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  • 51.
    Pozo Pérez, Francisco Manuel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Methods for large-scale time-triggered network scheduling2019In: Electronics (Switzerland), ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 8, no 7, article id 738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future cyber–physical systems may extend over broad geographical areas, like cities or regions, thus, requiring the deployment of large real-time networks. A strategy to guarantee predictable communication over such networks is to synthesize an offline time-triggered communication schedule. However, this synthesis problem is computationally hard (NP-complete), and existing approaches do not scale satisfactorily to the required network sizes. This article presents a segmented offline synthesis method which substantially reduces this limitation, being able to generate time-triggered schedules for large hybrid (wired and wireless) networks. We also present a series of algorithms and optimizations that increase the performance and compactness of the obtained schedules while solving some of the problems inherent to segmented approaches. We evaluate our approach on a set of realistic large-size multi-hop networks, significantly larger than those considered in the existing literature. The results show that our segmentation reduces the synthesis time by up to two orders of magnitude.

  • 52.
    Pozo Pérez, Francisco Manuel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Schedule reparability: Enhancing time-triggered network recovery upon link failures2019In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 24th International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, RTCSA 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 147-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The time-triggered communication paradigm has been shown to satisfy temporal isolation while providing end to end delay guarantees through the synthesis of an offline schedule. However, this paradigm has severe flexibility limitations as any unpredicted change not anticipated by the schedule, such as a component failure, might result in a loss of frames. A typical solution is to use redundancy or replace and update the schedule offline anew. With the ever increase in size of networks and the need to reduce costs, supplementary solutions that enhance the reliability of such networks are also desired. In this paper, we introduce a repair algorithm capable of reacting to unpredicted link failures. The algorithm quickly modifies the schedule such that all frames are transmitted again within their timing guarantees. We found that the success of our algorithm increases significantly with the existence of empty slots spread over the schedule, an opposite approach compared to packing frames, commonly used in the literature. We propose a new ILP formulation that includes a maximization of frame and link intermissions to stretch empty slots over the schedule. Our results show that we can repair with 90% success rate within milliseconds to a valid schedule compared to a few minutes needed to re-schedule the whole network. 

  • 53.
    Pozo Pérez, Francisco Manuel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Semi-Distributed Self-Healing Protocol for Online Schedule Repair after Network Failures2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive requirements for networks with strict timing restrictions do challenge the static nature of the time-triggered communication paradigm. Continuous changes in the network topology during operation require frequent rescheduling, followed by schedule distribution, a process that is excessively time-consuming as it was intended to be performed only during the design phase. The fully-distributed Self-Healing Protocol introduced a collaborative method to quickly modify the local schedules of the nodes during runtime, after link failures. This protocol gets the network back to correct operation in milliseconds, but it assumes that only the nodes are able to modify their local schedules, which limited the achieved improvement. This paper proposes to shift to a semi-distributed strategy, where high-performance nodes are responsible for the nodes and links within a small network segment. These nodes rely on their privileged view of the system in order to reduce the response time, increase the healing success rate, and extend the fault model to include switch failures. 

  • 54. Proenza, Julian
    et al.
    Miro-Julia, José
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Managing Redundancy in CAN-based Networks Supporting N-Version Programming2009In: Computer Standards & Interfaces, ISSN 0920-5489, E-ISSN 1872-7018, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 120-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software is a major source of reliability degradation in dependable systems. One of the classical remedies is to provide software fault tolerance by using N-Version Programming (NVP). However, due to requirements on non-standard hardware and the need for changes and additions at all levels of the system, NVP solutions are costly, and have only been used in special cases. In a previous work, a low-cost architecture for NVP execution was developed. The key features of this architecture are the use of off-the-shelf components including communication standards and that the fault tolerance functionality, including voting, error detection, fault-masking, consistency management, and recovery, is moved into a separate redundancy management circuitry (one for each redundant computing node). In this article we present an improved design of that architecture, specifically resolving some potential inconsistencies that were not treated in detail in the original design. In particular, we present novel techniques for enforcing replica determinism. Our improved architecture is based on using the Controller Area Network (CAN). This choice goes beyond the obvious interest of using standards in order to reduce the cost, since all the rest of the architecture is designed to take full advantage of the CAN standard features, such as data consistency, in order to significantly reduce the complexity, the efficiency and the cost of the resultant system. Although initially developed for NVP, our redundancy management circuitry also supports other software replication techniques, such as active replication.

  • 55.
    Proenza, Julian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Miro-Julia, José
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Redundancy Management in a Low-Cost Distributed Hardware and Firmware Support for Software-Fault Tolerance2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software is a major source of reliability degradation in dependable systems.

    One of the classical remedies is to provide software fault-tolerance by using NVersion

    Programming (NVP). However, due to requirements on special hardware

    and the need for changes and additions at all levels of the system, NVP solutions

    are costly, and have only been used in special cases.

    In a previous work, a low-cost architecture for NVP execution was developed.

    The key features of this architecture are the use of off-the-shelf components

    and that the fault-tolerance functionality, including voting, error detection,

    fault-masking, consistency management, and recovery, is moved into a separate

    redundancy management circuitry (one for each redundant computing node).

    In this article we present an improved design of that architecture, specifically

    resolving some potential inconsistencies that were not treated in detail in the original

    design. In particular, we present novel techniques for enforcing replica determinism

    and a method for reintegration of the redundancy management circuitry

    after a transient failure.

    Our improved architecture is based on using the Controller Area Network

    (CAN). This has several benefits, including low-cost, and that the CAN data consistency

    allows us to simplify the mechanisms for replica determinism and reintegration.

    Although initially developed for NVP, our redundancy management circuitry

    also supports other software replication techniques, such as active replication.

  • 56.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    et al.
    Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    An UPPAAL Model for Formal Verification of Master/Slave Clock2006In: Factory Communication Systems, 2006 IEEE International Workshop on, 2006, p. 3-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many distributed applications require a clock synchronization service. We have previously proposed a clock synchronization service for the Controller Area Network (CAN), which we have claimed to provide highly synchronized clocks even in the occurrence of faults in the system. In this paper we substantiate this claim by providing a formal model and verification of our fault tolerant clock synchronization mechanism. We base our modeling and verification on timed automata theory as implemented by the model checking tool UPPAAL. In the modeling we introduce a novel technique for modeling drifting clocks. The verification shows that a precision in the order of 2 μs is guaranteed despite node’s faults as well as consistent channel faults. It also shows that inconsistent channel faults may significantly worsen the achievable precision, but that this effect can be reduced by choosing a suitable resynchronization period.

  • 57.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    et al.
    Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain.
    Proenza, Julian
    Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Using Timed Automata for Modeling the Clocks of Distributed Embedded Systems2010In: Behavioral Modeling for Embedded Systems and Technologies: Applications for Design and Implementation, IGI Global, 2010, p. 172-193Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Model checking is a widely used technique for the formal verification of computer systems. However, the suitability of model checking strongly depends on the capacity of the system designer to specify a model that captures the real behaviour of the system under verification. For the case of real-time systems, this means being able to realistically specify not only the functional aspects, but also the temporal behaviour of the system. This chapter is dedicated to modeling clocks in distributed embedded systems using the timed automata formalism. The different types of computer clocks that may be used in a distributed embedded system and their effects on the temporal behaviour of the system are introduced, together with a systematic presentation of how the behaviour of each kind of clock can be modeled. The modeling is particularized for the UPPAAL model checker, although it can be easily adapted to other model checkers based on the theory of timed automata.

  • 58.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Scania SV, Södertäalje, Sweden .
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyberg, M.
    Scania SV, Södertäalje, Sweden .
    Ljungkrantz, O.
    Advanced Technology and Research, Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Lönn, H.
    Advanced Technology and Research, Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Automated specification and verification of functional safety in heavy-vehicles: The verispec approach2014In: Proceedings - Design Automation Conference, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ISO 26262 is the new standard for automotive functional safety. This standard identies major process steps across a large number of system stages as well as safety-related artifacts required as input and output of these steps. The VeriSpec project intends to identify the main challenges for the adoption of ISO 26262 by the heavy-vehicle industry and to provide useful and industrially relevant components (methods, tools etc.) required by the standard. The project work targets two main research goals: (i) requirement formalization support, including a usable front-end for specifying requirements by using patterns, and (ii) formal analysis of realizations in form of architectural models at various levels of abstraction, by model-checking the formal representations of the latter. In this paper, we present the current challenges facing industry and justifying VeriSpec, together with a preliminary roadmap for the research.

  • 59.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Scheduling Timed Modules for Correct Resource Sharing2008In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2008, 2008, p. 102-111Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time embedded systems typically include concurrent tasks of different priorities with time-dependent operations accessing common resources. In this context, unsynchronized

    parallel executions may lead to hazard situations caused by e.g., race conditions. To be able to detect such

    faulty system behaviors before implementation, we introduce a unified model of resource constrained, scheduled

    real-time system descriptions, in Alur's and Henzinger's rigorous framework of timed reactive modules. We take a

    component-based design perspective and construct the real-time system model, by refinement, as a composition of real-time periodic preemptible tasks with encoded functionality,

    and a fixed-priority scheduler, all modeled as timed modules.

    For the model, we express the notions of race condition and redundant locking, formally, as invariance properties

    that can be verified by model-checking.

  • 60.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fostering Reuse within Safety-critical Component-based Systems through Fine-grained Contracts2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim is to develop a notion of safety contracts and related reasoning that supports the reuse of software components in and across safety-critical systems, including support for certification related activities such as using the contract reasoning in safety argumentation. In this paper we introduce a formalism for specifying assumption/guarantee contracts for components developed out of context. We are utilising the concepts of weak and strong assumptions and guarantees to customise ne-grained contracts for addressing a broader component context and specification of properties for speci c alternative contexts. These out of context contracts can be conveniently instantiated to a speci c context, thereby providing support for component reuse.

  • 61.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Configuration-aware contracts2016In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 9923, 2016, p. 43-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assumption/guarantee contracts represent the basis for independent development of reusable components and their safety assurance within contract-based design. In the context of safety-critical systems, their use for reuse of safety assurance efforts has encountered some challenges: the need for evidence supporting the confidence in the contracts; and the challenge of context, where contracts need to impose different requirements on different systems. In this paper we propose the notion of configuration-aware contracts to address the challenge contract-based design faces with multiple contexts. Since reusable components are often developed with a set of configuration parameters that need to be configured in each context, we extend the notion of contract to distinguish between the configuration parameters and the other variables. Moreover, we define a multi-context reusable component based on the configuration-aware contracts. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the multi-context components on a motivating case. 

  • 62.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Generation of Safety Case Argument-Fragments from Safety Contracts2014In: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 8666, 2014, p. 170-185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Certification of safety-critical systems is a costly and time-consuming activity. To reduce the cost of certification and time-to-market, composable safety certification envisions reuse of safety case argument-fragments together with safety-relevant components developed out-of-context. The argument-fragments could cover safety aspects relevant for different contexts in which the component can be used. Creating argument-fragments for such out-of-context components is also time-consuming and currently no satisfying approach exists to facilitate their automatic generation. In this work we propose (semi-)automatic generation of argument-fragments from assumption/guarantee safety contracts. We use the contracts to capture the safety claims related to the component, including supporting evidence. We provide an overview of the argument-fragment architecture and rules for automatic generation, including their application in an illustrative example. By automating generation of argument-fragments, we enable safety engineers to focus on increasing the confidence in the knowledge about the system, rather than documenting a safety case.

  • 63.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Strong and Weak Contract Formalism for Third-Party Component Reuse2013In: 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops, ISSREW 2013, 2013, p. 359-364Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim is to contribute to bridging the gap between the justified need from industry to reuse third-party components and skepticism of the safety community in integrating and reusing components developed without real knowledge of the system context. We have developed a notion of safety contract that will help to capture safety-related information for supporting the reuse of software components in and across safety-critical systems. In this paper we present our extension of the contract formalism for specifying strong and weak assumption/guarantee contracts for out-of-context reusable components. We elaborate on notion of satisfaction, including refinement, dominance and composition check. To show the usage and the expressiveness of our extended formalism, we specify strong and weak safety contracts related to a wheel braking system.

  • 64.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Using Safety Contracts to Guide the Integration of Reusable Safety Elements within ISO 262622015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety-critical systems usually need to be compliant with a domain-specific safety standard, which in turn requires an explained and well-founded body of evidence to show that the system is acceptably safe. To reduce the cost and time needed to achieve the standard compliance, reuse of safety elements is not sufficient without the reuse of the accompanying evidence. The difficulties with reuse of safety elements within safety-critical systems lie mainly in the nature of safety being a system property and the lack of support for systematic reuse of safety elements and their accompanying artefacts. While safety standards provide requirements and recommendations on what should be subject to reuse, guidelines on how to perform reuse are typically lacking. We have developed a concept of strong and weak safety contracts that can be used to facilitate systematic reuse of safety elements and their accompanying artefacts. In this report we define a safety contracts development process and provide guidelines to bridge the gap between reuse and integration of reusable safety elements in the ISO 26262 safety standard. We use a real-world case for demonstration of the process, in which a safety element is developed out-of-context and reused together with its accompanying safety artefacts within two products of a construction equipment product-line.

  • 65.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Using Safety Contracts to Guide the Integration of Reusable Safety Elements within ISO 262622015In: Proceedings - 2015 IEEE 21st Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, PRDC 2015, 2015, p. 129-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety-critical systems usually need to comply with a domain-specific safety standard. To reduce the cost and time needed to achieve the standard compliance, reuse of safety-relevant components is not sufficient without the reuse of the accompanying artefacts. Developing reusable safety components out-of-context of a particular system is challenging, as safety is a system property, hence support is needed to capture and validate the context assumptions before integration of the reusable component and its artefacts in-context of the particular system. We have previously developed a concept of strong and weak safety contracts to facilitate systematic reuse of safety-relevant components and their accompanying artefacts. In this work we define a safety contracts development process and provide guidelines to bridge the gap between reuse of safety elements developed out-of-context of a particular system and their integration in the ISO 26262 safety standard. We use a real-world case for demonstration of the process.

  • 66.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Puri, Stefano
    Intecs SpA, Italy.
    A Method to Generate Reusable Safety Case Argument-Fragments from Compositional Safety Analysis2017In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 131, p. 570-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety-critical systems usually need to be accompanied by an explained and well-founded body of evidence to show that the system is acceptably safe. While reuse within such systems covers mainly code, reusing accompanying safety artefacts is limited due to a wide range of context dependencies that need to be satisfied for safety evidence to be valid in a different context. Currently, the most commonly used approaches that facilitate reuse lack support for systematic reuse of safety artefacts. To facilitate systematic reuse of safety artefacts we provide a method to generate reusable safety case argument-fragments that include supporting evidence related to compositional safety analysis. The generation is performed from safety contracts that capture safety-relevant behaviour of components in assumption/guarantee pairs backed up by the supporting evidence. We evaluate the feasibility of our approach in a real-world case study where a safety related component developed in isolation is reused within a wheel-loader.

  • 67.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Puri, Stefano
    Intecs SpA, Italy.
    A Method to Generate Reusable Safety Case Fragments from Compositional Safety Analysis2014In: Software Reuse for Dynamic Systems in the Cloud and Beyond,: 14th International Conference on Software Reuse, ICSR 2015, Miami, FL, USA, January 4-6, 2015. Proceedings, Miami, Florida, United States: Springer International Publishing , 2014, p. 253-268Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety-critical systems usually need to be accompanied by an explained and well-founded body of evidence to show that the system is acceptably safe. While reuse within such systems covers mainly code, reusing accompanying safety artefacts is limited due to a wide range of context dependencies that need to be satisfied for safety evidence to be valid in a different context. Currently the most commonly used approaches that facilitate reuse lack support for reuse of safety artefacts. To facilitate reuse of safety artefacts we provide a method to generate reusable safety case argument-fragments that include supporting evidence related to safety analysis. The generation is performed from safety contracts that capture safety-relevant behaviour of components within assumption/guarantee pairs backed up by the supporting evidence. We illustrate our approach by applying it to an airplane wheel braking system example.

  • 68.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Puri, Stefano
    Intecs SpA, Italy.
    Tool-Supported Safety-Relevant Component Reuse: From Specification to Argumentation2018In: 23rd International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies - Ada-Europe 2018 Ada-Europe-2018, 2018, Vol. 10873, p. 19-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contracts are envisaged to support compositional verification of a system as well as reuse and independent development of their implementations. But reuse of safety-relevant components in safety-critical systems needs to cover more than just the implementations. As many safety-relevant artefacts related to the component as possible should be reused together with the implementation to assist the integrator in assuring that the system they are developing is acceptably safe. Furthermore, the reused assurance information related to the contracts should be structured clearly to communicate the confidence in the component. In this work we present a tool-supported methodology for contract-driven assurance and reuse. We define the variability on the contract level in the scope of a trace-based approach to contract-based design. With awareness of the hierarchical nature of systems subject to compositional verification, we propose assurance patterns for arguing confidence in satisfaction of requirements and contracts. We present an implementation extending the AMASS platform to support automated instantiation of the proposed patterns, and evaluate its adequacy for assurance and reuse in a real-world case study.

  • 69.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Borde, Etienne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Composable mode switch for component-based systems2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component based software development (CBD) reduces development time and effort by allowing systems to be built from pre-developed reusable components. A classical approach to reduce embedded systems design and run-time complexity is to partition the behavior into a set of major system modes. In supporting system modes in CBD, a key issue is seamless composition of multi-mode components into systems. In addressing this issue, we present a mode switch logic and algorithm for component-based multi-mode systems. The algorithm implements seamless coordination and synchronization of mode switch in systems composed of independently developed components. The paper provides formally defined semantics covering aspects relevant for mode switch, together with algorithms implementing mode switch rules for different types of components. The approach is illustrated by a simple example.

  • 70.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards mode switch handling in component-based multi-mode systems2012In: CBSE'12 - Proceedings of the 15th ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on Component Based Software Engineering, 2012, p. 183-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is becoming a prominent solution to the development of complex embedded systems. Meanwhile, partitioning system behavior into different modes is an effective approach to reduce system complexity. Combining the two, we get a component-based multi-mode system, for which a key issue is its mode switch handling. The mode switch of such a system corresponds to the joint mode switches of many hierarchically organized components. Such a composable mode switch is not trivial as it amounts to coordinate the mode switches of different components. In this paper, we identify the major challenges of the composable mode switch handling and classify existing approaches with respect to how they handle these challenges. We also provide a more detailed presentation of the corresponding solutions included in our approach – the Mode Switch Logic (MSL).

  • 71.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A mode mapping mechanism for component-based multi-mode systems2011In: 4th Workshop on Compositional Theory and Technology for Real-Time Embedded Systems(CRTS 2011), 2011, p. 38-45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-Based Development (CBD) reduces development time and effort by allowing systems to be built from pre-developed reusable components. A classical approach to reduce embedded systems design and run-time complexity is to partition the behavior into a set of major system modes. In supporting system modes in CBD, a key issue is seamless composition of multi-mode components into systems. In addressing this issue, we previously developed a Mode Switch Logic (MSL) for component-based multi-mode systems. Our MSL implements seamless coordination and synchronization of mode switch in systems composed of independently developed components. However, our original MSL is based on the, in a setting of reusable components, unrealistic assumption, that all the components of a system support the same modes. This considerably limits the feasibility of our MSL. In this paper we lift this assumption and propose a mode mapping mechanism that enables assembly of components supporting different sets of modes. We demonstrate our mode mapping mechanism by a simple example application.

  • 72.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Mode Switch Logic for component-based multi-mode systems2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-Based Development (CBD) reduces development time and effort by allowing systems to be built from pre-developed reusable components. A classical approach to reduce embedded systems design and run-time complexity is to partition the behavior into a set of major system modes. In supporting system modes in CBD, a key issue is seamless composition of multi-mode components into systems. In addressing this issue, we have developed a Mode Switch Logic (MSL) for component-based multi-mode systems, implementing seamless coordination and synchronization of mode switch in systems composed of independently developed components.

  • 73.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A UPPAAL model for timing analysis of atomic execution in component-based multi-mode systems2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides a complete UPPAAL model of an Atomic Execution Group (AEG) in a component-based multi-mode system (CBMMS) with pipe-and-filter architecture. The purpose of this model is to analyze the worst-case latency due to the atomic execution of this AEG during a mode switch. This worst-case latency plays a significant role in deriving the global mode switch time of a CBMMS.

  • 74.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Zenuity, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fighting CPS Complexity by Component-Based Software Development of Multi-Mode Systems2018In: Designs, ISSN 2411-9660, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 39-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing software complexity is an increasing challenge for the software development of modern cyber-physical systems. A classical strategy for taming this complexity is to partition system behaviors into different operational modes specified at design time. Such a multi-mode system can change behavior by switching between modes at run-time. A complementary approach for reducing software complexity is provided by component-based software engineering (CBSE), which reduces complexity by building systems from composable, reusable and independently developed software components. CBSE and the multi-mode approach are fundamentally conflicting in that component-based development conceptually is a bottom-up approach, whereas partitioning systems into operational modes is a top-down approach with its starting point from a system-wide perspective. In this article, we show that it is possible to combine and integrate these two fundamentally conflicting approaches. The key to simultaneously benefiting from the advantages of both approaches lies in the introduction of a hierarchical mode concept that provides a conceptual linkage between the bottom-up component-based approach and system level modes. As a result, systems including modes can be developed from reusable mode-aware components. The conceptual drawback of the approach—the need for extensive message exchange between components to coordinate mode-switches—is eliminated by an algorithm that collapses the component hierarchy and thereby eliminates the need for inter-component coordination. As this algorithm is used from the design to implementation level (“compilation”), the CBSE design flexibility can be combined with efficiently implemented mode handling, thereby providing the complexity reduction of both approaches, without inducing any additional design or run-time costs. At the more specific level, this article presents (1) a mode mapping mechanism that formally specifies the mode relation between composable multi-mode components and (2) a mode transformation technique that transforms component modes to system-wide modes to achieve efficient implementation.

  • 75.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Flexible and efficient reuse of multi-mode components for building multi-mode systems2014In: The 14th International Conference on Software Reuse ICSR2015, 2014, Vol. 8919, p. 237-252, article id 112329Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE) is by the reuse of software components an effective approach to managing the growing software complexity of embedded systems. Another technique for reducing software complexity is to partition the system behavior into different operational modes, with each mode being associated with a unique behavior. Such a multi-mode system can change behavior by switching between modes under certain circumstances. Integrating CBSE and the multi-mode approach, we have developed the Mode Switch Logic (MSL), a framework dedicated to the development of multi-mode systems composed by reusable multi-mode components, i.e. components which can run in different modes. The mode switch handling of MSL is based on a fully distributed architecture in the sense that a system mode switch is achieved by the joint mode switches of different independently developed components. Algorithms that by inter-component communication guarantee the correctness of the mode switch have been developed. In this paper, we propose a mode transformation technique as a supplement to MSL for converting the distributed mode switch handling of MSL to a centralized mode switch handling. The goal is to enhance the run-time mode switch efficiency when components are deployed on a single hardware platform and global mode information is available. We demonstrate this technique by an example and reveal its potential industrial value.

  • 76.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Flexible and efficient reuse of multi-mode components for building multi-mode systems---An extended report2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE) is by the reuse of software components an effective approach to managing the growing software complexity of embedded systems. Another technique for reducing software complexity is to partition the system behavior into different operational modes, with each mode being associated with a unique behavior. Such a multi-mode system can change behavior by switching between modes under certain circumstances. Integrating CBSE and the multi-mode approach, we have developed the Mode Switch Logic (MSL), a framework dedicated to the development of multi-mode systems composed by reusable multi-mode components, i.e. components which can run in different modes. The mode switch handling of MSL is based on a fully distributed architecture in the sense that a system mode switch is achieved by the joint mode switches of different independently developed components. Algorithms that by inter-component communication guarantee the correctness of the mode switch have been developed. In this report, we propose a mode transformation technique as a supplement to MSL for converting the distributed mode switch handling of MSL to a centralized mode switch handling. The goal is to enhance the run-time mode switch efficiency when components are deployed on a single hardware platform and global mode information is available. We demonstrate this technique by an example and reveal its potential industrial value.

  • 77.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Handling emergency mode switch for component-based systems2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software reuse is deemed as an effective technique for managing the growing software complexity of large systems. Software complexity can also be reduced by partitioning the system behavior into different modes. Such a multi-mode system is able to dynamically change its behavior by switching between different modes. When a multi-mode system is developed by reusable software components, a crucial issue is how to achieve a seamless composition of multi-mode components and handle mode switch properly. This is the motivation for the Mode Switch Logic (MSL), supporting the development of component-based multi-mode systems by providing mechanisms for mode switch handling. In this paper, MSL is extended and adapted to systems with emergency triggering of mode switches that must be handled with minimal delay. We propose an Immediate Handling with Buffering (IHB) approach to enable the responsive handling of such an emergency event in the presence of other concurrent non-emergency mode switch events. We present a model checking based verification of IHB and illustrate its benefits by an example.

  • 78.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Handling emergency mode switch for component-based systems---An extended report2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-Based Software Engineering has been introduced as a technique for the development of complex systems. Software complexity can also be reduced by partitioning the system behavior into different modes. Such a multi-mode system is able to change its behavior at runtime by switching between different operational modes. When a multimode system is developed by reusable software components, a crucial issue is how to achieve a seamless composition of multi-mode components and also how to handle mode switch properly. This is the motivation for the Mode Switch Logic (MSL), supporting the development of component-based multi-mode systems by providing mechanisms for mode switch handling. In this report, MSL is extended and adapted to systems with emergency triggering of mode switches that must be handled with minimal delay. We propose an approach, called Immediate Handling with Buffering (IHB), to enable the responsive handling of such an emergency event in the presence of other concurrent non-emergency mode switch events. We present a model checking based verification of the IHB approach, and illustrate its benefits by a small example.

  • 79.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Handling multiple mode switch scenarios in component-based multi-mode systems2013In: Proceedings - Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, APSEC, 2013, p. 404-413Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing complexity of embedded systems software entails new development techniques. Component-Based Software Engineering is undoubtedly suitable for the development of complex systems thanks to its inherent component reuse. Another approach to reduce software complexity is by partitioning the system behavior into different operational modes. Each mode is associated with a unique behavior and the system can change behavior by switching between modes. When such a multi-mode system is developed by reusable software components, a crucial issue is how to achieve a seamless composition of multi-mode components and also how to handle mode switch properly. As an integrated solution to the challenges of multi-mode component-based software system development we have proposed the Mode Switch Logic (MSL). The current version of MSL assumes independent handling of a single mode switch scenario, i.e. that no other mode switch is triggered until an ongoing mode switch is completed. For a wide class of systems, this is an unrealistic assumption. In this paper we lift this assumption by proposing an extension of MSL to handle multiple mode switch scenarios concurrently triggered by different components.

  • 80.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Handling multiple mode switch scenarios in component-based multi-mode systems2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing complexity of embedded systems software entails new development techniques. Component-Based Software Engineering is undoubtedly suitable for the development of complex systems thanks to its inherent component reuse. Another approach to reduce software complexity is by partitioning the system behavior into different operational modes. Each mode is associated with a unique behavior and the system can change behavior by switching between modes. When such a multi-mode system is developed by reusable software components, a crucial issue is how to achieve a seamless composition of multi-mode components and also how to handle mode switch properly. As an integrated solution to the challenges of multi-mode component-based software system development we have proposed the Mode Switch Logic (MSL). The current version of MSL assumes independent handling of a single mode switch scenario, i.e. that no other mode switch is triggered until an ongoing mode switch is completed. For a wide class of systems, this is an unrealistic assumption. In this report we lift this assumption by proposing an extension of MSL to handle multiple mode switch scenarios concurrently triggered by different components.

  • 81.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mode switch timing analysis for component-based multi-mode systems2013In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 59, no 10, p. 1299-1318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing complexity of embedded systems software requires new techniques for their development. A common approach to reducing software complexity is to partition system behavior into different operational modes. Such a multi-mode system can change its behavior by switching between modes under certain circumstances. Another approach to simplifying software development is Component-Based Software Engineering, which allows a system to be developed by reusable components. Combining both approaches, we get component-based development of multi-mode systems, for which a key issue is the mode switch handling. Since most existing mode switch techniques do not consider component-based systems, we present in this article an approach—the Mode Switch Logic (MSL)—for the development of component-based multi-mode systems. Additionally, we provide a timing analysis for the mode switch of systems using our MSL. Finally, the fundamentals of MSL and its mode switch timing analysis are demonstrated and evaluated by a case study, an Adaptive Cruise Control system.

  • 82.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Timing analysis for a composable mode switch2011In: ACM SIGBED Review, ISSN 1551-3688, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 15-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component based software development (CBD) reduces development time and effort by allowing systems to be built from pre-developed reusable components. A classical approach to reduce embedded systems design and run-time complexity is to partition the behavior into a set of major system modes. In supporting system modes in CBD, a key issue is seamless composition of multi-mode components into systems. In addressing this issue, we have developed a mode switch logic and algorithm for component-based multi-mode systems. In this paper we introduce timing analysis for our composable mode switch.

  • 83.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Timing analysis for mode switch in component-based multi-mode systems2012In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 24TH EUROMICRO CONFERENCE ON REAL-TIME SYSTEMS (ECRTS 2012), 2012, p. 255-264Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-Based Development (CBD) reduces development time and effort by allowing systems to be built from pre-developed reusable components. Partitioning the behavior into a set of major operational modes is a classical approach to reduce complexity of embedded systems design and execution. In supporting system modes in CBD, a key issue is seamless composition of pre-developed multi-mode components into systems.We have previously developed a Mode Switch Logic (MSL) for component-based multi-mode systems implementing such seamless composition. In this paper we extend our MSL to cope with atomic transactions, i.e., to handle sets of components that must not be aborted in the middle of the processing of data. This is in contrast with our original MSL, in which components are immediately aborted to perform a mode switch. Based on our extended MSL, we provide analysis of the mode switch timing.

  • 84.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Zenuity.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Orlando, Daniele
    U. of L'Aquila, Italy.
    Miscia, Francesco
    U. of L'Aquila, Italy.
    Di Marco, Simone
    U. of L'Aquila, Italy.
    Component-based software development of multi-mode systems — An extended report2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing software complexity is an increasing challenge for the software development of modern embedded systems. A classical strategy for taming the software complexity is to partition system behaviors into different operational modes specified at design time. Such a multi-mode system can change behavior by switching between modes at runtime. Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE) is a complementary approach to the software development of complex systems that fosters reuse of independently developed software components. CBSE and the multi-mode approach are fundamentally conflicting in that component-based development conceptually is a bottom-up approach, whereas partitioning systems into operational modes is a topdown approach. In this report we show that it is possible to combine and integrate these two fundamentally conflicting approaches. The key to simultaneously benefitting from the advantages of both approaches lies in the introduction of a hierarchical mode concept that provides a conceptual linkage between the bottom-up component-based approach and system level modes. As a result, systems including modes can be developed from reusable mode-aware components in the modeling phase. The conceptual drawback of the approach—the need for extensive message exchange between components to coordinate mode switches—is eliminated by an algorithm that collapses the component hierarchy and thereby eliminates the need for inter-component coordination. As this algorithm is used from the design to implementation level (“compilation”), the CBSE design flexibility can be combined with efficiently implemented mode handling. At the more specific level, this report presents (1) a mode mapping mechanism which formally specifies the mode relation between composable multi-mode components, (2) a mode transformation technique that transforms component modes to system-wide modes to achieve efficient implementation, and (3) a prototype tool that implements the mode mapping mechanism and mode transformation technique.

