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  • 51.
    Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Kulkov, Ignat
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Parida, V.
    Division of Business Administration and Industrial Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Johansson, G.
    Division of Product Development, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Stefan, Ioana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Enabling battery circularity: Unlocking circular business model archetypes and collaboration forms in the electric vehicle battery ecosystem2024In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 199, article id 123044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving battery circularity is crucial for meeting the targets of net-zero emission vehicles by 2030 and enabling climate-neutral transportation by 2050. To facilitate this transition, firms operating in the electric vehicle (EV) battery ecosystem must reassess their value creation, capture, and delivery methods. Although EV battery second life presents a promising solution for circularity, many vehicle manufacturers and stakeholders in the battery ecosystem struggle to adapt their organizations internally and externally due to a lack of insights into suitable circular business models. The purpose of this study is to identify viable archetypes of circular business models for EV battery second life and examine their implications on company collaborations within the EV battery ecosystem. Three main archetypes of circular business models are identified (i.e., extending, sharing, and looping business models) and further divided into eight sub-archetypes. These models are elucidated in terms of key business model dimensions, including value proposition, value co-creation, value delivery, and value capture. The paper provides visual representations of the necessary interactions and collaborations among companies in the EV battery ecosystem to effectively implement the proposed business model archetypes. This research contributes to the theory of circular business models in general, with specific relevance to EV battery circularity.

  • 52.
    Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Toorajipour, Reza
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Configurations for second-life operations of electric vehicle batteries: A guiding framework for ecosystem management2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms need multi-stakeholder ecosystems to create successful second-life business models for electric vehicle (EV) batteries. However, there is a lack of guiding instrumentsto support the process of strategizing and managing the EV battery ecosystem for secondlife operations. The purpose of this study is to propose a guiding framework that could support firms in the EV battery ecosystem to establish and manage various configurations for second-life operations. The study developed a framework with four configuration phases—namely, firm-level initiation, ecosystem construction, firm-level optimization, and ecosystem orchestration. Based on these phases, the paper describes three configuration pathways to establish and manage second-life operations

  • 53.
    Ciapala, Bartlomiej
    et al.
    AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Krakow, Poland..
    Jurasz, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Krakow, Poland; Wroclaw Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Environm Engn, PL-50370 Wroclaw, Poland.
    Janowski, Miroslaw
    AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Krakow, Poland..
    Kepinska, Beata
    Inst Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi & Energia P, Krakow, Poland..
    Climate factors influencing effective use of geothermal resources in SE Poland: the Lublin trough (vol 9, 1, 2021) Correction.2021In: Geothermal Energy, E-ISSN 2195-9706, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Ciapala, Bartlomiej
    et al.
    AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Geol Geophys & Environm Protect, Dept Fossil Fuels, PL-30059 Krakow, Poland..
    Jurasz, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Management, Dept Engn Management, PL-30059 Krakow, Poland..
    Kies, Alexander
    Goethe Univ, Frankfurt Inst Adv Studies, D-60438 Frankfurt, Germany..
    The Potential of Wind Power-Supported Geothermal District Heating Systems-Model Results for a Location in Warsaw (Poland)2019In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 19, article id 3706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geothermal heat is considered a sustainable energy source with significant global potential. Together with heat distribution networks, it can provide clean thermal energy to individual and commercial consumers. However, peaks in heat demand can require additional peaking sources at times. In this paper, we investigated how wind turbines can act as a peak energy source for a geothermal district heating system. We studied a model consisting of a geothermal heat source, a heat storage and wind power generator using historical weather data of Warsaw (Poland) and showed that wind power could increase the renewable share to supply a considerable heat demand compared to a geothermal heat source alone. The results indicate that wind power can be a suitable complement for a geothermal heat source to provide energy for heating. It is shown that a theoretical geo-wind-thermal storage based district heating network supplying 1000 m(2), which requires 100 W/m(2) at an outdoor temperature of -20 degrees C should have the following parameters: 4.8 MWh of thermal energy storage capacity, 45 kW of geothermal capacity and 5 kW of wind capacity. Such a system would ensure minimal wind curtailment, high utilization of geothermal source and high reliability of supply.

  • 55.
    Cuneo, A.
    et al.
    Thermochemical Power Group, Università di Genova, Via Montallegro 1, Genova, Italy.
    Zaccaria, Valentina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Tucker, D.
    U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, 3610 Collins Ferry Rd., Morgantown, WV, United States.
    Sorce, A.
    Thermochemical Power Group, Università di Genova, Via Montallegro 1, Genova, Italy.
    ECONOMICAL OPTIMIZATION OF A HYBRID SYSTEM GAS TURBINE SIZE WITH SOFC STACK DEGRADATION2017In: EFC - Proc. Eur. Fuel Cell Piero Lunghi Conf., ENEA , 2017, p. 117-118Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coupling of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a gas turbine has been proven to result in extremely high efficiency and reduced emissions. The presence of the gas turbine can improve system durability compared to a standalone SOFC, because the turbomachinery can supply additional power as the fuel cell degrades to meet the power request. Since performance degradation is an obstacles to SOFC systems commercialization, the optimization of the hybrid system to mitigate SOFC degradation effects is of great interest. In this work, an optimization approach was used to innovatively study the effect of gas turbine size on system durability for a 400 kW fuel cell stack. A larger turbine allowed a bigger reduction in SOFC power before replacing the stack, but increased the initial capital investment and decreased the initial turbine efficiency. Thus, the power ratio between SOFC and gas turbine significantly influenced system economic results.

  • 56.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Microbiology of food quality: Challenges in food production and distribution during and after the pandemics2021Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With consumer awareness increasing, the importance of the environmental impact of everyday products such as food becomes a major factor for the customer. This awareness was increased with the COVID-19 pandemic. This book introduces green and sustainable food technology and its use during a pandemic. In addition, it covers current topics such as future food processing, methods of maintaining industrial hygiene and microbiological quality and safety. Circular economy approach to food technology. Focus on green and innovative methods for food production. Investigates the handling of food production, food chain, deliveries and quality during a pandemic. 

  • 57.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Toorajipour, Reza
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Balancing Power in Sweden Using Different Renewable Resources, Varying Prices, and Storages Like Batteries in a Resilient Energy System2023In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, no 12, p. 4734-4734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, balancing electricity production using renewable energy such as wind power, PV cells, hydropower, and CHP (combined heat and power) with biomass is carried out in relation to electricity consumption in primarily one major region in Sweden, SE-3, which contains 75% of the country's population. The time perspective is hours and days. Statistics with respect to power production and consumption are analyzed and used as input for power-balance calculations. How long periods are with low or high production, as well as the energy for charge and discharge that is needed to maintain a generally constant power production, is analyzed. One conclusion is that if the difference in production were to be completely covered with battery capacity it would be expensive, but if a large part of the difference were met by a shifting load it would be possible to cover the rest with battery storage in an economical way. To enhance the economy with battery storage, second-life batteries are proposed to reduce the capital cost in particular. Batteries are compared to hydrogen as an energy carrier. The efficiency of a battery system is higher than that of hydrogen plus fuel cells, but in general much fewer precious materials are needed with an H-2/fuel-cell system than with batteries. The paper discusses how to make the energy system more robust and resilient.

  • 58.
    Desideri, Umberto
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Department of Energy, Systems, Territory and Construction Engineering, University of Pisa, Pisa, 56122, Italy.
    Krayem, A.
    Department of Energy, Systems, Territory and Construction Engineering, University of Pisa, Pisa, 56122, Italy.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The Unprecedented Natural Gas Crisis in Europe: Investigating the Causes and Consequences with a Focus on Italy2023In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, no 16, article id 5954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy prices in Europe have in recent years surpassed unprecedented thresholds and varied in unexpected ways compared to previous years. This paper presents a study of the fuel markets in Italy, supplemented by insights from Sweden. Italy is heavily dependent on natural gas. The results show that natural gas demand changed only slightly in the period 2017–2022, but prices started to increase at the end of 2021. Notable spikes occurred at the beginning of the events in Ukraine, even though the baseline was already three times higher than the average price from 2017 to 2019. Distinct dynamics can be identified with the increase in demand for power generation, contrasted with a decrease in industrial natural gas demand after August 2022. The trends in coal and wood chip prices are consistent with those of natural gas, while oil prices appear to be less correlated. Additionally, events such as CO2 trading and the launch of the Fit for 55 program by the EU show some correlation with the trend in natural gas prices during 2021. Interestingly, the origin of the increase in natural gas prices during 2021–2022 cannot be simply attributed to the mismatch of supply and demand or any singular external event. This paper aims at starting a discussion on the topic by proposing some explanations.

  • 59.
    Diamantidou, Eirini
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Hosain, M. L.
    Hitachi Energy, Västerås, 72226, Sweden.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Recent Advances in Boundary Layer Ingestion Technology of Evolving Powertrain Systems2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 3, article id 1731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing environmental concern during the last years is driving the research community towards reducing aviation’s environmental impact. Several strict goals set by various aviation organizations shifted the research focus towards more efficient and environmentally friendly aircraft concepts. Boundary Layer Ingestion (BLI) is currently investigated as a potential technology to achieve different design goals such as energy efficiency improvement and noise emission reductions in the next generation of commercial aircraft. The technology principle is to place the propulsive unit within the boundary layer generated by the airframe body. Although several studies showed its theoretical benefits, a multidisciplinary nature is introduced in the design phase. This imposes new challenges on the current design tools. An increasing number of publications are focusing on assessing this technology while taking into account interlinks between different disciplines. The goal of this work is to review the current state-of-the-art of BLI evaluation studies. Particular focus is given to the underlying assumptions of each work, the methodology employed, and the level of fidelity of the tools used. By organizing the available work in a comprehensive manner, the up-to-date results are interpreted. The current trends and trade-offs emerging from studies are presented. Through reviewing the ongoing published work, the next steps for further development of the methods that will assess this technology are derived. 

  • 60.
    Diamantidou, Eirini
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Tsirikoglou, Panagiotis
    Mälardalen University.
    Turbofan, B.
    Limmat Scientific AG, Zurich, 8006, Switzerland.
    A Robust Initialization Approach of Multi-Point Synthesis Schemes For Aero-Engine Conceptual Design2021In: AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum, 2021, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA , 2021, article id AIAA 2021-3469Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last years, the aviation industry has shifted its focus towards increasing the aircraft efficiency. The constant drive to search for more efficient systems has led to the introduction of novel concepts. These concepts expand the design space but, at the same time, bring several challenges to the design process. One of the challenges is to develop a conceptual engine design model that can work effectively and provide consistently accurate solutions, even when there are dramatic changes in design constraints. In this work, a multipoint synthesis approach is developed which considers multiple points during the design phase. By incorporating multiple operating points into the design analysis phase, it is ensured that all performance requirements and design constraints are satisfied. A comparison between the traditional engine design approach and the proposed approach is presented to showcase the advantages of the proposed method. A parametric analysis of a geared turbofan configuration is conducted for both design approaches. Then, the multi-point synthesis approach is employed for the design space exploration of a conventional geared turbofan engine and a parallel-hybrid (or boosted) turbofan engine. To enable these studies, surrogate models are developed which utilize machine learning methods in a database of converged engine designs and can ensure the effective and fast operation of the engine model. It is concluded that this surrogate adapted algorithm improves computational efficiency and can be used to evaluate alternative designs.

  • 61.
    Diamantidou, Eirini
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zaccaria, Valentina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kalfas, A.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54124, Greece.
    Mission-Level Design Studies for Efficient Hybrid-Electric Regional Aircraft Concepts2024In: International Journal of Gas Turbine, Propulsion and Power Systems, ISSN 1882-5079, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 48-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work delves into the design and operation of a series/parallel partial hybrid-electric architecture for regional aircraft. Employing a comprehensive approach, this study leverages mission-level analysis to optimize a 19-passenger hybrid-electric aircraft. The conceptual design framework employed is based on the OpenConcept library, and a systematic computational scheme is developed to effectively investigate the concept’s performance, utilizing the supplied and shaft power ratios. Through the examination of three distinct mission ranges and consideration of two technological scenarios, this work offers valuable insights. For the longest mission, an aircraft design optimization problem is posed, and a 23% reduction in total energy consumption is achieved for the optimistic technological scenario. On the other hand, the focus shifts to optimize the power management for shorter missions, where a 26% and a 32% reduction in energy consumption are achieved for the typical and short missions. The results highlight the potential of hybrid-electric propulsion for regional aircraft.

  • 62.
    Dong, Beibei
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dynamic modeling of MEA-based CO2 capture in biomass-fired CHP plants2024Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming is a significant threat to our planet. Adopting the Paris Agreement is a global action that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. An extensive deployment of negative emission technologies (NETs) is required to achieve the targets set by the Paris Agreement. Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is emerging as one of the most promising NETs. Among different biomass utilization processes, integrating BECCS with biomass-fired and waste-fired combined heat and power (bio-CHP and w-CHP) plants has been considered the most feasible solution. Bio/w-CHP plants are characterized by high fluctuations in operation, which can result in more dynamic variations of flue gas (FG) flowrates and compositions and available heat for CO2 capture. Such changes can clearly affect the performance of CO2 capture; therefore, doing dynamic simulations becomes crucial.

    This thesis aims to investigate the performance of different dynamic physical model-based approaches and provide suggestions for approach selection. In addition, the data-driven modeling approach, which is an emerging technology, has also been tested.

    Three physical model-based approaches include the ideal static model (IST), the dynamic approach without control (Dw/oC), and the dynamic approach with control (DwC). To compare their performance, the operating data from an actual waste CHP plant is employed. Various cases have been defined considering different critical operating parameters, including the FG flowrate, the CO2 concentration (CO2vol%), and the available heat for CO2 capture. Apparent differences can be observed in the results from different approaches. For example, when the CO2vol% drops from 15.7 % to 9.7 % (about 38 %) within 4 hours, the difference in the captured CO2 can be up to 22% between DwC and Dw/oC. It is worth noting that when there are both increases and decreases in the variations of parameters, the differences become smaller. 

    Based on the comparison, the recommendations on approaches have been summarized. Dw/oC is recommended for checking the boundary of safety operation by the response analysis. DwC is recommended for designing the control system, observing the flexible dynamic operation, estimating the short-term CO2 capture potential, and optimizing the hourly dynamic operation. IST is recommended for estimating the long-term CO2 capture potential, and optimizing the long-term dynamic operation when the input parameters vary not as often as hourly.

    A data-driven model, Informer, is developed to model CO2 capture dynamically. The dataset is generated by using a physical model. The FG flowrate, the CO2vol%, the lean solvent flowrate, and the available heat for CO2 capture are employed as input parameters, and the CO2 capture rate and the energy penalty are chosen as outputs. The results show that Informer can accurately predict dynamic CO2 capture. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 6.2% and 2.7% for predicting the CO2 capture rate and energy penalty, respectively.

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  • 63.
    Dong, Beibei
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Chen, Jinyu
    Shi, Xiaodan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    AI-based Dynamic Modelling for CO2 Capture2023In: Energy Proceedings, 2023, Vol. 37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrating CO2 capture with biomass/waste fired combined heat and power plants (CHPs) is a promising method to achieve negative emission. However, the use of versatile biomass/waste and dynamic operation of CHPs result in big fluctuations in the flue gas (FG) and heat input to CO2 capture. Dynamic modelling is essential to investigate the interactions between key process parameters in producing the dynamic response of the CO2 capture process. In order to facilitate developing robust control strategies for flexible operation in CO2 capture plants and optimizing the operation of CO2 capture plants, artificial intelligence (AI) models are superior to mechanical models due to the easy implementation into the control and optimization. This paper aims to develop an AI model, Informer, to predict the dynamic responses of MEA based CO2 capture performance from waste-fired CHP plants. Dynamic modelling was first developed in Aspen HYSYS software and validated against the reference. The operation data from the simulated CO2 capture process was then used to develop and verify Informer. The following variables were employed as inputs: inlet flue gas flow rate, CO2 concentration in inlet flue gas, lean solvent flow rate, heat input to CO2 capture. It was found that Informer could predict CO2 capture rate and energy consumption with the mean absolute percentage error of 6.2% and 2.7% respectively.

  • 64.
    Dong, Beibei
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Hu, Changzheng
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, 300134, China.
    Skvaril, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Selecting the approach for dynamic modelling of CO2 capture in biomass/waste fired CHP plants2023In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 130, article id 104008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrating CO2 capture with biomass/waste fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants is a promising method to achieve negative emissions. However, the use of versatile biomass/waste and the dynamic operation of CHP plants result in bigger fluctuations in the properties of flue gas (FG), e.g. CO2 concentration (CO2vol%) and flowrates, and the heat that can be used for CO2 capture, when comparing with coal fired power plants. To address such a challenge, dynamic modelling is essential to accurately estimate the amount of captured CO2 and optimize the operation of CO2 capture. This paper compares three dynamic approaches commonly used in literature, namely using the ideal static model (IST) and using dynamic models without control (Dw/oC) and with control (DwC), for MEA based chemical absorption CO2 capture. The performance of approaches is assessed under the variations of key factors, including the flowrate and CO2vol% of FG, and the available heat for CO2 capture. Simulation results show clear differences. For example, when the CO2vol% drops from 15.7 % to 9.7 % (about 38 %) within 4 hours, DwC gives the highest amount of captured CO2, which is 7.3 % and 22.3 % higher than IST and Dw/oC, respectively. It is also found that the time step size has a clear impact on the CO2 capture amount, especially for DwC. Based on the results, suggestions are also provided regarding the selection of dynamic modelling approaches for different purposes of simulations.

  • 65.
    Dong, X.
    et al.
    School of Energy and Power Engineering, Shandong University, Shandong, Jinan, 250061, China.
    Zhao, H.
    School of Energy and Power Engineering, Shandong University, Shandong, Jinan, 250061, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Fucucci, G.
    Department of Enterprise Engineering “Mario Lucertini”, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, Rome, 00133, Italy. Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, 02138, MA, United States.
    Zheng, Q.
    Provincial Key Laboratory of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering, Institute of Marine Engineering, Jimei University, Fujian, Xiamen, 361021, China.
    Pu, J.
    Institute for Advanced Technology, Shandong University, Shandong, Jinan, 250061, China.
    A novel design of a metal hydride reactor integrated with phase change material for H2 storage2024In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 367, article id 123321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using metal hydride for hydrogen storage in stationary applications and for transportation is a promising technology due to its advantages of large hydrogen storage capacity, low pressure and low energy consumption. Combining the metal hydride reactor with PCM is expected to recover the heat generated during the hydrogen absorption and use it for hydrogen desorption, thus improving the energy efficiency of the system. This paper proposes a metal hydride reactor integrated with honeycomb fins and PCM to enhance heat transfer. Based on simulations, the results show that the achieved hydrogen storage capacity is 1.326 wt%, the gravimetric and volumetric storage densities are 0.411% and 14.76 kg of H2 per m3, respectively, and the mean saturated rates are 1.222 × 10−3 g s−1 and 0.773 × 10−3 g s−1 for absorption and desorption processes. Compared with the reactor without fins, the mass and volume of the reactor using honeycomb fins are increased, resulting in a decrease in gravimetric and volumetric storage density, but a increase in reaction rate during hydrogen absorption and desorption processes. Based on this structure, we also propose a honeycomb fin reactor filled with sandwich PCM to further accelerate the heat transfer in the reaction process. Compare to the reactor with PCM only filled on the periphery of the honeycomb fins, the hydrogen absorption and desorption times are shortened by about 86.4% and 81.1%, respectively. In addition, different reactor structures are compared using multiple KPIs to provide relevant suggestions for the reactor optimization. The obtained research results can provide a reference for effective thermal management methods in MH storage systems.

  • 66.
    Du, J.
    et al.
    National Engineering Laboratory for Pipeline Safety/ MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering/ Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Fuxue Road No. 18, Changping District, Beijing, 102249, China.
    Zheng, J.
    National Engineering Laboratory for Pipeline Safety/ MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering/ Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Fuxue Road No. 18, Changping District, Beijing, 102249, China.
    Liang, Y.
    National Engineering Laboratory for Pipeline Safety/ MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering/ Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Fuxue Road No. 18, Changping District, Beijing, 102249, China.
    Liao, Q.
    National Engineering Laboratory for Pipeline Safety/ MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering/ Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Fuxue Road No. 18, Changping District, Beijing, 102249, China.
    Wang, B.
    National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Harbour Oil & Gas Storage and Transportation Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering and Environment, Zhejiang Ocean University, No. 1 Haida South Road, Zhoushan, 316022, China.
    Sun, X.
    National Engineering Laboratory for Pipeline Safety/ MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering/ Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Fuxue Road No. 18, Changping District, Beijing, 102249, China.
    Zhang, Haoran
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Harbour Oil & Gas Storage and Transportation Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering and Environment, Zhejiang Ocean University, No. 1 Haida South Road, Zhoushan, 316022, China.
    Maher, Azaza
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    A theory-guided deep-learning method for predicting power generation of multi-region photovoltaic plants2023In: Engineering applications of artificial intelligence, ISSN 0952-1976, E-ISSN 1873-6769, Vol. 118, article id 105647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, clean solar energy has aroused wide attention due to its excellent potential for electricity production. A highly accurate prediction of photovoltaic power generation (PVPG) is the basis of the production and transmission of electricity. However, the current works neglect the regional correlation characteristics of PVPG and few studies propose an effective framework by incorporating prior knowledge for more physically reasonable results. In this work, a hybrid deep learning framework is proposed for simultaneously capturing the spatial correlations among different regions and temporal dependency patterns with various importance. The scientific theory and domain knowledge are incorporated into the deep learning model to make the predicted results possess physical reasonability. Subsequently, the theory-guided and attention-based CNN-LSTM (TG-A-CNN-LSTM) is constructed for PVPG prediction. In the training process, data mismatch and boundary constraint are incorporated into the loss function, and the positive constraint is utilized to restrict the output of the model. After receiving the parameters of the neural network, a TG-A-CNN-LSTM model, whose predicted results obey the physical law, is constructed. A real energy system in five regions is used to verify the accuracy of the proposed model. The predicted results indicate that TG-A-CNN-LSTM can achieve higher precision of PVPG prediction than other prediction models, with RMSE being 11.07, MAE being 4.98, and R2 being 0.94, respectively. Moreover, the performance of prediction models with sparse data is tested to illustrate the stability and robustness of TG-A-CNN-LSTM. 

  • 67.
    Du, Z.
    et al.
    Institute of the Building Environment & Sustainability Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.
    Huang, X.
    Institute of the Building Environment & Sustainability Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.
    Li, Y.
    Institute of the Building Environment & Sustainability Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.
    Yang, X.
    Institute of the Building Environment & Sustainability Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Melting-solidification cycle of finned heat storage tank: Optimization of fin structure by response surface method2023In: Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, ISSN 2214-157X, Vol. 52, article id 103759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of the enhanced heat transfer performance of longitudinal fins on the entire process of melting and solidification in a phase change heat storage unit is investigated through experiments and numerical simulations in this paper. The position and structure of the longitudinal fins are optimized by using the response surface method while ensuring that the total volume of the heat storage medium remains unchanged. Studies have identified that some challenging zones in melting and solidification significantly impact the heat transfer of the entire heat storage cycle. Specifically, the challenging zone in melting primarily exists in the lower part of the unit during the charing process, while the challenging zone in solidification is mainly distributed around the unit during the discharging process. Through optimization, the optimized structure (fin spacing is 22.5 mm, fin width is 6.05 mm) can reduce the charging and discharging time by 16.94 % and 45.90 %, respectively. Additionally, the round trip time is significantly reduced by 39.19 %, and the mean heat absorption rate during the melting process is enhanced by 20.28 %. Moreover, the mean heat release rate during solidification is enhanced by 80.23 %.

  • 68.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Röndell, Jimmie
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Erixon, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Anastasiadou, Elena
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Berglind, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Dahlin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Holmstedt, Matthias
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Thompson, Steven
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    The Sustainable Stewardship Management Model for Green IS2023In: 29th Annual Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2023, Association for Information Systems , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Triple bottom-line challenges are increasingly related to the long-term survival of companies. Both researchers and businesses understand that the transformation towards a sustainable future is dependent on green IS initiatives. However, companies base their decisions on business cases when investing in IS. Many of the required changes that green IS can offer—especially when it comes to new systems that require new business models—are not captured by business cases. This paper presents a model that widens the perspective on value creation. The presented Sustainable Stewardship Management Model (SSMM) allows companies that strive for a stewardship role to evaluate both existing and new forms of green IS by combining casual and effectual decision-making. The model is a result of a collaboration with several large Swedish commercial real estate companies, their tenants, and a non-governmental organization (NGO). The model will be tested in a follow-up project.

  • 69.
    Elkadeem, M. R.
    et al.
    Electrical Power and Machines Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.
    Younes, A.
    Geography and GIS department, Faculty of Arts, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt.
    Mazzeo, D.
    Department of Mechanical, Energy and Management Engineering (DIMEG), University of Calabria, Arcavacata of Rende, Italy.
    Jurasz, J.
    Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wrocław, Poland.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Sharshir, S. W.
    Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, 33516, Egypt.
    Alaam, M. A.
    Electrical Power and Machines Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.
    Geospatial-assisted multi-criterion analysis of solar and wind power geographical-technical-economic potential assessment2022In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 322, article id 119532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amid the increasing electricity demand, energy crisis and pollution, the transition to renewable energy (RE) is becoming a preoccupation and major global challenge due to the multidimensional and intricate problem of RE planning. In Egypt, about 90% of gross power generation comes from carbon-intensive power plants (natural gas and coal). Here, we propose a novel geospatial-decision-making model aimed at geographical-technical–economic potential mapping and assessment of solar photovoltaic (PV) and onshore wind turbine (WT) power plants at a high level of resolution (1 km2) in Egypt. We identify the locations suitable for PV and WT development considering sixteen restrictive and contradictory evaluation criteria. These locations have been further analyzed to estimate how much energy generation is available and at what energy cost. The analysis identifies Middle-Upper Egypt and Suez Canal as hosting the majority of highly suitable locations for PV and WT power plants, respectively. Our finding reveals that the proper planning on RE projects at the proposed optimum locations could support the country's energy mix with a sizable 32% share of the projected country's electricity consumption from PV and 50% share from WT, by 2030. Furthermore, we show that the investment opportunities of PV and WT generation are potentially attractive with affordable competitive prices estimated at 57.84 $/MWh and 32.36 $/MWh, respectively, against conventional generation for today and the future. We anticipate that our results will provide valuable support in realizing Egypt's vision for sustainable electricity generation and in keeping abreast of the global transformation in power systems being witnessed. Ultimately, the method's relevance extends beyond the geographical boundaries of the present territory; it features a strategic, clear and reproducible approach that may be applied to a larger area or continent, provided the necessary input data and criteria are introduced.

  • 70.
    Elkadeem, M. R.
    et al.
    Interdisciplinary Research Center for Renewable Energy and Power Systems (IRC-REPS), King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
    Zainali, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ma Lu, Silvia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Younes, A.
    Geography and GIS Department, Faculty of Arts, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt.
    Abido, M. A.
    SDAIA-KFUPM Joint Research Center for Artificial Intelligence, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
    Amaducci, S.
    Department of Sustainable Crop Production, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza, Italy.
    Croci, M.
    Department of Sustainable Crop Production, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza, Italy.
    Zhang, J.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Landelius, T.
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Agrivoltaic systems potentials in Sweden: A geospatial-assisted multi-criteria analysis2024In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 356, article id 122108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agrivoltaic systems represent an intelligent solution combining electricity production from solar photovoltaic technology with agricultural production to avoid land use conflicts. Geographic Information System technologies can support the implementation and spread of agrivoltaic systems by identifying the most suitable areas using useful spatially explicit information concerning techno-agro-socio-economic criteria. In this study, we have developed a procedure to identify and classify suitable areas for agrivoltaic systems in Sweden. An Ordinal Priority Approach based multi-criteria decision-making algorithm is established to calculate the weights of the selected evaluation criteria through expert interviews. The land use data refers to the Corine Land Cover 2018 product. The results show that about 8.6% of the Swedish territory, approximately 38,485 km2, is suitable for installing agrivoltaic systems. Among this area, about 0.2% is classified as “excellent”, about 15% as “very good”, about 72% as “good”, about 13% as “moderate”, and about 0.1% as “poor”. Most “excellent”-classified areas are in Kalmar, Skåne, and Gotland. In contrast, most “very good” sites are in Skåne, Kalmar, and Östergötland. By deploying vertically mounted agrivoltaic systems with bifacial photovoltaic modules, the total potential installed capacity for “excellent” areas is about 2.5 GWp, while for areas classified “excellent” and “very good” is about 221 GWp. The total “excellent” areas can potentially supply about 2.4 TWh of electricity against the electricity consumption in 2021 of about 143 TWh. On the other hand, the land classified as “excellent” and “very good” could potentially provide about 207 TWh. The County of Västra Götaland shows the greatest potentials in terms of total potential electricity supply from agrivoltaic systems with about 227 TWh, followed by Skåne with a total potential of 206 TWh. 

  • 71.
    Envall, Ida
    et al.
    Swedish Res Council Environm, Agr Sci & Spatial Planning Formas, Sweden.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Westholm, Lena Johansson
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Bring, Arvid
    Swedish Res Council Environm, Agr Sci & Spatial Planning Formas, Sweden.
    Land, Magnus
    Swedish Res Council Environm, Agr Sci & Spatial Planning Formas, Sweden.
    Åberg, Charlotte
    Swedish Res Council Environm, Agr Sci & Spatial Planning Formas, Sweden.
    Haddaway, Neal R.
    Leibniz Ctr Agr Landscape Res ZALF, Germany.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    Existing evidence related to soil retention of phosphorus from on-site wastewater treatment systems in boreal and temperate climate zones: a systematic map2023In: Environmental Evidence, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden there are nearly one million soil-based on-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs). OWTSs may contribute to eutrophication of surface waters, due to the discharge of phosphorus (P). Hence, in certain cases, a high P removal rate (up to 90%) of OWTSs is required by Swedish authorities. Since these requirements may have costly consequences to property owners, it is debated whether they are too strict. In this debate, it is often claimed that the soil retention of P occurring in the natural environments may be underestimated by authorities. Soil retention is the inhibition of the transport of P through the ground, due to different chemical, physical and biological processes occurring there. These processes make the P transport slower, which may reduce the unwanted impact on receiving water bodies. However, the efficiency of soil retention of P remains unclear. The objective of this systematic map was to collect, code, organise and elucidate the relevant evidence related to the topic, to be able to guide stakeholders through the evidence base, and to support future research synthesising, commissioning, and funding. The systematic map was carried out in response to needs declared by the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management but the conclusions should be valid for a wider range of countries across boreo-temperate regions.

    Methods: Searches were made for peer-reviewed and grey literature using bibliographic databases, search engines, specialist websites, and stakeholder contacts. The references were screened for relevance according to a predefined set of eligibility criteria. A detailed database of the relevant studies was compiled. Data and metadata that enable evaluation and discussion of the character and quality of the evidence base were extracted and coded. Special focus was placed on assessing if existing evidence could contribute to policy and practice decision making. Descriptive information about the evidence base was presented in tables and figures. An interactive evidence atlas and a choropleth were created, displaying the locations of all studies.

    Review findings: 234 articles out of 10,797 screened records fulfilled the eligibility criteria. These articles contain 256 studies, performed in the field or in the laboratory. Six different study types were identified, based on where the measurements were conducted. Most studies, including laboratory studies, lack replicates. Most field studies are observational case studies.

    Conclusions: It is not possible to derive valid generic measures of the efficiency of soil retention of P occurring in the natural soil environment from available research. Neither does the evidence base allow for answering the question of the magnitude of the potential impact of OWTSs on the P concentration in recipients on a general basis, or under what conditions OWTSs generally have such an impact. A compilation of groundwater studies may provide examples of how far the P may reach in x years, but the number of groundwater studies is insufficient to draw any general conclusions, given the complexity and variability of the systems. Future research should strive for replicated study designs, more elaborate reporting, and the establishment of a reporting standard.

  • 72.
    Fan, Jingli
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Center for Sustainable Development and Energy Policy Research, School of Energy and Mining Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing, China; State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining (China University of Mining and Technology), Beijing, China.
    Zhang, H.
    Center for Sustainable Development and Energy Policy Research, School of Energy and Mining Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, X.
    The Administrative Centre for China's Agenda 21, Ministry of Science and Technology, Beijing, China.
    Unified efficiency measurement of coal-fired power plants in China considering group heterogeneity and technological gaps2020In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 88, article id 104751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China's coal-fired power generation has accounted for a large proportion of the power supply for a long time and the resulting environmental pollution and waste of resources have hindered the sustainable development of the power industry. To solve this problem, this study combines the concept of natural and managerial disposability with the non-concave meta-frontier method to determine the unified efficiency measurement of 251 coal-fired power plants in China from 2012 to 2014 and to investigate the sources of inefficiency in different areas. The results show that although the unified efficiency of China's coal-fired power plants improved significantly during 2012–2014, much room for improvement remains in terms of power generation and environmental performance. Due to the advanced technology of coal-fired power plants, the eastern area has the highest unified efficiency in terms of natural and managerial disposability. The western region has the lowest operational performance and the northeast region has the lowest environmental performance. The decomposition of the sources of inefficiency indicates that the inefficiency of coal-fired power plants in eastern China is mainly caused by management factors, whereas the inefficiency in northeastern China is due to a lag in technology. In the central and western areas, technical inefficiency and management inefficiency both account for a considerable proportion in their sources of inefficiency. Therefore, these regions need to improve both the management (e.g., reasonable allocation of utilization hours) and technology (e.g., clean coal technology) aspects to improve the unified performance of coal-fired power plants. 

  • 73.
    Feng, D.
    et al.
    China Energy Engineering Group Jiangsu Power Design Institute Co., Ltd., Nanjing, 210012, China.
    Xu, W.
    China Energy Engineering Group Jiangsu Power Design Institute Co., Ltd., Nanjing, 210012, China.
    Gao, X.
    Institute of the Building Environment & Sustainability Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049, China.
    Yang, Y.
    China Energy Engineering Group Jiangsu Power Design Institute Co., Ltd., Nanjing, 210012, China.
    Feng, S.
    China Energy Engineering Group Jiangsu Power Design Institute Co., Ltd., Nanjing, 210012, China.
    Yang, X.
    Institute of the Building Environment & Sustainability Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Carbon Emission Prediction and the Reduction Pathway in Industrial Parks: A Scenario Analysis Based on the Integration of the LEAP Model with LMDI Decomposition2023In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, no 21, article id 7356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global climate change imposes significant challenges on the ecological environment and human sustainability. Industrial parks, in line with the national climate change mitigation strategy, are key targets for low-carbon revolution within the industrial sector. To predict the carbon emission of industrial parks and formulate the strategic path of emission reduction, this paper amalgamates the benefits of the “top-down” and “bottom-up” prediction methodologies, incorporating the logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) decomposition method and long-range energy alternatives planning (LEAP) model, and integrates the Tapio decoupling theory to predict the carbon emissions of an industrial park cluster of an economic development zone in Yancheng from 2020 to 2035 under baseline (BAS) and low-carbon scenarios (LC1, LC2, and LC3). The findings suggest that, in comparison to the BAS scenario, the carbon emissions in the LC1, LC2, and LC3 scenarios decreased by 30.4%, 38.4%, and 46.2%, respectively, with LC3 being the most suitable pathway for the park’s development. Finally, the paper explores carbon emission sources, and analyzes emission reduction potential and optimization measures of the energy structure, thus providing a reference for the formulation of emission reduction strategies for industrial parks. 

  • 74.
    Feng, Dawei
    et al.
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, China Energy & Elect Power Res Joint Inst, Xian, Peoples R China.;Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Inst Bldg Environm & Sustainabil Technol, Sch Human Settlements & Civil Engn, Xian, Peoples R China..
    Gao, Xinyu
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Inst Bldg Environm & Sustainabil Technol, Sch Human Settlements & Civil Engn, Xian, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Yun
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, China Energy & Elect Power Res Joint Inst, Xian, Peoples R China..
    Feng, Shirui
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, China Energy & Elect Power Res Joint Inst, Xian, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Xiaohu
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Inst Bldg Environm & Sustainabil Technol, Sch Human Settlements & Civil Engn, Xian, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Dept Bldg Environm & Energy Engn, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Pathways for carbon emission prediction and mitigation of sustainable industrial parks: a LEAP model application2024In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial parks play a crucial role as a carrier of industrial clusters and energy consumption. Accurately predicting the energy demand and carbon emissions trend is key to scientifically determining the pathways for low-carbon industrial parks. However, exploration in carbon emission prediction on industrial park scale is still in its infancy stage. This paper investigates fuel demand and carbon emissions from 2021 to 2035 in an industrial park in Jiangsu Province, utilizing the Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model to explore the pathways for low carbon development. Energy-saving and emission-reduction effects of different macro-economic policies and micro-energy planning are analyzed based on the energy balance and emission factor methods. Four scenarios are compared: the baseline scenario (BAS), green development scenario (GDS), low carbon scenario (LCS), and strength low carbon scenario (SLS). Results indicated that energy demand under BAS reached at 31.37 Mtce in 2035, and energy-saving rates of GDS, LCS, and SLS in 2035 were 12.94%, 14.00% and 19.08%, respectively. Carbon emissions reached 53.96 MtCO2e in BAS of 2035. However, in the same year, emissions decreased by 24.88%, 43.09%, and 52.52% in GDS, LCS, and SLS, respectively, with SLS being the most suitable for the park.

  • 75.
    Feng, J. -C
    et al.
    Research Centre of Ecology &Environment for Coastal Area and Deep Sea, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou, China; Key Laboratory for City Cluster Environmental Safety and Green Development of the Ministry of Education, School of Ecology, Environment and Resources, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.
    Sun, L.
    Research Centre of Ecology &Environment for Coastal Area and Deep Sea, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou, China; Key Laboratory for City Cluster Environmental Safety and Green Development of the Ministry of Education, School of Ecology, Environment and Resources, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Department of Building Environment and Energy Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hongkong, China.
    Carbon sequestration via shellfish farming: A potential negative emissions technology2023In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 171, article id 113018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Negative emission technologies driven by nature with less energy input, lower costs, and long carbon storage capacities are essential for meeting ambitious global carbon mitigation goals. This paper evaluates the carbon sequestration potential of bivalve shellfish farming because its sequestration process is driven by nature, and it is cost-effective and energy efficient. The carbon in shells and the carbon that enters sediments via bio-deposition are long-lived forms of carbon. Using China as a case study, a preliminary estimation suggests that the carbon sequestration efficiency and intensity of cultivated shellfishes are much higher than those of artificial forests. In China, approximately 6.23 Mt CO2-eq a−1 was fixed via net carbon sequestration during shellfish growth from 2015 to 2019. In addition, the farmed shellfishes provided 0.37 Mt of harvested protein, and approximately 37.39 Mt CO2-eq a-1 were reduced compared to the same amount of protein provided by beef, and thus, shellfish farming has the win-win benefits of carbon sequestration and high-quality food provision. More importantly, a total of 5.64 Gt CO2-eq, accounting for 17.63% of the total emissions in 2020, can be potentially sequestrated at the global scale under the world's largest farming area scenario. 

  • 76.
    Feng, Jing-Chun
    et al.
    Guangdong Univ Technol, Sch Ecol Environm & Resources, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China.;Southern Marine Sci & Engn Guangdong Lab Guangzho, Guangzhou 511458, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wang, Yi
    Chinese Acad Sci, Guangzhou Inst Energy Convers, Key Lab Gas Hydrate, Guangzhou 510640, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Zhifeng
    Guangdong Univ Technol, Sch Ecol Environm & Resources, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China.;Southern Marine Sci & Engn Guangdong Lab Guangzho, Guangzhou 511458, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Si
    Guangdong Univ Technol, Sch Ecol Environm & Resources, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China.;Southern Marine Sci & Engn Guangdong Lab Guangzho, Guangzhou 511458, Peoples R China..
    Liang, Sai
    Guangdong Univ Technol, Sch Ecol Environm & Resources, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China..
    Li, Xiao-Sen
    Chinese Acad Sci, Guangzhou Inst Energy Convers, Key Lab Gas Hydrate, Guangzhou 510640, Peoples R China..
    Methane mitigation: Learning from the natural marine environment2022In: INNOVATION, ISSN 2666-6758, Vol. 3, no 5, article id 100297Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Fentaye, Amare Desalegn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Gas turbine prognostics via Temporal Fusion Transformer2024In: Aeronautical Journal, ISSN 0001-9240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas turbines play a vital role in various industries. Timely and accurately predicting their degradation is essential for efficient operation and optimal maintenance planning. Diagnostic and prognostic outcomes aid in determining the optimal compressor washing intervals. Diagnostics detects compressor fouling and estimates the trend up to the current time. If the forecast indicates fast progress in the fouling trend, scheduling offline washing during the next inspection event or earlier may be crucial to address the fouling deposit comprehensively. This approach ensures that compressor cleaning is performed based on its actual health status, leading to improved operation and maintenance costs. This paper presents a novel prognostic method for gas turbine degradation forecasting through a time-series analysis. The proposed approach uses the Temporal Fusion Transformer model capable of capturing time-series relationships at different scales. It combines encoder and decoder layers to capture temporal dependencies and temporal-attention layers to capture long-range dependencies across the encoded degradation trends. Temporal attention is a self-attention mechanism that enables the model to consider the importance of each time step degradation in the context of the entire degradation profile of the given health parameter. Performance data from multiple two-spool turbofan engines is employed to train and test the method. The test results show promising forecasting ability of the proposed method multiple flight cycles into the future. By leveraging the insights provided by the method, maintenance events and activities can be scheduled in a proactive manner. Future work is to extend the method to estimate remaining useful life.

  • 78.
    Fentaye, Amare Desalegn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zaccaria, Valentina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Aircraft engine performance monitoring and diagnostics based on deep convolutional neural networks2021In: Machines, E-ISSN 2075-1702, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid advancement of machine-learning techniques has played a significant role in the evolution of engine health management technology. In the last decade, deep-learning methods have received a great deal of attention in many application domains, including object recognition and computer vision. Recently, there has been a rapid rise in the use of convolutional neural networks for rotating machinery diagnostics inspired by their powerful feature learning and classification capability. However, the application in the field of gas turbine diagnostics is still limited. This paper presents a gas turbine fault detection and isolation method using modular convolutional neural networks preceded by a physics-driven performance-trend-monitoring system. The trend-monitoring system was employed to capture performance changes due to degradation, establish a new baseline when it is needed, and generatefault signatures. The fault detection and isolation system was trained to step-by-step detect and classify gas path faults to the component level using fault signatures obtained from the physics part. The performance of the method proposed was evaluated based on different fault scenarios for a three-shaft turbofan engine, under significant measurement noise to ensure model robustness. Two comparative assessments were also carried out: with a single convolutional-neural-network-architecture-based fault classification method and with a deep long short-term memory-assisted fault detection and isolation method. The results obtained revealed the performance of the proposed method to detect and isolate multiple gas path faults with over 96% accuracy. Moreover, sharing diagnostic tasks with modular architectures is seen as relevant to significantly enhance diagnostic accuracy.

  • 79.
    Ferrari, M. L.
    et al.
    Thermochemical Power Group (TPG), University of Genoa, Italy.
    Zaccaria, Valentina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Pressurized SOFC System Fuelled by Biogas: Control Approaches and Degradation Impact2021In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 143, no 6, article id 4048653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows control approaches for managing a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system fuelled by biogas. This is an advanced solution to integrate the high efficiency benefits of a pressurized SOFC with a renewable source. The operative conditions of these analyses are based on the matching with an emulator rig including a T100 machine for tests in cyber-physical mode. So, this paper presents a real-time model including the fuel cell, the off-gas burner (OFB), and the recirculation lines. Although the microturbine components are planned to be evaluated with the hardware devices, the model includes also the T100 expander for machine control reasons. The simulations shown in this paper regard the assessment of an innovative control tool based on the model predictive control (MPC) technology. This controller and an additional tool based on the coupling of MPC and proportional integral derivative (PID) approaches were assessed against the application of PID controllers. The control targets consider both steady-state and dynamic aspects. Moreover, different control solutions are presented to operate the system during fuel cell degradation. The results include the system response to load variations, and SOFC voltage decrease. Considering the simulations including SOFC degradation, the MPC was able to decrease the thermal stress, but it was not able to compensate the degradation. On the other hand, the tool based on the coupling of the MPC and the PID approaches produced the best results in terms of set-point matching, and SOFC thermal stress containment.

  • 80.
    Fu, Hao
    et al.
    Tianjin Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China..
    Li, Peng
    Tianjin Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China..
    Fu, Xiaopeng
    Tianjin Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Zhiying
    Tianjin Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wu, Jianzhong
    Cardiff Univ, Inst Energy, Sch Engn, Cardiff, Wales..
    Wang, Chengshan
    Tianjin Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China..
    Asynchronous multi-rate method of real-time simulation for active distribution networksIn: IET Renewable Power Generation, ISSN 1752-1416, E-ISSN 1752-1424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The real-time simulation of active distribution networks (ADNs) can provide an accurate insight into transient behaviours, but faces challenges in simulation efficiency and flexibility brought by larger system scales and wider time-scale ranges. This paper presents an asynchronous multi-rate (AMR) method and design for the real-time simulation of large-scale ADNs. In the proposed method, the entire ADN was decoupled into different subsystems according to accuracy requirements, and optimized time-steps were allocated to each subsystem to realize a fully distributed simulation. This not only alleviated the time-step coordination problem existing in multi-rate real-time simulations, but also enhanced the flexible expansion capabilities of the real-time simulator. To realize the AMR real-time simulation, a multi-rate interfacing method, synchronization mechanism, and data communication strategy are proposed in this paper, and their hardware design is also presented in detail. A modified IEEE 123-node system with photovoltaics and wind turbine generators was simulated on a 3 field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs)-based AMR real-time simulator. The real-time results were captured by the oscilloscope and verified with PSCAD/EMTDC, which demonstrated the superiority in simulation flexibility and accuracy compared with the synchronous multi-rate (SMR) method.

  • 81.
    Fu, Hao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Peng
    Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Fu, Xiaopeng
    Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wang, Zhiying
    Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Wang, Kun
    Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Wu, Jianzhong
    Institute of Energy, School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff, U.K..
    Wang, Chengshan
    Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    A compact real-time simulator with spatial-temporal parallel design for large-scale wind farms2021In: CSEE Journal of Power and Energy Systems, E-ISSN 2096-0042, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 50-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time simulation of large-scale wind farms with detailed modelling can provide accurate insights into system transient behaviors, but entails challenges in computing resources. This paper develops a compact real-time simulator based on field programmable gate array (FPGA) for large-scale wind farms, in which the spatial-temporal parallel design method is proposed to address the huge computation resource demand associated with detailed modelling. The wind farm is decoupled into several subsystems based on model consistency, and the electrical system and control system of each subsystem are solved in parallel. Both module-level pipeline technique and superscalar pipeline technique are introduced to the wind farms' simulation to effectively improve the utilization of hardware resources. In Case Studies, real-time simulations of two modified wind farms are carried out on a single FPGA separately, including one with 13 permanent magnet synchronous generators under a time-step of 11 μβ, and the other with 30 squirrel-cage induction generators under a time-step of 8μβ. Simulation tests under different scenarios are implemented to validate the numerical performance of the real-time simulator, and a comparison with the commercial tool PSCAD/EMTDC demonstrates the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed design.

