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  • 51.
    Li, Xueqiang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tianjin University, Tianjin, China; Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhu, K.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Energy storage systems for refrigerated warehouses2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 143, p. 94-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce the peak load, dynamic electricity price schemes have been widely used. Refrigerated warehouses consume a large amount of energy, most of which happens during the daytime due to the higher ambient temperature. This work evaluated the potential benefits of integrating energy storage in the refrigerated warehouses. Two types of energy storage systems have been considered, including a cold energy storage system and an electrical energy storage system. A dynamic model has been developed in TRNSYS to study the performance of those two energy storage systems and assess the benefits. Results show that using the cold energy storage to shift power consumption from daytime to nighttime can increase the energy efficiency of the refrigeration system. However, as the electrical energy storage system can shift more power consumption, it can achieve a large cost saving. Compared to the reference system without energy storage, the introductions of a cold energy storage system and an electrical energy storage system can reduce the operational cost by 10 and 53.7% respectively. 

  • 52.
    Li, Xueqiang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Yu, X.
    University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Yu, Z.
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Zhu, K.
    Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Toxicity of ionic liquid on anaerobic digestion2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 938-942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion is a straightforward process to produce energy from biomass. However, the lignin composed of phenylpropanoid units induces a strong resistance for the hydrolysis step. Ionic liquids (ILs) have been applied in biomass pretreatment to dissolve the biomass components and enhance the anaerobic digestion. However, there are still some challenges such as the toxicity. ILs could inhibit the digestion process and reduce the CH4 production. In this work, a toxicity test for [BMIM]Cl (1-chlorobutane and N-methylimidazole) was conducted. Results show that IL has a strong inhibition and lowered CH4 production when its concentration was higher. At 0.2305±0.0116 g L-1 and 0.4367±0.0219 g L-1, the anaerobic digestion process was inhibited by 10 and 50%, respectively. Accordingly, a higher recovery ratio or a lower pretreatment ratio are necessary to avoid the negative impact of inhibition on BMP. 

  • 53.
    Lindberg, Carl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB Corp Res, Västerås, Sweden..
    Tan, SieTing
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Univ Teknol Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia.
    Yan, JinYue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Starfelt, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. MälarEnergi, Västerås, Sweden.
    Key performance indicators improve industrial performance2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 1785-1790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are important for monitoring the performance in the industry. They can be used to identify poor performance and the improvement potential. KPIs can be defined for individual equipment, sub-processes, and whole plants. Different types of performances can be measured by KPIs, for example energy, raw-material, control & operation, maintenance, etc. Benchmarking KPIs with KPIs from similar equipment and plants is one method of identifying poor performing areas and estimating improvement potential. Actions for performance improvements can then be developed, prioritized and implemented based on the KPIs and the benchmarking results. An alternative to benchmarking, which is described in this paper, is to identify the process signals that are strongest correlated with the KPI and then change these process signals in the direction that improves the KPI. This method has been applied to data from a combined heat and power plant and a suggestion are given on how to improve boiler efficiency. 

  • 54.
    Lindberg, Carl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zahedian, Kourosh
    ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Solgi, Maryam
    ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Lindkvist, Rickard
    ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Potential and limitations for industrial demand side management2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 415-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing share of variable renewable power such as wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) emphasize the importance of demand side management. In a couple of years consumers have to adapt their consumption more to available generated power in order to maintain grid stability and to reduce their electricity costs. In this study the potential and limitations for demand side management in about 15 different companies in Sweden has been investigated. A brief description of some of the company’s production process is given, with focus on electrical consumption. Suggestions on different demand side management possibilities are presented as well as limitations. The suggestions are given for different time horizons, from load shifting between hours, to weeks and years. Potential savings achieved with demand side management have also been evaluated based on historical electricity prices from different countries.

  • 55.
    Lindhult, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Read, S.
    TU Delft, Delft, Netherlands.
    Innovation capabilities and challenges for energy smart development in medium sized European cities2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, no 88, p. 205-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition towards becoming Energy smart city integrating different areas of energy production, distribution and use in a community requires a spectrum of capabilities. The paper reports on findings from the EU planning project PLEEC, involving six medium sized European cities. The purpose of the paper is to describe innovation capabilities and challenges in the complex, systemic innovation journey of cities in the transition to sustainability. A case of implementing an innovative project for electrical vehicles in Eskilstuna is presented illustrating both technological potentials and innovation challenges.

  • 56.
    Liu, J.
    et al.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Chen, S.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Wang, H.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Evolution of China's urban energy consumption structure-a case study in Beijing2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 88, p. 88-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China is a coal-based energy consuming country. The proportion of coal is up to 70% in the energy consumption structure in 1990s. In the past 20 years, driven by energy saving policy, China's energy consumption structure has undergone great changes, especially in urban areas. This paper explores the evolution of energy-use structure at the national level and the level of Beijing City in China. Four major energy sources were considered, including coal, oil, natural gas and electricity. The dataset was collected from 1990 to 2012. The results show that the proportion of coal consumption decreased by approximately 20% from 1990 to 2012 at the national level in compare with nearly 50% at the level of Beijing City. Furthermore, the proportion of natural gas consumption and other clean energies rose. In Beijing the natural gas and other clean energies account for over 60% of the total energy in 2012, which played an important role in improving the local environment.

  • 57.
    Liu, L.
    et al.
    Shandong University, China.
    Liu, D.
    Shandong University, China.
    Sun, Q.
    Shandong University, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wennersten, R.
    Shandong University, China.
    Forecasting Power Output of Photovoltaic System Using A BP Network Method2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 780-786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of intermittent and stochastic of solar energy has brought great challenges to power grid system in terms of operation and regulation. Power forecasting is an important factor for optimal schedule of power grid system and assessing the working performance of PV systems. In order to forecast the power output of a PV system located in Ashland at 24-hour-ahead for higher efficiency, a back propagation (BP) neural network model is proposed. Before designing the model, correlation analysis is done to investigate the relationship between power output and solar irradiance and ambient temperature, which are key parameters affecting the power output of PV systems. Based on a correlation analysis, the model admitted the following input parameters: hourly solar radiation intensity, the highest, the lowest daily and the average daily temperature, and hourly power output of the PV system. The output of the model is the forecasted PV power output 24 hours ahead. Based on the datasets, the neural network is trained to improve its accuracy. The best performance is obtained with the BP neural network structure of 28-20-11. The analysis of the error indicator MAPE shows that the proposed model has great accuracy and efficiency for forecasting the power output of photovoltaic systems.

