth-enabled radio device designed and used for monitoring various human health conditions. Using a sufficient number of the Shimmer devices with proper sampling rate can affect the provision of health and related information in realtime. Moreover, this type of sensor can sometimes be attached to the human body, which can create an inference between the sensors and the human body. The high-noise environment may also impact the sensor. This thesis reviews and analyses several scenarios in which Shimmer devices can be used by medical practitioners to offer reliable physiological measurements, such as ECG and movement. This study found that the Shimmers device can provide reliable data by using a specific configuration when the maximum number of sensors participate in a piconet network.

  • 57.
    Altmeyer, S.
    et al.
    University of Luxembourg.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Maiza, C.
    Université Grenoble Alpes, Verimag, France.
    Reineke, J.
    Saarland University, Germany.
    Rochange, C.
    University of Toulouse, France.
    WCET and mixed-criticality: What does confidence in WCET estimations depend upon?2015Inngår i: OpenAccess Series in Informatics, 2015, s. 65-74Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed-criticality systems integrate components of different criticality. Different criticality levels require different levels of confidence in the correct behavior of a component. One aspect of correctness is timing. Confidence in worst-case execution time (WCET) estimates depends on the process by which they have been obtained. A somewhat naive view is that static WCET analyses determines safe bounds in which we can have absolute confidence, while measurement-based approaches are inherently unreliable. In this paper, we refine this view by exploring sources of doubt in the correctness of both static and measurement-based WCET analysis.

  • 58.
    Ambainis, A.
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Bonner, Richard
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Freivalds, R.
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Kikuts, A.
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Probabilities to Accept Languages by Quantum Finite Automata1999Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): 5th Annual International Conference on Computing and Combinatorics, COCOON 1999; Tokyo; Japan; 26 July 1999 through 28 July 1999; Code 151649, 1999, Vol. 1627, s. 174-183Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We construct a hierarchy of regular languages such that the current language in the hierarchy can be accepted by 1-way quantum finite automata with a probability smaller than the corresponding probability for the preceding language in the hierarchy. These probabilities converge to 1/2.

  • 59.
    Ameerjan, Sharvathul Hasan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Predicting and Estimating Execution Time of Manual Test Cases - A Case Study in Railway Domain2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Testing plays a vital role in the software development life cycle by verifying and validating the software's quality. Since software testing is considered as an expensive activity and due to thelimitations of budget and resources, it is necessary to know the execution time of the test cases for an efficient planning of test-related activities such as test scheduling, prioritizing test cases and monitoring the test progress. In this thesis, an approach is proposed to predict and estimate the execution time of manual test cases written in English natural language. The method uses test specifications and historical data that are available from previously executed test cases. Our approach works by obtaining timing information from each and every step of previously executed test cases. The collected data is used to estimate the execution time for non-executed test cases by mapping them using text from their test specifications. Using natural language processing, texts are extracted from the test specification document and mapped with the obtained timing information. After estimating the time from this mapping, a linear regression analysis is used to predict the execution time of non-executed test cases. A case study has been conducted in Bombardier Transportation (BT) where the proposed method is implemented and the results are validated. The obtained results show that the predicted execution time of studied test cases are close to their actual execution time.

  • 60.
    Ameri E., Afshin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Akan, Batu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A General Framework for Incremental Processing of Multimodal Inputs2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 13th international conference on multimodal interfaces, New York: ACM Press, 2011, s. 225-228Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans employ different information channels (modalities) such as speech, pictures and gestures in their commu- nication. It is believed that some of these modalities are more error-prone to some specific type of data and therefore multimodality can help to reduce ambiguities in the interaction. There have been numerous efforts in implementing multimodal interfaces for computers and robots. Yet, there is no general standard framework for developing them. In this paper we propose a general framework for implementing multimodal interfaces. It is designed to perform natural language understanding, multi- modal integration and semantic analysis with an incremental pipeline and includes a multimodal grammar language, which is used for multimodal presentation and semantic meaning generation.

  • 61.
    Ameri Ekhtiarabadi, Afshin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Unified Incremental Multimodal Interface for Human-Robot Interaction2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Face-to-face human communication is a multimodal and incremental process. Humans employ  different information channels (modalities) for their communication. Since some of these modalities are more error-prone to specic type of data, a multimodal communication can benefit from strengths of each modality and therefore reduce ambiguities during the interaction. Such interfaces can be applied to intelligent robots who operate in close relation with humans. With this approach, robots can communicate with their human colleagues in the same way they communicate with each other, thus leading to an easier and more robust human-robot interaction (HRI).In this work we suggest a new method for implementing multimodal interfaces in HRI domain and present the method employed on an industrial robot. We show that operating the system is made easier by using this interface.

  • 62.
    Amin, Mahgol
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Kubo, Tomomi
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    KANBAN Implementation from a Change Management Perspective: A Case Study of Volvo IT2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and analyze the implementation process of KANBAN, a lean technique, into a section of Volvo IT (i.e. BEAT). The KANBAN implementation into BEAT when ‘resistance for change’ and ‘forces for change’ arise is also analyzed. This implementation of KANBAN is equivalent to change taking place in the Volvo IT’s operational process. The thesis follows theories and literature on change management and lean principles in order to support the research investigation.

    How has KANBAN, with respect to change management, been implemented into an IT organization for its service production? How has KANBAN changed the operational process of the organization?

     The research conducted in the thesis is based on qualitative case study. Focused and in-depth interviews, combined with observations, are carried out to obtain the primary data for the case study. The collected primary and secondary data stems from the literature reviewed, which covers the lean principles, KANBAN, and change management. Moreover, the thesis adopts an abductive approach that goes back-and-forth between the theory and the empirical findings in order to develop a model.

    Due to various factors already existing in the BEAT, minimal resistance to change implementation was found to be present in Volvo IT. This finding indicates that change initiatives found a way to implementation because the predominance of the ‘forces for change’, as compared to, the ‘resistance to change’ is higher in BEAT. The KANBAN implementation into the IT service production is identified to be aligned with Volvo IT’s change implementation objectives. The visualization of the ‘intangible service’ workflow on the Kanban board contributes to identify the source of bottlenecks, which has been removed through effective communication in the BEAT team and better linkages between tasks. The KANBAN effectively deals with change implementation by modifying the way team members work.

  • 63.
    Andersson, Carina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Informationsdesign i tillståndsövervakning: En studie av ett bildskärmsbaserat användargränssnitt för tillståndsövervakning och tillståndsbaserat underhåll2010Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This research concerns the information design and visual design of graphical user interfaces (GUI) in the condition monitoring and condition-based maintenance (CBM) of production equipment. It also concerns various communicative aspects of a GUI, which is used to monitor the condition of assets. It applies to one Swedish vendor and its intentions to design information. In addition, it applies to the interaction between the GUI and its individual visual elements, as well as the communication between the GUI and the users (in four Swedish paper mills).

    The research is performed as a single case study. Interviews and observations have been the main methods for data collection. Empirical data is analyzed with methods inferred to semiotics, rhetoric and narratology. Theories in information science and regarding remediation are used to interpret the user interface design.

    The key conclusion is that there are no less than five different forms of information, all important when determining the conditions of assets. These information forms include the words, images and shapes in the GUI, the machine components and peripherals equipment, the information that takes form when personnel communicate machine conditions, the personnel’s subjective associations, and the information forms that relate to the personnel's actions and interactions.

    Preventive technicians interpret the GUI-information individually and collectively in relation to these information forms, which influence their interpretation and understanding of the GUI information. Social media in the GUI makes it possible to represent essential information that takes form when employees communicate a machine’s condition. Photographs may represent information forms as a machine’s components, peripherals, and local environment change over time. Moreover, preventative technicians may use diagrams and photographs in the GUI to change attitudes among the personnel at the mills and convince them, for example, of a machine’s condition or the effectiveness of CBM as maintenance policy.

  • 64.
    Andersson, Edvin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Dataöverföring av skilda datatyper på gemensam länk via multiplexing2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    När olika datatyper överförs mellan två platser har, historiskt sett, detta skett på skildinfrastruktur; analoga signaler för sig, och digitala data för sig. Inom flygindustrin hanteras båda dessa datatyper än idag, då övergång från analoga röstsamtal till digitala röstsamtal tar tid. För att förenkla infrastrukturen är det önskvärt att skicka all data på samma medium. Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) möjliggör detta och har studerats med fokus på robusthet och prestanda. Studien har fokuserat på hur TDM-enheter ska konfigureras med avseende på Ethernet-frame-storlek för att till fullo utnyttja länkkapaciteten. Teoretiska resonemang har validerats av experimentella data som utförts på TDM-enheter sammankopplade med en fiberlänk. Antalet förlorade frames för systemet har mätts med varierande datatillförselshastighet. Detta upprepades för ett flertal Ethernet-frame-storlekar. Mindre frame-storlekar gav en högre möjlig överföringshastighet innan data förloras, och uppvisade koherens mellan teori och experiment. Stora frame-storlekar fyllde i snitt TDM-tidsluckorna sämre, och gjorde att databuffert på enheten fylldes snabbare än för mindre framstorlekar. Detta ledde till dataförluster i systemet. Andra faktorer, som overhead och payload, gjorde att framestorleken borde väljas efter applikation. Mindre datamängder som skickas ofta kan med fördel använda mindre frame-storlekar, medan stora datamängder som behöveröverföras snabbt effektivare överförs med större frame-storlekar.

  • 65.
    Andersson, Filip
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pantzar, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Development of a mobile solution for delivering price quotes in the construction industry2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid growth of the mobile consumer market has influenced companies to make their workplace digital and mobile, with the goal to remove ties to a physical workplace, increase productivity, and trivialize tedious tasks. The construction industry is in need of modernization; it is a competitive market and to get a contract it is vital to provide a reasonable price quote fast.This bachelor thesis was performed together with Byggwalle AB in Västerås with the objective to create a mobile solution for price quotes, based on an earlier experimental prototype.

    This thesis will look at how the manual price quote creation process can be sped up and made more transparent to build up trust between the companies and the customers. It will also look at the choices made when developing a mobile application for the construction industry, how to make it flexible enough to fit different kinds of businesses, and look at how the data is administrated using a web based administration system.

    The result of this thesis is a promotional prototype, which sped up the delivery of price quotes from 3 weeks to 3 hours, and will be distributed to selected companies for further testing in the near future. We hope that this product can change the way business is done in construction industry.

  • 66.
    Andersson, Jennie
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Fridell, Niklas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
     E-freight Effektivisering av fraktflygbranschen genom elektronisk dokumenthantering2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 67.
    Andersson, Jennie
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Palmgren, Marianne
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Visionary Expectations and Novice Designers: Prototyping in Design Education2017Inngår i: Design and Technology Education: An International Journal, ISSN 1360-1431, E-ISSN 2040-8633, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 1-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In information design education, we strive to find methods that provide students with opportunities to explore different ways of learning and designing. We seek to support development of contextual competences that will be helpful in navigating an unknown future of design in society. A challenge in today's design education is to formulate and use methods that support design students in developing competencies in the space between basic form training and context-rich training. The aim of this study was to evaluate prototyping exercises in design education where the focus was in that in-between space. The study is based on 33 prototyping workshops done between 2008 and 2015 and involving 160 students and two design teachers. Four different approaches to prototyping exercises are described, examined and evaluated: "spatial prototyping," "multi-material prototyping," "physical prototyping," and a mix between the latter two, "physical multi-material prototyping." The results show that the prototyping exercises did support the learning of diverse competencies in the in-between space of basic form training and context training. However, the exercises were also counterproductive and met with different kinds of resistance. The results of the study invite to a dialogue on how different prototyping techniques can stimulate learning in relation to future design competences.

  • 68.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Hansen, Patricia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Abdulla, Nariman
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Användbarhet på Mälardalens Högskolas nya webbplats2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Problem: Användbarhet på akademiska webbplatser är viktigt trots att de inte är utsatta för konkurrens på samma sätt som andra typer av webbplatser. Dagens teknik underlättar utformningen av en webbplats, men bara för att tekniken finns för att enkelt göra en webbplats innebär det inte automatiskt att den blir användbar. Utvärderingar av användbarhet ur användarens synvinkel är viktiga och kan göras tidigt och kontinuerligt genom hela utvecklingsprocessen. När webbplatsen har tagits i bruk kan det vara av intresse för den som förvaltar webbplatsen att göra en ny utvärdering av vad användarna tycker om användbarheten på webbplatsen.

    Syfte: Syftet är att undersöka och analysera vad studenterna vid Mälardalens högskola anser om den nya webbplatsens användbarhet samt att ta reda på om ytterligare förbättringar kan göras.

    Metod: Undersökningen genomfördes med hjälp en enkät med 19 slutna och en öppen fråga. Frågorna i enkäten var baserade på en heuristisk utvärderingsmetod med användbarhets¬principer som utarbetats av Jakob Nielsen. I denna undersökning har principerna kompletterats med olika anpassningar, för webbplatser, för att kunna utforma en modell som kan tillämpas för att utvärdera användbarhet på Mälardalens högskola nya webbplats.

    Resultat: Resultatet i undersökningen visar att det är svårt att dra någon generell slutsats om studenterna anser att användbarheten på webbplatsen är bra eller dålig. Inom vissa principer anser studenterna att användbarheten är mycket bra och inom andra principer är användbarheten sämre, vilket gör att det är svårt att ge ett enhetligt betyg till webbplatsen med avseende på användbarhet. Av de 19 frågor som fanns med i enkäten var det 13 som översteg 67 procent positiva svar vilket vi har tolkat som ett godkänt resultat för webbplatsen.

  • 69.
    Andersson, Rodny
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Gränssnittsanayls av en mobilapplikation mot alkoholmissbruk2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle finns det flera typer av missbruk, ett av det vanligaste är alkoholmissbruk. Alkoholmissbruk har stora negativa effekter för individen men även för samhället. Det är därför viktigt att hitta effektiva metoder för att behandla alkoholmissbruk. Två metoder som används för att skapa en beteendeförändring hos missbrukarna är medicin och konsultation. På senare tid har ett nytt verktyg inom området börjat användas, nämligen mobilapplikationer. De mobilapplikationer vars mål är att skapa en beteendeförändring kan använda sig av designprinciper från ramverket Persuasive systemdesign (PSD). I den här studien har gränssnittet för applikationen Previct Task varit i fokus. Applikationen används som ett verktyg i kombination med att patienten har kontakt med en vårdgivare. Syftet med studien var att få fram ett designförslag som kan öka motivationen hos användarna jämfört med det nuvarande gränssnittet. Resultatet kan användas som riktlinjer för hur gränssnitt för applikationer som ska behandla alkoholmissbruk kan designas. För att få ett resultat har det nuvarande gränssnittet utvärderats genom en heuristisk utvärdering. De viktigaste designprinciperna från PSD och funktionerna i gränssnittet har även identifierats av användarna och vårdgivarna. Resultatet visar att designprinciperna Self-monitoring, Praise, Rewards och Trustworthiness var viktigast för att användarna skulle bli motiverade. Det nuvarande gränssnittet uppfyllde delvis designprinciperna, men jag kunde se att designprinciperna kunde förbättras. Slutsatsen av undersökningen var att applikationens idé var bra men att applikationens struktur och utförande behöver förbättras för att användarna ska känna sig mer motiverade.

  • 70.
    Andersson, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Carlstedt, Gustav
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Automated Testing of Robotic Systems in Simulated Environments2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With the simulations tools available today, simulation can be utilised as a platform for more advanced software testing. By introducing simulations to software testing of robot controllers, the motion performance testing phase can begin at an earlier stage of development. This would benefit all parties involved with the robot controller. Testers at ABB would be able to include more motion performance tests to the regression tests. Also, ABB could save money by adapting to simulated robot tests and customers would be provided with more reliable software updates. In this thesis, a method is developed utilising simulations to create a test set for detecting motion anomalies in new robot controller versions. With auto-generated test cases and a similarity analysis that calculates the Hausdorff distance for a test case executed on controller versions with an induced artificial bug. A test set has been created with the ability to detect anomalies in a robot controller with a bug.

  • 71.
    Andersson, Tobias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Johansson, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A closer look and comparison of cross-platform development environment for smartphones2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A problem with having a fast and wide production of different platforms for mobile devices is that you can’t code for one and deploy on all devices at the same time. This thesis is focused on cross-plat1form development environments for smartphones and mainly to see what options there are on the market. This report will investigate how well a cross-compiler solution compares to hybrid cross-platform development. To do this we took a closer look at their architecture and then compared this with the results from different tests made. All the tests were made on the same smartphone to ensure fairness between them. All the tests strive to be as equal as possible even though the languages might differ from each other. The tested frameworks were PhoneGap, Qt, Unity3D and GameMaker. The different tests were about performance, power consumption, difficulty in accessing web browsers to perform HTML parsing and lastly to see if the platforms can access different native APIs such as the camera and accelerometer. The previously mentioned topics were compared between all the frameworks. We also compared the documentation found on their webpage to figure out which is the easiest to get started on.

  • 72.
    Andersson, Victoria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Touch gestures for process graphics2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this thesis was to explore and find ways to implement touch gestures in the context of process automation, with the limitation to one specific use case found suitable for touch interaction for ABB’s distributed control system called System 800xA. The typical way to handle the data in System 800xA today is to show and control it through the so called process graphics. It is possible to do this on a touch device today, but the current graphical user interface focus on mouse and keyboard interaction. Because of this some of the common design elements and interaction cues that are in use right now are less suitable when running the system on a touch device. Important characteristics for the process graphics to have for an efficient and delightful user experience when interacting with the system on a touch device were therefore also investigated. To understand if, and if so when and how, an industrial process control system could benefit from touch interaction a PACT analysis was done as a first step. This PACT analysis was then used as a basis for how 15 use cases and their suitability for touch were evaluated. A combination of two out of these 15 use cases were found to be a suitable aim for a prototype that was created. These two use cases involved navigation and controlling of the system and were found suitable for several reasons, including the fact that they are common use cases for when touch interaction with the system is used today. Therefor these two use cases in combination was chosen as the target use case. To find which gestures that were suitable for this use case, an exploratory test was performed where the participants were allowed to show what gestures they perceived as suitable for different tasks that the use case could involve. The findings from these user tests were that the gestures should be kept simple, often only require one hand and one finger usage. Based on these findings, a high-fidelity prototype was implemented on a tablet called Surface Pro. As a way to evaluate the implementation of the high-fidelity prototype an assessment test was conducted. The results from the assessment test indicates that while it is important to adjust the system for touch interaction, by for example use elements in suitable sizes and provide functions adapted for touch interaction, it is also important to replicate the current system where it is possible.

  • 73.
    Andrade, Hugo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Software Product Line Architectures: Reviewing the Literature and Identifying Bad Smells2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Software Product Line (SPL) paradigm has proven to be an effective way to achieve large scale reuse in different domains. It takes advantage of common aspects between different products, while also considering product specific features. The architecture plays an important role in SPL engineering, by providing means to better understand and maintain the product-derivation environment. However, it is difficult to evolve such architecture because it is not always clear where and how to refactor. The contribution of this thesis is twofold. First, the current state of the art of software Product Line Architectures (PLAs) is investigated through a systematic mapping study. It provides an overview of the field through the analysis, and categorization of evidence. The study identifies gaps, trends and provides future directions for research. Furthermore, this thesis addresses the phenomenon of architectural bad smells in the context of SPLs. A case study provides an investigation on the implications of such structural properties in a variability-based environment. Prior to the search for smells, the architecture of a sample SPL in the text editor domain is recovered from the source code.

  • 74.
    Andreas, Granholm
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A migration method for legacy mobile applications2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Developing cross-platform mobile applications as well as migrating existing native applications to other platforms are complex tasks where developers have to face numerous issues. In this thesis we analyze challenges and existing approaches related to cross-platform development and focus specifically on the migration of existing native mobile applications to other platforms. The purpose is to explore existing approaches to cross-platform mobile application development and define whether and how these approaches can be used for migration of legacy applications. As result, a generic method for migrating legacy applications to other platforms has been developed. In order to provide a proof-of-concept, the migration method has been applied to a case-study in industrial settings where the legacy applications were developed for windows 8.1 tablets. The chosen cross-platform development tool for migration in the case-study was Xamarin and a prototype for the platforms Android and iOS were implemented.

  • 75.
    Angarita Soto, Angie
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Design Philosophy for User Friendly Parameter Handler2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    DCU2 (Drive Control Unit 2) is an important control system used in applications for train systems that are configured by a set of parameters. Traditionally, parameterization is conducted by using an excel workbook during the software development. The parameters are set up and further export the parameters to the compilation step. Such approach has a number of disadvantages, e.g., delays on the validation and verification steps, system configuration overhead, and suboptimal system reliability generated by the parameter configurations.

    To improve the parameterization process, this thesis implements a model-based software architecture approach and automotive industry standards via rapid prototyping by using scrum methodology. We do this by using Matlab/Simulink, TDL (Time Description Language) and UML (Unified Modeling Language) architectural description languages to enable different views of the software architecture. We then develop different prototypes that implement ASAM (Association for Standardization of Automation and Measuring Systems) standards like XCP protocol over Ethernet (code ASAM MCD-1 XCP V1.1.0) and ASAP2 (code ASAM MCD-2 MC) in every scrum sprint. An evaluation then shows that the thesis successfully implements previously defined standards that use commercial tools from e.g., Vector, proving that the parameter‟s unit control can be handled via online calibration and measurement, leading to a significant improvement in Bombardier‟s software development process in a distributed development environment.

  • 76.
    Angelopoulos, Konstantinos
    et al.
    University of Brighton.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Lund University.
    Souza, Vitor E. Silva
    Mylopoulos, John
    University of Toronto.
    Model Predictive Control for Software Systems with CobRA2016Inngår i: SEAMS '16 Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems, Austin, Texas, United States: ACM , 2016, s. 35-46Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-adaptive software systems monitor their operation and adapt when their requirements fail due to unexpected phenomena in their environment. This paper examines the case where the environment changes dynamically over time and the chosen adaptation has to take into account such changes. In control theory, this type of adaptation is known as Model Predictive Control and comes with a well-developed theory and myriads of successful applications. The paper focuses on modelling the dynamic relationship between requirements and possible adaptations. It then proposes a controller that exploits this relationship to optimize the satisfaction of requirements relative to a cost-function. This is accomplished through a model-based framework for designing self-adaptive software systems that can guarantee a certain level of requirements satisfaction over time, by dynamically composing adaptation strategies when necessary. The proposed framework is illustrated and evaluated through a simulation of the Meeting-Scheduling System exemplar.

  • 77.
    Aravind, Meera
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Event-Based Messaging Architecture for Vehicular Internet of Things (IoT) Platforms2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) has revolutionized transportation systems by connecting vehicles consequently enabling their tracking, as well as monitoring of driver activities. The IoT platform for most vehicles typically consists of 1) an on-board system consisting of the communication unit, sensors and a set of ECU’s that are interconnected using a CAN network, 2) an off-board system consisting of the applications deployed on the servers (e.g., cloud) that processes the data send by the communication unit over the internet, and 3) mobile devices like a mobile phone or a computer that communicates with the on-board and off-board systems. Such an IoT platform requires a significant amount of data to be send from the on-board system to the off-board servers, contributing to high network usage. There are two main architectural paradigms for sending data: 1) interval based architecture, in which data is send at regular intervals and 2) event based architecture, in which data is send whenever relevant events occur. Currently, (e.g., at Scania), the data is being send at regular intervals, i.e., using an interval based approach. In this case, data is send even if it is not relevant for reporting leading to a wastage of network resources, e.g., when the data does not change considerably compared to the previously sent value. Sending data in an event-based manner, when the data is relevant for reporting, e.g., changes significantly, reduces the network usage when compared to the interval based approach.  In this thesis, we investigate the possibility of using an event based architecture to send data from the on-board system to the off-board system in order to reduce network usage and improve the accuracy of the data available off-board. We first propose an event based architecture for data transfer in the context of Internet of vehicles. We then implement a simulator to evaluate our proposed architecture for the specific case of position data. Finally, we perform extensive experiments varying different parameters and compare, for example, average message size per minute and average off-board error distance. The results show that our event based architecture improves the accuracy of data available at the off-board system, by a careful selection of events. Moreover, we found that our event based architecture significantly decreases the frequency of sending messages, particularly during highway driving, leading to reduced average data transfer rates. Our results enable a customer to perform trade-offs between accuracy and data transfer rates. Future work will aim at implementing the event based architecture on a real platform as well as investigating the possibility of using the event based architecture for more accurate prediction by incorporating additional details such as the final destination of the vehicle and odometer values.

  • 78.
    Ardizzone, Nicole
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för innovation, design och produktutveckling.
    Lättlästa instruktioner: Enligt riktlinjer för lättläst och informationsdesign2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten presenterar riktlinjer för lättläst och informationsdesign, och hur de har använts för att utforma ett instruktionsblad till lättläst.

    Syftet med arbetet har varit att bearbeta ett befintligt instuktionsblad så att det når ut till grupper med lässvårigheter.

    De metoder som använts under utformningen har varit litteraturstudier och kvalitativa studier i form av utprovningar.

  • 79.
    Arvidsson, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    DESIGNING A HUMAN CENTERED INTERFACE FOR A NOVEL AGRICULTURAL MULTI-AGENT CONTROL SYSTM2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this report is the Command and Control (CaCS) system which is a component whose purpose is to simplify planning, scheduling and surveying work done on a farm in a goal-oriented way. CaCS is part of a larger project, the Aggregate Farming in the Cloud platform (AFarCloud),whose purpose is to simplify the use of contemporary technology to increase the efficiency of farms. AFarCloud is an EU project spanning between 2018 to 2020 and as such, the CaCS is in its infancy. Since the intended users of AFarCloud and CaCS is small to medium sized agricultural businesses,the interface of the CaCS should be constructed in such a way that it is useful and easy to learn. In order to live up to those standards, a combination of live interviews, prototype evaluationsand a comparison with similar software were performed and then compared with the International Standard document on Human-Centered Design for Interactive Systems (ISO 9241-210). The results indicate that a modular interface, where only the information relevant for the unique user’s farm is displayed, is preferable in order to increase the usability of the CaCS. Furthermore, useof icons and explanatory text must be made in consideration of the mental models of the users in order to improve learnability and avoid confusion.

  • 80.
    Arvidsson, Karl
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Wide area motion capture using an array of consumer grade structured light sensors2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we propose a solution to how a system can find and track people, as well as recognizing their gestures, in a $360^\circ$ field of view using consumer grade products. We describe a system connecting multiple depth cameras in an array and have them operate as a single camera controlled by a single computer. Using a single camera providing features such as detection, tracking and recognizing gestures of people, we specifically focus on the difficulties of preserving these features in moving forward to an array of cameras. We propose a solution based on Microsoft Kinect and Kinect SDK, using linear transformation to account for a fixed camera model to combine skeleton data from an array of Kinect sensors. Furthermore, we use positional based identification to determine whether people are being tracked by another camera in the system. The contributions of this work include insight into the challenges of building this kind of system based on Kinect hardware and software intended for use on a single computer, such as performance bottlenecks, along with possible alternative solutions. In particular, we present performance measurements for a single computer running up to four sensors and show a system that can run satisfactorily with up to at least 5 sensors on today's computers. We show what requirements on hardware can be expected for such a system, as well as where there are potential limits as the number of sensors increase. 

  • 81.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pedreiras, P.
    University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal .
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Almeida, L.
    University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Evaluation of dynamic reconfiguration architecture in multi-hop switched ethernet networks2014Inngår i: 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2014, 2014, s. Article number 7005322-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On-the-fly adaptability and reconfigurability are recently becoming an interest in real-time communications. To assure a continued real-time behavior, the admission control with a quality-of-service mechanism is required, that screen all adaptation and reconfiguration requests. In the context of switched Ethernet networks, the FTT-SE protocol provides adaptive real-time communication. Recently, we proposed two methods to perform the online reconfiguration in multi-hop FTT-SE architectures. However, the methods lack the experimental evaluation. In this paper, we evaluate both methods in terms of the reconfiguration time. 

  • 82.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pedreiras, P.
    DETI/IT, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal .
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bril, Reinder J.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (TU/e), Netherlands .
    Almeida, L.
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (TU/e), Netherlands .
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Response time analysis of multi-hop HaRTES Ethernet Switch networks2014Inngår i: IEEE Int. Workshop Factory Commun. Syst. Proc. WFCS, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we focus on micro-segmented switched-Ethernet networks with HaRTES switches. HaRTES switches provide synchronous and asynchronous real-time traffic scheduling, dynamic Quality-of-Service adaptation and transparent integration of real-time and non-real-time nodes. Herein we investigate the challenges of connecting multiple HaRTES switches in order to build multi-hop communication and we propose a method, named Distributed Global Scheduling, to handle the traffic forwarding in such an architecture while preserving the unique properties of the single HaRTES switch case. Moreover, we develop a response time analysis for the method. We also evaluate the level of pessimism embodied in the anal-ysis. Finally, we show the applicability of the proposed method in an industrial setting by applying it in an automotive case study.

  • 83.
    Asplund, Lars
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Johnson, B.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Burns, Alan
    Session Summary: The Ravenscar Profile and Implementation Issues1999Inngår i: ACM SIGAda Ada Letters, Vol. XIX, nr 2, s. 12-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 84.
    Avritzer, A
    et al.
    Siemens Corporate Research, USA.
    Tanikella, R
    Siemens Corporate Research, USA.
    James, K
    Siemens Corporate Research, USA.
    Cole, R
    JHU, Applied Physics Laboratory, USA.
    weyuker, elaine
    AT and T Labs, USA.
    Monitoring for Security Intrusion using Performance Signatures2010Inngår i: WOSP/SIPEW'10 - Proceedings of the 1st Joint WOSP/SIPEW International Conference on Performance Engineering, 2010, s. 93-103Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new approach for detecting security attacks on software systems by monitoring the software system performance signatures is introduced. We present a proposed architecture for security intrusion detection using off-the-shelf security monitoring tools and performance signatures. Our approach relies on the assumption that the performance signature of the well-behaved system can be measured and that the performancesignature of several types of attacks can be identified. This assumption has been validated for operations support systems that are used to monitor large infrastructures and receive aggregated traffic that is periodic in nature. Examples of such infrastructures include telecommunications systems, transportation systems and power generation systems. In addition, significant deviation from well-behaved system performance signatures can be used to trigger alerts about new types of security attacks. We used a custom performance benchmark and five types of security attacks to deriveperformance signatures for the normal mode of operation and the security attack mode of operation. We observed that one of the types of thesecurity attacks went undetected by the off-the-shelf security monitoring tools but was detected by our approach of monitoring performance signatures. We conclude that an architecture for security intrusion detection can be effectively complemented by monitoring of performance signatures.

  • 85.
    Awada, I. A.
    et al.
    Univ Politehn Bucuresti, Bucharest, Romania..
    Cramariuc, O.
    Ctr IT Pentru Stiinta & Tehnol, Bucharest, Romania..
    Mocanu, I.
    Univ Politehn Bucuresti, Bucharest, Romania..
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Kunnappilly, Ashalatha
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Florea, A. M.
    Univ Politehn Bucuresti, Bucharest, Romania..
    AN END-USER PERSPECTIVE ON THE CAMI AMBIENT AND ASSISTED LIVING PROJECT2018Inngår i: 12TH INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE (INTED) / [ed] Chova, LG Martinez, AL Torres, IC, IATED-INT ASSOC TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION & DEVELOPMENT , 2018, s. 6776-6785Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present the outcomes and conclusions obtained by involving seniors from three countries (Denmark, Poland and Romania) in an innovative project funded under the European Ambient Assisted Living (ALL) program. CAMI stands for "Companion with Autonomously Mobile Interface" in "Artificially intelligent ecosystem for self-management and sustainable quality of life in AAL". The CAMI solution enables flexible, scalable and individualised services that support elderly to self-manage their daily life and prolong their involvement in the society (sharing knowledge, continue working, etc). This also allows their informal caregivers (family and friends) to continue working and participating in society while caring for their loved ones. The solution is designed as an innovative architecture that allows for individualized, intelligent self-management which can be tailored to an individual's preferences and needs. A user-centred approach has ranked health monitoring, computer supervised physical exercises and voice based interaction among the top favoured CAMI functionalities. Respondents from three countries (Poland, Romania and Denmark) participated in a multinational survey and a conjoint analysis study.

  • 86.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Systems-of-systems for border-crossing innovation in the digitized society: A strategic research and innovation agenda for Sweden2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report constitutes a strategic research and innovation agenda for the area systems-of-systems. The agenda has been developed during the first half of 2015 in a project led by SICS Swedish ICT AB, in collaboration with INCOSE Sweden and a large number of representatives from industry and academia, with financial support from Vinnova. The overall conclusion of the agenda is: Sweden needs a world-leading capability to rapidly develop trustworthy systems-of-systems A system-of-systems (SoS) can informally be defined as a group of independent collaborating systems. The elements of an SoS, called constituent systems, retain an operational and managerial independence, but when combined in a certain way, they provide together a new capability that is emergent from their cooperation. There are many applications of SoS, often as a consequence of the digitization of society which opens new possibilities for system integration. Examples can be found within command and control systems for defense and civilian crisis management; construction and mining; manufacturing and the reindustrialization; transportation; and health care. System integration is traditionally a Swedish area of strength, and by improving SoS knowledge, competitive advantages can be reached. SoS is also an important enabler for innovation, through the ability to combine existing technical products, processes, and organizations in new ways. Having the ability for rapid SoS development is very important for businesses to bring new innovations to market. However, to advance the practice of SoS engineering, a number of challenges need to be addressed, including improving the theoretical foundations; the socio-technical aspects; architecture; modeling and simulation; interoperability; trust; business and legal aspects; development processes and methods; and standardization. As part of the agenda project, a survey has been done of international and Swedish research in the area. Internationally, the SoS field is dominated by US researchers, with a very strong focus on military and space applications. A large number of people are involved, but few persons focus on the area. In comparison, Sweden has entered the research area much later, and only now is attention growing. As is the case internationally, few researchers focus on SoS, and many of them do not even call their research SoS. Activities are scattered over many organizations throughout the country. Many of the researchers in SoS in Sweden come from a background in Software Engineering or Control Engineering, and this is in contrast with the international research, which has its basis in Systems Engineering. In Sweden, research topics such as business aspects (in particular innovation), control systems, governance, and Internet of Things are more pronounced than internationally. However, there is little research in Sweden on the underlying, fundamental principles of SoS engineering. This is likely to be in part a consequence of the funding strategies currently implemented. The analysis shows a broad but scattered Swedish research community lacking critical mass. There is a high competence in software and control engineering, and in empirical research methods, but the lack of systems engineering competence is alarming, since it is fundamental for desired advances, such as in the reindustrialization (Industry 4.0). To achieve the desired capability in SoS development requires knowledge, competence, and capacity, which are provided through substantially increased research and education actions. It is suggested that research in the area is organized as a national SoS center-of-centers that coordinates activities at different academic member organizations. This requires increased research funding. There is also an urgent need for education in systems engineering, systems thinking, and SoS. It is proposed that the center-of-centers also takes responsibility for this, by developing joint courses in those disciplines, including on-line courses for practitioners, and PhD schools for industrial and academic doctoral students. To complement this, societal actions are needed to remove obstacles for building SoS, and enforcing standards. Finally, it is necessary to create meeting places, including triple helix flagship projects, that can fuel the interactions between individuals and organizations interested in SoS.

  • 87.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Papatheocharous, E.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Sweden.
    Andersson, J.
    Linneaus University, Sweden.
    Characteristics of software ecosystems for Federated Embedded Systems: A case study2014Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, nr 11, s. 1457-1475Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Traditionally, Embedded Systems (ES) are tightly linked to physical products, and closed both for communication to the surrounding world and to additions or modifications by third parties. New technical solutions are however emerging that allow addition of plug-in software, as well as external communication for both software installation and data exchange. These mechanisms in combination will allow for the construction of Federated Embedded Systems (FES). Expected benefits include the possibility of third-party actors developing add-on functionality; a shorter time to market for new functions; and the ability to upgrade existing products in the field. This will however require not only new technical solutions, but also a transformation of the software ecosystems for ES. Objective This paper aims at providing an initial characterization of the mechanisms that need to be present to make a FES ecosystem successful. This includes identification of the actors, the possible business models, the effects on product development processes, methods and tools, as well as on the product architecture. Method The research was carried out as an explorative case study based on interviews with 15 senior staff members at 9 companies related to ES that represent different roles in a future ecosystem for FES. The interview data was analyzed and the findings were mapped according to the Business Model Canvas (BMC). Results The findings from the study describe the main characteristics of a FES ecosystem, and identify the challenges for future research and practice. Conclusions The case study indicates that new actors exist in the FES ecosystem compared to a traditional supply chain, and that their roles and relations are redefined. The business models include new revenue streams and services, but also create the need for trade-offs between, e.g., openness and dependability in the architecture, as well as new ways of working. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 88.
    Aysan, Hüseyin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    New Strategies for Ensuring Time and Value Correctness in Dependable Real-Time Systems2009Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Dependable real-time embedded systems are typically composed of a number of heterogeneous computing nodes, heterogeneous networks that connect them and tasks with multiple criticality levels allocated to the nodes. The heterogeneous nature of the hardware, results in a varying vulnerability to different types of hardware failures. For example, a computing node with effective shielding shows higher resistance to transient failures caused by environmental conditions such as radiation or temperature changes than an unshielded node. Similarly, resistance to permanent failures can vary depending on the manufacturing procedures used. Vulnerability to different types of errors of a task which may lead to a system failure, depends on several factors, such as the hardware on which the task runs and communicates, the software architecture and the implementation quality of the software, and varies from task to task. This variance, as well as the different criticality levels and real-time requirements of tasks, necessitate novel fault-tolerance approaches to be developed and used, in order to meet the stringent dependability requirements of resource-constrained real-time systems.

     

    In this thesis, the major contribution is four-fold. Firstly, we describe an error classification for real-time embedded systems and address error propagation aspects. The goal of this work is to perform the analysis on a given system, in order to find bottlenecks in satisfying dependability requirements and to provide guidelines on the usage of appropriate error detection and fault tolerance mechanisms.

     

    Secondly, we present a time-redundancy approach to provide a priori guarantees in fixed-priority scheduling (FPS) such that the system will be able to tolerate one value error per every critical task instance by re-execution of every critical task instance or execution of alternate tasks before deadlines, while keeping the associated costs minimized.

     

    Our third contribution is a new approach, Voting on Time and Value (VTV) which extends the N-modular redundancy approach by explicitly considering both value and timing errors, such that correct value is produced at a correct time, under specified assumptions. We illustrate our voting approach by instantiating it in the context of the well-known triple modular redundancy (TMR) approach. Further, we present a generalized voting algorithm targeting NMR that enables a high degree of customization from the user perspective.

     

    Finally, we propose a novel cascading redundancy approach within a generic fault tolerant scheduling framework. The proposed approach is capable of tolerating errors with a wider coverage (with respect to error frequency and error types) than our proposed time and space redundancy approaches in isolation, allows tasks with mixed criticality levels, is independent of the scheduling technique and, above all, ensures that every critical task instance can be feasibly replicated in both time and/or space. The fault-tolerance techniques presented in this thesis address various different error scenarios that can be observed in real-time embedded systems with respect to the types of errors and frequency of occurrence, and can be used to achieve the ultra-high levels of dependability which is required in many critical systems.

  • 89.
    Babar, M. A.
    et al.
    IT University of Copenhagen.
    Chauhan, Muhammad Aufeef
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A tale of migration to cloud computing for sharing experiences and observations2011Inngår i: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering 2011, 2011, s. 50-56Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing is an emerging paradigm, which promises to make the utility computing model comprehensively implemented by using virtualization technologies. An increasing number of enterprises have started providing and using Cloud-enabled infrastructures and services. However, the advancement of cloud computing poses several new challenges to existing methods and approaches to develop and evolve software intensive systems. This paper reports our experiences and observations gained from migrating an Open Source Software (OSS), Hackystat, to cloud computing. We expect that our description of Hackystat's architecture prior and after migration and design decisions can provide some guidance about modifying architecture of a service-based system for cloud computing. Moreover, we also hope that our experiences reported in this paper can contribute to the identification of some research questions for improving software engineering support for developing and evolving cloud-enabled systems. © 2011 ACM.

  • 90.
    Badampudi, D.
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Wnuk, K.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Wohlin, C.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Franke, U.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Smite, D.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components2018Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 135, s. 88-104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting sourcing options for software assets and components is an important process that helps companies to gain and keep their competitive advantage. The sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to further refine, extend and validate a solution presented in our previous work. The refinement includes a set of decision-making activities, which are described in the form of a process-line that can be used by decision-makers to build their specific decision-making process. We conducted five case studies in three companies to validate the coverage of the set of decision-making activities. The solution in our previous work was validated in two cases in the first two companies. In the validation, it was observed that no activity in the proposed set was perceived to be missing, although not all activities were conducted and the activities that were conducted were not executed in a specific order. Therefore, the refinement of the solution into a process-line approach increases the flexibility and hence it is better in capturing the differences in the decision-making processes observed in the case studies. The applicability of the process-line was then validated in three case studies in a third company. 

  • 91.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Kouba, A.
    Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Porto 4249-015, Portugal.
    Cassioli, D.
    University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, 67100, Italy.
    Foukalas, F.
    Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, 2800, Denmark.
    Severino, R.
    Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Porto 4249-015, Portugal.
    Stepanova, D.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, 99600 Sodankylä, Finland.
    Agosta, G.
    Politecnico di Milano ,Via G. Ponzio 32, Milano, I-20133, Italy.
    Xie, J.
    Group Technology & Research, DNV GL, Veritasveien 1, Norway.
    Pomante, L.
    University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, 67100, Italy.
    Mongelli, M.
    CNR-IEIIT ,via De Marini 6, Genova, 16149, Italy.
    Pierini, P.
    Intecs S.p.A., Pisa, 56121, Italy.
    Petersen, S.
    SINTEF ICT, Trondheim, 7465, Norway.
    Sukuvaara, T.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, 99600 Sodankylä, Finland.
    Wireless Communication Technologies for Safe Cooperative Cyber Physical Systems2018Inngår i: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, nr 11, artikkel-id 4075Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative Cyber-Physical Systems (Co-CPSs) can be enabled using wireless communication technologies, which in principle should address reliability and safety challenges. Safety for Co-CPS enabled by wireless communication technologies is a crucial aspect and requires new dedicated design approaches. In this paper, we provide an overview of five Co-CPS use cases, as introduced in our SafeCOP EU project, and analyze their safety design requirements. Next, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the main existing wireless communication technologies giving details about the protocols developed within particular standardization bodies. We also investigate to what extent they address the non-functional requirements in terms of safety, security and real time, in the different application domains of each use case. Finally, we discuss general recommendations about the use of different wireless communication technologies showing their potentials in the selected real-world use cases. The discussion is provided under consideration in the 5G standardization process within 3GPP, whose current efforts are inline to current gaps in wireless communications protocols for Co-CPSs including many future use cases.

  • 92.
    Banaee, Hadi
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Descriptive Modelling of Clinical Conditions with Data-driven Rule Mining in Physiological Data2015Inngår i: 8th International Conference on Health Informatics HEALTHINF, Lisbon, Portugal, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach to automatically mine rules in time series data representing physiological parameters in clinical conditions. The approach is fully data driven, where prototypical patterns are mined for each physiological time series data. The generated rules based on the prototypical patterns are then described in a textual representation which captures trends in each physiological parameter and their relation to the other physiological data. In this paper, a method for measuring similarity of rule sets is introduced in order to validate the uniqueness of rule sets. This method is evaluated on physiological records from clinical classes in the MIMIC online database such as angina, sepsis, respiratory failure, etc.. The results show that the rule mining technique is able to acquire a distinctive model for each clinical condition, and represent the generated rules in a human understandable textual representation.

  • 93.
    Barkskog, John
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Barkskog, Per
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Golfens IT-system: förändrade interaktioner2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Problem: Hur såg kundrelationerna ut innan det nya IT-systemet infördes och hur ser kundrelationerna ut med ett nytt IT-system? Kundrelationer som tidigare har hanterats via telefon eller på plats har ersatts av dagens lösning med ett IT-system som går att komma åt via Internet och ger mer möj-lighet till självbetjäning. Detta leder till frågorna: Vilka för-ändringar har IT-systemet medfört? Hur har interaktionen påverkats?

    Syfte: Att beskriva och förklara hur införandet av ett nytt IT-system påverkat interaktionen (relation) mellan ”kund” och leverantör vid en tidpunkt 5 år efter systemets införande. Med kund avses golfspelare och med leverantör avses golfklubb.

    Teori & Metod: Teoriavsnittet består av två delar. Avsnittet om IT-system tar upp anledningar till införande och vilka som använder systemet. Avsnitt om kundrelationer och IT tar upp Inter-net, kundrelationer med IT och självbetjäning samt nackde-lar. Empirin har sammanställts genom besöksintervju hos Svenska Golfförbundet, telefonintervju hos 10 olika golf-klubbar, samt enkäter hos 30 medlemmar från Västerås GK och 10 medlemmar från Skerike GK.

    Resultat: Kundkontakten med medlemmarna går från att vara mer personliga möten till att bli mer automatiserade med mer e-postkontakt. Medlemmarna bokar sina starttider, anmäler sig till tävlingar och ändrar handicap alltmer via Internet. Golfklubbarna har bra uppsikt över vilka som är ute och spelar.

  • 94.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Porathe, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Climate-smart information design: Visualizing residential electricity use over the Internet2011Inngår i: Information Design Journal, ISSN 0142-5471, E-ISSN 1569-979X, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 3-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In light of global warming, energy conservation is indispensable. Residential electricity use, nevertheless, escapes consumers’ notice. Thus feedback is essential, yet households’ access to information is vastly limited. Smart metering renders continuous feedback over the Internet possible, but users perceive existing web tools to be inaccessible and incomprehensible. Hence the aim has been to design a user interface so as to serve the purpose of increasing awareness and energy efficiency in households. Ease of access and straightforwardness have been established as key factors and conventional bar charts in combination with color symbolism have proven to be useful in this respect.

  • 95.
    Barua, Shaibal
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Intelligent Driver Mental State Monitoring System Using Physiological Sensor Signals2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving a vehicle involves a series of events, which are related to and evolve with the mental state (such as sleepiness, mental load, and stress) of the driv- er. These states are also identified as causal factors of critical situations that can lead to road accidents and vehicle crashes. These driver impairments need to be detected and predicted in order to reduce critical situations and road accidents. In the past years, physiological signals have become conven- tional measures in driver impairment research. Physiological signals have been applied in various studies to identify different levels of mental load, sleepiness, and stress during driving.

    This licentiate thesis work has investigated several artificial intelligence algorithms for developing an intelligent system to monitor driver mental state using physiological signals. The research aims to measure sleepiness and mental load using Electroencephalography (EEG). EEG signals, if pro- cessed correctly and efficiently, have potential to facilitate advanced moni- toring of sleepiness, mental load, fatigue, stress etc. However, EEG signals can be contaminated with unwanted signals, i.e., artifacts. These artifacts can lead to serious misinterpretation. Therefore, this work investigates EEG arti- fact handling methods and propose an automated approach for EEG artifact handling. Furthermore, this research has also investigated how several other physiological parameters (Heart Rate (HR) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) from the Electrocardiogram (ECG), Respiration Rate, Finger Tem- perature (FT), and Skin Conductance (SC)) to quantify drivers’ stress. Dif- ferent signal processing methods have been investigated to extract features from these physiological signals. These features have been extracted in the time domain, in the frequency domain as well as in the joint time-frequency domain using wavelet analysis. Furthermore, data level signal fusion has been proposed using Multivariate Multiscale Entropy (MMSE) analysis by combining five physiological sensor signals. Primarily Case-Based Reason- ing (CBR) has been applied for drivers’ mental state classification, but other Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques such as Fuzzy Logic, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) have been investigat- ed as well.

    For drivers’ stress classification, using the CBR and MMSE approach, the system has achieved 83.33% classification accuracy compared to a human expert. Moreover, three classification algorithms i.e., CBR, an ANN, and a SVM were compared to classify drivers’ stress. The results show that CBR has achieved 80% and 86% accuracy to classify stress using finger tempera- ture and heart rate variability respectively, while ANN and SVM reached an accuracy of less than 80%. 

  • 96.
    Barua, Shaibal
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Multi-sensor Information Fusion for Classification of Driver's Physiological Sensor Data2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Physiological sensor signals analysis is common practice in medical domain for diagnosis andclassification of various physiological conditions. Clinicians’ frequently use physiologicalsensor signals to diagnose individual’s psychophysiological parameters i.e., stress tiredness,and fatigue etc. However, parameters obtained from physiological sensors could vary becauseof individual’s age, gender, physical conditions etc. and analyzing data from a single sensorcould mislead the diagnosis result. Today, one proposition is that sensor signal fusion canprovide more reliable and efficient outcome than using data from single sensor and it is alsobecoming significant in numerous diagnosis fields including medical diagnosis andclassification. Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is another well established and recognizedmethod in health sciences. Here, an entropy based algorithm, “Multivariate MultiscaleEntropy analysis” has been selected to fuse multiple sensor signals. Other physiologicalsensor signals measurements are also taken into consideration for system evaluation. A CBRsystem is proposed to classify ‘healthy’ and ‘stressed’ persons using both fused features andother physiological i.e. Heart Rate Variability (HRV), Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA),Finger Temperature (FT) features.

    The evaluation and performance analysis of the system have been done and the results ofthe classification based on data fusion and physiological measurements are presented in thisthesis work.

  • 97.
    Barua, Shaibal
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Multivariate Data Analytics to Identify Driver’s Sleepiness, Cognitive load, and Stress2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving a vehicle in a dynamic traffic environment requires continuous adaptation of a complex manifold of physiological and cognitive activities. Impaired driving due to, for example, sleepiness, inattention, cognitive load or stress, affects one’s ability to adapt, predict and react to upcoming traffic events. In fact, human error has been found to be a contributing factor in more than 90% of traffic crashes. Unfortunately, there is no robust, objective ground truth for determining a driver’s state, and researchers often revert to using subjective self-rating scales when assessing level of sleepiness, cognitive load or stress. Thus, the development of better tools to understand, measure and monitor human behaviour across diverse scenarios and states is crucial. The main objective of this thesis is to develop objective measures of sleepiness, cognitive load and stress, which can later be used as research tools, either to benchmark unobtrusive sensor solutions or when investigating the influence of other factors on sleepiness, cognitive load, and stress.

    This thesis employs multivariate data analysis using machine learning to detect and classify different driver states based on physiological data. The reason for using rather intrusive sensor data, such as electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG), electrocardiography (ECG), skin conductance, finger temperature, and respiration is that these methods can be used to analyse how the brain and body respond to internal and external changes, including those that do not generate overt behaviour. Moreover, the use of physiological data is expected to grow in importance when investigating human behaviour in partially automated vehicles, where active driving is replaced by passive supervision.

    Physiological data, especially the EEG is sensitive to motion artifacts and noise, and when recorded in naturalistic environments such as driving, artifacts are unavoidable. An automatic EEG artifact handling method ARTE (Automated aRTifacts handling in EEG) was therefore developed. When used as a pre-processing step in the classification of driver sleepiness, ARTE increased classification performance by 5%. ARTE is data-driven and does not rely on additional reference signals or manually defined thresholds, making it well suited for use in dynamic settings where unforeseen and rare artifacts are commonly encountered. In addition, several machine-learning algorithms have been developed for sleepiness, cognitive load, and stress classification. Regarding sleepiness classification, the best achieved accuracy was achieved using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. For multiclass, the obtained accuracy was 79% and for binary class it was 93%. A subject-dependent classification exhibited a 10% improvement in performance compared to the subject-independent classification, suggesting that much can be gained by using personalized classifiers. Moreover, by embedding contextual information, classification performance improves by approximately 5%. In regard to cognitive load classification, a 72% accuracy rate was achieved using a random forest classifier. Combining features from several data sources may improve performance, and indeed, we observed classification performance improvement by 10%-20% compared to using features from a single data source. To classify drivers’ stress, using the Case-based reasoning (CBR) and data fusion approach, the system achieved an 83.33% classification accuracy rate.

    This thesis work encourages the use of multivariate data for detecting and classifying driver states, including sleepiness, cognitive load, and stress. A univariate data source often presents challenges, since features from a single source or one just aspect of the feature are not entirely reliable; Therefore, multivariate information requires accurate driver state detection. Often, driver states are a subjective experience, in which other contextual data plays a vital role. Thus, the implication of incorporating contextual information in the classification scheme is presented in this thesis work. Although there are several commonalities, physiological signals are modulated differently in different driver states; Hence, multivariate data could help detect multiple driver states simultaneously – for example, cognitive load detection when a person is under the influence of different levels of stress.

  • 98.
    Barua, Shaibal
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Intelligent automated eeg artifacts handling using wavelet transform, independent component analysis and hierarchal clustering2017Inngår i: Lect. Notes Inst. Comput. Sci. Soc. Informatics Telecommun. Eng., Springer Verlag , 2017, s. 144-148Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Billions of interconnected neurons are the building block of the human brain. For each brain activity these neurons produce electrical signals or brain waves that can be obtained by the Electroencephalogram (EEG) recording. Due to the characteristics of EEG signals, recorded signals often contaminate with undesired physiological signals other than the cerebral signal that is referred to as the EEG artifacts such as the ocular or the muscle artifacts. Therefore, identification and handling of artifacts in the EEG signals in a proper way is becoming an important research area. This paper presents an automated EEG artifacts handling approach, combining Wavelet transform, Independent Component Analysis (ICA), and Hierarchical clustering. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been examined and observed on real EEG recording. According to the result, the proposed approach identified artifacts in the EEG signals effectively and after handling artifacts EEG signals showed acceptable considering visual inspection. © ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2017.

  • 99.
    Bayrak, Ismail
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Den moderna teknikens roll i NO-undervisningar: En studie om hur modern teknik används inom NO-undervisningar i Årskurs 42013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet handlar om att undersöka och jämföra några skolor om teknikanvändning under NO-undervisningen i årskurs 4. Studien ger en bild av hur skolan och lärarna ser på användning av tekniska hjälpmedel i undervisningen samt elevernas förväntningar på teknisk redskap i skolan. Arbetet bygger på en kvalitativ inriktad studie med hjälp av intervjuer och en enkätundersökning. Studien visade att tekniska redskap i skolan används på olika sätt beroende på läraren och skolans resurser.  

  • 100.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Research and Technology Centre, Robert Bosch, India.
    Nélis, Vincent
    CISTER/INESC-TEC, ISEP, Portugal.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Partitioning the Network-on-Chip to Enable Virtualization on Many-Core Processors2015Inngår i: The 6th International Real-Time Scheduling Open Problems Seminar RTSOPS'15, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological advances have increased the transistor density, thereby ushering in multi- and more recently many-core systems, distinguished by the presence of hundreds of cores on a single chip. For such a platform, the Network-on-Chip (NoC) has emerged as a scalable and efficient interconnect fabric to realize the communication across an ever increasing number of processor cores, memories, and specialized IP blocks both on- and off-chip. In this paper, we highlighted some key problems in NoC based architectures that must be addressed before the deployment of real-time applications onto these platforms becomes possible. A paradigm shift from function centric to data and communication centric approaches is required. Combining hardware and software based flow-regulation seems to be the only way to ensure that NoCs go beyond the best-effort service and address the requirements of diverse applications.

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