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  • 51.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Drivers of complexity in a flexible assembly system- A case study2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various ever-changing market demands have propelled manufacturing companies to offer product variety in an efficient and timely manner. Assembly as a key stage of manufacturing process is used to realise product variety through establishing mixed-product assembly systems. Although establishing a flexible mixed-product assembly system which both offers product variety and absorbs market demands fluctuation is pivotal for maintaining competitive edge in certain industries such as vehicle manufacturing, it is also considered an elaborate task which calls for further investigation. In this paper, complexity in a flexible mixed-product assembly line is investigated and the key drivers of complexity are identified. To fulfil the research objective, a case study during the pilot implementation of a flexible mixed-product assembly concept in a heavy vehicle manufacturing company has been conducted. The results indicate the key factors concerning assembly process, product design, and information and communication technology (ICT) which contribute to complexity in the flexible assembly system. The paper concludes with an outlook for possible future research.

  • 52.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Handling product variety in a mixed-product assembly line: A case study2015In: DS 80-4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 20TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 15) VOL 4: DESIGN FOR X, DESIGN TO X, 2015, Vol. 4, p. 41-50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s fast-changing global market, using mixed-product assembly lines (MPALs) and mixed-model assembly lines (MMALs) allows manufacturing companies to be flexible and to maintain their competitive edge through product variety. Balancing and sequencing issues have been recognized as the main challenges of MPALs and MMALs, but other practical needs of MPALs remain unclear. Recognizing the practical needs of MPALs helps in identifying related requirements for product design, leading to products that closely align with the MPAL concept. The objective of this paper is to offer an industrial perspective on the needs of MPALs and to identify its requirements vis-à-vis product design. To achieve this objective, a single real-time case study in a heavy-vehicle-manufacturing company has been performed. The results from this industrial case study suggest that in order to handle product variety in MPALs and to reduce the related complexity, certain dimensions of flexibility need to be created in the assembly system, and requirements related to product design should be considered simultaneously in order to support assembly processes.

  • 53.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Identification of the causes of complexity in mixed-product and mixed-model assembly lines2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing demands for product variety have directed manufacturing companies towards accommodating flexibility by establishing mixed-product and mixed-model assembly lines. However, since greater variety leads to increased complexity, establishing these assembly lines becomes complicated. By conducting a case study, this paper investigates the causes of complexity and the applicability of assembly instructions in one mixed-product and four mixed-model assembly lines in a heavy vehicle manufacturing company. The results indicate a set of causes for complexity and highlight the significance of assembly instructions, as the practical implications for development of flexible assembly systems and design of products closely aligned with them.

  • 54.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Implications of realising mix flexibility in assembly systems for product modularity - a case studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Linking product design to flexibility in an assembly system: A case study2017In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 610-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The recent shift towards accommodating flexibility in manufacturing companies and the complexity resulting from product variety highlight the significance of flexible assembly systems and designing products for them. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the requirements of a flexible assembly system for product design from the assembly system's standpoint. Design/methodology/approach - To fulfil the purpose of the paper, a literature review and a case study were performed. The case study was conducted with an interactive research approach in a global market leader company within the heavy vehicle manufacturing industry. Findings - The findings indicate that common assembly sequence, similar assembly interfaces, and common parts are the main requirements of a flexible assembly system for product design which reduce complexity and facilitate various flexibility dimensions. Accordingly, a model is proposed to broaden the understanding of these requirements from the assembly system's standpoint. Research limitations/implications - This study contributes to the overlapping research area of flexible assembly systems and product design. Practical implications - The proposed model is largely based on practical data and clarifies the role of product design in facilitating flexibility in an assembly system. It can be used by assembly managers, assembly engineers, and product designers. Originality/value - The key originality of this paper compared to the previous studies lies in presenting a novel assembly-oriented design model. The model enhances understanding of a flexible assembly system's requirements for product design with regard to reducing complexity and managing variation in a flexible assembly system. These requirements can be applied to product design across various product families within a company's product portfolio.