  • 58.
    Lundström, Lukas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Eskilstuna Energy and Envirorment, Eskilstuna; Eskilstuna kommunfastigheter, Eskilstuna .
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Helgesson, Jan
    Eskilstuna kommunfastigheter, Eskilstuna .
    Björklund, Ulf
    Eskilstuna Energy and Environment, Eskilstuna .
    Impact on carbon dioxide emissions from energy conservation within Swedish district heating networks2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 2132-2136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 100 largest Swedish district heating (DH)-networks were studied on how DH conservation measures impacts CO2-emission rates taking both direct and indirect (i.e. displaced electricity) emissions into account, applying six different methods for the indirect emissions assessment. When the marginal electricity approach is applied on low CO2-emitting DH-networks with a high share of cogenerated electricity, it resulted in assessments that imply that DH conservation leads to higher CO2 emissions. This was not the case with the efficiency method.

  • 59.
    Luyao, Liu
    et al.
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Qinxing, Wang
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Haiyang, Lin
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Qie, Sun
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Wennersten, Roland
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Power Generation Efficiency and Prospects of Floating Photovoltaic Systems2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1136-1142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, China's economic and social development is restricted by many factors, such as environmental pollution and the supply of energy, land resources and water resources. Compared with traditional terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) systems, floating PV systems can save a lot of land and water resources and obtain higher power generation efficiency. Although the academics have reached a general consensus about the advantages of floating systems, very few in-depth studies focus on the specifications of floating PV systems. Therefore, this study first discusses the development of PV technology, then studies the power generation efficiency of floating PV systems, and finally comprehensively analyzes the advantages and potential of floating PV systems in China.

  • 60.
    Lv, Y.
    et al.
    Qilu University of Technolog, China.
    Si, P.
    China Southwest Architecture Design and Research Institute Corp., Ltd., China.
    Liu, X.
    China Southwest Architecture Design and Research Institute Corp., Ltd., China.
    Rong, X.
    China Southwest Architecture Design and Research Institute Corp., Ltd., China.
    Feng, Y.
    China Southwest Architecture Design and Research Institute Corp., Ltd., China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    An optimized model for solar thermal collectors based on concept of effective heat collection2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, no 88, p. 470-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of solar collector highly relies on its tilt angle with respect to horizontal plane and orientation (surface azimuth angle) of the collector. The effective heat collection concept was proposed and an optimized mathematical model was further developed to determine the optimum tilt angle and orientation for the solar collector. The developed model was applied in a case study of the Lhasa district, in comparison with the results obtained in accordance with conventional optimization results. The research results showed that, there is about 5° deviation between the optimum results obtained according to effective heat collecting capacity and the optimum results obtained according to maximum total solar radiation falling on the solar collector. 

  • 61.
    Mamchych, Tetyana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Eastern European University, Lutsk, Ukraine.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Looking for Patterns in Residential Electricity Consumption2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 1768-1771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential electricity consumption is an important part of general energy use. Its detailed investigation, however, requires rich empirical data, here the data of Swedish households. The individual consumption is a time series of readings at certain time intervals (hourly, every ten minutes, or every minute, say). Series exhibit patterns, in terms of which they may be compared, and it is desirable to model similarity. Classical statistical methods (correlation, factor, and cluster analyses) are presently used for this purpose; they have the advantage of being more explicit than the techniques of adaptive data analysis that may recently have become excessively popular. The present work is methodological, preceding any massive statistical analyses. Factor analysis allowed describing individual styles in terms of time intervals (during a day) of maximal variability. Cluster analysis was used for finding groups of days with similar patterns; the obtained clusters can help interpreting the results of other methods. Comparing two households requires comparing two sets of time series; correlation analysis quantified the similarity between them.

  • 62.
    Mamchych-Mitkalik, Tetyana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Eastern European Lesya Ukrainka Natl Univ, Lutsk, Ukraine.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stability of patterns in residential electricity consumption2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2738-2744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problems of predicting and of pricing residential electricity consumption are closely related to the technical problem of the term of stability of pattern. Indeed, the general meaning of the word "pattern" would normally imply an assumption of stability, and here we attempt quantifying this notion: from being specific to some measurement data, to being characteristic of a household. Our working objective is to assess the stability of electricity consumption by selected Swedish households, and our main statistical instrument is a specially-devised coefficient of auto-similarity. Households are represented by sequences of readings of energy consumption, spaced at equal time intervals. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 63.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Nizami, A. -S
    King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.
    Danish, M.
    State Environ. Protect. Key Lab. of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, ECUST, China.
    Naqvi, S.
    School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, NUST, Pakistan.
    Farooq, U.
    State Environ. Protect. Key Lab. of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, ECUST, China.
    Qureshi, A. S.
    Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Rehan, M.
    King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.
    Gasification Integrated with Small Chemical Pulp Mills for Fuel and Energy Production2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 977-983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulp mills without black liquor recovery cycle could play a major role in employing black liquor gasification (BLG) to produce transport fuels. In conventional chemical pulp mills, black liquor is burnt in recovery boilers to generate steam and electricity to meet energy demands. The inorganic chemicals are reused for the digestion process. However, the energy content and inorganic chemicals are not recovered in small scale pulp mills especially in the developing countries which do not employ recovery cycle. This study investigates the potential of synthetic natural gas (SNG) production by integrating BLG island with a reference pulp mill without chemical recovery cycle. The improvements in overall energy efficiency are evaluated using performance indicators such as biofuel production potential, integrated system’s efficiency, and energy ratios. The oxygen-blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification with direct causticization is integrated with reference pulp mill. The results showed considerable SNG production without external biomass import. However to compensate total electricity deficit, the electricity will be imported from the grid. There is a substantial CO2 abatement potential of combining CO2 capture using seloxol absorption, and CO2 mitigation from SNG by replacing gasoline. 

  • 64.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Naqvi, S. R.
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Waste Biomass Gasification Based off-grid Electricity Generation: A Case Study in Pakistan2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 103, p. 406-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective is to investigate the waste gasification based off-grid electricity generation in developing countries like Pakistan utilizing mixed biomass composts (mixture of agricultural wastes including rice hulls and wheat straw with cow/poultry manure compost). Different scenarios are compared; (1) levels of electricity demand and utilization, (2) costs for variable biomass mix, (3) combined domestic and cottage industry business model. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is used as an indicator to measure the competitiveness of off-grid electricity generation. There is a large potential of off-grid electricity generation. However, the estimated off-grid electricity price is found to be higher in all scenarios than average governmental electricity tariff.