  • 82.
    Gambarotta, Agostino
    et al.
    Univ Parma, Ctr Energy & Environm CIDEA, Parma, Italy..
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis
    EMPA Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci & Technol, Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci & Technol, Dubendorf, Switzerland..
    Editorial: Smart Energy Systems2022In: FRONTIERS IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING-SWITZERLAND, E-ISSN 2297-3079, Vol. 8, article id 854310Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 83.
    Gao, Shuang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Hou, Y.
    School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Benefits of integrating power-to-heat assets in CHPs2023In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 335, article id 120763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrating power-to-heat (P2H) assets in combined heat and power plants (CHPs) is an attractive option, which can improve the flexibility in CHPs. This paper compares the potential benefits of integrating an electrical boiler (EB) and a heat pump (HP) in a CHP from providing flexibility services in both the day-ahead market and the frequency regulation market. An optimization model is developed for the operation of P2H assets and the CHP to maximize the profit. A case study is carried out using the data of a real CHP and electricity prices of Nord Pool. It is found that when an EB or a HP is integrated, the annual profit of the studied CHP from providing frequency regulation can be increased by 3.1 % (EB) or 27.7 % (HP) respectively compared to the CHP without P2H. Despite the high capital cost, a HP can increase the net present value up to 21.8 %, and achieve a payback period of 3 year, which are better than an EB (0.8 % and 5 year). Sensitivity analysis shows that prices of fuel and electricity have significant impacts on the net present value and payback period for the integration of P2H assets. Even though the increase of the fuel price decreases the NPV, it can lead to a decline in the payback period. Meanwhile, the increase of the electricity price results in a large growth in the profit and NPV, but a big reduction in payback period. 

  • 84.
    Gao, Shuang
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Jurasz, Jakub
    Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Dai, Ruxin
    School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Optimal Charging of Electric Vehicle Aggregations Participating in Energy and Ancillary Service Markets2022In: IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Industrial Electronics, ISSN 2687-9735, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 270-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing ancillary services through flexible electric vehicle (EV) charging has the potential to offer extra market benefit for EVs. EV aggregator controlling a fleet of EVs can play a significant role in managing the considerable EV charging demand and bid in the electricity markets. The increasing penetration of EVs has created the feasibility of participating in both the day-ahead energy market and frequency regulation market. This article presents a multimarket optimization model for minimizing the net operation cost of EV charging considering the benefit from performing frequency regulation. A two-level optimization algorithm for EVs controlled by the aggregator is proposed to determine optimal operation strategies of EV aggregations and the charging power of each individual EV. The optimization is able to merge revenue from frequency regulation with the cost reduction objectives of traditional EV charging management. The effectiveness of optimization algorithm is demonstrated by simulating EVs charged at the workplace and residential areas. The operation of EV aggregator is studied considering the diverse charging need of individual EV and market prices acquired from Nord Pool real-time market and Swedish power system operator. The increased profitability of participation in the sequential electricity markets has been illustrated. Net operating cost of EV aggregations can be significantly reduced considering both capacity and energy remunerations in the regulation market and the charging demand in the energy market.

  • 85.
    Gao, X.
    et al.
    Institute of the Building Environment & Sustainability Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.
    Niu, Z.
    Institute of the Building Environment & Sustainability Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.
    Huang, X.
    Institute of the Building Environment & Sustainability Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.
    Yang, Xiaohu
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Institute of the Building Environment & Sustainability Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Institute of the Building Environment & Sustainability Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.
    Thermo-economic assessments on building heating by a thermal energy storage system with metal foam2023In: Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, ISSN 2214-157X, Vol. 49, article id 103307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the intermittency and discontinuity of solar energy, thermal energy storage (TES) using phase change materials (PCMs) is generally required to ensure stable operation in solar heating systems (SHS) during winter. This paper presents the design of a TES unit with different horizontal metal foam filling ratios (60%–100%), and simulations of thermal characteristics, such as complete melting time and heat storage capacity by numerical method. Based on the heating demands of an office building in Xi'an, TES units are combined in parallel and economic indexes are calculated based on static evaluation method, including initial investment and investment payback period. Novelty, the contribution of gradient microstructure to the phase transition process is evaluated from thermophysical properties and economy. Results show that the TES unit with a filling ratio of 90% possesses the shortest complete melting time of 5310 s, which is 87.56% shorter than that of a TES unit with pure PCM. Finally, economic assessments of the engineering application of the partially filled metal foam structure are carried out, and it is determined that the SHS with the TES system of 90% filling ratio requires the least number of 548 TES units, with a payback period of three heating seasons. 

  • 86.
    Gao, Y.
    et al.
    College of Architecture Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.
    Xu, Z.
    c Key Laboratory of Refrigerant Technology of Tianjin, International Centre in Fundamental and Engineering Thermophysics, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, 300134, China.
    Zhai, E.
    College of Architecture Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.
    Liang, K.
    Vehicle & Transportation Engineering Institute, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, 471003, China.
    Zhao, R.
    Vehicle & Transportation Engineering Institute, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, 471003, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wang, L.
    School of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, China.
    Liu, S.
    Key Laboratory of Refrigerant Technology of Tianjin, International Centre in Fundamental and Engineering Thermophysics, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, 300134, China.
    Li, X.
    Key Laboratory of Refrigerant Technology of Tianjin, International Centre in Fundamental and Engineering Thermophysics, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, 300134, China.
    Cooling pitch cabinets in wind turbines using a pulsating heat pipe: A case study2023In: Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, ISSN 2214-157X, Vol. 50, article id 103461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the electric capacity of wind turbine increases, heat dissipation in pitch cabinets becomes challenging owing to the limited space and rotating conditions. To cool down the pitch cabinet more effectively and allow heat dissipation, we designed and implemented a pulsating heat pipe (PHP) in this study. We designed PHP parameters and conducted performance tests to compare the cooling performance of the fabricated PHP with that of an air-based cooling system in a 1.5 MW wind turbine. The results demonstrated steady PHP operation under rotating conditions (17.3 rpm). At a heat load of 1000 W, the evaporator outlet temperature was only 76.1 °C. However, increasing the ambient temperature adversely affected PHP operation, resulting in higher temperature and thermal resistance. The heat-pipe-based cooling system lowered the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) temperature by about 20.4 °C in relation to the air-based cooling system, while being suitable under varied conditions. Additionally, the system could successfully operate when the heat load of IGBT was 2350 W, corresponding to a 7 MW electric capacity of the wind turbine. Reducing the manufacturing cost of the heat pipe would further enhance the applicability of this system for pitch cabinet IGBT cooling, such as decreasing payback period. 

  • 87.
    Gao, Y.
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.
    Xu, Z.
    Key Laboratory of Refrigerant Technology of Tianjin, International Centre in Fundamental and Engineering Thermophysics, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, 300134, China.
    Zhai, E.
    School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.
    Liang, K.
    Vehicle & Transportation Engineering Institute, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, 471003, China.
    Zhao, R.
    Vehicle & Transportation Engineering Institute, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, 471003, China .
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wang, L.
    School of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, China.
    Liu, S.
    Key Laboratory of Refrigerant Technology of Tianjin, International Centre in Fundamental and Engineering Thermophysics, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, 300134, China.
    Li, X.
    Key Laboratory of Refrigerant Technology of Tianjin, International Centre in Fundamental and Engineering Thermophysics, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, 300134, China.
    Corrigendum to “Cooling pitch cabinets in wind turbines using a pulsating heat pipe: A case study” [Case Stud. Therm. Eng. 50 (2023): 103461] (Case Studies in Thermal Engineering (2023) 50, (S2214157X23007670), (10.1016/j.csite.2023.103461))2023In: Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, ISSN 2214-157X, Vol. 52, article id 103785Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Ghilardi, A.
    et al.
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Frate, G. F.
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Tucci, M.
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Ferrari, L.
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Brayton pumped thermal energy storage: Optimal dispatchment in multi-energy districts2024In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 314, article id 118650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy storage systems play a crucial role in supporting the integration of renewable energy sources. In this framework, Brayton Pumped Thermal Energy Storage is an emerging technology thanks to many positive features, including geographical and raw materials independence, long lifetime, and peculiar sector-coupling capabilities. By storing electric energy as thermal exergy, this technology offers the flexibility to discharge energy directly for heating or cooling applications or convert it back into electricity as needed by the grid. This dual functionality fits well with the multi-energy intrinsic nature of urban districts in which electrical and thermal energy carriers are involved. This paper aims then to evaluate the potential economic benefit due to the usage of a Brayton based Pumped Thermal Energy Storage as multi-energy device instead of a solely electric-to-electric. An urban district with thermal and electric requirements is used as a case study to investigate the techno-economic performance of the mentioned storage capacity when coupled to photo-voltaic plants to simulate deep-decarbonization scenarios. The system day-ahead optimization, performed through a Mixed Integer Linear Programming approach, aims to minimize the operational cost computed over a 24-h horizon. The results highlight that operational yearly cost savings are 5–10 % when using the multi-energy storage functionalities compared to the standard electric-to-electric operation. Despite the cost reduction, allowing only direct heating causes unavoidable thermal curtailment losses in the 6–10 % range. However, these losses can be reduced to 3 % by introducing the additional direct cooling functionality, bringing the best performances from the economic and thermodynamic standpoints.

  • 89.
    Ghobadi, Nader
    et al.
    Malayer Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Phys, Malayer, Iran..
    Arman, Ali
    Sharif Univ Branch, Vacuum Technol Res Grp, ACECR, Tehran, Iran..
    Sadeghi, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Luna, Carlos
    Univ Autonoma Nuevo Leon UANL, Fac Ciencias Fis Matemat FCFM, Av Univ S-N, San Nicolas De Los Garza 66455, Nuevo Leon, Mexico..
    Mirzaei, Saeed
    Brno Univ Technol, CEITEC BUT, Purkynova 123, Brno 61200, Czech Republic.;Fraunhofer Inst Mat & Beam Technol, Winterbergstr 28, DE-01277 Dresden, Germany..
    Zelati, Amir
    Birjand Univ Technol, Dept Basic Sci, Birjand, Iran..
    Shakoury, Reza
    Imam Khomeini Int Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Phys, Qazvin, Iran..
    Optical transitions and photocatalytic activity of NiSe films prepared by the chemical solution deposition method2022In: The European Physical Journal Plus, E-ISSN 2190-5444, Vol. 137, no 6, article id 661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, nanostructured NiSe thin films were prepared by the chemical solution deposition method at different pH fixing the deposition time. The surface morphology, structural and semiconductor properties of such films were investigated utilizing different methodologies. It was found that slight changes in pH can influence the optical bandgap and structure of NiSe films. The results of Tauc's plot and the derivation of the ineffective thickness method were compared to estimate the optical bandgap energy and the transition index. Additionally, the Urbach energy was also assessed. The potential of the NiSe nanostructured samples as photocatalysts was evaluated by analyzing the decomposition of azoic Congo red dye under visible light radiation.

