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  • 51.
    Papatheocharous, E.
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS).
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Andersson, J.
    Linneaus University.
    Issues and challenges in ecosystems for federated embedded systems2013In: 1st ACM SIGSOFT/SIGPLAN International Workshop on Software Engineering for Systems-of-Systems, SESoS 2013 Proceedings, 2013, p. 21-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how Systems of Systems (SoS) can be constructed by linking together embedded computers in constituent systems to create complex but more flexible and adaptable systems. The approach of software system development is called Federated Embedded Systems (FES) and their revolved ecosystem of players is presented, aiming to ensure quality in engineering SoS. Ecosystems for Federated Embedded Systems (EcoFES) comprise a new area of research that scales component-based software development for embedded software into new dimensions. The proposed ecosystem dimension introduces an open, flexible and adaptable SoS architecture for improving the process of FES development. In the paper, we identify some architectural challenges and discuss the implications of scaling from a closed ecosystem to an open one, providing open collaboration and innovation in the context of FES.

  • 52.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Kista, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linneaus University, Växjö, Sweden .
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Kista, Sweden.
    Ecosystems and Open Innovation for Embedded Systems: A Systematic Mapping Study2015In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Volume 210, 2015, p. 81-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper surveys work on ecosystems and open innovation of systems in the context of software engineering for embedded systems. The primary research goal is to develop a research agenda based on the topics identified within the research publications on the topic. The agenda is based on a systematic mapping study of 260 publications obtained from digital libraries and is influenced by a set of areas of interest, i.e., product lines, open source, third party, business models, open innovation, and strategy. The results from the study include analysis of the type of research conducted in the field, its origin and research contribution. The study identifies the need for more solutions to specific open innovation problems such as mapping business models to technical platforms; defining open ecosystem processes that foster open innovation; and improving how ecosystem players can leverage on tool support for open innovation. A direction for future research is also provided.

  • 53.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    University of Cyprus , Nicosia.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    The GRADE Decision Canvas for Classification and Reflection on Architecture Decisions2017In: 12th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering ENASE17, 2017, p. 187-194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a decision canvas for capturing architecture decisions in software and systems engineer- ing. The canvas leverages a dedicated taxonomy, denoted GRADE, meant for establishing the basics of the vocabulary for assessing and choosing architectural assets in the development of software-intensive systems. The canvas serves as a template for practitioners to discuss and document architecture decisions, i.e., capture, understand and communicate decisions among decision-makers and to others. It also serves as a way to re- flect on past decision-making activities devoted to both tentative and concluding decisions in the development of software-intensive systems. The canvas has been assessed by means of preliminary internal and external evaluations with four scenarios. The results are promising as the canvas fulfills its intended objectives while satisfying most of the needs of the subjects participating in the evaluation.

  • 54.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ali Shah, Syed Muhammad
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, Kista.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, Kista.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, Kista.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Chalmers, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Choosing Component Origins for Software Intensive Systems: In-house, COTS, OSS or Outsourcing? - A Case Survey2018In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 237-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of which software component to use influences the success of a software system. Only a few empirical studies investigate how the choice of components is conducted in industrial practice. This is important to understand to tailor research solutions to the needs of the industry. Existing studies focus on the choice for off-the-shelf (OTS) components. It is, however, also important to understand the implications of the choice of alternative component sourcing options (CSOs), such as outsourcing versus the use of OTS. Previous research has shown that the choice has major implications on the development process as well as on the ability to evolve the system. The objective of this study is to explore how decision making took place in industry to choose among CSOs. Overall, 22 industrial cases have been studied through a case survey. The results show that the solutions specifically for CSO decisions are deterministic and based on optimization approaches. The non-deterministic solutions proposed for architectural group decision making appear to suit the CSO decision making in industry better. Interestingly, the final decision was perceived negatively in nine cases and positively in seven cases, while in the remaining cases it was perceived as neither positive nor negative.

  • 55.
    Rylander, David
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    LEAN METHOD TO IDENTIFY IMPROVEMENTS FOR OPERATION CONTROL AT QUARRY SITES2013In: 30th International Symposium of Automation and Robotics in Construction and Mining (ISARC 2013), 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operation of Quarry and Aggregate sites are similar to factory production, since it contains sequential production processes, tasks and activities to produce the output product. Compared to the plant though, the quarry processes are generally not synchronized and controlled towards the overall throughput of the site in real time. Some quarries control parts of the production but do generally not utilize real-time technologies for the whole site and all its activities. This fact indicates a general improvement potential in increased productivity at quarry sites, but also unsolved challenges for the same reason. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of a Lean based method for how to describe the processes to identify control improvement potential within a site. The aim of the identified improvements is to increase overall site productivity by optimizing site, fleet and machine utilization towards the overall throughput, and minimizing operational expenses and inventories. Further the paper exemplifies the methodÂ’s usability with field studies at operational quarry plants successfully identifying and quantifying potential wastes and improvements. In addition the identified productivity improvements based on increased control and automation indicate challenges and needs in wireless communication and sensing technologies.

  • 56.
    Rylander, David
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Using wireless communication to improve road safety and quality of service at road construction work sites (Poster)2012In: 2012 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference: Proceeding, IEEE , 2012, p. 152-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how wireless communication and vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) based technologies can be applied in relation to road construction work sites to improve safety and increase efficiency and sustainability. It discusses how to design the flow of data for a number of functions and how to operate the functions at the work site even at low VANET penetration rates. The applications described identify the potential in increased productivity at a road construction site and how increased visibility of site activities impact on traffic and improved road safety. It also highlights important implementation considerations and the need of availability and utilization of open standards for this purpose. © 2012 IEEE.

  • 57.
    Rylander, David
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Wallin, Peter
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden .
    Energy savings by wireless control of speed, scheduling and travel times for hauling operation2014In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings, 2014, p. 1115-1120Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Quarry and Aggregate production site consist of sequential production processes and activities to process and produce the output products. Compared to a fixed manufacturing plant, the quarry processes involve mobile machines such as wheel loaders, trucks and articulated haulers and a highly dynamic road infrastructure. Today, the mobile machines are generally not synchronized or controlled towards the overall throughput of the site in real time. This indicates a general improvement potential in increased productivity at quarry sites, but also unsolved challenges for the same reason. Assuming a wireless control system that controls speed and throughput of the different processes and activities, there would be a fuel reduction potential in controlling the mobile machines. This optimization requires models of machine fuel consumption for different applications, velocities and travel times. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of fuel measurements based on different speeds, site application characteristics and travel times for hauling operation. The fuel measures reveal important aspects regarding how different velocities impact fuel consumption. The results of fuel measurements show a potential in fuel savings of up to 42% and a typical improvement of 20-30% depending on machine speeds, travel times, application and site characteristics. Based on this, some of the applications and challenges in wirelessly controlling machines are discussed.

  • 58.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Chen, DeJiu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Malvius, Diana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Model based development of automotive embedded systems2008In: Automotive Embedded Systems Handbook / [ed] Nicolas Navet, Francoise Simonot-Lion, CRC Press, 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Case Study of Issues Related to Automotive E/E System Architecture Development2008In: FIFTEENTH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE AND WORKSHOPS ON THE ENGINEERING OF COMPUTER-BASED SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS, 2008, p. 87-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electronics in vehicles is increasing quickly and the systems are becoming increasingly complex. This makes the engineering of these advanced computer-based systems more and more difficult. In particular finding a good architecture is a prerequisite for successful design. In this study we investigate key issues related to real-world decisions regarding a car's electrical and electronic system architecture. To extract the key issues an exploratory case study was performed at a car manufacturer We used semiformal interviews complemented with a survey to validate the results. The contribution of this paper is twelve issues that reflect the situation at a car manufacturer Also, possible actions to deal with theseissues are provided.

  • 60.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Limiting Practices in Developing and Managing Software-Intensive Systems: A Comparative Study2010In: PICMET 2010: TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT FOR GLOBAL ECONOMIC GROWTH, Phuket, Thailand, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the automotive industry, up to 90 percent of all new features are dependent on electronics and software. Consequently, the amount of software and electronics in vehicles is rapidly increasing. The same trend has been observed in other domains, such as telecom, avionics, trains, and more. An important factor in dealing with this inherent complexity is the use of a system architecture. The architecture is typically an enabler for both efficiency and effectiveness in the development of software-intensive systems but not directly connected to the customer needs. For example, the architecture can increase the agility of upcoming product releases in order to cost effectively satisfy future customer needs. By combining two parallel multiple case studies, one focusing on the architects view, and the other one focusing on the managerial perspective, we have identified six limitations. Our results indicate that the focus is on customer requirements for the current product, on the expense of the internal requirements related to the development of the architecture and long-term profitability. Further, even if the early phases of development are identified as a success criterion, they are still not given enough attention.

  • 61.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Volvo Car Corporation, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Making Decisions in Integration of Automotive Software and Electronics: A Method Based on ATAM and AHP2007In: Proceedings - ICSE 2007 Workshops: Fourth International Workshop on Software Engineering for Automotive Systems, SEAS'07, 2007, p. Article number 4228592--Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a new method for makingdecisions on integration strategy for in-vehicle automotive systems.We describe the problem of choosing integration strategy and wedescribe the method, which is a combination of the ArchitectureTradeoff Analysis Method, ATAM, and the Analytical HierarchyProcess, AHP. We exemplify the use of the proposed method byevaluating the integration decisions concerning the physicalconnection of a realistic example system; a computer controlledautomatic gearbox. We present analysis on the use of the method andconclude that the method has several benefits compared to ATAM orAHP used individually. The method firstly supports a structured wayof listing system goals, and secondly, it also supports the makingof design decisions.