  • 65.
    Naqvi, Salman Raza
    et al.
    Univ Teknol PETRONAS, Tronoh, Malaysia.
    Uemura, Yoshimitu
    Univ Teknol PETRONAS, Tronoh, Malaysia.
    Yusup, Suzana
    Univ Teknol PETRONAS, Tronoh, Malaysia.
    Sugiur, Y.
    Osaka Univ, Japan.
    Nishiyama, N.
    Osaka Univ, Japan.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The Role of Zeolite Structure and Acidity in Catalytic Deoxygenation of Biomass Pyrolysis Vapors2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 793-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catalytic upgrading of paddy husk was performed over 10-MR zeolites (MCM-22, ITQ-2 and ZSM-5) in a drop type fixed-bed reactor. This work investigated the role of structure and acidity of zeolites on pyrolysis-oil yield and degree of deoxygenation. Catalytic pyrolysis experiments were carried out at the catalyst/biomass ratio (0.05 -0.5) at temperature of 450 degrees C. The oil yield decreased by using catalyst and this decrease oil yield is attributed to catalytic cracking of bio-oil vapor on the catalyst. The route for deoxygenation of pyrolysis vapors was identified to be dehydration, decarboxylation and decarboxylation. ITQ-2 showed high degree of deoxygenation as compare to MCM-22 which is due to more accessible external active sites of ITQ-2. The organics yield in pyrolysis oil was highest with ZSM-5 in comparison with other zeolites. 

  • 66.
    Nizami, A. -S
    et al.
    King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Rehan, M.
    King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ouda, O.
    Janabadra University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
    Shahzad, K.
    King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Syamsiro, M.
    Janabadra University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
    Waqas, M.
    King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Miandad, R.
    King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Asam, Z. -U.-Z.
    University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan.
    Mohammad Ismail, I.
    King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Energy, Economic and Environmental Savings by Waste Recycling: A Case Study of Madinah City2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 910-915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), millions of worshippers come from across the globe to perform religious rituals of Pilgrimage (Hajj) and Umrah. Madinah-tul-Munawara is one of the holiest city, where pilgrims come after performing rituals in Makkah. In this city, most of the collected municipal solid waste (MSW) is disposed of in the landfills after a partial recycling of paper, cardboard, and metals (∌10-20% of total MSW). The Saudi’s government has recently launched a new policy of Vision 2030, which outlined the safeguard of local environment through increased efficiency of waste recycling and management, pollution prevention strategies and generating renewable energy from indigenous sources, including the waste. Currently, the recycling practices in KSA are mainly regulated by an informal sector through waste pickers or waste scavengers. This has led to the need of recycling schemes, especially in the holiest cities of Makkah and Madinah through a public-private partnership (PPP). Huge amounts of energy can be conserved, that would otherwise be spent on raw material extraction, transportation, and manufacturing of materials, through recycling into the same materials. Around 10,009 TJ of energy can be saved through recycling of 24.21% of MSW in Madinah city, including glass, metals, aluminum, cardboard, and paper. It is estimated that around 10,200 tons of methane (CH4) emissions and 254,600 Mt.CO2 eq. of global warming potential (GWP) can also be saved. In addition, carbon credit revenue of US $5.92 million, and landfill diversion worth of US $32.78 million can be achieved with a net revenue of US $49.01 million every year only by recycling 24.21% of MSW in Madinah city. The waste recycling doesn’t require high technical skills and labor, and complicated technologies for large-scale implementation, and therefore, can be implemented easily in the holiest cities of Makkah and Madinah to achieve multiple economic and environmental benefits. 

  • 67.
    Nookuea, Worrada
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Tan, Yuting
    Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Sensitivity study of thermo-physical properties of gas phase on absorber design for CO2 capture using monoethanolamine2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2305-2310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Absorption of CO2 with aqueous amines in post-combustion capture is characterized as mass transfer process with chemical reaction. Hydrodynamics and mass transfer in gas and liquid phases in a packed column have significant influences on absorber design especially for the design of packing height. In this paper, the sensitivity study has been conducted to investigate the impacts of gas phase density, viscosity and diffusivity on the hydrodynamics and mass transfer and further the total packing height of a countercurrent flow with random packing column, using reactive absorption process and integral rate-based models. Results show that density and diffusivity have opposite effect to viscosity. Amongst various properties, diffusivity has the most significant effect on the packing height compared to density and viscosity. Overestimation of diffusivity of 5% may result in decrease of 3.2% of packing height. Moreover, developing more accurate diffusivity model should be prioritized for more accurate absorber design. 

  • 68.
    Nookuea, Worrada
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wang, Fu
    Tianjin University, China.
    Yang, Jie
    University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Tan, Yuting
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden .
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yu, Xinhai
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Viscosity data of aqueous MDEA–[Bmim][BF4] solutions within carbon capture operating conditions2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 4581-4586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Post–combustion capture with chemical absorption shows higher potential for commercial scale application compared with other technologies. To capture CO2 from the industrial and power plant’s flue gases, aqueous alkanolamine solutions are widely used. However, several drawbacks from utilizing the aqueous alkanolamines such as MEA still need to be solved. For example, alkanolamine solutions require intensive energy for regeneration and cause severe corrosion to the equipment though they have high reactivity in capturing CO2. Ionic liquids have been of interest in the recent development of chemical absorption according to their unique characteristics including wide liquid range, negligible volatility and thermal stability. However, due to their high price, high viscosity and low absorption capacity compared to alkanolamines, ionic liquids are still non–desirable for industrial applications.

    One possible solution to improve the performance of ionic liquids is to use mixtures of ionic liquids and alkanolamines. For a better understanding of the absorption using the mixture of aqueous alkanolamines and ionic liquids, the knowledge of thermo–physical properties of the solutions, especially the viscosity and density are of importance. This paper reports the measured viscosity of MDEA–[Bmim][BF4] aqueous mixtures at various temperatures and concentrations. It was found that the viscosity increase with an increase in [Bmim][BF4] concentration, but decrease with an increase in temperature. Moreover, the impact of temperature on the viscosity is more significant at low temperature range.

  • 69.
    Nookuea, Worrada
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zambrano, Jesús
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Tan, Yuting
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comparison of Mass Transfer Models on Rate-Based Simulations of CO2 Absorption and Desorption Processes2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 3747-3752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the keys available options for the large scale carbon capture and storage is the solvent-based post-combustion capture. Due to the high reactivity between CO2 and aqueous amine solutions, chemical absorption is suitable for capturing the CO2 at low concentration such as from the flue gas. From techno-economic analyses of the CO2 chemical absorption plant, absorber and desorber columns are the main cost of the purchased equipment. Since the process involves complex reactive separations, the accurate calculation of hydrodynamic properties, mass and energy transfer are of importance for the design of the columns. Several studies have been done on the impact of different process and property models on the equilibrium and rate-based simulation of the absorption site. However, the impact study of process and property models on the desorption site are still lacking. This paper performs rate-based simulations of CO2 absorption by Monoethanolamine. The software Aspen Plus was used for the simulations. Different mass transfer models were implemented for the mass transfer calculation in gas and liquid phases. The temperature and concentration profiles along the columns are reported and discussed.