  • 56.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Schedin, Joel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Considering assembly requirement specifications in product development: identification and approach2014In: FAIM 2014 - Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Capturing Competitive Advantage via Advanced Manufacturing and Enterprise Transformation, 2014, p. 969-976Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the major advantages such as reduced time to market and improved quality at lowered cost, the principles of design for assembly capabilities and concurrent engineering are of great significance when developing new products. However, identifying assembly requirement specifications and considering them in New Product Development (NPD) in a timely manner, while securing efficiency and robustness of assembly processes, still remains a challenging task. In presenting a case study of an NPD project in a manufacturing company, this article focuses on the process of capturing and incorporating the requirements related to the assembly system during the early phases of NPD. Further, the results of the research study indicate the different assembly requirements in the case company and pinpoint the challenges in practices involved in handling them. The assembly requirements identified in this research reflect some of the challenges encountered in handling the requirements, through the investigated requirement practice. Based on the results, the issues of when and how to consider the assembly requirements are highlighted in the conclusions and suggestions for future research are made.

  • 57.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Clegg, Kester
    Univ York, York, N Yorkshire, England..
    Corneo, Lorenzo
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hawkins, Richard
    Univ York, York, N Yorkshire, England..
    Jaradat, Omar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gulisano, Vincenzo Massimiliano
    Chalmers Univ, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Nikolakopoulos, Yiannis
    Chalmers Univ, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Service Level Agreements for Safe and Configurable Production Environments2018In: 2018 IEEE 23RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA), IEEE , 2018, p. 1252-1255Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on Service Level Agreements (SLAs) for industrial applications that aim to port some of the control functionalities to the cloud. In such applications, industrial requirements should be reflected in SLAs. In this paper, we present an approach to integrate safety-related aspects of an industrial application to SLAs. We also present the approach in a use case. This is an initial attempt to enrich SLAs for industrial settings to consider safety aspects, which has not been investigated thoroughly before.

  • 58.
    Ask, Andréas
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Factory-in-a-Box: an Enabler for Flexibility in Manufacturing Systems2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    AT PRESENT, many markets are characterized by a fast pace of change, as well as a high internationally enlarged competition. Since the conception of Mass Customization emerged in the late 1980´s, many companies within the manufacturing industry have been striving to fulfill this vision by increasing the flexibility within their manufacturing system. However, although there are many manufacturing theories that describe theoretical solutions to mass customization, but there is still a lack of practical enablers that can realize the conception.

    In January 2005, the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research started the project Factory-in-a-Box. There, the key characteristic is to realize is the concept of modular production units that are flexible, mobile and quick to ramp-up. This licentiate thesis is a part of the Factory-in-a-Box project, and its objective is to investigate if and how the Factory-in-a-box concept is an enabler to realize flexibility in manufacturing systems.

    The outcome of this research work indicates that the Factory-in-a-Box concept is a plausible solution that goes in line with previous research and future challenges within the manufacturing industry. The Factory-in-a-Box concept offers possibilities for a more flexible and responsive manufacturing system, which also unwrap new business possibilities, increased automation, and entering new markets. To succeed in implementing the Factory-in-a-Box concept in a manufacturing system some key generic requirements have been identified.

    The research project concludes that mobile manufacturing systems in general and the Factory-in-a-Box concept in particular offer new possibilities to the manufacturing industry. Also, the concept is not limited to the manufacturing industry, there are a wide range of applications where the concept could be useful, for example within the construction industry.

  • 59.
    Ask, Andréas
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Flexible and Mobile Production: Demonstrator for Small Series Production Modules2006In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON TOOLS AND METHODS OF COMPETITIVE ENGINEERING - TMCE 2006, APRIL 18-22, LJUBLJANA, SLOVENIA, 2006, p. 1185-1187Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Audo, Sandra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eriksson, Pontus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Monteringsstation för verktygstavlor: Konstruktion och framtagning av monteringsinstruktion2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis project has been carried out with Husmuttern AB as the requestor for the job. Husmuttern AB is a company in the start-up phase which works with developing module houses which are recyclable, disassemblable and standardized.

    The goal for the thesis project is to design an assembly station for mobile tool boards in a Husmuttern factory. There should also be instructions for the assembly station. The tool boards are used as storage for tools, safety equipment and more. The station must be usable for people without professional experience and regardless of language knowledge and background.

    The research questions are:

    * How should the instructions be designed so that a person regardless of language background can understand them?

    * What are the most important factors regarding ergonomics and protection against misassembly?

    The method used is based on the product development process described in Produktutveckling by Ulrich, K and Eppinger, S (2012), but adapted to the current project.

    To obtain a complete tool board one needs to place all hooks and other storage on the board and thereafter mount the boards to legs to make it mobile. To make sure that all hooks, nuts, etc. are placed correctly, installation templates are used to show where everything needs to be placed. A fixture is used for the legs, where one stands the legs, installs the boards in the correct order and uses screws to secure them.