  • 85.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Qin, H.
    Lund University.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mode switch handling for the ProCom component model2013In: CBSE - Proc. ACM SIGSOFT Symp. Compon. Based Softw. Eng., 2013, p. 13-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-Based Software Engineering has been deemed a suitable technique for the development of complex embedded systems, as component reuse makes it easier to manage software complexity. Another way of reducing software complexity is by partitioning system behavior into different operational modes. Such a multi-mode system can change its behavior by switching between modes. For a multi-mode system built by components, a challenge is its mode switch handling. In this paper, a novel approach is presented to integrate our mechanism for handling mode switch (the Mode Switch Logic), in ProCom, which is a component model designed for the development of real-time embedded systems. The outcome is a slightly extended version of ProCom which not only supports the development of multi-mode applications, but also is able to handle mode switch. 

  • 86.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fredriksson, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Håkansson, John
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Möller, Anders
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Tivoli, Massimo
    University of L'Aquila, Italy.
    The SAVE approach to component-based development of vehicular systems2007In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 80, no 5, p. 655-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The component-based strategy aims at managing complexity, shortening time-to-market, and reducing maintenance requirements by building systems with existing components. The full potential of this strategy has not yet been demonstrated for embedded software, mainly because of specific requirements in the domain, e.g., those related to timing, dependability, and resource consumption. We present SaveCCT - a component technology intended for vehicular systems, show the applicability of SaveCCT in the engineering process, and demonstrate its suitability for vehicular systems in an industrial case-study. Our experiments indicate that SaveCCT provides appropriate expressiveness, resource efficiency, analysis and verification support for component-based development of vehicular software. 

  • 87.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fredriksson, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Håkansson, John
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Handling Subsystems using the SaveComp Component Technology2006In: Workshop on Models and Analysis for Automotive Systems (WMAAS'06) in conjunction with the 27th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS'06), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Håkansson, John
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    The SaveCCM Language Reference Manual2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This language reference describes the syntax and semantics of SaveCCM, a

    component modeling language for embedded systems designed with vehicle applications and safety concerns in focus. The SaveCCM component model was

    defined within the SAVE project. The SAVE components are influenced mainly

    by the Rubus component technology, with a switch concept similar to that

    in Koala. The semantics is defined by a transformation into timed automata

    with tasks, a formalism that explicitly models timing and real-time task scheduling.

    The purpose of this document is to describe a semantics of the SAVE component modeling language, which can be used to describe timing and functional behavior of components. The model of a system is in some cases an over approximation of the actual system behavior. An implementation of a model can resolve non-determinism e.g. by merging tasks or assigning a scheduling policy (such as static scheduling or fixed priority, preemptive or not) that will resolve

    the non-determinism.

  • 89. Åkerholm, Mikael
    et al.
    Möller, Anders
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mikael, Åkerholm
    Towards a Dependable Component Technology for Embedded System Applications2005In: Proceedings - International Workshop on Object-Oriented Real-Time Dependable Systems, WORDS, 2005, p. 320-328Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software engineering is a technique that has proven effective to increase reusability and efficiency in development of office and webapplications. Though being promising also for development of embedded and dependable systems, the true potential in this domain has not yet been realized. In this paper we present a prototype component technology, developed with safety-critical automotive applications in mind. Thetechnology is illustrated by a case-study, which is also used as the basis for an evaluation and a discussion of the appropriateness and applicability in the considered domain. Our study provides initial positive evidence of the suitability of our technology, but also shows that it needs to be extended to be fully applicable in an industrial context.

  • 90.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Möller, Anders
    Hansson, Hans
    Nolin, Mikael
    Towards a Dependable Component Technology for Embedded System ApplicationsManuscript (Other academic)
12 51 - 90 of 90
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