  • 70.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ericsson, Anders
    Brunnby Farm, HS Konsult, Västerås, Sweden.
    Pell, Mikael
    Swedish Univ Agr Sc, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Use of organic wastes in agriculture2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, p. 2472-2476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the number of biogas plants and wastewater treatment plants continues to grow, there is an urgent need to find sustainable usage of the organic wastes produced in these facilities Recycling of organic wastes within agriculture can reduce the need for mineral fertilizer and restore organic carbon deficiency in the soil. The results from a 16-year long field experiment, where agricultural lands have been amended using sewage sludge and biogas residue is presented in this paper. Plant nutrients, organic contaminants and metals have been analyzed in order to evaluate the impact of the wastes on soil and crop quality. The results show that only small differences in plant uptake of metals and organic pollutants appear after 16 years. In addition, biogas residues performed well as a fertilizers, although not as well as mineral fertilizers.

  • 71.
    Olsson, A.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lind, M.
    ZeroMission, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    PV water pumping for carbon sequestration in dry land agriculture2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 1037-1041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is inspired by theory related to the water-food-energy-climate nexus and suggests a novel model, suited for analysing carbon sequestration in dry land agriculture using irrigation. The model is applied specifically to photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) systems for irrigation of grasslands in China. We argue against the narrow approaches to analysing the water issue often found in literature and propose that carbon sequestration, energy security, food security together with local moisture recycling patterns should be included within the system boundary in order to make analyses of dry land agricultural activities more relevant and accurate.

  • 72.
    Olsson, Jesper
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Philipson, M.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Holmström, H.
    Uppsala Vatten Och Avfall AB, Sweden.
    Cato, E.
    Uppsala Vatten och Avfall AB, Sweden.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Energy efficient combination of sewage sludge treatment and hygenization after mesophilic digestion - Pilot study2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 587-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is probably the most feasible way of utilizing sewage sludge as energy source, simultaneously with nutrient recovery by recycling the biogas digestate (i.e. The residue) to arable land. However, the sludge commonly contains high amounts of human pathogenic bacteria excreted in faeces and urine. To use sludge as fertilizer on food producing land is therefore a controversial issue, partly because of the risk of spreading diseasecausing pathogens. The Swedish environment protection agency (SEPA) pre-approved two hygenization methods for the treatment of the sludge due to their positive effects on the sludge quality. One of them, conventional pasteurization (70 °C, 1 h), was investigated for its feasibility in Uppsala, Sweden, and it was found that the heat consumption was very high. The other method has the advantage of potentially increase the produced biogas. This hygenization method has been investigated in the present study through a pilot experiment where thickened mesophilic digested sludge is digested once more at thermophilic conditions (55 °C). The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility to develop this self-sufficient (in heat and electricity) hygenization method. The results showed an increase in the gas production from 430 dm3/kg VSin to 610 dm3/kg VSin by adding the thermophilic step. This increase gave an energy balance with an excess of both heat and electricity. Sludge hygenization was sufficient with the method and another important result is the significant decrease digestate volume.

  • 73.
    Qi, Zhang
    et al.
    Academy of China Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Ge, Wang
    Academy of China Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Li
    Academy of China Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Siyuan, Chen
    Academy of China Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Study on the Implementation Pathways and Key Impacts of RPS Target in China using a Dynamic Game-Theoretical Equilibrium Power Market Model2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 3844-3849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China's 2020 Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) target has been published by the government in early 2016. In the present study, in order to find its implementation pathways and estimate the key impacts of PRS target out to 2030, a multi-region power market model is proposed to investigate different RPS policy scenarios. Results show that RPS policy can promote the development of renewable energy efficiently, and Renewable Energy Certification (REC) trade can reduce the cost of electricity generated from renewable energy. However, a national wide free REC trade tends to result in a dilemma that renewable energy will be developed centralizedly in regions where the renewable resource is plenty. Therefore, detailed REC trade regulations need to be developed from more comprehensive viewpoints when adopting RPS policy. 

  • 74.
    Qinxing, Wang
    et al.
    Shandong University, China..
    Nianzhi, Huang
    Shandong University, China.
    Haiyang, Lin
    Shandong University, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ronald, Wennersten
    Shandong University, China.
    Qie, Sun
    Shandong University, China.
    Potential of energy saving in a data center – application of an agent-based modelling2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 3903-3908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional approaches for modelling energy consumption for data center are limited to deal with the randomness, emergence and interdependence in energy systems. To fill the gap, an agent-based method was proposed and implemented to simulate the electricity consumption of a data center and to explore the potential of energy saving. The study found that a large amount of energy can be saved by dynamically operating the cooling load according to the practical load of the servers, namely 13% of the total energy consumption can be saved in the dynamic energy saving case (DESC) and 17% in the enhanced dynamic energy saving case (EDESC). The power usage effectiveness (PUE) of the data center can decrease from 1.71 in the original situation to 1.49 in the DESC and 1.42 in the EDESC. By contrast, the frequency of data backup has a heavy impact on the electricity consumption of the data center, while the frequency of computing tasks do not. 

  • 75.
    Qureshi, A. S.
    et al.
    University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Khushk, I.
    University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Naqvi, S. R.
    National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Simiar, A. A.
    Donghua University, Shanghai, China.
    Ali, C. H.
    University of Engineering and Technology, KSK Campus, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Danish, M.
    State Environ. Protect. Key Lab. of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, ECUST, Shanghai, China.
    Ahmed, A.
    Muhammad Nawaz Sharif University of Engineering and Technology, Multan, Pakistan.
    Majeed, H.
    Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.
    Mir Jatt, A. N.
    University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Rehan, M.
    King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Nizami, A. -S
    King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Fruit Waste to Energy through Open Fermentation2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 904-909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine the nonsterilized fermentation conditions for coproduction of pectinases and lipase enzymes using several fruit wastes as an energy source. Thermophilic fungal strain, Penicillium expansum CMI 39671 was used as a fermenting strain. The effect of process conditions including; nitrogen sources, pH, temperature, time and moisture contents, on the production of both enzymes were studied. The highest activities of pectinase and lipase (2817, 1870 U/g dry substrate) enzymes were found with orange peel feedstock, whereas the lowest activities of 1662 U/g and 1266 U/g were found with banana peel and papaya peel feedstocks respectively. Overall, pectinase showed higher enzymatic activities than lipase enzymes, both having similar increasing and decreasing trends, at all studied conditions. The optimum process conditions of peptone as a nitrogen source, pH 7, 40°C, 5 days and 70% moisture contents, were found to show highest enzymatic activities for both enzymes. The orange peel feedstock showed no significant difference in both enzymes’ activities at sterilized and nonnotarized process conditions. Pectinase and lipase enzymes showed (13791 U/g) and (8114 U/g) for sterilized and (14091 U/g) and (8324 U/g) for nonnotarized process conditions respectively. In addition, the fungal strains also produce bacteriocin-like compounds that could inhibit microbial growth. These findings will help to design and develop robust, cost-effective and less energy intensive enzyme production processes and consequently an efficient fruit waste to energy system through open fermentation.

  • 76.
    Rahmani, M. A.
    et al.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Västeras, Sweden .
    Bel Fdhila, Rebei
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Grönqvist, A.
    ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden .
    Tysell, M.
    ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden .
    Persson, T. L.
    ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden .
    Benendo, M.
    ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden .
    Uvgard, Z.
    ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden .
    Thermal management and design optimization of heatsink for cooling performance improvement during transient heat generation2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 1665-1668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heatsinks have long been used for cooling of electronic components to maintain them under the maximum allowed operational temperature. Forced air cooling with heatsink is suitable and enough efficient for low power applications cooling. Varieties of heatsinks are proposed by specialized industries to cool different kinds of electronic components. However, in most cases we need the appropriate heatsink to each specific case and particularly under transient heat generation that can be caused by many electronic or power electronic devices. The heat transport and evacuation process is tightly related to the heatsink performance. This paper examines the cooling characteristics of a heatsink used in a specific industrial application. The investigation is performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the heat transfer performance of the heatsink is mainly determined by the Nusselt number which can be calculated from the numerical results. Analysis and discussion of the numerical results and especially the level of Nusselt number obtained at the contact surface of the heatsink with the surrounding cooling air allow optimization of the industrial heatsink shape to meet the requested cooling performance. Comparison of cooling performance before and after heatsink design optimization showed noticeable improvement.

  • 77.
    Read, Stephen
    et al.
    Delft Univ Technol, Delft, Netherlands..
    Lindhult, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Technology and transition: 'progressive evolution of regimes and the consequences for energy regime change2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 9-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition of energy systems has been under-theorised. We have argued previously that energy efficiency as a strategy for fossil fuel replacement is inadequate as energy demand is not being reduced by efficiency alone. This paper is intended to elaborate further on the reasons. We require better answers to better questions about the nature of energy regimes and how they resist change. Our present-day socio-technical energy regime is a global integrated technical arrangement based on cheap high-yield energy sources (fossil fuels) with built-in 'progressive' social and economic directions. This 'progressive' change relies on cheap energy as a resource towards ever greater global integration and economic efficiency. Energy regime change will be not a tinkering at the edges but will require a dismantling of this 'progressive' tendency with radical retrogressive economic and social consequences. We conclude a change of our relationship with energy will require the reversal of a contingent 'progressive' tendency that is as old as mankind and the necessarily modest building of a new infrastructural apparatus designed to a new 'end', or the reversion to previous low or lower demand apparatus based on non-fossil energy sources. Both solutions would imply major social and economic changes which we will deal with in another paper. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 78.
    Rehan, M.
    et al.
    King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Nizami, A. -S
    King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Asam, Z. -U.-Z.
    University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan.
    Ouda, O. K. M.
    Prince Mohamed Bin Fahd University, Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia.
    Gardy, J.
    University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Raza, G.
    University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Mohammad Ismail, I.
    King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Waste to Energy: A Case Study of Madinah City2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 688-693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of energy from waste is getting popular nowadays across the globe, as being capable of producing multi fuels and value-added products from different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). The energy recovery technologies under this concept are anaerobic digestion (AD), pyrolysis, transesterification, refuse derived fuel (RDF) and incineration. This concept is very relevant to implementation in countries like Saudi Arabia, who wants to cut their dependence on oil. Moreover, the waste to energy becomes the imperative need of the time because of new governmental policy ’Vision 2030’ that firmly said to produce renewable energy from indigenous sources of waste, wind and solar and due to given situations of Hajj and Umrah with massive amounts of waste generation in a short period. This study focused on two waste to energy technologies, AD and pyrolysis for food (40% of MSW) and plastic (20% of MSW) waste streams respectively. The energy potential of 1409.63 and 5619.80 TJ can be produced if all of the food and plastic waste of the Madinah city are processed through AD and pyrolysis respectively. This is equivalent to 15.64 and 58.81 MW from biogas and pyrolytic oil respectively or total 74.45 MW of continuous electricity supply in Madinah city throughout the whole year. It has been estimated that the development of AD and pyrolysis technologies will also benefit the economy with net savings of around US $63.51 and US $53.45 million respectively, totaling to an annual benefit of US $116.96 million. Therefore, in Saudi Arabia and particularly in Holiest cities of Makkah and Madinah the benefits of waste to energy are several, including the development of renewable-energy, solving MSW problems, new businesses, and job creation and improving environmental and public health.

  • 79.
    Salman, Chaudhary Awais
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A polygeneration process for heat, power and DME production by integrating gasification with CHP plant: Modelling and simulation study2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 1749-1758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels are a good substitute for the transport sector petroleum fuels to minimize carbon footprint and greenhouse gases emissions. Di-Methyl Ether (DME) is one such alternative with properties similar to liquefied petroleum gas but with lower SOx, NOx, and particulate emissions. In this work, a polygeneration process, integrating an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant with biomass gasification to synthesize DME, is proposed and modelled. Process integration is based on a hypothesis that the CHP plant provides the necessary heat to run the co-located gasification plant for DME synthesis and the waste heat from the gasification process is recovered and transferred to the CHP plant. The feed for gasification is taken as refuse derived fuel (RDF) instead of conventional wood derived biomass. The process integration leads to higher overall combined efficiency (up to 71%) which is greater than stand-alone efficiencies (up to 63%) but lower than stand-alone CHP plant efficiency (73.2%). The further technical evaluation shows that the efficiency of the polygeneration process is depends heavily on the gasifier capacity integrated with the existing CHP plant and also on the conversion route selected for DME synthesis i.e. recycling of unconverted syngas to the DME reactor or transferring it to the boiler of the CHP plant. The simulation results also indicate that once-through conversion yields less DME than recycling, but at the same time, once-through conversion affects the district heat and electric power production of the CHP plant lesser than by using the recycling route.

  • 80.
    Salman, Chaudhary Awais
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Predictive modelling and simulation of integrated pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion process2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 850-857Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion plant with biodegradable organic feedstock separated from municipal solid waste (MSW) have become a mature technology in past decade. The biogas produced can be upgraded to bio-methane or used in heat and power applications. However, not all the municipal waste fractions such as ligno-cellulose and green waste, are suitable for biodegradation. In this work, the non-biodegradable organic waste named as green waste is investigatedas a potential substrate for a bio refinery conceptbased on combination of pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion.

    The main aim of the study was to evaluate whether or not the anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis process coupling could be beneficial from an energy and exergy point of view. The simulation results shows that the integration of pyrolysis process gives approximately 59% overall efficiency as compared to the 52% for a naerobic digestion stand-alone process. The results also revealed that the pyrolysis of green waste is more beneficial than green waste incineration for heat and power production.

  • 81.
    Sandberg, Alexander
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Maher, Azaza
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    An analyze of long-term hourly district heat demand forecasting of a commercial building using neural networks2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, p. 3784-3790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the building sector standing for a major part of the world's energy usage it of utmost importance to develop new ways of reduce the consumption in the sector. This paper discusses the evolution of the regulations and policies of the Swedish electric and district heating metering markets followed by the development of a nonlinear autoregressive neural network with external input (NARX), with the purpose of performing heat demand forecasts for a commercial building in Sweden. The model contains 13 input parameters including; calendar, weather, energy and social behavior parameters. The result revealed that these input parameters can predict the building heat demand to 96% accuracy on an hourly basis for the period of a whole year. Further analysis of the result indicates that the current data resolution of the district heat measuring system limits the future possibilities for services compared to the electric metering system. This is something to consider when new regulation and policies is formulated in the future.

  • 82.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Bruchmann, Florian
    Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Gerber, Mandy
    Bochum University of Applied Sciences, Bochum, Germany.
    Biological syngas methanation via immobilized methanogenic archaea on biochar2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 823-829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Syngas containing H2, CO, CO2 and CH4 produced by thermalprocesses such as gasification or pyrolysis is typically converted to methane via thermochemical methanation. This process is characterized by a high heat demand utilizing a sensitive chemical catalyst at increased pressure conditions. Alternatively, methanogenic archaea could be exploited as a naturalcatalyst in a biological methanation process with a lower energy demand. However, the mass transfer between the gas phase and the microbial cell is a major challenge for efficient conversion of the syngas components. Therefore, in this work methanogenic archaeafrom anaerobic digestion residueswere successfully immobilized on biochar particles obtained from green waste pyrolysis with two distinct particle sizes (0.25-1 mm and 1-2 mm). After incubation of the inoculated particles with an artificial syngas mixture CH4 was formed within the first 24 hours, while H2, CO2 and CO simultaneously declined. However, the particle size had no influence on the CH4 yield, content and conversion efficiency. According to the maximum theoretical conversion rate of H2 with CO2 and CO to CH4 only about 50% of the syngas components were converted to methane. These results suggest that CO was rather utilized by the methanogens involved for acetate/formate formation than for methanogenesis due to slight inhibition of the latter processby CO present in the syngas. The impact of CO inhibition during biological syngas methanation needs to be further evaluated for a continuous application of the process. However, a proof of concept for this process using inoculated biochar particles could be shown within the study presented here.

  • 83.
    Skvaril, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Sandberg, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The experimental study of full-scale biomass-fired bubbling fluidized bed boiler2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 643-647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents experimental data concerning combustion characteristics of full-scale biomass-fired bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) steam boiler with a thermal output of 31 MW. The purpose of the experimental measurements is to show how the values of selected combustion parameters vary in reality depending on measurement position. Experimentation involves specifically a determination of combustion gas temperature and concentration of gas species i.e. O2, CO2, CO and NOX at different positions in the furnace and the flue gas trains. Character of results from the furnace indicates the intermediate stage of thermochemical reactions. Increased levels of CO close to the wall have been found, this may be indicating reducing atmosphere and thereby increased corrosion risk. Results from flue gas trains demonstrate that behavior there is related to the fluid dynamics and heat transfer, the temperature is too low for further combustion reactions. Results show great variations among measured values of all measurands depending on a distance along the line from the wall to the center of the boiler. The measurements from permanently installed fixed sensors are not giving value representing average conditions, but overall profiles can be correlated to online measurements from fixed sensors.

  • 84.
    Skvaril, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Fast Determination of Fuel Properties in Solid Biofuel Mixtures by Near Infrared Spectroscopy2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1309-1317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the characterization of highly variable biofuel properties such as moisture content, ash content and higher heating value by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Experiments were performed on different biofuel sample mixtures consisting of stem wood chips, forest residue chips, bark, sawdust, and peat. NIR scans were performed using a Fourier transform NIR instrument, and reference values were obtained according to standardized laboratory methods. Spectral data were pre-processed by Multiplicative scatter correction correcting light scattering and change in a path length for each sample. Multivariate calibration was carried out employing Partial least squares regression while absorbance values from full NIR spectral range (12,000–4000 cm-1), and reference values were used as inputs. It was demonstrated that different solid biofuel properties can be measured by means of NIR spectroscopy. The accuracy of the models is satisfactory for industrial implementation towards improved process control. 

  • 85.
    Skvaril, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Utilization of Near Infrared (NIR) Spectrometry for Detection of Glass in the Waste-based Fuel2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 734-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of experimental measurements and multivariate statistical modeling concerning detection of soda-lime glass using near infrared (NIR) spectrometry technique. The purpose is to test if the glass is quantitatively detectable in a waste-based material and to assess what method of spectral data pretreatment is the most suitable in order to develop prediction models. The experiments were performed on six test samples containing a specific amount of glass distributed in background material. Pretreatment methods such as normalization and first and second derivatives were applied on the acquired absorbance spectral data. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed in order to describe the relationship between pretreated data and the amount of glass in the test samples. Subsequently, principal component regression (PCR) was utilized for the development of prediction models. The results from the models show strong correlation between the pretreated data and the glass content. The most promising results were obtained from the model based on 1st derivative pretreatment when only absorbance spectral data from selected wavelengths are included. 

  • 86.
    Song, Jingjing
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Cost comparison between district heating and alternatives during the price model restructuring process2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 3922-3927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating (DH) has been considered as a resource- and cost-efficient way of supplying heat and a promising method to mitigate climate change, yet it also facing growing competition from alternative technical solutions, such as heat pumps. Many DH companies are under price model restructuring process to enhance their competitiveness. This study investigated the competitiveness of DH among users which would encounter significant cost increase during the price model restructuring process through comparing the cost of different DH price models with three alternative technical solutions. The result shows that for the invested DH user, instead of DH, the most economic preferable choice is to install ground source heat pump combining with direct electrical heating.

  • 87.
    Song, Jingjing
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Price models of district heating in Sweden2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 88, p. 100-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional pricing scheme of district heating is based on previous experience of system operation. This strategy does not work well under the circumstances of decreasing demand and shifting consumption pattern. Therefore new pricing strategies are needed. To have a comprehensive view on existing price models in Sweden, a price model survey was carried out among all members of the district heating quality system REKO. Four basic price components and multiple variants of them are detected in the survey. The result also shows that most of the district heating companies still use traditional methods and do not consider their customers’ consumption pattern while charging them.