    The instructions are in the shape of a Powerpoint presentation which is displayed on TV monitors in the factory. The instructions contain pictures and video showing every step of the assembly. There are also symbols, like for example arrows, pointing out important details which need to be observed. The instructions contain no current text, the only writing is numbers, which the workers are expected to understand.

    The project group has carried out tests with the workers in the factory. The tests have shown that the concept works. The installation templates combined with the instructions makes it easy for the workers to understand where everything needs to be placed. The fixture for the legs has not been tested with the workers in its final form, but the concept has been tested and is working satisfactorily.

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  • 61.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Sweden.
    Entrepreneurship in teacher education: conceptualization and tensions2018In: Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Education: Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research / [ed] Ulla Hytti, Robert Blackburn, Eddy Laveren, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd , 2018, p. 123-145Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Azamfirei, Victor
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Mälardalen Industrial Technology Center (MITC).
    Robotic in-line quality inspection for changeable zero defect manufacturing2021Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing customer demands for product variety have put unprecedented pressure on the manufacturing companies. To maintain their competitiveness, manufacturing companies need to frequently and efficiently adapt their processes while providing high-quality products. Different advanced manufacturing technologies, such as industrial robotics, have seen a drastic usage increase. Nevertheless, traditional quality methods, such as quality inspection, suffer from significant limitations in highly customised small batch production. For quality inspection to remain fundamental for zero-defect manufacturing and Industry 4.0, an increase in flexibility, speed, availability and decision upon conformance reliability is needed. If robots could perform in-line quality inspection, defective components might be prevented from continuing to the next production stage. Recent developments in robot cognition and sensor systems have enabled the robot to carry out perception tasks they were previously unable to do. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the usage of robotic in-line quality inspection during changeable zero-defect manufacturing. To fulfil this aim, this thesis adopts a mixed-methods research approach to qualitative and quantitative studies, as well as theoretical and empirical ones. The foundation for this thesis is an extensive literature review and two case studies that have been performed in close collaboration with manufacturing companies to investigate how in-line quality inspection is perceived and utilised to enhance industrial robots. The empirical studies also aimed at identifying and describing what opportunities arise from having robotic in-line quality inspection systems. The result of this thesis is a synthesis of literature and empirical findings. From the literature review/study, the need for enhancing quality inspection was identified and a multi-layer quality inspection framework suitable for the digital transformation was proposed. The framework is built on the assumption that data (used and collected) needs to be validated, holistic, and online, i.e. when needed, for the system to effectively decide upon conformity to surpass the challenges of reliability, flexibility and autonomy. Empirical studies show that industrial robotic applications can be improved in precision and flexibility using the in-line quality inspection system as measurement-assisted. Nevertheless, this methodological changes and robot application face the hurdle of previous and current management decisions when passing from one industrial paradigm to another (e.g. mass production to flexible production). A discussion on equipment design and manufacturing process harmony and how in-line quality inspection and management can harmonise such a system was provided.

  • 63.
    Azamfirei, Victor
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Robotic in-line quality inspection system for Zero-Defect Manufacturing: Requirements and Challenges2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The modern manufacturing paradigm is characterised by an increased level of competition, growing demand for customisable or one-of-a-kind products, and stricter sustainability requirements. To maintain their competitiveness, manufacturing companies must adapt their processes frequently and efficiently while providing high-quality products. Given the importance of establishing flexible and reconfigurable systems, different advanced manufacturing technologies, such as industrial robotics, have seen a drastic increase in usage. However, no system is perfect or free from uncertainties (defects). To achieve Zero-Defect Manufacturing (ZDM, i.e., no defective products leave the manufacturing system, four strategies ‘detect’, ‘predict’, ‘prevent’, and ‘repair’ are needed. However, traditional quality methods, such as quality inspection (detect), suffer from significant limitations in highly customised small batch production.

    The objective of this thesis is to facilitate the design of robotic in-line quality inspection systems for ZDM. To achieve the objective, this thesis follows a mixed methods research approach, and its foundation is based on two extensive systematic literature reviews and four case studies in close collaboration with manufacturing companies to investigate how robotic in-line quality inspection is perceived and used. This thesis contributes to the research area of quality management.

    Through its findings, this research revealed the unexplicit and partial usage of the ZDM principles in research studies. Thus, this thesis characterises robotic in-line quality inspection, identifies its challenges, and pinpoints its enablers. Robotic in-line quality inspection systems are characterised as ‘connected’, ‘fast’, ‘accurate’, ‘reliable’, ‘holistic’, ‘flexible’, and ‘intelligent’. Several challenges to performing robotic in-line quality inspection have been encountered during this research. As part of the control system, as well as the manufacturing system, performance is highly dependent on its integration with ‘people’, ‘processes’, and ‘technologies’. For example, people need certain competences, time, communication, and participation in the development of ZDM; processes such as ZDM standards are lacking; and available technologies need to be balanced between equipment footprint, interoperability, measurement speed and accuracy, and reliability. Finally, to align all physical, digital, or cognitive components and characteristics, two frameworks and a design flowchart are proposed to help practitioners establish ZDM.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 64.
    Azamfirei, Victor
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Lessons from adopting robotic in-line quality inspection in the Swedish manufacturing industry2022In: Procedia Computer Science, Elsevier B.V. , 2022, p. 386-394Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Zero-Defect Manufacturing (ZDM) movement has received increasing interest from practitioners and academics. However, despite the academic development of the field, the adoption of ZDM enablers such as robotic in-line quality inspection applications has not increased as expected. This article explores the state of adoption of robotic in-line quality inspection at five global Swedish manufacturing companies. Results show that contrary to the case companies' beliefs, more people- and process-oriented challenges have been encountered compared with technological ones. Future work will focus on developing system design guidelines for robotic in-line quality inspection systems in the realm of ZDM.

  • 65.
    Azamfirei, Victor
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Malardalen Univ, Div Prod Realizat, Sch Innovat Design & Technol, 15 Hamngatan, S-63220 Eskilstuna, Sweden..
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Malardalen Univ, Div Prod Realizat, Sch Innovat Design & Technol, 15 Hamngatan, S-63220 Eskilstuna, Sweden..
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Malardalen Univ, Div Prod Realizat, Sch Innovat Design & Technol, 15 Hamngatan, S-63220 Eskilstuna, Sweden..
    Multi-Layer Quality Inspection System Framework for Industry 4.02021In: International Journal of Automation Technology, ISSN 1881-7629, E-ISSN 1883-8022, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 641-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the era of market globalisation, the quality of products has become a key factor for success in the manufacturing industry. The growing demand for customised products requires a corresponding adjustment of processes, leading to frequent and necessary changes in production control. Quality inspection has been historically used by the manufacturing industry to detect defects before customer delivery of the end product. However, traditional quality methods, such as quality inspection, suffer from large limitations in highly customised small batch production. Frameworks for quality inspection have been proposed in the current literature. Nevertheless, full exploitation of the Industry 4.0 context for quality inspection purpose remains an open field. Vice-versa, for quality inspection to be suitable for Industry 4.0, it needs to become fast, accurate, reliable, flexible, and holistic. This paper addresses these challenges by developing a multi-layer quality inspection framework built on previous research on quality inspection in the realm of Industry 4.0. In the proposed framework, the quality inspection system consists of (a) the work piece to be inspected, (b) the measurement instrument, (c) the actuator that manipulates the measurement instrument and possibly the work-piece, (d) an intelligent control system, and (e) a cloud-connected database to the previous resources; that interact with each other in five different layers, i.e., resources, actions, and data in both the cyber and physical world. The framework is built on the assumption that data (used and collected) need to be validated, holistic and on-line, i.e., when needed, for the system to effectively decide upon conformity to surpass the presented challenges. Future research will focus on implementing and validating the proposed framework in an industrial case study.

  • 66.
    Azamfirei, Victor
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Palm, W.J
    Robotdalen, Eskilstuna/Västerås, Sweden.
    Towards fixtureless robotic in-line measurement assisted assembly, a case study2021In: 2021 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2021 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2021, p. 636-641Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the realm of Industry 4.0, measurement systems play an important role in adapting industrial robots to dynamic environments. Real-time control techniques such as Measurement Assisted Assembly (MAA) can exploit the digital measurements for operation process corrections. Likewise, the propagation of defects can be avoided with in-line measurement conditions. The purpose of this paper is to first understand the capability of robotic in-line measurement assisted assembly in the industrial case of peg-in-hole assembly and second, record the encountered challenges and their enablers. A proof of concept - formed by two 6DoF industrial robots, an in-line Linear Laser (LL), and an on-machine force sensor - have been designed and tested in a lab environment. The experimental results show that robotic in-line measurement assisted assembly can be performed within the tight tolerances of (i) 0, 071 ° to 0, 154° angular deviation between X and Y axes, (ii) applying minimum (near 0) Newton forces in X and Y axes when performing the peg-in-hole robotic assembly of two parts with only 50μm clearance, and (iii) within the company's cycle time. Further, for the effectiveness and practicality of robotic measurement assisted assembly systems, we recorded the encountered challenges and key enablers. 

  • 67.
    Azamfirei, Victor
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Harmonising design and manufacturing: a quality inspection perspective2021In: 2021 26th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As manufacturing companies are becoming more global, dynamic, and competitive, contradictory demands intensify. Flexibility is a key enabler for meeting the challenges of a global market if offered at mass production price and quality. Many companies have adopted Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) together with new technologies. Nevertheless, despite the drastic increase in industrial robots adoption, industrial robot applications continue today as they were designed 50 years ago. To obtain a flexible and reliable production system, it takes more than technology as quality depends on equipment and manufacturing processes. Non-adaptive industrial robots autonomy may be disrupted by the geometrical deformations of the fixtures. This paper presents a comprehensive case study of adopting a robotic in-line quality inspection in an automotive Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) to aid the robot-fixture collision problem. The purpose is to examine errors that occur in production processes and how quality inspection can mitigate such errors. Empirical data collection was carried out in the form of (i) interviews, (ii) participant observations, (iii) documents, and (iv) video recording of robot cells. Results show that contrary to the case company beliefs, the manufacturing system does not follow the FMS standards; thus, to harmonise resources design and manufacturing processes, adding a robotic in-line quality inspection station is not enough. First, the robotic in-line quality inspection should follow a “preventive” control strategy to avoid deviated fixturing from entering the robot line. Second, the managers should address the beliefs of operators and their activities in solving the robot-fixture collision problem. Moreover third, the robot gripper design needs to be updated to an appropriate one.

  • 68.
    Azamfirei, Victor
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Psarommatis, F.
    SIRIUS, Centre for Scalable Data Access, University of Oslo, Gaustadalleen 23B, Oslo, 0373, Norway.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Human Factors in the Design of Advanced Quality Inspection Systems in the Era of Zero-Defect Manufacturing2024In: Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2024, p. 797-804Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies around the world are under constant pressure to perform effectively and sustainably. Incidental processes, such as Quality Inspection (QI), are needed to achieve Zero-Defects Manufacturing (ZDM). This study aimed to identify the Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF&E) in the design of advanced automation, QI systems, and ZDM through selected papers and empirical observations. Our presented model is built around the six main dimensions, i.e., top management, manager (project owner), designers, engineers (internal and suppliers), and operators. The commitment of top management, the openness of the manager, the design-friendly nature of the technological system, and the constant updating of knowledge by engineers are important for the success of ZDM. Researchers need to be familiar with cognitive and organisational human factors to align theory with specific cases. Operators face physical and cognitive challenges, and their environment and health must be considered for their successful contribution to the design of advanced QI systems.

  • 69.
    Backlund, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Product cost analysis in early stages of a product development process2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On a global market with tighter gross margins the focus on product cost have increased. A demand for improved methods within product cost calculations in the product development process is important to sustain competitive.

    Product cost is a vital part of a company’s cost base. During a product development process early stage there is often a lack of established methods and processes for calculation of the product cost. Especially difficult is it to estimate product cost in early stages of the product development process when the uncertainty around the construction of the product is big. That might lead to lack of knowledge around material cost and need of investments occur. The goal with this thesis is to help, evaluate and support around improvements within the product development projects when it comes to product cost calculation.

    The purpose of this thesis is to create a suitable financial model that is applicable when choosing concept in early stages of the product development process to sustain highest possible profitability for Volvo Construction Equipment. To solve this problem a collection of theory in form of books, articles and reports has been made with focus on product development and product cost. The theory part showed a lot of material around the product development process but less data around detailed product cost calculation. The empirical part has been created in cooperation with Volvo Construction Equipment with purpose to increase knowledge for problems in its natural environment. From interviews, documentations and other collection has shown that improvement potential was found for product cost calculations in early stages of product development project.

    For further increased understanding a structured comparison and a discussion around each area of theory and empirical data was created. The result of the comparison shows that Volvo Construction Equipment’s handling of problems correlates with the theory that exists in the thesis.

    To improve the process with product development and product cost calculation at Volvo Construction Equipment a calculation model was created. The model was applied in a real product development project in the company and gave opportunity for estimations of the development of the product cost during the different stages of the project.

  • 70.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Arbetsplatsnära forskning: en diskussion om vilka krav det ställer på metoderna2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Solving the quality dilemma: Emergent quality management2017In: International Series in Operations Research & Management Science, Volume 255, Springer New York LLC , 2017, p. 151-166Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Emergent Quality Management paradigm combine the two sides of the dichotomy imposed by the dilemmas of the production system: on the one hand side exploitation, stability, control and efficiency and, on the other hand, exploration, adaptability, creativity and effectiveness. The two sides—actors’ exploration and the structures of exploitation—are interconnected and reinforce each other. Actors and structures are always interconnected with each other in a circular causality. It is through the interactions between the actors that the structures emerge, and these structures organize the activities of the actors. The conflict in goals between exploration and exploitation at individual and team levels is thus transcended. This is a theoretical transcendence, meaning that by using the Emergent Quality Management paradigm it becomes obvious that the dichotomy is not a problem that must be managed, but a necessary feature of wholeness.

  • 72.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Understanding and Facilitating Creative Group Processes: The GroPro ModelManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborating individuals can often find better solutions, still individual creativity is in focus both among managers and academics. There is a need for theorizing about groups’ creativity. The GroPro model, described in this article, uses a process ontology to support increased group creativity. GroPro is based on theories about group dynamics, actor-structure processes, human interaction, and leadership. It was developed as a sub-task in several research projects about the group and its first line manager. The GroPro model integrates all phenomena relevant to group creativity, is complex enough to consider individual and collective interdependences, and examples of how GroPro has been employed show its potential use as a practical guide in one’s own creative group processes.

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  • 73.
    Backström, Tomas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Johansson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Conclusions2017In: International Series in Operations Research and Management Science, Volume 255, Springer New York LLC , 2017, p. 167-171Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this concluding chapter, each of the previous chapters are reflected upon based on the emergent quality management paradigm presented in Chap. 9 by Backström. This book introduces four processes: innovation, production, knowledge creation, and value creation processes. It is emphasised that companies must prioritise and develop all four of these processes to survive and prosper. Throughout the book, dichotomies associated with these processes have been elaborated on and discussed. Historically, these dichotomies have often created dilemmas owing to the current understanding of their relations. However, as suggested in this book, alternative perspectives can be used in a constructive way to resolve these potentially high-impact dilemmas. Recognising the dichotomies as mutually dependent gives further possibilities for the development of production systems.

  • 74.
    Backström, Tomas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Johansson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Introduction2017In: International Series in Operations Research and Management Science, Volume 255, Springer New York LLC , 2017, p. 1-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that the development of successful business and production systems are full of conflicting forces; initiatives that seem conducive to one line of work can be a constraint on another line of work. This kind of dilemma is the core subject of the current book, and by applying alternative perspectives to such dilemmas, the book will present ideas on how these could be managed in organizations. Organizations need to manage a number of challenges in terms of dualities in order to create a contemporary production system, which seems to be key to future innovative quality improvements in operations. The challenges and dichotomies that are addressed in this book are all part of four interrelated processes that together constitute key elements of a contemporary production system: The innovation process—creation and implementation of new offerings and solutions, The production process—production and distribution of offerings and solutions, The knowledge creation process—emergence and distribution of knowledge, The value creation process—created customer value based on the offerings and solutions developed. 

  • 75.
    Backström, Tomas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Johansson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Döös, Marianne
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Hazy, James K.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Simulating the emergence of the organizing structures of work2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    —This article is a first step toward a visualization and classification system for studying dynamic organizing structures of work. As a first step toward this researchobjective, this study brings together two active projects. One called “relatonics” studies work group formation and is primarily empirical and inductive. The other called “Human Interaction Dynamics (HID)” imports concepts, relationships and modeling from complexity science and is therefore primarily theoretical and deductive. The vision is to use social media, data gathering, and process simulation technologies to rigorously describe, systematically visualize, and validly model the complex dynamics of work processes of different types. This work will serve as a means to classify, study and improve the performance of work systems. We describe our progress to data and suggest further research.

  • 76.
    Backström, Tomas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Tripney Berglund, Rachael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Hultgren, Ulrika
    City University of London, UK.
    Förebyggande arbete med organisatoriska och sociala risker2019Other (Other academic)
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  • 77.
    Badasjane, Viktoria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Ahlskog, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Challenges with coordination of technology development and transfer of Industry 4.0 technologies in IMNs2020In: Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, