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  • 51.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Using Real Options In Embedded Automotive System Design2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive customers demand new functionality with every new product release and the time-to-market is constantly shortened. The automotive embedded systems are characterized by being mechatronic systems which adds complexity. The systems are often resource constrained and trade-offs between the system behaviour and the resources required is of great importance. The system complexity and the many uncertain factors create a need for support in the design process. Many design features such as memory and processor capacity can be seen as options, i.e. giving you the right but not the obligation to use them in the future. The valuation method using Real Options provides the opportunity to analyze the cost of designing for future growth of a platform, based on the estimated value of the future functionality.

    In this paper the use of Real Options is applied on a real case within the automotive industry. The studied company develops commercial vehicles for a broad range of applications. In this case study a valuation is performed on two different design alternatives of function allocation. The design alternatives vary in hardware, software, cabling etc. The case study has been per-formed together with the developing organization and it has therefore been possible to observe the acceptance of the method. The study shows how Real Option valuation provides valuable guidance when making system design decisions and more importantly also show how it can be used and accepted by system engineers. The method does not only provide a way of valuing sys-tem designs, but it also forces the system engineer to think about the future in a systematic manor. The value of a flexible design can thereby be quantified making the trade-off between short and long term solutions more accurate.

  • 52.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Analyzing the System Architecting Value Stream2010In: European Systems Engineering Conference, Stockholm, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    The PROGRESS Centre for Predictable Embedded Software Systems - Half-time report (edited version)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Presentation of the achievements and activities within the PROGRESS national strategic research centre 2006-2008

  • 54.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    et al.
    SICS.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    On the Technological and Methodological Concepts of Federated Embedded Systems2013In: First Open EIT ICT Labs Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems Engineering, Trento, Italy, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally embedded systems are developed with a specific control task in mind, and are able to affect only a limited set of actuators, based on measurements from a limited set of sensors. With the arrival of cheap and efficient communication technology, this traditional picture is starting to change. It is our belief that future embedded systems will interact with each other, forming federations to provide new emergent services to their users. With this in mind, a pre-study was performed to discern the main concepts of such federations and the related challenges that need to be addressed. This has led to two parallel research directions, presented in this paper. One is focusing on the enabling technology that is needed for dynamic creation of new types of federations, while the other deals with the methodological concepts for creation of ecosystems in which federations of embedded systems can be dynamically formed.

  • 55.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    et al.
    SICS.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Paving the Way for Apps in Vehicles2013In: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094, no 94Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Towards Safe and Secure Systems of Systems: Challenges and Opportunities2017In: 32nd ACM SIGAPP Symposium On Applied Computing SAC2017, 2017, p. 1803-1806, article id F128005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While systems of systems (SoS) are starting to reach the market, it is not entirely evident how to analyze safety, and on a high level also security, of such systems. In fact, speci c characteristics of SoS, such as independence, changing con- stitution, evolutionary development, and emergent behavior, provide certain challenges to the safety analysis. In this pa- per, such challenges are summarized and a systems theoretic safety analysis method, abbreviated as STAMP, is evaluated on an automotive SoS application example. In conclusion, STAMP seems well positioned to serve as a base for a future method for safety and, to a certain degree, security analysis of SoS, although some work remains to be done. The advan- tages and limitations of the STAMP approach when dealing with SoS are discussed.

  • 57.
    Martin, Joyce
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Suryadevara, Jagadish
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Volvo Construction Equipment, Sweden.
    Decisions supported by Core Ontology for Mission and Capabilities in Systems of Systems2024Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Martin, Joyce
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Suryadevara, Jagadish
    Towards a Core Ontology for Missions and Capabilities in Systems of Systems2023In: 2023 18th Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSe 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a core ontology for missions and capabilities in systems of systems. The aim of the study is to create artifacts that facilitate precise understanding of fundamental concepts of SoS. An ontological approach proposes and develops taxonomic homogeneity and structural knowledge of SoS. The ontology development process involved workshop sessions with industry experts and meta modelling of the different concepts and their relationships. The ontology includes thirteen concepts of types physical things, people, information and mixed. These concepts are defined and their relations are briefly described. The developed ontology is further illustrated using a wildfire scenario case study.