  • 88.
    Song, Z.
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Zhang, X.
    ABB AB, Corp Res, Västerås, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Clas
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Data Center Energy and Cost Saving Evaluation2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 1255-1260, article id 00151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In data centers, about 40% of the total energy is consumed for cooling the IT equipment. Cooling costs are thus one of the major contributors to the total electricity bill of large data centers. This paper studies two factors affecting data center cooling energy consumption, namely air flow management and data center location selection. A unique rack layout with a vertically cooling air flow is proposed. Two cooling systems, computer room air conditioning (CRAC) cooling system and airside economizer (ASE), have been studied. Based on these two cooling systems, four cities have been selected from the worldwide data center locations. A number of energy efficiency metrics are explored for data center cooling, such as power usage effectiveness (PUE), coefficient of performance (COP) and chiller hours. By analyzing the effects of chiller hours and economizer hours, comparative economic results of cooling power consumption are provided in both systems. The results show that the cooling efficiency and operating costs vary significantly with different climate conditions, energy prices and cooling technologies. As climate condition is the major factor which affects the airside economizer, employing the airside economizer in the cold climate yields much lower energy consumption and operation costs. 

  • 89.
    Stangeland, Kristian
    et al.
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Kalai, Dori
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yu, Zhixin
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    CO 2 Methanation: The Effect of Catalysts and Reaction Conditions2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 2022-2027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Great attention has been paid to develop non-fossil fuel energy sources to reduce carbon emissions and create a sustainable energy system for the future. Storing the intermittent energy is one of the challenges related to electricity production from renewable energy resources. The Sabatier reaction produces methane from carbon dioxide and hydrogen, with the latter produced by electrolysis. Methane could be stored and transported through the natural gas infrastructure already in place, and be a viable option for renewable energy storage. Current technology for biogas upgrading focuses on removing carbon dioxide from the biogas. However, the biogas could potentially be used directly as feed gas for the Sabatier reaction, thereby removing the cost associated with carbon dioxide removal and increasing the methane yield and carbon utilization from biological sources. Carbon dioxide methanation requires a catalyst to be active at relatively low temperatures and selective towards methane. Nickel based catalyst are most widely investigated, and commercial catalysts are typically nickel on alumina support. Focus on catalyst development for carbon dioxide methanation is predominantly related to support modification, promoter addition, as well as utilizing new class of materials such as hydrotalcite-derived catalysts.

  • 90.
    Stangeland, Kristian
    et al.
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway..
    Kalai, Dori
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yu, Zhixin
    The effect of temperature and initial methane concentration on carbon dioxide methanation on Ni based catalysts2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 2016-2021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of Ni based catalysts prepared by incipient wetness method were characterized by chemisorption and studied for CO2 methanation. Ru had apparently a positive effect on the active metal surface area, and thus the catalytic activity. The CO2 conversion was greatly affected by temperature where the conversion ranged from 12%-85% at temperatures of 300 to 400 oC on the 12% Ni/Al2O3 catalyst. At 350 oC, higher Ni loading resulted in increased activity. The incorporation of 0.5% Ru lead to a drastic increase in catalytic activity, which can be explained by increased reducibility and a synergetic effect between Ni and Ru, and was further enhanced by increased Ni loading. Addition of CH4 at twice the initial concentration of CO2 to the feed gas mixture was found to decrease the conversion from 52% to 48% at 350 oC on the 20% Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, whereas only a slight reduction in selectivity was observed. The results preliminary demonstrate that high methane purity can be achieved from a biogas feed stream over Ni based catalysts. 

  • 91.
    Su, Difei
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Qi
    China Univ Petr, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Ge
    China Univ Petr, Peoples R China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Market Analysis of Natural Gas for District Heating in China2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2713-2717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural gas (NG) is expected to be used broadly in China to replace coal in district heating sector in order to reduce air pollution due to coal burning. However, it is difficult for natural gas to penetrate district heating market due to its relatively high cost. In the present study, a market simulation method is proposed to find the marginal conditions and policy to promote natural gas utilization for district heating. In the proposed method, technology improvement, pricing mechanism, carbon tax and user's pricing response are considered. The prerequisite of the market simulation is that the heating expenses of end-users won't increase and the benefit of heat producers won't decrease when using NG to replace coal. Based on the obtained analysis results, gas pricing revolution, heating pricing revolution and carbon tax mechanism are discussed in order to promote the gas-fired heating through market mechanism.

  • 92.
    Sun, Qie
    et al.
    Shandong Univ, Inst Thermal Sci & Technol, Jinan, Peoples R China..
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhang, Qi
    China Petr Univ Beijing, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Marginal costs for district heating2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 104, p. 323-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District Heating (DH) is facing great challenges on raising production efficiency and reducing production cost in order to improve its competence. A novel pricing mechanism is an effective instrument to promote the sustainable development of DH systems. Based on the data on the daily dynamic operation of DH systems, this work calculated the practical marginal costs of a DH system, which can serve as the basis for developing a new dynamic pricing mechanism. Two methods, namely setting the price of electricity and entropy drop method were used to allocate the fuel costs in order to calculate the variable cost of heat production. Results show that the dynamics of marginal costs can indicate the increase in the variable costs with the increase in heat production. The calculated marginal costs were further compared with real heat prices. It was found that although heat prices varied with temperature in general, it could not reflect the changes in the technology of heat production, and therefore, could not represent the practical production costs.

  • 93.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Högskolan Dalarna, Sweden.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna, Sweden.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Mapping of heat and electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in Sweden2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1434-1439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic electricity system faces many challenges with an increased share of intermittent power from renewable sources. One such challenge is to have enough capacity installed to cover the peak demands. In Sweden these peaks appear during the winter since a lot of electricity is used for heating. In this paper a mapping of the heat and electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in Sweden is presented. The paper analyze the potential for a larger market share of district heating (DH) and how it can affect the electrical power balance in the case study. The current heat market (HM) and electricity consumption is presented and divided into different user categories. Heating in detached houses not connected to DH covers 25 % of the HM, and 30 % of the electricity consumption during the peak hours. Converting the detached houses not connected to DH in densely populated areas to DH could reduce the annual electricity consumption by 10 %, and the electricity consumption during the peak hours by 20 %.

