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  • 51.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Brandt, Joachim
    Ericsson Ltd.
    Street, Mark
    Ericsson Ltd.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Fully Automated Test Management for Large Complex Systems2010In: ICST 2010 - 3rd International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, Paris, 2010, p. 412-420Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of large and complex software intensive systems with continuous builds typically generates large volumes of information with complex patterns and relations. Systematic and automated approaches are needed for efficient handling of such large quantities of data in a comprehensible way. In this paper we present an approach and tool enabling autonomous behavior in an automated test management tool to gain efficiency in concurrent software development and test. By capturing the required quality criteria in the test specifications and automating the test execution, test management can potentially be performed to a great extent without manual intervention. This work contributes towards a more autonomous behavior within a distributed remote test strategy based on metrics for decision making in automated testing. These metrics optimize management of fault corrections and retest, giving consideration to the impact of the identified weaknesses, such as fault-prone areas in software.

  • 52.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Analysis of Mistakes as a Method to Improve Test Case Design2011In: International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation(ICST), Berlin, 2011, p. 70-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Test Design - how test specifications and test cases are created - inherently determines the success of testing. However, test design techniques are not always properly applied, leading to poor testing. We have developed an analysis method based on identifying mistakes made when designing the test cases. Using an extended test case template and an expert review, the method provides a systematic categorization of mistakes in the test design. The two main classes of identified mistakes are (1) lack of comprehension (of the employed test design technique, target of test etc.) and (2) incomplete test case construction (due to lack of detail, missing clean-up, ambiguities, etc.). The detailed categorization of mistakes provides a basis for improvement of the Test Case Design, resulting in better tests. In developing our method we have investigated over 700 test cases created by novice testers. In a comparison with industrial test cases we could confirm that many of our mistake categories remain relevant also in an industrial context. Our contribution is a new method to improve the effectiveness of test case construction through proper application of test design techniques, leading to an improved coverage without loss of efficiency.

  • 53.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Pettersson, Anders
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Framework for Comparing Efficiency, Effectiveness and Applicability of Software Testing Techniques2006In: Proceedings - Testing: Academic and Industrial Conference - Practice and Research Techniques, TAIC PART 2006, 2006, p. 159-170, article id 1691683Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software testing is expensive for the industry, and always constrained by time and effort. Although there is a multitude of test techniques, there are currently no scientifically based guidelines for the selection of appropriate techniques of different domains and contexts. For large complex systems, some techniques are more efficient in finding failures than others and some are easier to apply than others are. From an industrial perspective, it is important to find the most effective and efficient test design technique that is possible to automate and apply. In this paper, we propose an experimental framework for comparison of test techniques with respect to efficiency, effectiveness and applicability. We also plan to evaluate ease of automation, which has not been addressed by previous studies. We highlight some of the problems of evaluating or comparingtest techniques in an objective manner. We describe our planned process for this multi-phase experimental study. This includes presentation of some of the important measurements to be collected with the dual goals of analyzing the properties of the test technique, as well as validating our experimental framework.

  • 54.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Synergizing Industrial Needs and Academic Research for Better Software Education2012In: 2012 1st International Workshop on Software Engineering Education Based on Real-World Experiences, EduRex 2012 - Proceedings, 2012, p. 33-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquity of software is making every industry increasingly dependent on it for achieving their core products' functionality. The complexity in a telecommunication network requires not only thorough understanding of telecommunication per se, but software becomes equally interesting. This is the case with many industries, which rely more and more on software as their key enabler. Industry definitely needs a large number of software engineers with potential to be productive from day one. They are feeling impatient at the academic community for not being pragmatic. At the same time Academic community faces many challenges, which often make them thread a traditional path thus ignoring the industrial needs. We present some of these challenges from both the industrial and academic perspectives. We also present how we established a Master level advanced course on software verification and validation through mutual support and collaboration which became highly successful.

  • 55.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Hansson, Hans
    Experiments with Component Test to Improve Software QualityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Experiments with Component Tests to Improve Software Quality2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In commercial systems, time to market pressure often result in short cuts in the design phase where component test is most vulnerable. It is hard to define how much testing is cost effective by the individual developers, and hard to judge when testing is enough. Verification activities constitute a major part of the product cost. Failures unearthed during later phases of product development escalate the cost substantially. To reduce cost in later stages of testing by reducing failures is important not only for Ericsson, but for any software producer. At Ericsson, we created a scheme, Software Quality Rank (SQR). SQR is a way to improve quality on components. SQR consists of five steps, where the first is where the actual "ranking" of components takes place. Then a selection of components is targeted for improvement in five levels. Most components are targeted for rank 3, which is the cost-efficient quality level. Rank 5 is the target for safety-critical code. The goal of SQR was to provide developers with a tool that prioritizes what to do before delivery to next system test phase. SQR defines a stepwise plan, which describes how much and what to test on component level for each rank. It gives the process for how to prioritize components; re-introduces reviews; requires usage of static analysis tools and defines what coverage to be achieved. The scheme has been used with great success at different design organizations within and outside Ericsson and we believe it supports industry in defining what cost-efficient component test in a time to market situation.

  • 57.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Combitech., Ericsson AB.
    Component Testing is Not Enough - A Study of Software Faults in Telecom Middleware2007In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4581, Springer, 2007, p. 74-89Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interrelationship between software faults and failures is quite intricate and obtaining a meaningful characterization of it would definitely help the testing community in deciding on efficient and effective test strategies. Towards this objective, we have investigated and classified failures observed in a large complex telecommunication industry middleware system during 2003-2006. In this paper, we describe the process used in our study for tracking faults from failures along with the details of failure data. We present the distribution and frequency of the failures along with some interesting findings unravelled while analyzing the origins of these failures. Firstly, though "simple" faults happen, together they account for only less than 10%. The majority of faults come from either missing code or path, or superfluous code, which are all faults that manifest themselves for the first time at integration/system level; not at component level. These faults are more frequent in the early versions of the software, and could very well be attributed to the difficulties in comprehending and specifying the context (and adjacent code) and its dependencies well enough, in a large complex system with time to market pressures. This exposes the limitations of component testing in such complex systems and underlines the need for allocating more resources for higher level integration and system testing.

  • 58.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Component Testing is not Enough - A Study of Software Faults in Telecom Middleware2007In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4581, 2007, p. 74-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interrelationship between software faults and failures is quite intricate and obtaining a meaningful characterization of it would definitely help the testing community in deciding on efficient and effective test strategies. Towards this objective, we have investigated and classified failures observed in a large complex telecommunication industry middleware system during 2003- 2006. In this paper, we describe the process used in our study for tracking faults from failures along with the details of failure data. We present the distribution and frequency of the failures along with some interesting findings unravelled while analyzing the origins of these failures. Firstly, though "simple" faults happen, together they account for only less than 10%. The majority of faults come from either missing code or path, or superfluous code, which are all faults that manifest themselves for the first time at integration/system level; not at component level. These faults are more frequent in the early versions of the software, and could very well be attributed to the difficulties in comprehending and specifying the context (and adjacent code) and its dependencies well enough, in a large complex system with time to market pressures. This exposes the limitations of component testing in such complex systems and underlines the need for allocating more resources for higher level integration and system testing.

  • 59.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Atif Javed, Muhammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ul Muram, Faiz
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Model-driven Dependability Analysis Method for Component-based Architectures2012In: Proceedings - 38th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2012, 2012, p. 233-240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical distributed real-time embedded component-based systems must be dependable and thus be able to avoid unacceptable failures. To efficiently evaluate the dependability of the assembly obtained by selecting and composing components, well-integrated and tool-supported techniques are needed. Currently, no satisfying tool-supported technique fully integrated in the development life-cycle exists. To overcome this limitation, we propose CHESS-FLA, which is a model-driven failure logic analysis method. CHESS-FLA allows designers to: model the nominal as well as the failure behaviour of their architectures, automatically perform dependability analysis through a model transformation, and, finally, ease the interpretation of the analysis results through back-propagation onto the original architectural model. CHESS-FLA is part of an industrial quality tool-set for the functional and extra-functional development of high integrity embedded component-based systems, developed within the EU-ARTEMIS funded CHESS project. Finally, we present a case study taken from the telecommunication domain to illustrate and assess the proposed method.

  • 60.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Dimov, A.
    University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fuzzy-enabled failure behaviour analysis for dependability assessment of networked systems2011In: M and N 2011 - IEEE International Workshop on Measurements and Networking, Proceedings, 2011, p. 53-58Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dependability assessment of networked component-based systems requires fine-grained modelling of the failure behaviour and propagation aspects of individual components. We have recently introduced a formalism called FI 4FA, enabling the analysis of I 4 (incompletion, inconsistency, interference and impermanence) failures as well as the analysis of the corresponding mitigations. 

  • 61.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    FI4FA: A formalism for incompletion, inconsistency, interference and impermanence failures' analysis2011In: Proceedings - 37th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2011, 2011, p. 493-500Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To architect dependable distributed component-based, transactional systems, failures as well as their mitigation behaviors must be analyzed. Analysis helps in planning if, where and which mitigation means are needed to increase quality, by reducing the failures that threaten the system's dependability. Fault Propagation and Transformation Calculus (FPTC) is a technique for automatically calculating the failure behavior of the entire system from the failure behavior of its components [1]. FPTC, however, considers few failure types and offers no support to analyse the mitigation behaviour. To overcome these limitations and support the mitigation's planning, we introduce a new formalism, called FI4FA. FI4FA focuses on failures avoidable through transaction-based mitigations. FI4FA extends FPTC by enabling the analysis of I4 (incompletion, inconsistency, interference and impermanence) failures as well as the analysis of the mitigations, needed to guarantee completion, consistency, isolation and durability. We also illustrate the usage of FI4FA on a set of examples. © 2011 IEEE.

  • 62.
    Gardjeliyska, Anelyia
    et al.
    Sofia University,.
    Dobrin, Radu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Successful Application of the Agile Manifesto to Resource Constrained Projects with Open Specifications2010In: Proceedings of International Conference on SOFTWARE, SERVICES & SEMANTIC TECHNOLOGIES, 2010, 2010, p. 187-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe how agile manifesto can be applied when a specific software solution is needed in a resource, i.e., time- and manpower- constrained environment, while the specifications are not detailed, and are prone to changes. The case study, to which this method was put on test, was an online application framework for the EU-funded EURECA project, which deals with academic mobility at all levels (e.g., students,researchers, and staff) between 16 different universities from countries in Asia and Europe. The organization of this project turned out to be a herculean task during the first call for applications. Subsequently, we developed an on-line application management framework with limited resources within a short span of time following the principles and practices of the agile manifesto. The stages and processes that were used during development are discussed in this paper, both in general and for the actual application in the EURECA framework development.

  • 63.
    Gutiérrez, M.
    et al.
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Austria.
    Steiner, W.
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Austria.
    Dobrin, Radu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Synchronization quality of IEEE 802.1AS in large-scale industrial automation networks.2017In: Proceedings of the IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, RTAS, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 273-282, article id 7939046Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things projects work towards adoption of standard IT technologies for real-time control networks in industrial automation. For this the IEEE 802.1 Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) Task Group has developed and continues to develop a set of standards. One of these standards is the IEEE 802.1AS clock synchronization protocol. IEEE 802.1AS can be used to enable time-triggered communication as well as to coordinate distributed actions in industrial networks. In this paper we study the synchronization quality of IEEE 802.1AS and we are interested in whether the clocks can be synchronized with sufficiently low error such that the protocol can be used for demanding industrial automation applications. In particular, we study the protocol behavior in large-scale networks while considering critical implementation details. We report analytical worst-case results as well as probabilistic results based on simulations, that show that implementation details such as the PHY jitter and the clock granularity have a big impact on the time synchronization precision. 

  • 64.
    Gutiérrez, Marina
    et al.
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Ademaj, Astrit
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Dobrin, Radu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Self-Configuration of IEEE 802.1 TSN Networks2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Configuration processes of real-time networks are costly both in terms of time and engineering effort and require the system to be shutdown during the reconfiguration phase thus resulting in significant down time as well. The convergence of IT/OT technologies is bringing a whole world of possibilities for the configuration and management of real-time networks for the automation industry. With software defined networking (SDN) features like the separation of the data and control plane and standards like IEEE 802.1 developed with the goal of adding deterministic capabilities to traditionally dynamic switched Ethernet networks, the plug and play paradigm is almost around the corner. In this paper, we go one step further and start looking into the self-configuration of real-time networks. To achieve that we propose to introduce a Configuration Agent in the network, an entity that continuously monitors the network to detect changes and automatically update the configuration to adapt to such changes while maintaining desired quality of service. We present here the complete framework for the Configuration Agent that will provide self-configuration capabilities to real-time networks. The proposed framework has IEEE 802.1 as its core, but also shows how the set of standards need to be extended in order to achieve the self-configuration requirements. Concretely we examine the role of existing communication protocols like NETCONF and OPC-UA and propose the essential ingredients (managed objects) for a YANG model for the learning aspects in the bridges, including different working modes.

  • 65.
    Gutiérrez, Marina
    et al.
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Austria.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Austria.
    Dobrin, Radu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Configuration Agent based on the Time Triggered Paradigm for Real-Time Networks2015In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, 2015, Vol. Article number 7160584Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed cyber-physical systems are growing in size and functionality and deterministic communication is an important requirement for those systems. The existing solutions based on the time-triggered paradigm pose certain limitations in regards to the configuration. Usually configuration is seen as a one-time event during the installation of the network. Future realtime networks need to be able to adapt more easily to changes in the network. Thus, the configuration becomes an ongoing service, e.g., as for network maintenance and re-configuration to add and remove new, respectively old, equipment. We postulate that configuration will emerge to a continued service that accompanies a real-time network throughout its different life-cycle phases. In this context of evolving and dynamic networks, we introduce the concept of a configuration agent for real-time networks and demonstrate the concept by a realization based on the time triggered paradigm.

  • 66.
    Gutiérrez, Marina
    et al.
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Austria.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Austria.
    Dobrin, Radu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Learning the Parameters of Periodic Traffic based on Network Measurements2015In: Measurements & Networking M&N 2015, 2015, p. 100-115Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The configuration of real-time networks is one of the most challenging demands of the Real-Time Internet-of-Things trend, where the network has to be deterministic and yet flexible enough to adapt to changes through its life-cycle. To achieve this we have outlined an approach that learns the necessary configuration parameters from network measurements, that way providing a continuous configuration service for the network. First, the network is monitored to obtain traffic measurements. Then traffic parameters are derived from those measurements. Finally, a new time-triggered schedule is produced with which the network will be reconfigured. In this paper we propose an analysis based on measurements to obtain the specific traffic parameters and we evaluate it through network simulations. The results show that the configuration parameters can be learned from the measurements with enough accuracy and that those measurements can be easily obtained through network monitoring.

  • 67.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ouimet, Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Real-Time Systems2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a textbook developed for use in the Master Programme Module E-M.6 "Real-Time Systems" as part of the Postgraduate Distance studies organized by Fraunhofer IESE and the Distance and International Studies Center at the Technical University of Kaiserslauten, Germany.

  • 68.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    The PROGRESS Centre for Predictable Embedded Software Systems - Half-time report (edited version)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Presentation of the achievements and activities within the PROGRESS national strategic research centre 2006-2008

  • 69.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    2 + 10 > 1 + 50 !2000In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 1800, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2000, Vol. 1800 LNCS, p. 734-737Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In traditional design of computer based systems some effort, say 1, is spent on the early modeling phases, and some very high effort, say 50, is spent on the later implementation and testing phases. It is the conjecture of this paper that the total effort can be substantially reduced if an increased effort, say 2, is spent on the early modeling phases. Such a shift in focus of efforts will also greatly improve the overall effects (both quality and cost-wise) of the systems dev eloped, there by leading to a better (denoted by "≻") design process. In this paper, w e specifically consider the design of safety-critical distributed real-time systems. © 2000 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 70.
    Huselius, Joel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Andersson, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Automatic Generation and Validation of Models of Legacy Software2006In: Proceedings of the 12:th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA), Sydney, Australia, 2006, p. 342-349Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modeling approach is not used to its full potential in maintenance of legacy systems. Often, models do not even exist. The main reasons being that the economic implications and practical hurdles in manually maintaining models of in-use legacy systems are considered too high by the industry. In this paper, we present a method for automated validation of models automatically generated from recordings of executing real-time embedded systems. This forms an essential constituent of a unified process for the automatic modeling of legacy software. We also present a study in which we automatically model a state-of-practice industrial robot control system, the results of which are clearly positive indicators of the viability of our approach.

  • 71.
    Huselius, Joel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Kraft, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Evaluating the Quality of Models Extracted from Embedded Real-Time Software2007In: Proceedings of the International Symposium and Workshop on Engineering of Computer Based Systems, 2007, p. 577-585Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the high cost of modeling, model-based techniques are yet to make their impact in the embedded systems industry, which still persist on maintaining code-oriented legacy systems. Re-engineering existing code-oriented systems to fit model-based development is a risky endeavor due to the cost and efforts required to maintain correspondence between the code and model. We aim to reduce the cost of modeling and model maintenance by automating the process, thus facilitating model-based techniques. We have previously proposed the use of automatic model extraction from recordings of existing embedded real-time systems. To estimate the quality of the extracted models of timing behavior, we need a framework for objective evaluation. In this paper, we present such a framework to empirically test and compare extracted models, and hence obtain an implicit evaluation of methods for automatic model extraction. We present a set of synthetic benchmarks to be used as test cases for emulating timing behaviors of diverse systems with varying architectural styles, and extract automatic models out of them. We discuss the difficulties in comparing response time distributions, and present an intuitive and novel approach along with associated algorithms for performing such a comparison. Using our empirical framework, and the comparison algorithms, one could objectively determine the correspondence between the model and the system being modeled.

  • 72.
    Jaradat, Omar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bate, Iain
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Facilitating the Maintenance of Safety Cases2015In: The 3rd International Conference on Reliability, Safety and Hazard - Advances in Reliability, Maintenance and Safety ICRES-ARMS'15, 2015, Vol. F5Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Jaradat, Omar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bate, Iain
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Using Sensitivity Analysis to Facilitate The Maintenance of Safety Cases2015In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) / [ed] Juan Antonio de la Puente, Tullio Vardanega, 2015, Vol. 9111, p. 162-176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A safety case contains safety arguments together with supporting evidence that together should demonstrate that a system is acceptably safe. System changes pose a challenge to the soundness and cogency of the safety case argument. Maintaining safety arguments is a painstaking process because it requires performing a change impact analysis through interdependent elements. Changes are often performed years after the deployment of a system making it harder for safety case developers to know which parts of the argument are affected. Contracts have been proposed as a means for helping to manage changes. There has been significant work that discusses how to represent and to use them but there has been little on how to derive them. In this paper, we propose a sensitivity analysis approach to derive contracts from Fault Tree Analyses and use them to trace changes in the safety argument, thus facilitating easier maintenance of the safety argument. 

  • 74.
    Jaradat, Omar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Using Safety Contracts to Verify Design Assumptions During Runtime2018In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Volume 10873, 2018, p. 3-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A safety case comprises evidence and argument justifying how each item of evidence supports claims about safety assurance. Supporting claims by untrustworthy or inappropriate evidence can lead to a false assurance regarding the safe performance of a system. Having sufficient confidence in safety evidence is essential to avoid any unanticipated surprise during operational phase. Sometimes, however, it is impractical to wait for high quality evidence from a system’s operational life, where developers have no choice but to rely on evidence with some uncertainty (e.g., using a generic failure rate measure from a handbook to support a claim about the reliability of a component). Runtime monitoring can reveal insightful information, which can help to verify whether the preliminary confidence was over- or underestimated. In this paper, we propose a technique which uses runtime monitoring in a novel way to detect the divergence between the failure rates (which were used in the safety analyses) and the observed failure rates in the operational life. The technique utilises safety contracts to provide prescriptive data for what should be monitored, and what parts of the safety argument should be revisited to maintain system safety when a divergence is detected. We demonstrate the technique in the context of Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs).

  • 75.
    Jonsson, H.
    et al.
    System Development Department, Etteplan Industry AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Agile practices in regulated railway software development2012In: 2012 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW),: Proceeding, 2012, p. 355-360Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex software is becoming an important component of modern safety-critical systems. To assure the correct function of such software, the development processes are heavily regulated by international standards, often making the process very rigid, unable to accommodate changes, causing late integration and increasing the cost of development. Agile methods have been introduced to address these issues in several software domains, but their use in safety-critical applications remains to be investigated. This paper provides an initial analysis of agile practices in the context of software development for the European railway sector, regulated by the EN 50128 standard. The study complements previous studies on the use of agile methods in other regulated domains. A systematic mapping between EN 50128 requirements and agile practices showed that all practices support some objectives of the standard. Important supporting features recognized were focus on simple design, test automation, coding standards, continuous integration and validation. However, several problematic areas were also identified, including vague requirement analysis and change management. Most agile practices must be adapted to suit regulated software development and this analysis outlines a subset of the required changes. © 2012 IEEE.

  • 76.
    Jonsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Technical System Development Etteplan Oyj .
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Synthesizing a Comprehensive Framework for Lean Software Development2013In: Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications: 39th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, 2013, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean principles, originating from Japanese automotive industry, are anticipated to be useful to improve software development processes. Albeit its popularity there is still no generally accepted, clear and detailed definition of what lean software development actually means. This makes it difficult to perform research on the effects of lean software development and determine its usefulness in various contexts. To fill in that research gap this paper analyzes the state of the art based on 20 key Lean concepts derived from nine seminal sources identified in a systematic literature review. The original explanations of the key concepts have been elaborated further and synthesized into a framework for lean software development consisting of a set of goals, recommended activities and practices. The detailed results for the key concept Value are reported. The proposed framework is expected to serve as a basis for further research and for Lean assessment of organizations.

  • 77.
    Joshi, Sanjay. L.
    et al.
    Persistent Systems Limited, Bhaskar-Charak, Goa, India.
    Deshpande, Bharat
    BITS-Pilani Goa Campus, India.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An Industrial Survey on the Influence of Process and Product Attributes on Software Product Reliability2017In: International Conference on Networks & Advances in Computational Technologies NetACT2017, Thiruvananthapuram, India: IEEE , 2017, p. 44-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software reliability is a major attribute for software product and can be considered as one of the major performance parameters. Software Reliability unlike hardware reliability cannot be considered merely as function of time, although researchers have come up with models relating the two. In literature, numerous models on software reliability have been proposed but they seem to have limitations in being used to predict reliability in software industry. As on today, we do not have good quantitative methods developed to represent Software Reliability without excessive limitations. Various approaches can be used to improve the reliability of software, however, it is hard to balance the development time and the budget with required levels of software reliability. This paper quantitatively and qualitatively analyzes the data from an industrial survey, with focus on current practices and their dependency on the estimation of reliability in software product development environment. Analysis focuses on perception of predicting software reliability in different categories of respondents. Categorization of respondent is based on phase of development, their profile (as user, developer etc.), and application domain. While confirming some commonly known facts, our findings also show discrepancies between our perception and actual facts in some cases. The objective of this is exercise is to find out input parameters making impact on reliability. Though it is field perception, we have identified them from practitioners and taken as reference for conducting future experiments and literature survey. We believe that continued research efforts are essential to provide guidelines for reliability estimation process to take care of important but hitherto ignored factors, thus improving relevance and accuracy of reliability predictions.

  • 78.
    Joshi, Sanjay. L.
    et al.
    Persistent Systems Limited, Bhaskar-Charak, Goa India.
    Deshpande, Bharat
    BITS-Pilani Goa Campus, India.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Do Software Reliability Prediction Models Meet Industrial Perceptions?2017In: Proceedings of the 10th Innovations in Software Engineering Conference ISEC-2017, ACM , 2017, p. 66-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliability is one of the key characteristics inherent in the concept "software quality". Understanding software reliability has been vital for both the software managers and software engineers, especially while developing critical systems. In the past several decades, an extensive body of knowledge has been developed and to a certain extent practical knowledge has been gathered by applying them to large scale mission- or safety-critical projects. However, software reliability models are falling short of gaining confidence in industrial community. From the software developer's perspective, software reliability has been primarily associated with defects, which represent a major cost factor in software development. This is called developer oriented approach. As software orientation has become ubiquitous, and software intensive systems have been proliferating, software quality assurance has been embracing more customer oriented perspectives. In this context, we will need richer, realistic and more accurate measures for software reliability. A recent empirical study by the authors highlighted many factors, which the practitioners perceived to be influential in the context of reliability prediction. This paper focuses on different reliability prediction models proposed in the literature, specifically examining whether the influential factors perceived to be contributing to the reliability are addressed or not in these models. We evaluated the assumptions made in each of the considered reliability models and checked their applicability in software product development. This paper concludes with a comparative presentation of a large set of well-known reliability models with respect to the set of factors identified by the industry as influential in software reliability.

  • 79.
    Joshi, Sanjay. L.
    et al.
    Persistent Systems Limited, Bhaskar-Charak, Goa India.
    Deshpande, Bharat
    BITS-Pilani Goa Campus, India.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Experimental analysis of dependency factors of Software Product Reliability using SonarQube2019In: IWSM Mensura IWSM-MENSURA2019, Harlem, Netherlands, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliability is one of the key attributes of software product quality. Capability for accurate prediction of reliability will allow software product industry to have better market acceptability and enable wider usage in high integrity or critical applications domains for their product. Software Reliability analysis is performed at various stages during software product development life cycle. Popular software reliability prediction models proposed in literature are targeted to specific phases of life cycle with certain identified parameters. However, these models seem to have certain limitations in predicting software reliability in an accurate and acceptable manner to the industry. A recent industrial survey performed by the authors identified several factors which practitioners perceived to have influence in predicting reliability. Subsequently we have conducted an elaborate set of experiments in a systematic way to validate the perceived influence of identified parameters. Reliability of software products from diverse domains and technologies were evaluated using SonarQube. In this paper, we present our experimental evaluation approach, experimental set up and results from the study. Through these controlled experiments and analysis of data, we have identified and further short-listed the probable influential factors affecting software reliability. This paper further sets direction to our future research on modeling software product reliability as a function of the identified influential factors.

  • 80. Lago, Patricia
    et al.
    Muccini, Henry
    Beus-Dukic, Ljerka
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    GSEEM: a European Master Programme on Global Software Engineering2008In: International journal of engineering education, ISSN 0949-149X, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 747-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel European Master programme on Software Engineering (SE), being put forward by four leading institutions from Sweden, UK, Netherlands and Italy. The Global SE European Master (GSEEM) programme aims to provide students with an excellence in SE based on sound theoretical foundations and practical experience, as well as to prepare them to participate in global development of complex and large software systems. GSEEM has been designed with two noteworthy aspects: 1) Three specialization profiles in which the consortium excels: Software Architecting, Real-time Embedded Systems Engineering, and Web Systems and Services Engineering. 2) An innovative concept of "shared modules", delivered together by multiple institutions. Four types of shared modules are foreseen: "parallel" twin modules which run remotely between universities, "shifted" modules which teach SE concepts incrementally with shifts in study locations and timeline, "complementary" modules in which complementary SE concepts are taught in parallel through shared projects, and "common" modules which share the presentations and the project. The profiles realize "integrated knowledge" by complementing partial knowledge available at partner institutions.

    The paper presents some of the important issues faced during the design of the program and explains how GSEEM achieves the objectives of educating global software engineers. The lessons learned from the GSEEM design are of technical, pedagogical and organizational/administrative nature.

  • 81.
    Lago, Patricia
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit, Netherlands .
    Muccini, Henry
    University of L'Aquila, Italy .
    Beus-Dukic, Ljerka
    University of Westminster, United Kingdom .
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Van Vliet, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. Vrije Universiteit, Netherlands .
    Towards a European Master Programme on Global Software Engineering2007In: Software Engineering Education Conference, Proceedings2007, 2007, p. 184-191Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a European Master programme on Global Software Engineering (SE), being put forward by four leading institutions from Sweden, UK, Netherlands and Italy. The Global SE European Master (GSEEM) programme aims to provide students with an excellence in SE based on sound theoretical foundations and practical experience, as well as prepare them to participate in global development of complex and large software systems. GSEEM has been designed with three noteworthy aspects: 1) Three specialization profiles in which the consortium excels: Software Architecting, Real-time Embedded Systems Engineering, and Web Systems and Services Engineering. 2) Two market-driven routes: "professional" to work as professionals, and "scientific" to continue the education towards research degrees. 3) An innovative concept of "shared modules", delivered together by multiple institutions. Four types of shared modules are foreseen: "parallel" twin modules which run remotely between universities, "shifted" modules which teach SE concepts incrementally with shifts in study locations and timeline ,"complementary" modules in which complementary SE concepts are taught in parallel through shared projects, and "common" modules which share the presentations and the project. The profiles realize "integrated knowledge" by complementing partial knowledge available at partner institutions. The paper explains how GSEEM achieves the objectives of educating global software engineers.

  • 82.
    Malekzadeh, Mahnaz
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bate, Iain
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. University of York, York, UK.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Using Design of Experiments to Optimise a Decision of Sufficient Testing2015In: The 41st Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA'15, 2015, p. 53-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing of safety-critical embedded systems is an important and costly endeavor. To date researchers and practitioners have been mainly focusing on the design and application of diverse testing strategies, but leaving the test stopping criteria as an ad hoc decision and an open research issue. In our previous work, we proposed a convergence algorithm that informs the tester when the current testing strategy does not seem to be revealing new insight into the worst-case timing properties of tasks and hence should be stopped. This algorithm was shown to be successful but its trial and error tuning of parameters was an issue. In this paper, we use the Design of Experiment (DOE) approach to optimise the algorithm's performance and to improve its scalability. During our experimental evaluations the optimised algorithm showed improved performance by achieving relatively the same results with 42% less testing cost as compared to our previous work. The algorithm also has better scalability and opens up a new path towards achieving cost effective non-functional testing of real-time embedded systems.

  • 83.
    Mehmed, Ayhan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. TTTech Auto AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Antlanger, Moritz
    TTTech Auto AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    TTTech Auto AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Forecast Horizon for Automated Safety Actions in Automated Driving Systems2019In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 11698, 2019, p. 113-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future Automated Driving Systems (ADS) will ultimately take over all driving responsibilities from the driver. This will as well include the overall safety goal of avoiding hazards on the road by exe- cuting automated safety actions (ASA). It is the purpose of this paper to address the general properties of the ASA. One property in particu- lar interest is the forecast horizon that defines how early in advance a hazard has to be identified in order to ensure the execution of an ASA. For the estimation of the forecast horizon, we study the fault-tolerant time interval concept defined by the ISO 26262 and extend it for the use case of fail-operational ADS. We then perform a thorough study on all parameters contributing to the forecast horizon, assign exemplary values for each parameter for a running example, and formalize our work by a set of equations. The set of equations are then applied to two specific driving scenarios, and based on the running example values, the fore- cast horizon is estimated. We conclude our work with a summary of the estimated forecast horizon for each of the specific driving scenarios at different road conditions and the recommended road speed limits.

  • 84.
    Mehmed, Ayhan
    et al.
    TTTech Computertechnik, Vienna, Austria.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    TTTech Computertechnik, Vienna, Austria.
    Deterministic Ethernet: Addressing the Challenges of Asynchronous Sensing in Sensor Fusion Systems2017In: 47th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2017; Denver; United States; 26 June 2017 through 29 June 2017, 2017, p. 22-28, article id 8023693Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the cause of out-of-sequence measurements (OOSM) and their effect on Kalman filter based multi-sensor fusion systems. We explore the current available solutions for handling of OOSM and pinpoint how the absence of precise measurement timestamps does not allow the correct chronological order of sensor measurements. The processing of such, out-of-order measurements, leads to negative-time measurement updates in the sensor fusion process, which in turn leads to a wrong representation of the environment.Furthermore, we present methods for achieving precise measurement timestamps. We explore the suitability of set of communication standards for improving the timestamp precision. In particular we focus on IEEE 802.1AS, IEEE 802.1Qav, Qbv and SAE AS6802 standards that enable deterministic communication over IEEE802.3 standard Ethernet. We present theoretical performance studies and comparison of the said communication standards.

  • 85.
    Mehmed, Ayhan
    et al.
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Spampinato, Giacomo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lettner, Martin
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Improving Dependability of Vision-Based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems Using Navigation Data and Checkpoint Recognition2015In: COMPUTER SAFETY, RELIABILITY, AND SECURITY, SAFECOMP 2015, 2015, p. 59-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), like adaptive cruise control, collision avoidance, and, ultimately, autonomous driving are increasingly evolving into safety-critical systems. These ADAS frequently rely on proper function of Computer-Vision Systems (CVS), which is hard to assess in a timely manner, due to their sensitivity to the variety of illumination conditions (e.g. weather conditions, sun brightness). On the other hand, self-awareness information is available in the vehicle, such as maps and localization data (e.g. GPS).

    This paper studies how the combination of diverse environmental information can improve the overall vision-based ADAS reliability. To this extent we present a concept of a Computer-Vision Monitor (CVM) that identifies predefined landmarks in the vehicles surrounding, based on digital maps and localization data, and that checks whether the CVS correctly identifies said landmarks. We formalize and assess the reliability improvement of our solution by means of a fault-tree analysis.

  • 86.
    Mehmed, Ayhan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. TTTech Auto AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Austria.
    Antlanger, Moritz
    TTTech Auto AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    System Architecture and Application-Specific Verification Method for Fault-Tolerant Automated Driving System2019In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium workshops IEEE IVS 2019 WS, 2019, p. 39-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated vehicles come with promises for higher comfort and safety compared to the standard human-driven vehicles. Various demonstrator vehicles with fully automated driving capabilities have been already presented with success. Yet, there is a large number of technical challenges to be solved until the safety levels comply with those required from safety standards, and most importantly with those for public acceptance. In this paper, we introduce the technical challenges resulting from the need for fault-tolerant capabilities of automated vehicles with no fallback-ready drivers. We then propose a concrete solution to these challenges. This includes a fault-tolerant architecture for automated driving systems. Also, the safety co-pilot, that is a safety mechanism that ensures the coordinated operation of two or more redundant ADS, by means of novel application-specific verification methods. We conclude our work with experimental proof of concept results of the proposed solution.

  • 87.
    Nolte, Thomas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Timing Analysis of CAN-Based Automotive Communication Systems2008In: Automotive Embedded Systems Handbook, CRC Press, 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Pillay, Radhamani
    et al.
    Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore, India.
    Chandran, Senthil Kumar
    AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam, India.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Optimizing Resources in Real-time Scheduling for Fault Tolerant Processors2010In: 2010 1st International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Grid Computing, PDGC - 2010, 2010, p. 101-106Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The safety critical systems used in avionics, nuclear power plants and emergency medical equipments have to meet stringent reliability and temporal demands. Such demands are met with fault tolerant mechanisms, such as hardware and software redundancy. In this paper, we consider a safety critical application, the dual redundant onboard computer(OBC) system of the Indian Satellite Launch Vehicle and propose a scheme to optimize the onboard computing resources without detracting from the system reliability requirements. The redundancy is dealt with at the task allocation level and the slack generated, is used for allocation of more computational tasks, making the scheme very attractive in terms of efficient management of resources. The scheme of task allocation combined with real-time scheduling using Rate Monotonic(RM) and Earliest Deadline First(EDF) provide more programming flexibility and efficiently utilize the system resources. The scheme when implemented gives an efficient offline task allocation for fault-free conditions and flexible fault tolerance strategy during processor failure. The proposed scheme is compared with a traditional dual scheme. The implementation is experimented with a simulation and evaluated using performance metrics to illustrate the enhanced performance capability of the approach. This scheme, extended to multiprocessors with generic features can lead to tremendous throughput in terms of performance and costs. The contributions of this work are a system level algorithm for the implementation of real-time task allocation and scheduling.

  • 89.
    Pillay, Radhamani
    et al.
    Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore, India.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Dasgupta, Santanu
    Mohandas College of Engineering and Technology, Thiruvanathapuram, India.
    An Improved Redundancy Scheme for the Optimal Utilization of Onboard Computers2009In: Proceedings of INDICON 2009 - An IEEE India Council Conference, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The onboard computer systems used in satellite launch vehicles have stringent timing requirements due the mission critical nature of their tasks. The complete control of launch vehicles is done by onboard computers (OBC) which relate to the navigation guidance, all prelaunch operations and generation of mission critical events. A fault in these systems could lead to a mission failure and catastrophic consequences. Various redundancy schemes are built into such mission critical applications to ensure the overall success of the missions. Typically a dual redundant scheme with active hot standby system has been employed in Indian Satellite launch vehicles which have been found to be very satisfactory so far. The past two decades of flight experience shows very reliable performance of the primary computers and almost no incidences demanding any serious usage of the standby computer during launches. In this paper we propose a new approach to use the standby computer to optimize the onboard computing resources which allow more slack time for further computation requirements. The slack time thus acquired can effectively be used for ‘utility enhancing computations’, such as faster control loops or specialised guidance computations. We also present a system level algorithm which depicts the overall allocation and scheduling of tasks. The proposed scheme enables an optimised usage of system resources.

  • 90.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Efficient embedded systems education by adopting component based software development paradigm2013In: Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications: SEAA 2013 - Workshop on Teaching, Education and Training for Dependable Embedded and Cyberphysical Systems, 2013, p. 397-401Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing contemporary and quality education on fast changing technological areas has always been a major challenge to the academic community. The requirements and challenges faced by the embedded systems educators to cope with the fast-paced changes happening in technological development, learning models and medium of instruction etc. are very much similar to that faced by dependable embedded systems developers. In this context we see a lot of potential for relating and adapting the research efforts undertaken in EU Projects such as SafeCer in using component based development (CBD) approach for building adaptable, certifiable systems at lower costs. We describe some such similarities and contemplate how one could potentially leverage on the approaches and results existing in the CBD world by adopting and adapting them to support efficient curriculum development and management. Such an approach is expected to provide the course developers with immense opportunities for building and sharing their courses beyond the originally targeted community.

  • 91.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Schedulability Analysis for Fault Tolerant Real-time Systems1997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 92.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Some reflections on education beyond borders (Keynote)Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid technological advances, globalization, proliferation of social networks, etc. are some of the factors which have made a huge impact in recent years on our personal lives as well as the way we do businesses. These influences in our lifestyles and professional careers are also having a substantial influence in our educational systems, even though these under currents had been relatively slow.The current trends also bring forth interesting challenges and opportunities for the educationists. One such challenge is to transcend the education beyond the perceived borders in several dimensions. These dimensions could be geographical/cultural, disciplinary, pedagogic etc. The European Union has made several initiatives, which give the educational institutions ample opportunities to support them in such endeavours. This talk will describe some of our successful efforts undertaken at the Mälardalen University, Sweden towards meeting these challenges. These efforts span a wide spectrum of activities from bi-lateral institutional cooperation on single course level to multiple levels of strategic industry-academic collaborations. We present our reflections based on these experiences and analyze the potential for sustainability of our initiatives.

  • 93.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gustafsson, L. -O
    Ericsson AB.
    Rajanna, V.
    Tata Consultany Services, Hyderabad, India .
    On the evolution of an industrial software engineering graduate program2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software is the key enabling factor for many industrial giants in product development and the ability to deliver reliable software intensive systems in a cost-efficient manner is becoming the differentiating factor for their future competitiveness. This underlines the importance of an industrially relevant software engineering program and realization of the above fact has lead us to conceptualize a novel graduate program in this domain. The program originated from a set of mutually beneficial motivating factors, which were realized during close collaborations between industry and academia in a global setting. In this paper1 we present the stakeholder perspectives as well as our experiences during the development and running of such a program.

  • 94.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Lars-Olof
    Ericsson AB, Sweden .
    Rajanna, V
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Tata Consultany Services, Hyderabad, India .
    On the Evolution of an Industrial Software Engineering Graduate Program2009In: CONSEG 2009 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering, 2009, p. 69-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software is the key enabling factor for many industrial giants in product development and the ability to deliver reliable software intensive systems in a cost-efficient manner is becoming the differentiating factor for their future competitiveness. This underlines the importance of an industrially relevant software engineering program and realization of the above fact has lead us to conceptualize a novel graduate program in this domain. The program originated from a set of mutually beneficial motivating factors, which were realized during close collaborations between industry and academia in a global setting. In this paper we present the stakeholder perspectives as well as our experiences during the development and running of such a program.

  • 95.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sajeev, Abdulkadir
    Virtual Cities and Sustainable Development2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Rodríguez, Ricardo
    et al.
    Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cost Optimisation in Certification of Software Product Lines2014In: Proceedings - IEEE 25th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops, ISSREW 2014, 2014, Vol. Article number 6983895, p. 509-514Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety-critical systems (such as those in automotive, avionics, railway domains), where a failure can result in accidents with fatal consequences, need to certify their products as per domain-specific safety standards. Safety certification is not only time consuming but also consumes the project budget. Adopting a reuse oriented development and certification paradigm can be highly beneficial in such systems. Though there had been several research efforts on cost models in the context of software reuse as well as software product lines, none of them have addressed the certification related costs. In this paper, we present a cost model for software product lines, which incorporates certification costs as well. We first propose a mathematical model to represent a Software Product Line and then present an approach to compute, using optimisation theory, the set of artifacts that compose a new product assuring an expected level of confidence (that is, a certain Safety Integrity Level) at an optimised cost level. The proposed approach can help developers and software project managers in making efficient design decisions in relation to the choice of the components for a new product variant development as part of a product line

  • 97.
    Saravanan, Vijayalekshmi
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Chandran, Senthil Kumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kothari, D.P.
    VIT University, Vellore, India.
    A study on factors influencing power consumption in multithreaded and multicore CPU's2011In: WSEAS Transactions on Computers, ISSN 1109-2750, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 93-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ever-growing demand for computational power and high performance has led to a rapid growth in the semiconductor industry. This evolution has seen a continuous increase in CPU performance and the number of transistors on a chip has roughly doubled every two years proving Moore's law. An inevitable consequence when achieving this is that more functional units, deeper pipelining and larger cache sizes have had to be implemented on the CPU chip. The result is a significant increase in the power consumption. Achieving high performance with low power consumption has been the traditional goal in high-end processors. In order to accomplish high performance, multithreaded and multicore CPUs have become the recent trend in semi-conductor technology. The purpose of this paper is to statistically analyze the various factors that affect power, to study their relationship to quantify their influence on power consumption in multithreaded and multicore CPUs. This paper explores the on-chip power modeling simulation techniques with the existing processors and compares the performance and power trade-off between multicore and multithreaded CPUs. In this paper, we also present review/tutorial of recent advancements in power savings through the implementation of power-limiting micro-architectural features (e.g. out-of-order execution, branch prediction, caching and prefetching) in contemporary multi-core processors, such as Intel Nehalem and AMD's Istanbul processors. The results show that the statistical findings on power consumption are encouraging and useful for low power application and power-aware processor designers.

  • 98.
    Schmidt, Heinz
    et al.
    Computer Science and IT, RMIT University, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA.
    Peak, Ian
    Computer Science and IT, RMIT University, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA.
    Aysan, Hüseyin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Dobrin, Radu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Probabilistic Mode Automata for Adaptable Resource-Aware Component-Based Systems Design2012In: Engineering for Success: The Future is Now!: Proceedings of the Improving Systems and Software Engineering Conference incorporating SEPGSMAsia-Pacific Conference 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems design, configuration, deployment and runtime management are extremely challenging. The pervasiveness of embedded systems, and their increasing parallelism and scale in number of networked and interacting hardwaresoftware components, has been coupled with increases in the number of functions and the variation in behaviour and characteristics of these functions. Adoption of new international safety standards and higher best practice levels in large manufacturer subcontracting policies however mandates strict quality and at times even stricter dependability and sustainability (in particular energy efficiency) requirements. In recent work we have extended our rich architecture definition language (RADL) and underlying theory to meet such industrial requirements. In this paper we describe a new approach and design model targeting hybrid designer- and operator-defined performance budgets for timing and energy consumption. We give a running example designing a sample embedded multi-media system, a modern digital camera. The model caters for true parallelism, probabilistic performance characterisation, parameterised architectural variation, compositionality, and runtime reconfiguration. The theory is based on hybrid, hierarchical, performance-annotated parallel automata and Petri nets. We also briefly summarise our tool set used to derive the example.

  • 99.
    Shah, M. B. N.
    et al.
    Universiti Teknikal Malaysia.
    Husain, A. R.
    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Dobrin, Radu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A new error handling algorithm for controller area network in networked control system2013In: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 64, no 8, p. 984-997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An effective error handling mechanism plays an important role to ensure the reliability and robustness of the application of controller area network (CAN) in controlling dynamic systems. This paper addresses a new online error handling approach or named per-sample-error-counting (PSeC) technique that tends to replace native error handling protocol in controller area network (CAN). The mechanism is designed to manage transmission errors of both sensor and control data in networked control system (NCS) used in controlling dynamic system such that the stability of the feedback system is preserved. A new parameter denoted as maximum allowable number of error burst (MAEB) is introduced in which MAEB is selected based on available bandwidth of the CAN network. MAEB serves as the maximum number of attempt of re-transmission of erroneous data per sample which allows the maximum transmission period to be known and guaranteed for time-critical control system. The efficacy of the proposed method is verified by applying the algorithm on the fourth order inverted pendulum system simulated on Matlab/Truetime simulator and the performance is benchmarked with the existing CAN error management protocol. The simulation run under various systems conditions demonstrate that the proposed method results in superior system performance in handling data transmission error as well as meeting control system requirement. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  • 100.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    et al.
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Mehmed, Ayhan
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Improving Intelligent Vehicle Dependability By Means of Infrastructure-Induced Tests2015In: Proceedings - 2015 45th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2015, 2015, p. 147-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) take over more and more driving responsibilities from the human operator and, therefore, evolve into safety-critical systems. Thus, the dependability of such systems is of up-most importance. While upcoming automobiles themselves will implement fault-tolerance and robustness mechanisms, it can be beneficial to also take infrastructure measures into account when assessing the overall vehicle dependability. In this paper we discuss an example of an infrastructure measure that targets to improve the dependability of an on-board computer vision system. Based on this example we outline a cyber-physical systems (CPS) architecture for intelligent vehicles and address open research directions.

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