  • 59.
    Martin, Joyce
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Suryavedara, Jagadish
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    The Capability Concept in the Context of Systems of Systems: A Systematic Literature Review2022In: ISSE 2022 - 2022 8th IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, Conference Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems of systems (SoS) leverage dynamic configuration of independent systems to achieve a capability neither of the independent constituent systems can achieve on their own. Therefore, SoS engineering goes beyond addressing requirements to addressing capabilities. Due to the independence of the constituent systems, capability is formed by complex interdependence of legacy systems. It is also subject to uncertainty of the evolutionary development of the SoS, making it important to not only see the bigger picture but to plan for the changing capability patterns in the life of an SoS. This study looks at the body of knowledge surrounding definitions, support systems and practices around the concept of capability in the context of SoS. The results show; context dependent nature of the definition of capability, country-specific support systems, ongoing efforts to form more robust frameworks and dominant establishment of this theme in the defense sector.

  • 60.
    Ni, Ze
    et al.
    SICS - Swedish Inst. of Computer Science, Sweden.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    SICS - Swedish Inst. of Computer Science, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    SICS - Swedish Inst. of Computer Science, Sweden.
    Design and Implementation of a Dynamic Component Model for Federated AUTOSAR Systems2014In: Proceedings - Design Automation Conference, 2014, 2014, p. Article number 2593121-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry has recently agreed upon the embedded software standard AUTOSAR, which structures an application into reusable components that can be deployed using a configuration scheme. However, this configuration takes place at design time, with no provision for dynamically installing components to reconfigure the system. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a dynamic component model that extends AUTOSAR with the possibility to add plug-in components at runtime. This opens up for shorter deployment time for new functions; opportunities for vehicles to participate in federated embedded systems; and involvement of third-party software developers.

  • 61.
    Olsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Robert Bosch AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Systems-of-Systems and Digital Twins: A Survey and Analysis of the Current Knowledge2023In: 2023 18th Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSe 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the needs and constraints of systems in general and a system-of-systems in particular can be challenging, yet crucial. Relying only on upfront activities will not be sufficient. Important information can be gathered around the performance and behavior of the system as well as stakeholder needs in operation. A digital twin is a way to model and understand the operation of a system. To understand the challenges and enablers related to digital twins in a system-of-systems context, we performed a literature study. In total, only 10 papers were identified that explicitly address this topic, all from the last five years, indicating that this is an active field of research. The papers revealed that definitions and terminology are unclear and that similar challenges as for systems-of-systems also exist for systems-of-digital twins. The complexity and dynamic nature of systems-of-systems motivate further study of digital twins to understand needs and constraints. However, key challenges such as concepts and principles of digital twins for systems-of-systems, cost and benefits, and evolution needs to be better understood. 

  • 62.
    Ozkaya, Ipek
    et al.
    SEI, CMU,United States .
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Architecture knowledge management during system evolution: observations from practitioners2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 ICSE Workshop on Sharing and Reusing Architectural Knowledge, 2010, p. 52-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely accepted that awareness of architectural decisions enables better management and planning of system evolution, refactoring, and modernization efforts. In this paper we report data from interviews with software architects about how practitioners utilize architecture during system evolution. Our results show, despite the widely shared view that long-lived systems are better off with strong architectures; basic architecture-centric practices are not followed systematically. The key gap we observe is in correct and timely communication of architectural issues. This overall finding is not surprising. However, our data also contributes to how architecture knowledge management activities can be focused for most benefit throughout a system's lifespan. While the often-referenced problem is lack of time spent on documentation and design practices, our interviews show that lack of quality attribute reasoning early on, and during the lifespan of the system is a key contributor to failing to use architecture knowledge effectively during evolution.

  • 63.
    Papatheocharous, E.
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS).
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Andersson, J.
    Linneaus University.
    Issues and challenges in ecosystems for federated embedded systems2013In: 1st ACM SIGSOFT/SIGPLAN International Workshop on Software Engineering for Systems-of-Systems, SESoS 2013 Proceedings, 2013, p. 21-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how Systems of Systems (SoS) can be constructed by linking together embedded computers in constituent systems to create complex but more flexible and adaptable systems. The approach of software system development is called Federated Embedded Systems (FES) and their revolved ecosystem of players is presented, aiming to ensure quality in engineering SoS. Ecosystems for Federated Embedded Systems (EcoFES) comprise a new area of research that scales component-based software development for embedded software into new dimensions. The proposed ecosystem dimension introduces an open, flexible and adaptable SoS architecture for improving the process of FES development. In the paper, we identify some architectural challenges and discuss the implications of scaling from a closed ecosystem to an open one, providing open collaboration and innovation in the context of FES.

  • 64.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Kista, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linneaus University, Växjö, Sweden .
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Kista, Sweden.
    Ecosystems and Open Innovation for Embedded Systems: A Systematic Mapping Study2015In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Volume 210, 2015, p. 81-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper surveys work on ecosystems and open innovation of systems in the context of software engineering for embedded systems. The primary research goal is to develop a research agenda based on the topics identified within the research publications on the topic. The agenda is based on a systematic mapping study of 260 publications obtained from digital libraries and is influenced by a set of areas of interest, i.e., product lines, open source, third party, business models, open innovation, and strategy. The results from the study include analysis of the type of research conducted in the field, its origin and research contribution. The study identifies the need for more solutions to specific open innovation problems such as mapping business models to technical platforms; defining open ecosystem processes that foster open innovation; and improving how ecosystem players can leverage on tool support for open innovation. A direction for future research is also provided.

  • 65.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    University of Cyprus , Nicosia.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    The GRADE Decision Canvas for Classification and Reflection on Architecture Decisions2017In: 12th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering ENASE17, 2017, p. 187-194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a decision canvas for capturing architecture decisions in software and systems engineer- ing. The canvas leverages a dedicated taxonomy, denoted GRADE, meant for establishing the basics of the vocabulary for assessing and choosing architectural assets in the development of software-intensive systems. The canvas serves as a template for practitioners to discuss and document architecture decisions, i.e., capture, understand and communicate decisions among decision-makers and to others. It also serves as a way to re- flect on past decision-making activities devoted to both tentative and concluding decisions in the development of software-intensive systems. The canvas has been assessed by means of preliminary internal and external evaluations with four scenarios. The results are promising as the canvas fulfills its intended objectives while satisfying most of the needs of the subjects participating in the evaluation.

  • 66.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ali Shah, Syed Muhammad
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, Kista.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, Kista.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, Kista.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Chalmers, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Choosing Component Origins for Software Intensive Systems: In-house, COTS, OSS or Outsourcing? - A Case Survey2018In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 237-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of which software component to use influences the success of a software system. Only a few empirical studies investigate how the choice of components is conducted in industrial practice. This is important to understand to tailor research solutions to the needs of the industry. Existing studies focus on the choice for off-the-shelf (OTS) components. It is, however, also important to understand the implications of the choice of alternative component sourcing options (CSOs), such as outsourcing versus the use of OTS. Previous research has shown that the choice has major implications on the development process as well as on the ability to evolve the system. The objective of this study is to explore how decision making took place in industry to choose among CSOs. Overall, 22 industrial cases have been studied through a case survey. The results show that the solutions specifically for CSO decisions are deterministic and based on optimization approaches. The non-deterministic solutions proposed for architectural group decision making appear to suit the CSO decision making in industry better. Interestingly, the final decision was perceived negatively in nine cases and positively in seven cases, while in the remaining cases it was perceived as neither positive nor negative.

  • 67.
    Pettersson, Marjorie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Svenson, P.
    Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Towards a Risk Analysis Method for Systems of Systems: A Case Study on Wildfire Rescue Operations2023In: Proc. Int. ISCRAM Conf., Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM , 2023, p. 530-545Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crisis management (CM) is facing new challenges due to the increasing complexity of contemporary society. To mitigate a crisis, it is often necessary for a collection of independent systems, people, and organizations to cooperate. These collaborating entities constitute an interconnected socio-technical system of systems (SoS). An important question is how a CM SoS should be constructed to minimize the risk of failure and accurately handle a crisis. SoS pose new challenges in analysing risk during interactions. This paper investigates whether the risk analysis method STAMP (System-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes) is suitable for SoS, using a forest fire rescue operation case study. Results show characteristics of various risk sources and identify some SoS characteristics, such as dynamic structure and latent risks, that are not sufficiently handled in STAMP. The study further contributes to the body of knowledge by presenting potential directions for research on SoS risk assessment methods.

  • 68.
    Rylander, David
    et al.
    Rise Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Design and Evaluation of a System of Systems Architecture for the Optimization of a Cyclic Transport Operation2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclic transport missions involving fleets of vehicles are common in quarry and mining operations and have shown to have a significant potential for energy optimization. Vehicles such as articulated haulers and dump trucks utilized in transport missions can be of different brand, type and have different performance characteristics such as engine power, traction and load. Vehicles may also be operated and owned by different organizations as they can be subcontracted to an operation. The transport operation characteristics include stochastic behaviors and activity times that fluctuate over time, and hence real-time control is required for efficient optimization. As the vehicles are mobile, wireless communication also needs to be available. As the constituent systems (vehicles) have managerial and operational independence, a system of systems approach is applicable. This paper provides an overview of the key characteristics and requirements for such a system and discusses the pros and cons of acknowledged and directed system architectures. Further, a case study is presented where an acknowledged system of systems is implemented in a real world mine and evaluated through a qualitative assessment of an operator assistive optimization system. Key findings include the drawbacks and characteristics of the architecture approaches. Further challenges and potential for automation and production control of a larger process system are described.

  • 69.
    Rylander, David
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    LEAN METHOD TO IDENTIFY IMPROVEMENTS FOR OPERATION CONTROL AT QUARRY SITES2013In: 30th International Symposium of Automation and Robotics in Construction and Mining (ISARC 2013), 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operation of Quarry and Aggregate sites are similar to factory production, since it contains sequential production processes, tasks and activities to produce the output product. Compared to the plant though, the quarry processes are generally not synchronized and controlled towards the overall throughput of the site in real time. Some quarries control parts of the production but do generally not utilize real-time technologies for the whole site and all its activities. This fact indicates a general improvement potential in increased productivity at quarry sites, but also unsolved challenges for the same reason. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of a Lean based method for how to describe the processes to identify control improvement potential within a site. The aim of the identified improvements is to increase overall site productivity by optimizing site, fleet and machine utilization towards the overall throughput, and minimizing operational expenses and inventories. Further the paper exemplifies the methodÂ’s usability with field studies at operational quarry plants successfully identifying and quantifying potential wastes and improvements. In addition the identified productivity improvements based on increased control and automation indicate challenges and needs in wireless communication and sensing technologies.

  • 70.
    Rylander, David
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Using wireless communication to improve road safety and quality of service at road construction work sites (Poster)2012In: 2012 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference: Proceeding, IEEE , 2012, p. 152-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how wireless communication and vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) based technologies can be applied in relation to road construction work sites to improve safety and increase efficiency and sustainability. It discusses how to design the flow of data for a number of functions and how to operate the functions at the work site even at low VANET penetration rates. The applications described identify the potential in increased productivity at a road construction site and how increased visibility of site activities impact on traffic and improved road safety. It also highlights important implementation considerations and the need of availability and utilization of open standards for this purpose. © 2012 IEEE.

