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  • 51.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    The PROGRESS Centre for Predictable Embedded Software Systems - Half-time report (edited version)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Presentation of the achievements and activities within the PROGRESS national strategic research centre 2006-2008

  • 52.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Beating the Automotive Code Complexity Challenge2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Real-Time in Networked Embedded Systems2009In: Networked Embedded Systems, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Data-Entity Approach for Component-Based Real-TimeEmbedded Systems Development2009In: 14th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technology and Factory Automation, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the data-entity approach for efficientdesign-time management of run-time data in componentbasedreal-time embedded systems is presented. The approachformalizes the concept of a data entity which enabledesign-time modeling, management, documentationand analysis of run-time data items. Previous studies ondata management for embedded real-time systems showthat current data management techniques are not adequate,and therefore impose unnecessary costs and quality problemsduring system development. It is our conclusion thatdata management needs to be incorporated as an integralpart of the development of the entire system architecture.Therefore, we propose an approach where run-time datais acknowledged as first class objects during developmentwith proper documentation and where properties such asusage, validity and dependency can be modeled. In thisway we can increase the knowledge and understanding ofthe system. The approach also allows analysis of data dependencies,type matching, and redundancy early in the developmentphase as well as in existing systems.

  • 55.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Data Management for Component-Based Embedded Real-Time Systems: the Database Proxy Approach2012In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 85, no 4, p. 821-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the concept of database proxies intended to mitigate the gap between two disjoint productivity-enhancing techniques: Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE) and Real-Time Database Management Systems (RTDBMS). The two techniques promote opposing design goals and their coexistence is neither obvious nor intuitive. CBSE promotes encapsulation and decoupling of component internals from the component environment, whilst an RTDBMS provide mechanisms for efficient and predictable global data sharing. A component with direct access to an RTDBMS is dependent on that specific RTDBMS and may not be useable in an alternative environment. For components to remain encapsulated and reusable, database proxies decouple components from an underlying database residing in the component framework, while providing temporally predictable access to data maintained in a database. Our approach provide access to features such as extensive data modeling tools, predictable access to hard real-time data, dynamic access to soft real-time data using standardized queries and controlled data sharing; thus allowing developers to employ the full potential of both CBSE and an RTDBMS. Our approach primarily targets embedded systems with a subset of functionality with real-time requirements. The implementation results show that the benefits of using proxies do not come at the expense of significant run-time overheads or less accurate timing predictions.

  • 56.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Data Management in AUTOSAR: a Tool Suite Extension Approach2012Report (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyström, dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Database Proxies: A Data Management approach for Component-Based Real-Time Systems2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents new techniques for data management of run-time dataobjects in component-based embedded real-time systems. These techniquesenable data to be modeled, analyzed and structured to achieve proper datamanagement during development, maintenance  and execution.The evolution of real-time embedded systems has resulted in an increasedsystem complexity beyond what was thought possible just a few years ago.Over the years, new techniques and tools have been developed to managesoftware and communication complexity. However, as this thesis show, currenttechniques and tools for data management are not sufficient. Today,development of real-time embedded systems focuses on the function aspects ofthe system, in most cases disregarding data management.The lack of proper design-time data management often results in ineffectivedocumentation routines and poor overall system knowledge. Contemporarytechniques to manage run-time data do not satisfy demands on flexibility,maintainability and extensibility. Based on an industrial case-study thatidentifies a number of problems within current data management techniques,both during design-time and  run-time, it is clear that data managementneeds to be incorporated as an integral part of the development of theentire system architecture.As a remedy to the identified problems, we propose a design-time data entityapproach, where the importance of data in the system is elevated to beincluded in the entire design phase with proper documentation, properties,dependencies and analysis methods to increase the overall system knowledge.Furthermore, to efficiently manage data during run-time, we introducedatabase proxies to enable the fusion between two existing techniques;Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE) and Real-Time DatabaseManagement Systems (RTDBMS). A database proxy allows components to bedecoupled from the underlying data management strategy without violating thecomponent encapsulation and communication interface.

  • 58.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mimer Information Technology AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Database Proxies for Component-Based Real-Time Systems2010In: Proceedings - 22st Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, 2010, p. 79-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the concept of database proxies capable of mitigating the gap between two disjoint productivityenhancing techniques: Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE) and Real-Time Database Management Systems (RTDBMS). The coexistence of the two techniques is neither obvious nor intuitive since CBSE and RTDBMS promotes opposing design goals; CBSE promotes encapsulation and decoupling of component internals from the component environment, whilst RTDBMS provide mechanisms for efficient and predictable global data sharing. Database proxies decouple components from an underlying database residing in the component framework. This enables components to remain encapsulated and reusable, while providing temporally predictable access to data maintained in a database. We specifically target embedded systems with a subset of functionality with real-time requirements. Our implementation results show that the above benefits do not come at the expense of run-time overheads or less accurate timing predictions.