  • 90.
    Gkoutzamanis, V. G.
    et al.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Tsentis, S. E.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Mylonas, O. S. V.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Kalfas, A. I.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Tsirikoglou, P.
    Limmat Scientific, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Sielemann, M.
    Modelon Deutschland GmbH, Munich, Germany.
    Thermal Management System Considerations for a Hybrid-Electric Commuter Aircraft2022In: Journal of thermophysics and heat transfer, ISSN 0887-8722, E-ISSN 1533-6808, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 650-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When it comes to novel aircraft concepts, thermal management system (TMS) design is a ubiquitous task, even at the conceptual design phase. This is owing to its impact on the total weight of the aircraft, cooling drag, and overall performance. The commuter air transportation has recently regained attention and is seen as a solution to employ partial or full electrification in the upcoming decades due to its low power requirement and potential benefit of faster “door-to-door” traveling. This work examines the TMS characteristics to cool a battery-powered aft-fan engine. A literature review is initially performed on other research associated with TMS design. The development and weight evaluation of the baseline TMS for this type of propulsive technology are then presented, including the characterization of system redundancy effects on the overall TMS weight. Results show that the TMS design is a function of the selected propulsive configuration and energy management throughout the mission. Primarily, this relates to the cooling method selected, the heat exchangers as the major mass contributors of the TMS, the positioning of components used for the propulsive configuration, and the imposed certification constraints. Finally, the selected TMS design is calculated to have a combined specific cooling of 0.79 kW∕kg. 

  • 91.
    Gong, Y.
    et al.
    Sichuan University, China.
    Guo, Z.
    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    Li, X.
    BeiJIng University of Chemical Technology, China.
    Shi, Xiaodan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. The University of Tokyo, China.
    Lin, Z.
    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    Zhang, H.
    Peking University, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    Photovoltaic Output Potential Assessment via Transformer-based Solar Forecasting and Rooftop Segmentation Methods2023In: Energy Proceedings, Scanditale AB , 2023, Vol. 36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the escalating carbon emission crisis, there is an urgent need for large-scale adoption of renewable energy generation to replace traditional fossil fuelbased energy generation for a smooth energy transition. In this regard, distributed photovoltaic power generation plays a crucial role. Predicting the GHI in advance to predict the power of photovoltaic power generation has become one of the methods to solve the grid-connected stability in recent years, which enables the grid staff to dispatch and plan in advance through the forecast results, reduce fluctuations, and maintain grid stability. In this study, we present a deep learningbased method to assess photovoltaic output potential by solar irradiance forecasting and rooftop segmentation. First, we utilize a multivariate input Transformer model that incorporates various data to predict GHI; Second, using remote sensing images to train Swin-Transformer to identify the potential area of rooftop photovoltaic panel; Finally, the potential assessment was achieved by calculating the array output through the GHI and area data we generated in the first two parts. Our evaluation methodology and results provide technical support for the transition of energy structure.

  • 92.
    Gorji, Reyhaneh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Skvaril, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Determining Moisture Content of Basil Using Handheld Near-Infrared Spectroscopy2024In: Horticulturae, E-ISSN 2311-7524, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 336-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate and rapid determination of moisture content is essential in crop production and decision-making for irrigation. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been shown to be a promising method for determining moisture content in various agricultural products, including herbs and vegetables. This study tested the hypothesis that NIR spectroscopy is effective in accurately measuring the moisture content of Genovese basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), with the objective of developing a respective calibration model. Spectral data were obtained from a total of 120 basil leaf samples over a period of six days. These included freshly harvested and detached leaves, as well as those left in ambient air for 1–6 days. Five spectra were taken from each leaf using a handheld NIR spectrophotometer, which covers the first and second overtones of the NIR spectral region: 950–1650 nm. After the spectral acquisition, the leaves were weighed for fresh mass and then put in an oven for 72 h at 80 °C to determine the dry weight and calculate the reference moisture content. The calibration model was developed using multivariate analysis in MATLAB, including preprocessing and regression modeling. The data obtained from 75% of the samples were used for model training and 25% for validation. The final model demonstrates strong performance metrics. The root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) is 2.9908, the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) is 3.2368, and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) reaches 2.4675. The coefficients of determination for calibration (R2C) and cross-validation (R2CV) are consistent, with values of 0.829 and 0.80, respectively. The model’s predictive ability is indicated by a coefficient of determination for prediction (R2P) of 0.86. The range error ratio (RER) stands at 11.045—highlighting its predictive performance. Our investigation, using handheld NIR spectrophotometry, confirms NIR’s usefulness in basil moisture determination. The rapid determination offers valuable insights for irrigation and crop management.

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  • 93.
    Gorjian, Shiva
    et al.
    Biosystems Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran, Iran; Renewable Energy Department, Faculty of Interdisciplinary Science & Technology, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran, Iran.
    Jalili Jamshidian, Farid
    Water Resources Management and Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran, Iran.
    Gorjian, Alireza
    Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, 6516738695, Iran.
    Faridi, Hamideh
    Biosystems Engineering Department, University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Vafaei, Mohammad
    Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Zhang, Fangxin
    Optic and Optical Engineering Department, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei City, China.
    Liu, Wen
    Optic and Optical Engineering Department, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei City, China.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Technological advancements and research prospects of innovative concentrating agrivoltaics2023In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 337, article id 120799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agrivoltaic is a strategic and innovative approach that combines photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion with agricultural production, enabling synergies in the production of food, energy, and water, as well as the preservation of the ecological landscape. Shading management, intensity adjustment, and spectral distribution allow innovative PV systems to generate significant amounts of electricity without affecting agricultural production. Demonstration projects have already been developed around the world and there is a wealth of experience with various design solutions for commercial use. One of these new technologies is concentrator photovoltaics (CPV). The CPV has excellent spectral processing capabilities and highly concentrated power generation efficiency, which makes it a perfect solution for integrating with photosynthesis. This study aims to present the working principle of CPV modules considering agricultural applications and discuss the recent advancements in concentrating agrivoltaics. In this method, the problem of shading is mitigated by two main strategies: (i) parabolic glasses covered with a multilayer dichroic polymer film that reflects near-infrared (NIR) radiation onto the solar cells installed at the focal area and transmits photons in the range of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and (ii) highly transparent sun-tracking louvers or Fresnel lenses that concentrate direct sunlight onto the solar cells to generate electricity. In the latter solution, the remaining diffuse sunlight is directed to the ground for use by growing plants. Although the CPV development trend has been slow due to the lower cost of crystalline silicon, the development of CPV for agriculture with accurate spectral separation could revitalize this industry. In this regard, more research and development are needed to evaluate the suitability of materials that split solar radiation and their impacts on the electrical performance of CPV modules, taking into account the physiology of plants.

  • 94.
    Grayeli, A.
    et al.
    Physics and Accelerators Research School, Nuclear Sciences and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.
    Sadeghi, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ACECR, Vacuum Technology Research Group, Sharif University Branch, Tehran, Iran.
    Shakoury, R.
    Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.
    Matos, R. S.
    Amazonian Materials Group, Federal University of Amapá, Physics Department, Brazil.
    da Fonseca Filho, H. D.
    Departamento de Física de Materiais, Universidade Federal Do Amazonas, Brazil.
    Arman, A.
    ACECR, Vacuum Technology Research Group, Sharif University Branch, Tehran, Iran.
    Structural, morphological, and optical bandgap properties of ZnS thin films: a case study on thickness dependence2024In: Optical and quantum electronics, ISSN 0306-8919, E-ISSN 1572-817X, Vol. 56, no 7, article id 1142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of zinc sulfide (ZnS) with varying thicknesses have been successfully fabricated using radio frequency magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at a temperature of 300 K. Structural analysis via X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction confirmed the presence of nanocrystalline cubic ZnS phases in the films. The crystallite size, determined from X-ray diffraction lines, ranged between 42 and 55 nm. We also explored the morphological attributes of these surfaces and observed significant changes in both grain shape and size. Our atomic force microscopy analyses revealed that the thinner film displayed a topography marked by thinner, elongated rough peaks. As the film thickness increased, these rough peaks gradually transformed into wider, flatter features. Additionally, the films exhibited distinct percolation properties, which were undeniably tied to the alterations in the shape and size of the ZnS grains on their surfaces. Thinner samples demonstrated more pronounced surface percolation (FS > 0.5) compared to thicker samples, which displayed reduced surface percolation. Furthermore, we noted that the 250 nm film predominantly showcased strongly multifractal 3D spatial patterns in contrast to the other films. Spectroscopic measurements in the UV–visible-near infrared region revealed high transparency across the 350–850 nm spectra, with a noticeable blue shift in the absorption edge. Calculations yielded direct allowed band gaps within the range of 3.69–3.85 eV. These results indicate that the optical properties of films can be tailored by their structural and morphological characteristics, thereby offering valuable guidance for their appropriate applications.