  • 71.
    Rylander, David
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Wallin, Peter
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden .
    Energy savings by wireless control of speed, scheduling and travel times for hauling operation2014In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings, 2014, p. 1115-1120Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Quarry and Aggregate production site consist of sequential production processes and activities to process and produce the output products. Compared to a fixed manufacturing plant, the quarry processes involve mobile machines such as wheel loaders, trucks and articulated haulers and a highly dynamic road infrastructure. Today, the mobile machines are generally not synchronized or controlled towards the overall throughput of the site in real time. This indicates a general improvement potential in increased productivity at quarry sites, but also unsolved challenges for the same reason. Assuming a wireless control system that controls speed and throughput of the different processes and activities, there would be a fuel reduction potential in controlling the mobile machines. This optimization requires models of machine fuel consumption for different applications, velocities and travel times. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of fuel measurements based on different speeds, site application characteristics and travel times for hauling operation. The fuel measures reveal important aspects regarding how different velocities impact fuel consumption. The results of fuel measurements show a potential in fuel savings of up to 42% and a typical improvement of 20-30% depending on machine speeds, travel times, application and site characteristics. Based on this, some of the applications and challenges in wirelessly controlling machines are discussed.

  • 72.
    Rylander, David
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Volvo Group Trucks Technology Göteborg, Sweden .
    Jakob, Fryk
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Volvo Construction Equipment AB Eskilstuna, Sweden .
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lean Speed Optimization Applied to a Cyclic Haul Operation2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclic haul operations are iterative transport operations, often performed by several haulers in a production work step. Cyclic haul operations are common in mining and quarry operations where the purpose of the haul work step is to move mass a relatively short distance e.g., from blasted rock supplies to the mass crushing and separation facility. The operation can include one or several haulers that perform the work simultaneously. When several haulers are used, they are generally not synchronized in an optimized way and operative variations and changes continuously affects the operation. An example of such variations can be that the driving speed and time required for certain maneuvers varies depending on driver skills and machine capacity. An operative change can be that the loading position is moved, leading to changed routes and varying distances. The operative characteristics of the haul work step indicates that there rarely exists a static state that the operators can learn to do efficiently. Our previous research has shown that haul operations can have a fuel reduction potential of up to 40%, depending on the operation characteristics and wastes such as unnecessary stops and waiting. This paper presents and assesses a system solution in a decentralized control system that calculates and advices operators with a speed for just in time arrival to a destination. The purpose of the system is to reduce fuel consumption with an obtained production rate. The system assessment shows that while production rate is obtained, fuel is reduced by up to 20% compared to base line operation in a simple quarry haul work step, including three haulers.

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  • 73.
    Svenson, Pontus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Mobilitet och system.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Mobilitet och system.
    Initiation and Formation of Constellations in Systems of Systems2022In: 2022 17th Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference, SOSE 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 340-345Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems of systems engineering is aimed at developing solutions that provide the capability to fulfil a need that cannot be met by an integrated system. In many SoS, there is a need to solve several tasks at the same time. Each set of constituent systems that collaborate to solve such a task is a constellation. In this paper, we discuss the process of forming such constellations. We focus on collaborative systems of systems and describe conceptual models for the formation of constellations. 

  • 74.
    Svenson, Pontus
    et al.
    Rise Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Rise Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Should I Stay or Should I Go? How Constituent Systems Decide to Join or Leave SoS Constellations2021In: 16th Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSe21, 2021, p. 179-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A collaborative system of systems (SoS) is formed when independent organizations decide to cooperate to achieve mutual benefits, while retaining independence of their respective systems. Each constituent system (CS) of the SoS has a set of capabilities, some of which they agree to potentially use in active collaboration with others. Such an active collaboration is called a constellation and can be seen as an instantiation of the SoS which is created to provide a joint capability. Constellations are thus the working-horses of the SoS, but due to the operational independence of the CS, they have a choice whether to join a certain constellation or not. This paper discusses the reasoning and world model that is necessary for a CS to make well-informed decisions to join and leave constellations. We argue that it is necessary for the CS to understand not only the surrounding environment, but also to have models of other CS' world models as well as of their probable future actions. It must be possible to predict whether other participants will uphold their parts of the collaboration or may defect from it to join another more rewarding constellation despite the agreements made when joining the SoS. The reasoning in the paper is illustrated using examples from two different collaborative SoS in the transportation domain.