  • 94.
    Tan, Sieting
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Hashim, H.
    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia .
    Lee, C.
    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia .
    Taib, M. R.
    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia .
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Economical and environmental impact of waste-T o-energy (WTE) alternatives for waste incineration, landfill and anaerobic digestion2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 704-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to evaluate the economical and environmental impact of waste incineration, landfill gas recovery system (LFGRS), and anaerobic digestion (AD) for municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Malaysia and subsequently assess the potential of each technology for energy uses and carbon reduction. An existing landfill, Taman Beringin, in Malaysia is selected as the case study, which is one of the largest national sites for waste management. The results present that incineration is the most economical profitable and climate-friendly WTE alternative as compared to an conventional landfill. With the production of 1430 MWh/d of heat and 480 MWh/d of electricity from 1000 t/d of MSW input, waste incineration is able to reach 287% of profit increment or 450 TUSD/d and 2250 tCO2/d of carbon avoidance by fossil fuel replacement as compared to baseline.

  • 95.
    Tan, Sieting
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Univ Teknol Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia.
    Yang, Jin
    Beijing Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Development of the Low-carbon City Indicator (LCCI) Framework2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2516-2522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a 3-layer top-down indicator framework for the evaluation, implementation and standardization of low carbon cities (LCC). Layer 1 accounts for city carbon emission related indicators. Layer 2 expands the scope of layer 1 and probes into factors closely related to carbon emissions. Layer 3 focus on the implementation pathways. Specifically, we laid the focus on Layer 2 in this paper. An indicator system for the evaluation of LCC was established from the perspectives of economic, energy pattern, technology, social and living, carbon & environment, urban accessibility and waste. A comprehensive evaluation method was employed for city ranking in terms of low carbon level. The framework was then applied to 10 global cities to rank their low carbon levels. Results showed that the low carbon level of cities in Europe is much higher than that in Asia (Beijing) and America (New York) due to better environmental performance and infrastructure supports caused by less human activities. 

  • 96.
    Tan, Y.
    et al.
    Tianjin University Tianjin, China.
    Li, X.
    Tianjin University Tianjin, China.
    Zhao, L.
    Tianjin University Tianjin, China.
    Li, H.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yu, Z.
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Study on utilization of waste heat in cement plant2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 455-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses three options for waste heat recovery in cement plant, they are dual-pressure power generation system, post-combustion capture system using MEA and the combined one. Model of power generation system was developed. Technical analysis was made from aspects of power generating capacity and CO2 capture ratio. In addition, economic evaluation was conducted to assess the performance of three systems targeting on higher Net Present Value (NPV). Variation of economic parameters were considered like carbon credit (10-90$/ton) and price of electricity (0.06-0.18$/kWh). Optimal option can be selected for waste heat utilization based on economic evaluation results in this paper.

  • 97.
    Tan, Y.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nookuea, Worrada
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cryogenic technology for biogas upgrading combined with carbon capture-a review of systems and property impacts2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 3741-3746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CO2 makes a major contribution to the climate change, and biomass renewable energy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) can be deployed to mitigate the CO2 emission. Cryogenic process for biogas upgrading combined with carbon capture is one of the most promising technologies. This paper reviewed the state-of-the-art of cryogenic systems for biogas upgrading combined with carbon capture, and introduced the status and progress of property impacts on the cryogenic systems with emphasize on phase equilibrium. The existing cryogenic systems can be classified as flash liquefaction system, distillation system, and liquefaction combined with desublimation system. The flash liquefaction system produces biomethane and CO2 in lower purity than the other two systems. Thermodynamic optimization on the flash liquefaction system and liquefaction combined with desublimation system should be done further, and comprehensive comparison between three cryogenic systems needs to be carried out. As to the phase equilibrium, PR EOS is safe to be used in predicting VLE and SVLE with an independent thermodynamic model describing the fugacity of the solid phase. However, the impacts of binary mixing parameter, different EOS models and mixing rules, on the performance of the cryogenic system need to be identified in the future. 

  • 98.
    Tan, Yuting
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nookuea, Worrada
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Property Impacts on Plate-fin Multi-stream Heat Exchanger (Cold Box) Design in CO2Cryogenic Process: Part I. Heat Exchanger Modeling and Sensitivity Study2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 05, p. 4587-4594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The multi-streamplate-finheat exchanger is one of the most important componentsin the CO2 cryogenic system. Appropriate design methodology and in-depth analysis of property on the heat exchanger are of importance. This paper, as part I of the two-paper series, presented the design procedure for the multi-stream plate-fin heat exchangerin CO2 cryogenic process. Sensitivity study was also conducted to analyze the impacts of thermos-physical properties including density, viscosity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity.

    The results show that thermal conductivity has the most significant impact and it should be prioritized to develop a more accurate thermal conductivity model for the heat exchanger design. In addition, viscosity has least significant impact but the higher uncertainty range of viscosity may lead to a higher possible deviation in volume design.

  • 99.
    Tan, Yuting
    et al.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Nookuea, Worrada
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhao, Li
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Property impacts on performance of CO2 pipeline transport2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2261-2267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is one of the most potential technologies to mitigate climate change. Using pipelines to transport CO2 from emission sources to storage sites is one of common and mature technologies. The design and operation of pipeline transport process requires careful considerations of thermo-physical properties. This paper studied the impact of properties, including density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity, on the performance of CO2 pipeline transport. The pressure loss and temperature drop in steady state were calculated by using homogenous friction model and Sukhof temperature drop theory, respectively. The results of sensitivity study show that over-estimating density and viscosity increases the pressure loss while under-estimating of density and viscosity decreases it. Over-estimating density and heat capacity leads to lower temperature drop while underestimating of density and heat capacity result in higher temperature drop. This study suggests that the accuracy of property models for example, more accurate density model, should be developed for the CO2 transport design. 

  • 100.
    Tora, Eman
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    CFD Ansys - Fluent simulation of prevention of dioxins formation via controlling homogeneous mass and heat transfer within circulated fluidized bed combustor2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 130-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internal mass and heat distribution within a combustor is a key factor of successful combustion process as it influences the contact between the reacting materials and helps reduce formation of undesired products such as dioxins via diminishing emerged hot or cold spots. Nevertheless in case of circulated fluidized bed combustor CFBC, it is difficult to keep a homogeneous heat and mass distribution due to the usage of combusting materials with variable and in some situations unpredictable compositions such as municipal and agricultural wastes. Thus this work investigates CFD Ansys -Fluent simulation as a tool to help the plant operator attain uniform heat and mass transfer via enabling the plant operator to adjust the operating conditions to fit well the used fuel. That is through: (a) visualizing the internal mass and heat distribution within a combustor, (b) manipulating the operating conditions of pressure, velocity, and bed particulates flow rate to determine the correct values considering the inevitable feature of the used fuels, (c) exploring operation deficits and sorting out the problems and (d) studying the feasibility of proposed modifications or changes. An illustrative case study is given as a methodology to demonstrate how likely reasons beyond combustor operation deficits can be defined and tackled. The case study is designed to exemplify the tool to achieve the objective of internal uniform heat and mass transfer within a combustor for given fuel composition and the operating conditions. 

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