  • 95.
    Guezgouz, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Majidi Nezhad, Meysam
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Does Peak Load Occur at the Same Time as High Electricity Prices?: A Case Study of Sports Facilities2024In: Energy Proceedings, Scanditale AB , 2024, Vol. 39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a simple framework was developed that can help identify and quantify peak load at sports facilities called Rocklunda Fastigheter AB. By analysing the electricity demand profiles and electricity prices from the Nord pool market, we characterize the equipment contributing most to a particular peak load. In addition, we quantified peak loads that occur during high electricity prices. This framework is beneficial in choosing an appropriate demand-side management strategy for reducing peak loads and electricity costs for both academic and public end-users. Finally, a load-shifting strategy based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) was developed to minimize the total annual electricity cost. This approach suggests shifting the electricity demand to the early morning hours while reducing it in the evening when the electricity prices are higher. Finally, a cost-benefit analysis revealed the potential for savings of up to 9.5% when implementing a flexibility factor of 30%.

  • 96.
    Gul, E.
    et al.
    University of Perugia, Department of Engineering, Perugia, Italy.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Chandrasekaran, A.
    Chemical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Assam, Guwahati, India.
    Subbiah, S.
    Chemical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Assam, Guwahati, India.
    Yang, H.
    State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technolog, Wuhan, Chin.
    Yang, Q.
    Department of New Energy Science and Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Desideri, U.
    Department of Energy, Systems, Territory and Constructions Engineering, University of Pisa, Pisa, 56122, Italy.
    Barelli, L.
    University of Perugia, Department of Engineering, Perugia, Italy.
    Bidini, G.
    University of Perugia, Department of Engineering, Perugia, Italy.
    Fantozzi, F.
    University of Perugia, Department of Engineering, Perugia, Italy.
    Uddin, I.
    CAS Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Applied catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, China.
    Hayat, A.
    College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, China.
    Alrawashdeh, K. A.
    Mechanical Engineering Department, Al-Huson University College, Al-Balqa’ Applied University, Irbid, Jordan.
    Bartocci, P.
    University of Perugia, Department of Engineering, Perugia, Italy.
    Perspectives and state of the art in producing solar fuels and chemicals from CO22021In: Advanced Technology for the Conversion of Waste into Fuels and Chemicals: Volume 2: Chemical Processes, Elsevier , 2021, p. 181-219Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar Fuels and chemicals from CO2 can be produced through two main reactions: one is CO2 photoreduction, using different catalysts and different reducing agents; the other is CO2 fixation, which is usually performed through natural photosynthesis. The research nowadays is directed on the production of fuels and chemicals with one or two atoms of carbon, for example CH4, CO, HCOOH, HCHO, CH3OH, C2H5OH, etc. The chapter aims at comparing natural photosynthesis processes and reactions with artificial photosynthesis. After taking into consideration the natural photosynthetic process, the chapter focuses on heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalysis. Heterogeneous catalysis can be performed with semiconductors and powder catalysts. Special attention is given to TiO2 as a promising photocatalyst. Homogeneous photocatalysts are usually represented by molecular catalysts, which are dissolved in water or another solvent. Usually, homogeneous photocatalysis is performed in complex systems which are composed by: a light harvesting unit (LHU) (i.e. the photosensitizer); one catalytic site for the oxidation process, where the electrons are supplied by a sacrificial donor; one reduction site, where the electrons are transmitted to CO2. Finally, even more complex systems are represented by those based on photoelectrocatalysis. These have the main advantage to separate the oxidation and reduction reactions at the two different electrodes of the system. In principle photoelectrochemical cells can be a way to mimic artificially the working principle of natural photosynthesis.

  • 97.
    Guo, Shaopeng
    et al.
    Xian Univ Architecture & Technol, Sch Bldg Serv Sci & Engn, Xian 710055, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Jun
    Tianjin Univ, Key Lab Efficient Utilizat Low & Medium Grade Ener, MOE, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China..
    Bertrand, Alexandre
    Luxembourg Inst Sci & Technol LIST, Environm Res & Innovat, L-4422 Belvaux, Luxembourg..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Mobilized thermal energy storage for clean heating in carbon neutrality era: A perspective on policies in China2022In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 277, article id 112537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobilized thermal energy storage (M-TES) is a promising technology to transport heat without the lim-itation of pipelines, therefore suitable for collecting distributed renewable or recovered resources. In par-ticular, the M-TES can be flexibly used for the emergency heating in the COVID-19 era. Though the M-TES has been commercializing in China, there is not any specific regulation or standard for M-TES systems. Therefore, this paper summarizes and discusses the existing regulations and policies concerning M-TES in the aspects of facility manufacture and operation, road transportation, and financial support and guidance. Furthermore, the suggestions were presented including necessary consensus on the devel-opment of M-TES among different departments, consideration of local conditions when drafting or revis-ing regulations and policies, sufficient investment, or subsidy on the R&D of M-TES, and qualification recognition of M-TES companies and staffs.

  • 98.
    Guo, Yangyi
    et al.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Precision Instruments and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, China.
    He, Xiaohe
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Precision Instruments and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Liu, Bin
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Liu, Shengchun
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Qi, Hongzhi
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Precision Instruments and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, China; Academy of Medical Engineering and Translational Medicine, Tianjin University, China.
    The use of the general thermal sensation discriminant model based on CNN for room temperature regulation by online brain-computer interface2023In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 241, article id 110494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology can realize dynamic room temperature adjustment based on individual real-time thermal sensation, which can provide the basis for future intelligent buildings. However, the generalization ability of previous thermal sensation discrimination model (TSDM) is limited, which is a serious obstacle to the application. In this paper, a general TSDM was developed by using convolutional neural network (CNN), which can be well applied to new subjects. In the study, the CNN-TSDM was established and evaluated based on the offline experimental data, and then the BCI closed-loop online room temperature control experiment was carried out based on this CNN-TSDM to further verify. The offline analysis results show that the recognition performance of CNN-TSDM in new subjects is significantly higher than that of typical shallow learning algorithms, and its area under the ROC curve (AUC) value reaches 0.789. In the online experiments of the two simulated environments, BCI using the CNN-TSDM dynamically controlled the air conditioning to improve the room temperature to the comfortable level according to the subjects' thermal sensation. The subjective score of subjects decreased from 3.1 to 3.0 for the hot uncomfortable to 1.1 and 1.2 for the cool comfortable (p < 0.001, p < 0.001). Moreover, in a hotter simulated experimental environment, BCI automatically controlled the air conditioner for longer cooling to obtain a same degree of thermal comfort. The total cooling time (p < 0.05) and the single cooling time (p < 0.05) of the air conditioner were significantly increased. This further confirmed the effectiveness and robustness of the general CNN-TSDM.

  • 99.
    Guziana, Bozena
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Only for Citizens?: Local Political Engagement in Sweden and Inclusiveness of Terms2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 14, article id 7839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In both policy and research, civic engagement and citizen participation are concepts commonly used as important dimensions of social sustainability. However, as migration is a global phenomenon of huge magnitude and complexity, citizen participation is incomplete without considering the political and ethical concerns about immigrants being citizens or non-citizens, or 'the others'. Although research on citizen participation has been a frequent topic in local government studies in Sweden, the inclusiveness and exclusiveness of terms used in the context of local political engagement, which are addressed in this article, has not received attention. This article examines the Swedish case by analyzing information provided by the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and by websites of all 290 municipalities as well terms used in selected research publications on local participation. Additionally, this article studies the effectiveness of municipal websites in providing information to their residents about how they can participate in local democracy. The results show that the term citizen is commonly and incorrectly used both by local authorities and the Association. The article concludes that the term citizen is a social construction of exclusiveness and the use of the term citizen should be avoided in political and civic engagement except for the limited topics that require formal citizenship.

  • 100.
    Guziana, Bozena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Hawas, Allan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Urban Eco-village lifestyle and pandemic2021In: 27th Annual Conference, International Sustainable Development Research Society, Östersund, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To tackle the sustainable global goals, especially reducing the CO2 emission (SDG 13) and transition towards sustainable cities (SDG 11, Target 11.6) there are many different initiatives around the world that build more environment friendly housing. For example, the EU has a goal that all buildings should operate at net-zero carbon emissions by 2050. Passive houses and passive plus buildings are important initiatives in this direction. The public’s perspectives, engagement, and willingness to live and adopt within an urban eco-village are essential for these concepts to take place. 

    The suggested paper presents an urban eco-village in Sweden. This eco-village consists of two multi story buildings constructed out of wood with total of 30 apartments that are near the center of a medium-sized city. The sustainability vision of the project includes several innovative ideas, such as electric car-pools, gardening on balconies, passive house design, and sustainable construction materials. The project was delayed due to the Corona crisis; the moving-in date is planned for April 2021. 

    The paper is based on individual interviews that focus on environmental willingness and engagement. The householders’ motives for deciding to move into the village and their expectation on living in the eco-village were also studied. The initial interviews were carried out in November 2019, with 41 respondents from households who declared their interest in moving into the eco-village. The interviews covered the following areas; energy, transport, occupancy, and motives for living in the eco-village. The follow up interviews with persons moving in will be carried out in March 2021. These interviews will study the influence of COVID-19 on willingness to participate in environmentally sustainable programs, for example using the car-pool. 

    The results of the initial interview show that halve of households (21) feel positively about the car-pool system, while the other households are hesitating or not interested.  Similarly, the big majority of households (28) are willing to use shared laundry facilities, while only 13 households prefer to have their own laundry machines. The results also show that the two main reasons that people want to move to the eco-village are to reduce their own environmental impact and the location of the eco-village. 

    The upcoming interviews will assess the question if challenges due to the pandemic (such as social distancing) can be in conflict with some aspects of a sustainable lifestyle (e.g. lack of access to a personal car and washing machine). Furthermore, traditional eco-villages are often characterized by detachment from mainstream.  The urban eco-village studied is more integrated with mainstream and therefore has more potential for propagating its ideas due to high visibility and links to the larger social setting.

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