  • 75.
    Svenson, Pontus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Situation Awareness and Decision Making for Constituent Systems2020In: 15th Annual Systems of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE2020, 2020, p. 361-366Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The constituent systems (CS) that together form a system of systems (SoS) have a continuous need to assess situations and make decisions. In addition to operating in the environment, they also need to decide upon their status in the system of systems and be aware of their relations to constellations in the system of systems. To be able to make the best possible decisions, the constituent systems need to have an accurate situation awareness, i.e., an understanding of the environment they are in, what other elements are present therein and how this will develop in the future. In this paper we present an analysis of the situation awareness needs of a constituent system in different stages of its life-cycle: ignorant of the SoS; prepared for joining the SoS; a passive CS; an active CS. A conclusion is that CS need to have world models that include information about other objects. Examples from the truck platooning application are given.

  • 76.
    Svenson, Pontus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Mobilitet och system.
    Olsson, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Mobilitet och system.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Mobilitet och system.
    Constituent Systems Quality Requirements Engineering in Co-opetitive Systems of Systems2022In: 2022 17th Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference, SOSE 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 347-352Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems of systems consist of independently owned, operated, and developed constituent systems that work together for mutual benefit. Co-opetitive systems of systems consist of constituent systems that in addition also compete. In this paper, we focus on quality requirement engineering for a constituent systems developer in such SoS. We discuss the needs and requirements of a structured quality requirements engineering process, with examples taken from the transportation domain, and find that there is a need for mediators and agreements between constituent systems developers to enable quality data exchange. 

  • 77.
    Svenson, Pontus
    et al.
    Rise Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Reichenberg, Frida
    Rise Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Rise Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    A design method for collaborative systems of systems applied to Metropolitan Multi-Mode Transport System2021In: 16th Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSe21, 2021, p. 13-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems of systems arise when independently owned, operated and developed systems can achieve mutual benefits by working together. In collaborative systems of systems, there is no directing entity that instructs others how and when to collaborate. Instead, the collaboration relies on independent decisions by the constituent systems to form collaborating constellations, and the benefits are emergent properties of this. In this paper, we describe a design method for engineering collaborative systems of systems. We apply the method to the design of a collaborative system of systems for mobility in a rural setting close to an urban area and to truck platooning.

  • 78.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Chen, DeJiu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Malvius, Diana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Model based development of automotive embedded systems2008In: Automotive Embedded Systems Handbook / [ed] Nicolas Navet, Francoise Simonot-Lion, CRC Press, 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Case Study of Issues Related to Automotive E/E System Architecture Development2008In: FIFTEENTH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE AND WORKSHOPS ON THE ENGINEERING OF COMPUTER-BASED SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS, 2008, p. 87-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electronics in vehicles is increasing quickly and the systems are becoming increasingly complex. This makes the engineering of these advanced computer-based systems more and more difficult. In particular finding a good architecture is a prerequisite for successful design. In this study we investigate key issues related to real-world decisions regarding a car's electrical and electronic system architecture. To extract the key issues an exploratory case study was performed at a car manufacturer We used semiformal interviews complemented with a survey to validate the results. The contribution of this paper is twelve issues that reflect the situation at a car manufacturer Also, possible actions to deal with theseissues are provided.

  • 80.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Limiting Practices in Developing and Managing Software-Intensive Systems: A Comparative Study2010In: PICMET 2010: TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT FOR GLOBAL ECONOMIC GROWTH, Phuket, Thailand, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the automotive industry, up to 90 percent of all new features are dependent on electronics and software. Consequently, the amount of software and electronics in vehicles is rapidly increasing. The same trend has been observed in other domains, such as telecom, avionics, trains, and more. An important factor in dealing with this inherent complexity is the use of a system architecture. The architecture is typically an enabler for both efficiency and effectiveness in the development of software-intensive systems but not directly connected to the customer needs. For example, the architecture can increase the agility of upcoming product releases in order to cost effectively satisfy future customer needs. By combining two parallel multiple case studies, one focusing on the architects view, and the other one focusing on the managerial perspective, we have identified six limitations. Our results indicate that the focus is on customer requirements for the current product, on the expense of the internal requirements related to the development of the architecture and long-term profitability. Further, even if the early phases of development are identified as a success criterion, they are still not given enough attention.

  • 81.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Volvo Car Corporation, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Making Decisions in Integration of Automotive Software and Electronics: A Method Based on ATAM and AHP2007In: Proceedings - ICSE 2007 Workshops: Fourth International Workshop on Software Engineering for Automotive Systems, SEAS'07, 2007, p. Article number 4228592--Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a new method for makingdecisions on integration strategy for in-vehicle automotive systems.We describe the problem of choosing integration strategy and wedescribe the method, which is a combination of the ArchitectureTradeoff Analysis Method, ATAM, and the Analytical HierarchyProcess, AHP. We exemplify the use of the proposed method byevaluating the integration decisions concerning the physicalconnection of a realistic example system; a computer controlledautomatic gearbox. We present analysis on the use of the method andconclude that the method has several benefits compared to ATAM orAHP used individually. The method firstly supports a structured wayof listing system goals, and secondly, it also supports the makingof design decisions.

  • 82.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Johnsson, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Issues Related to Development of E/E Product Line Architectures in Heavy Vehicles2009In: 42nd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Computer Society, Hawaii, USA, IEEE Computer Society , 2009, p. Article number: 4755804-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of electronics in vehicles is growing quickly, thus systems are becoming increasingly complex which makes the engineering of these software intensive systems more and more difficult. In the automotive industry the use of product line architectures enables a set of vehicles to share architecture to decrease cost and increase quality. In this study we investigate key issues related to real-world decisions regarding electrical and electronic product line architecture for heavy vehicles. To extract key issues a multiple exploratory case study at two heavy vehicle manufacturers was performed. We used semi-formal interviews complemented with a survey to validate the results. The contribution of this study is 14 issues that reflect the situation at the two companies. Many of the identified issues relate to non technical areas such as organization, process, methods and tools, and management. Moreover, possible actions to deal with these issues are discussed.

  • 83.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Practitioners’ views of Key Issues and their Solutions in the Development of System and Software ArchitectureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: In many traditional industry applications, including automotive, process automation and manufacturing automation, software plays a crucial role as an enabler in the introduction of new functionality and to stay competitive. System and software architecture plays an important part in ensuring the qualities of the systems. However, the design of the architecture may be neglected during system development, whilst development efforts are centered on implementing new functionality.

    Objective: We present the challenges, problems, and success factors that are central to the architectural development of software intensive systems as judged by practitioners.

    Method: The method used consisted of three steps. First, we used semi-structured interviews to collect data in an exploratory manner. In a second step, a survey based on issues extracted from the structured interview data was used to investigate the occurrence of these issues in a wide range of organizations. In order to identify and suggest solutions to the issues that were considered important, we finally performed root cause analysis workshops.

    Results: A total of 21 issues have been identified, and examples of these issues are (1) there is a lack of process in architecture development, (2) there is a lack of methodology or models for evaluating business value when choosing architecture, (3) there is a lack of clear long-term architectural strategy, and (4) processes and methods are of less value than the knowledge and competence of individuals.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, we are convinced that the following success factors are crucial components in developing software intensive systems: (1) defining an architectural strategy, (2) implementing a process for architectural work, (3) ensuring authority for architects, (4) clarifying the business impact of the architecture, and (5) optimization at the project portfolio level, instead of optimizing each project.