  • 62.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Johnsson, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Issues Related to Development of E/E Product Line Architectures in Heavy Vehicles2009In: 42nd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Computer Society, Hawaii, USA, IEEE Computer Society , 2009, p. Article number: 4755804-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of electronics in vehicles is growing quickly, thus systems are becoming increasingly complex which makes the engineering of these software intensive systems more and more difficult. In the automotive industry the use of product line architectures enables a set of vehicles to share architecture to decrease cost and increase quality. In this study we investigate key issues related to real-world decisions regarding electrical and electronic product line architecture for heavy vehicles. To extract key issues a multiple exploratory case study at two heavy vehicle manufacturers was performed. We used semi-formal interviews complemented with a survey to validate the results. The contribution of this study is 14 issues that reflect the situation at the two companies. Many of the identified issues relate to non technical areas such as organization, process, methods and tools, and management. Moreover, possible actions to deal with these issues are discussed.

  • 63.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Practitioners’ views of Key Issues and their Solutions in the Development of System and Software ArchitectureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: In many traditional industry applications, including automotive, process automation and manufacturing automation, software plays a crucial role as an enabler in the introduction of new functionality and to stay competitive. System and software architecture plays an important part in ensuring the qualities of the systems. However, the design of the architecture may be neglected during system development, whilst development efforts are centered on implementing new functionality.

    Objective: We present the challenges, problems, and success factors that are central to the architectural development of software intensive systems as judged by practitioners.

    Method: The method used consisted of three steps. First, we used semi-structured interviews to collect data in an exploratory manner. In a second step, a survey based on issues extracted from the structured interview data was used to investigate the occurrence of these issues in a wide range of organizations. In order to identify and suggest solutions to the issues that were considered important, we finally performed root cause analysis workshops.

    Results: A total of 21 issues have been identified, and examples of these issues are (1) there is a lack of process in architecture development, (2) there is a lack of methodology or models for evaluating business value when choosing architecture, (3) there is a lack of clear long-term architectural strategy, and (4) processes and methods are of less value than the knowledge and competence of individuals.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, we are convinced that the following success factors are crucial components in developing software intensive systems: (1) defining an architectural strategy, (2) implementing a process for architectural work, (3) ensuring authority for architects, (4) clarifying the business impact of the architecture, and (5) optimization at the project portfolio level, instead of optimizing each project.

     

  • 64.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Problems and their mitigation in system and software architecting2012In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 686-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Today, software and embedded systems act as enablers for developing new functionality in traditional industries such as the automotive, process automation, and manufacturing automation domains. This differs from 25–30 years ago when these systems where based on electronics and electro-mechanical solutions. The architecture of the embedded system and of the software is important to ensure the qualities of these applications. However, the effort of designing and evolving the architecture is in practice often neglected during system development, whilst development efforts are centered on implementing new functionality. Objective: We present problems and success factors that are central to the architectural development of software intensive systems in the domain of automotive and automation products as judged by practitioners. Method: The method consisted of three steps. First, we used semi-structured interviews to collect data in an exploratory manner. As a second step, a survey based on problems extracted from the interview data was used to investigate the occurrence of these problems at a wider range of organizations. In order to identify and suggest how to mitigate the problems that were considered important, we finally performed root cause analysis workshops, and from these a number of success factors were elicited. Results: A total of 21 problems have been identified based on the interview data, and these are related to the technical, organizational, project, and agreement processes. Based on the survey results, the following four problems were selected for a root cause analysis: (1) there is a lack of process for architecture development, (2) there is a lack of method or model to evaluate the business value when choosing the architecture, (3) there is a lack of clear long-term architectural strategy, and (4) processes and methods are less valued than knowledge and competence of individuals. Conclusion: In conclusion, the following identified success factors are crucial components to be successful in developing software intensive systems: (1) define an architectural strategy, (2) implement a process for architectural work, (3) ensure authority for architects, (4) clarify the business impact of the architecture, and (5) optimize on the project portfolio level instead of optimizing each project.

  • 65.
    Zhang, Shuzhou
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    SICS.
    Johansson, Eilert
    SICS.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wang, Huifeng
    East China University of Science and Technology.
    Porting an AUTOSAR-Compliant Operating System to a High Performance Embedded Platform2013In: Embedded Operating Systems Workshop, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automotive embedded systems are going through a major change, both in terms of how they are used and in terms of software and hardware architecture. Much more powerful and rapidly evolvable hardware is expected, paralleled by an accelerating development rate of the control software. To meet these challenges, a software standard, AUTOSAR, is gaining ground in the automotive eld. In this work, experiences from porting AUTOSAR to a high performance embedded system, Raspberry Pi, are collected. The goal is both to present experience on the process of AUTOSAR porting and to create an AUTOSAR implementation on a cheap and widely accessible hardware platform, making AUTOSAR available for researchers and students.

12 51 - 65 of 65
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