  • 59.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Database Proxy Tool Support in an AUTOSAR Development Environment2012In: Proceedings - 38th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2012, 2012, p. 51-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AUTOSAR has been introduced as a remedy for the increasing complexity and rising costs within automotive systems development. However, AUTOSAR does not provide sufficient support for the increased complexity with respect to data management. Database proxies have been presented as a promising solution to provide software component technologies with the capabilities of a state-of-the-art real-time database management system. In this paper, we show how an industrial AUTOSAR development environment can be extended to include support for real-time data management.

  • 60.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Introducing Database-Centric Support in AUTOSAR2012In: 7th International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES): Conference Proceedings, IEEE , 2012, p. 138-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose to integrate a real-time databasemanagement system into the basic software of the AUTOSARcomponent model. This integration can be performed withoutviolating the fundamental principles of the component-basedapproach of the AUTOSAR standard. Our database-centricapproach allows developers to focus on application developmentinstead of reinventing data management techniques ordevelop solutions using internal data structures. We use stateof-the-art database pointer techniques to achieve predictabletiming, and database proxies to maintain component encapsulationand independence of data-management strategy. Thepaper illustrates the feasibility of our proposal when databaseproxies are used to manage the data communication betweencomponents and to perform run-time monitoring on the virtualfunction bus. Our implementation results show that the abovebenefits do not come at the expense of run-time overheadsor less accurate timing predictions. Under typical workloadconditions, our concept only introduces in the order of 4%CPU overhead.

  • 61.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Design-Time Management of Run-Time Data in Industrial Embedded Real-Time Systems Development2008In: Proceedings of 13th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA'08), IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Hamburg, Germany, 2008, p. 1285-1293Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient design-time management and documentation of run-time data elements are of paramount importance when developing and maintaining modern real-time systems. In this paper, we present the results of an industrial case-study in which we have studied the state of practice in data management and documentation. Representatives from five companies within various business segments have been interviewed and our results show that various aspects of current data management and documentation are problematic and not yet mature. Results show that companies today have a fairly good management of distributed signals, while internal ECU signals and states are, in many cases, not managed at all. This lack of internal data management results in costly development and maintenance and is often entirely dependent of the know-how of single individual experts.

    Furthermore, it has, in several cases, resulted in unused and excessive data in the systems due to the fact that

    whether or not a data is used is unknown.

  • 62.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    INCENSE: Information-Centric Run-Time Support for Component-Based Embedded Real-Time Systems2007In: Proceedings of the Work-In-Progress (WIP) session, 14th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, Seattle, United States, 2007, p. 4-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a technique to allow the use of

    real-time database management together with componentbased

    software development, to achieve an information centric

    run-time platform for the development of embedded

    real-time systems. The technique allows components to

    benefit from the advantages of a real-time database management

    system while still retaining desirable component

    properties, such as isolation and a high level of reusability.

    We propose that a database is integrated in the component

    framework, and introduce the concept of database

    proxies to decouple components from the database schema.

    The resulting system fully benefits from the advantages of

    component-based software development, such as reusability,

    all component interaction through interfaces, etc, combined

    with the advantages of a real-time database management

    system, i.e., system openness, controlled data access,

    and dynamic query language capabilities.

  • 63.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Arcticus-Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus-Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus-Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Efficient Event-Triggered Tasks in an RTOS2005In: Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Embedded Systems and Applications, 2005, p. 31-37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we add predictable and resource efficient event-triggered tasks in an RTOS. This is done by introducing an execution model suitable for example control software and component-based software. The execution model, denoted single-shot execution (SSX), can be realized with very simple and resource efficient run-time mechanisms and is highly predictable, hence suitable for use in resource constrained real-time systems. In an evaluation, we show that significant memory reductions can be obtained by using the SSX model.

  • 64.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Analysing Stack Usage in Preemptive Shared Stack Systems2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel method to determine the maximum stack memory used in preemptive, shared stack, real-time systems. We provide a general and exact problem formulation applicable for any preemptive system model based on dynamic (run-time) properties. We also show how to safely approximate the exact stack usage by using static (compile time) information about the system model and the underlying run-time system on a relevant and commercially available system model: A hybrid, statically and dynamically, scheduled system. Comprehensive evaluations show that our technique significantly reduces the amount of stack memory needed compared to existing analysis techniques. For typical task sets a decrease in the order of 70% is typical.

  • 65.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. CC Systems, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Determining Maximum Stack Usage in Preemptive Shared Stack Systems2007In: Proceedings of the 9th Real-Time in Sweden (RTiS'07), Västerås, Sweden, 2007, p. 118-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel method to determine the

    maximum stack memory used in preemptive, shared stack,

    real-time systems. We provide a general and exact problem

    formulation applicable for any preemptive system model

    based on dynamic (run-time) properties.

    We also show how to safely approximate the exact stack

    usage by using static (compile time) information about the

    system model and the underlying run-time system on a relevant

    and commercially available system model: A hybrid,

    statically and dynamically, scheduled system.