     

  • 84.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Problems and their mitigation in system and software architecting2012In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 686-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Today, software and embedded systems act as enablers for developing new functionality in traditional industries such as the automotive, process automation, and manufacturing automation domains. This differs from 25–30 years ago when these systems where based on electronics and electro-mechanical solutions. The architecture of the embedded system and of the software is important to ensure the qualities of these applications. However, the effort of designing and evolving the architecture is in practice often neglected during system development, whilst development efforts are centered on implementing new functionality. Objective: We present problems and success factors that are central to the architectural development of software intensive systems in the domain of automotive and automation products as judged by practitioners. Method: The method consisted of three steps. First, we used semi-structured interviews to collect data in an exploratory manner. As a second step, a survey based on problems extracted from the interview data was used to investigate the occurrence of these problems at a wider range of organizations. In order to identify and suggest how to mitigate the problems that were considered important, we finally performed root cause analysis workshops, and from these a number of success factors were elicited. Results: A total of 21 problems have been identified based on the interview data, and these are related to the technical, organizational, project, and agreement processes. Based on the survey results, the following four problems were selected for a root cause analysis: (1) there is a lack of process for architecture development, (2) there is a lack of method or model to evaluate the business value when choosing the architecture, (3) there is a lack of clear long-term architectural strategy, and (4) processes and methods are less valued than knowledge and competence of individuals. Conclusion: In conclusion, the following identified success factors are crucial components to be successful in developing software intensive systems: (1) define an architectural strategy, (2) implement a process for architectural work, (3) ensure authority for architects, (4) clarify the business impact of the architecture, and (5) optimize on the project portfolio level instead of optimizing each project.

  • 85.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Inst Technol, Dept Software Engn, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Software & Syst Engn Lab, Kista, Sweden..
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Inst Technol, Dept Software Engn, Karlskrona, Sweden.;Univ Appl Sci Flensburg, Fachbereich Wirtschaft, Flensburg, Germany..
    Alegroth, Emil
    Blekinge Inst Technol, Dept Software Engn, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Software & Syst Engn Lab, Kista, Sweden.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Inst Technol, Dept Software Engn, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Software & Syst Engn Lab, Kista, Sweden..
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Olsson, Thomas
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Software & Syst Engn Lab, Kista, Sweden..
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Inst Technol, Dept Software Engn, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Inst Technol, Dept Software Engn, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Inst Technol, Dept Software Engn, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Towards evidence-based decision-making for identification and usage of assets in composite software: A research roadmap2021In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, article id e2345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering is decision intensive. Evidence-based software engineering is suggested for decision-making concerning the use of methods and technologies when developing software. Software development often includes the reuse of software assets, for example, open-source components. Which components to use have implications on the quality of the software (e.g., maintainability). Thus, research is needed to support decision-making for composite software. This paper presents a roadmap for research required to support evidence-based decision-making for choosing and integrating assets in composite software systems. The roadmap is developed as an output from a 5-year project in the area, including researchers from three different organizations. The roadmap is developed in an iterative process and is based on (1) systematic literature reviews of the area; (2) investigations of the state of practice, including a case survey and a survey; and (3) development and evaluation of solutions for asset identification and selection. The research activities resulted in identifying 11 areas in need of research. The areas are grouped into two categories: areas enabling evidence-based decision-making and those related to supporting the decision-making. The roadmap outlines research needs in these 11 areas. The research challenges and research directions presented in this roadmap are key areas for further research to support evidence-based decision-making for composite software.

  • 86.
    Zhang, Shuzhou
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    SICS.
    Johansson, Eilert
    SICS.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wang, Huifeng
    East China University of Science and Technology.
    Porting an AUTOSAR-Compliant Operating System to a High Performance Embedded Platform2013In: Embedded Operating Systems Workshop, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automotive embedded systems are going through a major change, both in terms of how they are used and in terms of software and hardware architecture. Much more powerful and rapidly evolvable hardware is expected, paralleled by an accelerating development rate of the control software. To meet these challenges, a software standard, AUTOSAR, is gaining ground in the automotive eld. In this work, experiences from porting AUTOSAR to a high performance embedded system, Raspberry Pi, are collected. The goal is both to present experience on the process of AUTOSAR porting and to create an AUTOSAR implementation on a cheap and widely accessible hardware platform, making AUTOSAR available for researchers and students.

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