    Comprehensive evaluations show that our technique significantly

    reduces the amount of stack memory needed compared

    to existing analysis techniques. For typical task sets

    a decrease in the order of 70% is typical.

  • 66.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Determining Maximum Stack Usage in Preemptive Shared Stack Systems2006In: Proceedings - Real-Time Systems Symposium, 2006, p. 445-453Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel method to determine the maximum stack memory used in preemptive, shared stack, real-time systems. We provide a general and exact problem formulation applicable for any preemptive system model based on dynamic (run-time) properties. We also show how to safely approximate the exact stack usage by using static (compile time) information about the system model and the underlying run-time system on a relevant and commercially available system model: A hybrid, statically and dynamically, scheduled system.

    Comprehensive evaluations show that our technique significantly reduces the amount of stack memory needed compared to existing analysis techniques. For typical task sets a decrease in the order of 70% is typical.

  • 67.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Staffan
    Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Introducing a Plug-In Framework for Real-Time Analysis in Rubus-ICE2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present the development of a plug-in framework for integration of real-time analysis methods in the Rubus Integrated Component Environment (Rubus-ICE). We also present the implementation, and evaluate the integration, of two state of the art analysis techniques (i) response-time analysis for tasks with offsets and (ii) shared stack analysis, as plug-ins, in the Rubus-ICE framework.

    The paper shows that the proposed framework is well suited for integration of complex analysis methods. However, experience also show that analysis methods are not easily transferred from an academic environment to industry. The main reason for this, we believe, originates from differences in requirements and assumptions between industry and academia.

  • 68.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Staffan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundbäck, John
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindberg, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Framework for Real-Time Analysis in Rubus-ICE2008In: 2008 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION, PROCEEDINGS, 2008, p. 782-788Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     In this paper we present the development of a plug-in framework for integration of real-time analysis methods in the Rubus Integrated Component Environment (Rubus-ICE). We also present the implementation, and evaluate the integration, of two state of the art analysis techniques (i) response-time analysis for tasks with offsets and (ii) shared stack analysis, as plug-ins, in the Rubus-ICE framework. The paper shows that the proposed framework is well suited for integration of complex analysis methods. However experience also show that analysis methods are not easily transferred from an academic environment to industry. The main reason for this, we believe, originates from differences in requirements and assumptions between industry and academia. 

  • 69.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Present and Future Requirements in Developing Industrial Embedded Real-Time Systems - Interviews with Designers in the Vehicle Domain2006In: 13th Annual IEEE International Conference and Workshop on the Engineering of Computer Based Systems (ECBS), Potsdam, Germany, 2006, p. 139-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we aim at capturing the industrial viewpoint of todays and future requirements in development of embedded real-time systems. We do this by interviewing ten senior designers at four Swedish companies, developing embedded applications in the vehicle domain.

    This study shows that reliability and safety are the main properties in focus during development. It also shows that the amount of functionality has been increasing in the examined systems. Still the present requirements are fulfilled using considerably homogenous development methods.

    The study also shows that, in the future, there will be even stronger requirements on dependability and control performance at the same time as requirements on more softer and resource demanding functionality will continue to increase. Consequently, the complexity will increase, and with diverging requirements, more heterogeneous development methods are called for to fulfil all application specific requirements.

  • 70.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindberg, Mats
    Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Supporting Engineering Requirements in the Rubus Component Model2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a component model for development of distributed real-time systems.

    The model is developed to support development of embedded control systems for ground vehicles. The model aims at supporting three important activities in real-time development, (i) design, (ii) analysis and (iii) synthesis. These activities emphasise different and sometimes conflicting requirements that need to be balanced. For example, developers desire freedom in designing to solve complex tasks, analysis tools require the design to be formal enough for analysis and synthesis need to be efficient for low run-time footprint. We have considered industrial requirements for these activities and developed the RubusCMv3 component model. The model has been developed in close cooperation with industrial partners and it is currently being evaluated on real systems.

  • 71.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindberg, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundbäck, John
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    The Rubus Component Model for Resource Constrained Real-Time Systems2008In: 2008 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON INDUSTRIAL EMBEDDED SYSTEMS, 2008, p. 177-183Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a component model for development of distributed real-time systems.

    The model is developed to support development of embedded control systems for ground vehicles. The model aims at supporting three important activities in real-time development, (i) design, (ii) analysis and (iii) synthesis. These activities emphasise different and sometimes conflicting requirements that need to be balanced. For example, developers desire freedom in designing to solve complex tasks, analysis tools require the design to be formal enough for analysis and synthesis need to be efficient for low run-time footprint. We have considered industrial requirements for these activities and developed the RubusCMv3 component model. The model has been developed in close cooperation with industrial partners and it is currently being evaluated on real systems.

  • 72.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Compositional Analysis for the Multi-Resource Server2015In: 20th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA'15, Luxembourg, Luxemburg: IEEE , 2015, p. Article number 7301431-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Multi-Resource Server (MRS) technique has been proposed to enable predictable execution of memory intensive real-time applications on COTS multi-core platforms. It uses resource reservation approaches in the context of CPUbandwidth and memory-bus bandwidth reservations to bound the interference between the applications running on the same core as well as between the applications running on different cores. In this paper we present a complete composable local and global schedulability analysis for the Multi-Resource Server technique. Based on the proposed analysis,we further provide an experimental study that investigates the behaviour of the MRS and identifies the factors that contribute mostly on the overall system performance.

  • 73.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Compositional analysis for the multi-resource server - a technical report.2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Multi-Resource Server (MRS) technique has been proposed toenable predictable execution of memory intensive real-time applicationson COTS multi-core platforms. It uses resource reservationapproaches in the context of CPU-bandwidth and memory-busbandwidth reservations to bound the interferences between the applicationsrunning on the same core as well as between the applicationsrunning on different cores. In this paper we present a completecompositional schedulability analysis for the Multi-ResourceServer technique. Based on the proposed analysis, we further providean experimental study that investigates the behaviour of theMRS and identify the factors that contribute mostly on the overallsystem performance.

  • 74.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Support for Legacy Real-Time Applications in an HSF-Enabled FreeRTOS - a technical report2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a runtime support to consolidate legacy together with other real-time applications, running a single instance of a real-time operating system (RTOS), and sharing system resources. In this context, we resort to the hierarchical scheduling framework (HSF) to provide tem- poral partitions for dierent applications, supporting their independent development and real-time analysis, thus resulting on a predictable inte- gration. In particular, the paper focuses on a constructive element, the legacy server that allows executing code that is unaware of the temporal partition within which it is deployed. Furthermore, we discuss the chal- lenges that need to be addressed to execute a legacy application in an HSF without modications to the original code. We focus on the chal- lenge of enabling sharing system resources, both hardware and software, as typically found in most industrial software systems. We propose a novel solution based on wrappers for the required RTOS system calls. We implement our ideas in a concrete implementation on FreeRTOS OS, taking advantage of a prior HSF implementation. The validation is performed by a proof-of-concept case study that shows a successful integration of a legacy application that uses shared resources in a system that executes other applications. 

  • 75.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Worst Case Delay Analysis of a DRAM Memory Request for COTS Multicore Architectures2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic RAM (DRAM) is a source of memory contention and interference problems on commercial of the shelf (COTS) multicore architectures. Due to its variable access time, it can greatly influence the task's WCET and can lead to unpredictability. In this paper, we provide a worst case delay analysis for a DRAM memory request to safely bound memory contention on multicore architectures. We derive a worst-case service time for a single memory request and then combine it with the per-request memory interference that can be generated by the tasks executing on same or different cores in order to generate the delay bound.

  • 76.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Kuncar, Jiri
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Predictable integration and reuse of executable real-time components2014In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 91, p. 147-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the concept of runnable virtual node (RVN) as a means to achieve predictable integration and reuse of executable real-time components in embedded systems. A runnable virtual node is a coarse-grained software component that provides functional and temporal isolation with respect to its environment. Its interaction with the environment is bounded both by a functional and a temporal interface, and the validity of its internal temporal behaviour is preserved when integrated with other components or when reused in a new environment. Our realization of RVN exploits the latest techniques for hierarchical scheduling to achieve temporal isolation, and the principles from component-based software-engineering to achieve functional isolation. It uses a two-level deployment process, i.e. deploying functional entities to RVNs and then deploying RVNs to physical nodes, and thus also gives development benefits with respect to composability, system integration, testing, and validation. In addition, we have implemented a server-based inter-RVN communication strategy to not only support the predictable integration and reuse properties of RVNs by keeping the communication code in a separate server, but also increasing the maintainability and flexibility to change the communication code without affecting the timing properties of RVNs. We have applied our approach to a case study, implemented in the ProCom component technology executing on top of a FreeRTOS-based hierarchical scheduling framework and present the results as a proof-of-concept.

  • 77.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mahmud, Nesredin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    The Multi-Resource Server for Predictable Execution on Multi-core Platforms2014In: Real-Time Technology and Applications - Proceedings, 2014, Vol. October, p. 1-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present an implementation and demonstration of the Multi-Resource Server (MRS) which enables predictable execution of real-time applications on multi-core platforms. The MRS provides temporal isolation both between tasks running on the same core, as well as, between tasks running on different cores. The latter could, without MRS, interfere with each other due to contention on a shared memory bus. We demonstrate that MRS can be used to ”encapsulate” legacy systems and to give them enough resources to fulfill their purpose. In our case study a legacy media-player is integrated with several resource-hungry tasks running at a different core. We show that without MRS the media-player starts to drop frames due to the interference from other tasks; while introduction of MRS alleviates this problem. Another part of our demonstration shows how traditional periodic real-time tasks can be kept schedulable even when tasks with high memory-demand are added to the system.

  • 78.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Using Temporal Isolation to Achieve Predictable Integration of Real-Time Components2010In: 22nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS' 10) WiP Session / [ed] Robert I. Davis, 2010, p. 17-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the concept of a virtual node as means to achieve predictable integration of software components with real-time requirements. The virtual node is based on the technology using the hierarchical scheduling framework to achieve temporal isolation between components (or sets of components). The temporal isolation means that all components deployed to a virtual node will retain their temporal properties when integrated with other components on a physical node. We present how the concept of virtual nodes is applicable to three different component technologies: ProCom, Autosar and AADL. Keywords-real-time systems; component integration

  • 79.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Virtual Node - To Achieve Temporal Isolation and Predictable Integration of Real-Time Components2012In: International Journal on Computing (JoC), ISSN 2010-2283, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 63-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an approach of two-level deployment process for component models used in distributed real-time embedded systems to achieve predictable integration of real-time components. Our main emphasis is on the new concept of virtual node with the use of a hierarchical scheduling technique. Virtual nodes are used as means to achieve predictable integration of software components with real-time requirements. The hierarchical scheduling framework is used to achieve temporal isolation between components (or sets of components). Our approach permits detailed analysis, e.g., with respect to timing, of virtual nodes and this analysis is also reusable with the reuse of virtual nodes. Hence virtual node preserves real-time properties across reuse and integration in different contexts.

  • 80.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Afshar, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hierarchical Scheduling Framework Implementation in FreeRTOS2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the implementation of hierarchical scheduling framework HSF on an open source real-time operating system FreeRTOS to support the temporal isolation of a number of real-time components (or applications) onto a single processor. The goal is to achieve predictable integration and reusability of independently developed components or tasks. It presents the initial results of the HSF implementation by running it on an AVR 32-bit board EVK1100. It addresses the fixed-priority preemptive scheduling at both global and local scheduling levels. It describes the detailed design of HSF with the emphasis of doing minimal changes to the underlying FreeRTOS kernel and keeping its API intact. Finally it provides (and compares) the results for the performance measures of periodic and deferrable servers with respect to the overhead of the implementation. Index Terms: real-time systems; hierarchical scheduling framework; fixed-priority scheduling

  • 81.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Afshar, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Support for Hierarchical Scheduling in FreeRTOS2011In: 2011 IEEE 16TH CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA) / [ed] IEEE Industrial Electronic Society, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the implementation of a HierarchicalScheduling Framework (HSF) on an open sourcereal-time operating system (FreeRTOS) to support the temporalisolation between a number of applications, on a single processor.The goal is to achieve predictable integration and reusability ofindependently developed components or applications. We presentthe initial results of the HSF implementation by running it onan AVR 32-bit board EVK1100.

    The paper addresses the fixed-priority preemptive schedulingat both global and local scheduling levels. It describes the detaileddesign of HSF with the emphasis of doing minimal changes tothe underlying FreeRTOS kernel and keeping its API intact.Finally it provides (and compares) the results for the performancemeasures of idling and deferrable servers with respect to theoverhead of the implementation.

  • 82.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hard Real-time Support for Hierarchical Scheduling in FreeRTOS2011In: Proceedings of 7th annual workshop on Operating Systems Platforms for Embedded Real-Time Applications July 5th, 2011 in Porto, Portugal: in conjunction with the23rd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time SystemsPortugal, July 6-8, 201 / [ed] Thomas Gleixner, Gabriel Permer, 2011, p. 51-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents extensions to the previous implementationof two-level Hierarchical Scheduling Framework(HSF) for FreeRTOS. The results presented here allow the useof HSF for FreeRTOS in hard-real time applications, with thepossibility to include legacy applications and components notexplicitly developed for hard real-time or the HSF.

    Specifically, we present the implementations of (i) global andlocal resource sharing using the Hierarchical Stack ResourcePolicy and Stack Resource Policy respectively, (ii) kernel supportfor the periodic task model, and (iii) mapping of original FreeRTOSAPI to the extended FreeRTOS HSF API. We also presentevaluations of overheads and behavior for different alternativeimplementations of HSRP with overrun from experiments on theAVR 32-bit board EVK1100. In addition, real-time schedulinganalysis with models of the overheads of our implementation ispresented.

  • 83.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kunčar, Jiří
    Real-Time Component Integration using Runnable Virtual Nodes2012In: Proceedings - 38th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2012, 2012, p. 80-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the concept of runnable virtual nodes (RVNs) as means to achieve predictable integration and temporal error-containment of real-time software components. An RVN exploits the latest techniques for hierarchical scheduling and is intended as a coarse-grained component for single-node deployment, that provides functional and temporal isolations with respect to its environment. It uses a two-level deployment process; i.e. deploying functional entities to RVNs and then deploying RVNs to physical nodes. The two-level deployment process not only gives development benefits with respect to composability, system integration, testing, validation and certification but also leverages the hierarchical scheduling to preserve the validity of an RVN's internal temporal behaviour when integrated with other components. We have applied our approach to a simple case study, implemented in the ProCom component-technology executing on top of FreeRTOS-based hierarchical scheduling and present our initial results as a proof-of-concept.

  • 84.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kunčar, Jiří
    Run-Time Component Integration and Reuse in Cyber-Physical Systems2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the concept of runnable virtual nodes as a means to achieve predictable integration and reuse of software components in cyber-physical systems. A runnable virtual nodeis a coarse-grained real-time component that provides functional and temporal isolation with respect to its environment.Its interaction with the environment is bounded both by a functional and a temporal interface, and the validity of itsinternal temporal behavior is preserved when integrated with other components or when reused in a new environment.Our realization of runnable virtual nodes exploits the latest techniques for hierarchical scheduling to achieve temporalisolation, and the principles from component-based software-engineering to achieve functional isolation. In the paperwe present a proof-of-concept case study, implemented in the ProCom component-technology executing on top of FreeRTOSbased hierarchical scheduling framework.

  • 85.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Combating unpredictability in multicores through the multi-resource server2014In: 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2014, 2014, p. Article number 7005063-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present challenges that hinder the predictable integration and execution of real-time applications on multicore platforms. We investigate how shared resources, like CPU, memory-bus bandwidth, caches, and memory cause unpredictability and interference. We propose to adapt the traditional server-based scheduling approach on the multicore platforms with additional resource-reservations to control the shared access to such resources and present the multi-resource server as a solution such that the execution of real-time applications becomes predictable. 

  • 86.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Implementing and Evaluating Communication- Strategies in the ProCom Component Technology2012In: Acm Sigbed Review, ISSN 1551-3688, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents two strategies to support communication between real-time executable Runnable Virtual Node (RVN) components in the ProCom component technology. We describe the currently implemented server-based communication strategy which uses a dedicated server for communication. We compare the server-based technique with a direct (RVN-to-RVN) communication strategy. The paper also describes how these strategies could be evaluated for real-time performance, and the real-time analysis technologies needed to perform such an evaluation.

  • 87.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bril, Reinder J.
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (TU/e), Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Implementing Hierarchical Scheduling to support Multi-Mode System2012In: 7th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES) June 20 – June 22, 2012 Karlsruhe, Germany, Conference Proceedings, Karlsruhe, Germany, 2012, p. 319-322Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-mode embedded real-time systems exhibit a specific behavior for each mode and upon a mode-change request, the task-set and timing interfaces of the system need to be changed. Hierarchical Scheduling Framework (HSF) is a known technique to partition the CPU time into a number of hierarchically divided subsystems each consists of its own task set. We propose to implement a multi-mode system using a two-level HSF and provide a skeleton (framework)  for an adaptive HSFs supporting multi-modes. Upon a mode-change request, the timing interface of each subsystem is changed, thus making the hierarchical scheduling adaptive in nature. We address the main goals for the implementation and describe the initial design details of Multi-Mode Adaptive Hierarchical Scheduling Framework (MMAHSF) with the emphasis of doing minimal changes to the underlying kernel.

  • 88.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    J. Bril, Reinder
    TU/e, The Netherlands.
    Mode-Change Mechanisms support for Hierarchical FreeRTOS Implementation2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-mode embedded real-time systems exhibit a specific behaviour for each mode, and upon a mode-change request the task-set and timing interfaces of the system need to be changed. This paper presents the implementation of a Multi- Mode Adaptive Hierarchical Scheduling Framework (MMAHSF) and provides a generic skeleton (framework) for a two-level adaptive hierarchical scheduling supporting multiple modes and multiple mode-change mechanisms on an open source real-time operating system (FreeRTOS). The MMAHSF enable applicationspecific implementations of mode-change protocols using a set of predefined mode-change mechanisms. The paper addresses different mode-change mechanisms at both global and local scheduling levels. It presents examples of mode-change protocols that are developed by composing together these mechanisms in multiple ways and provide the initial results of executing these protocols in the MMAHSF implementation on an AVR 32-bit board EVK1100.

  • 89.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Marcus, Jägemar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Ericsson AB.
    Bandwidth Measurement using Performance Counters for Predictable Multicore Software2012In: IEEE Symposium on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2012, 2012, , p. 4p. Article number: 6489714-Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Memory contention is one of the largest sources of inter-core interference in statically partitioned multicore systems, and the contention reduces the overall performance of applications and causes unpredictable execution-times. A first step in achieving predictable execution is to accurately measure the amount of consumed memory bandwidth for each application. Such measurements can be used to track down bottlenecks, provide better partitioning among cores, and ultimately be used to arbitrate and police access to the memory bus. We propose to use hardware performance counters to continuously track the memory-bandwidth consumed by different applications executing in parallel. In this paper we describe ongoing efforts exploring suitable performance counters on core-level and on system-on-chip level for the 8-core Freescale P4080 processor. The aim is to accurately and efficiently track consumed memory bandwidth per application; with the final goal to use these measurements to improve predictability of multicore real-time software.

  • 90.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Slatman, Joris
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Implementing Multi-resource Server on Multi-core Linux Platform2013In: Proceedings of 18th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA2013), 2013, p. Article number 6648167-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present our ongoing work on implementing the multi-resource server technology in the Linux operating system running on multi-core architectures. The multiresource server is used to control the access to both CPU and memory bandwidth resources such that the execution of real-time tasks become predictable. We are targeting Legacy applications to be migrated from single to multi-core architectures. We investigate the available techniques and mechanisms that can support our multi-resource servers and we discuss the potential problems that needed to be tackled considering the requirements of legacy applications.

  • 91.
    Kunčar, Jiří
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Inam, Rafia
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    End-to-End Latency Analyzer for ProCom - EELAP2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents an analysis tool End-to-End Latency Analyzer for ProCom (EELAP) developed to compute different end-to-end latency semantics for multi-rate components of real-time embedded systems. ProCom component technology implements executable reusable real-time components called Runnalbe Virtual Nodes (RVNs) and supports two different communication strategies for inter-RVN communication. The tool is developed to evaluate the two communication strategies for multi-rate server-based components the ProCom component technology. In this report we present a user guide for EELAP. We describe the formulas and corresponding algorithms used to compute end-to-end latency semantics, and response-times of the tasks executing in a two-level hierarchical scheduling framework. Further, we provide a detailed description of APIs.

  • 92.
    Lawson, Harold
    et al.
    Lawson Konsult AB, Lidingö, Sweden.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Gålnander, Mattias
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Provisioning of Deterministic and Non-Deterministic Services for Vehicles: The Rubus Approach2016In: 4th International Workshop on Critical Automotive Applications: Robustness & Safety CARS-2016, Göteborg, Sweden, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing computer-based services for vehicle functions has evolved to the point where a large majority of functions are realized by software. However, the need to provide safety and security in critical functions such as braking, steering, motor control, etc. requires an approach that can guarantee the continuous reliable operation of the functions. At the same time, there are a variety of functions that are less critical from the vehicle operation perspective that can be provided where safety and security are less critical. From a vehicle manufacturers point of view, providing both types of services in an economic and reliable manner is a real challenge. To meet this challenge, we consider the Rubus Tool Suit for the software development and a well-proven (in industrial use for over twenty years) and certified (according to ISO 26262) operating system Kernel for its execution. In addition, a user-friendly approach to model- and component-based development concept called the “software circuits” has provided an approach to meet the demands of both safety-critical deterministic and as well as non-safety critical non-deterministic services. In this paper, a brief history of the evolution of Rubus approach as well as an overview of the driving concepts used in providing the Rubus products are described.

  • 93.
    Loni, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ahlberg, Carl
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Embedded Acceleration of Image Classification Applications for Stereo Vision Systems2018In: Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition DATE'18, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Loni, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    ADONN: Adaptive design of optimized deep neural networks for embedded systems2018In: Proceedings - 21st Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design, DSD 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 397-404Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, many modern applications, e.g. autonomous system, and cloud data services need to capture and process a big amount of raw data at runtime that ultimately necessitates a high-performance computing model. Deep Neural Network (DNN) has already revealed its learning capabilities in runtime data processing for modern applications. However, DNNs are becoming more deep sophisticated models for gaining higher accuracy which require a remarkable computing capacity. Considering high-performance cloud infrastructure as a supplier of required computational throughput is often not feasible. Instead, we intend to find a near-sensor processing solution which will lower the need for network bandwidth and increase privacy and power efficiency, as well as guaranteeing worst-case response-times. Toward this goal, we introduce ADONN framework, which aims to automatically design a highly robust DNN architecture for embedded devices as the closest processing unit to the sensors. ADONN adroitly searches the design space to find improved neural architectures. Our proposed framework takes advantage of a multi-objective evolutionary approach, which exploits a pruned design space inspired by a dense architecture. Unlike recent works that mainly have tried to generate highly accurate networks, ADONN also considers the network size factor as the second objective to build a highly optimized network fitting with limited computational resource budgets while delivers comparable accuracy level. In comparison with the best result on CIFAR-10 dataset, a generated network by ADONN presents up to 26.4 compression rate while loses only 4% accuracy. In addition, ADONN maps the generated DNN on the commodity programmable devices including ARM Processor, High-Performance CPU, GPU, and FPGA.

  • 95.
    Loni, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hamouachy, Fadouao
    Casarrubios, Clémentine
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    AutoRIO: An Indoor Testbed for Developing Autonomous Vehicles2019In: International Japan-Africa Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computations JAC-ECC, 2019, p. 69-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles have a great influence on our life. These vehicles are more convenient, more energy efficient providing higher safety level and cheaper driving solutions. In addition, decreasing the generation of CO 2 , and the risk vehicular accidents are other benefits of autonomous vehicles. However, leveraging a full autonomous system is challenging and the proposed solutions are newfound. Providing a testbed for evaluating new algorithms is beneficial for researchers and hardware developers to verify the real impact of their solutions. The existence of testing environment is a low-cost infrastructure leading to increase the time-to-market of novel ideas. In this paper, we propose Auto Rio, a cutting-edge indoor testbed for developing autonomous vehicles.

  • 96.
    Loni, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Majd, Amin
    Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Loni, Abdolah
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Troubitsyna, Elena
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Designing Compact Convolutional Neural Network for Embedded Stereo Vision Systems2018In: IEEE 12th International Symposium on Embedded Multicore/Many-core Systems-on-Chip MCSoC-2018, 2018, p. 244-251, article id 8540240Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 97.
    Loni, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sinaei, Sima
    Mälardalen University.
    Zoljodi, A.
    Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran.
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    DeepMaker: A multi-objective optimization framework for deep neural networks in embedded systems2020In: Microprocessors and microsystems, ISSN 0141-9331, E-ISSN 1872-9436, Vol. 73, article id 102989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are compute-intensive learning models with growing applicability in a wide range of domains. Due to their computational complexity, DNNs benefit from implementations that utilize custom hardware accelerators to meet performance and response time as well as classification accuracy constraints. In this paper, we propose DeepMaker framework that aims to automatically design a set of highly robust DNN architectures for embedded devices as the closest processing unit to the sensors. DeepMaker explores and prunes the design space to find improved neural architectures. Our proposed framework takes advantage of a multi-objective evolutionary approach that exploits a pruned design space inspired by a dense architecture. DeepMaker considers the accuracy along with the network size factor as two objectives to build a highly optimized network fitting with limited computational resource budgets while delivers an acceptable accuracy level. In comparison with the best result on the CIFAR-10 dataset, a generated network by DeepMaker presents up to a 26.4x compression rate while loses only 4% accuracy. Besides, DeepMaker maps the generated CNN on the programmable commodity devices, including ARM Processor, High-Performance CPU, GPU, and FPGA. 

  • 98.
    Loni, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Zoljodi, Ali
    Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran.
    Seenan, Sima
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    NeuroPower: Designing Energy Efficient Convolutional Neural Network Architecture for Embedded Systems2019In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 11727, Munich, Germany: Springer , 2019, p. 208-222Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) suffer from energy-hungry implementation due to their computation and memory intensive processing patterns. This problem is even more significant by the proliferation of CNNs on embedded platforms. To overcome this problem, we offer NeuroPower as an automatic framework that designs a highly optimized and energy efficient set of CNN architectures for embedded systems. NeuroPower explores and prunes the design space to find improved set of neural architectures. Toward this aim, a multi-objective optimization strategy is integrated to solve Neural Architecture Search (NAS) problem by near-optimal tuning network hyperparameters. The main objectives of the optimization algorithm are network accuracy and number of parameters in the network. The evaluation results show the effectiveness of NeuroPower on energy consumption, compacting rate and inference time compared to other cutting-edge approaches. In comparison with the best results on CIFAR-10/CIFAR-100 datasets, a generated network by NeuroPower presents up to 2.1x/1.56x compression rate, 1.59x/3.46x speedup and 1.52x/1.82x power saving while loses 2.4%/-0.6% accuracy, respectively.

  • 99.
    Lu, Yue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bygde, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Response-Time Analysis of Complex Real-Time Systems by using ParametricWorst-Case Execution-Time Estimate on Tasks – A Case Study for Robotic Control System2009In: 21st Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 09) Work-In-Progress (WIP) session, Dublin, Ireland, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 100.
    Martin, G.
    et al.
    Tensilica Inc, Santa Clara, CA, United States.
    Lavagno, L.
    Cadence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, United States.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Thramboulidis, K.
    University of Patras, Patras, Greece.
    Embedded systems  - An Overview2017In: Systems, Controls, Embedded Systems, Energy, and Machines, Boca Raton: CRC Press , 2017, p. 16-1-16-1Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems span a number of scienti?c and engineering disciplines, which evolve continuously. So does the ?eld of embedded systems. To write on this topic requires a careful choice of the material to be covered, to make a presentation of a reasonable length, and provide a fairly up-to-date material. This chapter focuses on two main areas of embedded systems, which have evolved only in recent years, namely, systems on a chip and networked embedded systems. The section on System-on-Chip surveys a large number of the issues involved in its design. The section on networked embedded systems presents an overview of trends for networking of embedded systems, their design, and their application for in-car controls and automation. This material is preceded by a round up of embedded systems in general, and design trends. 

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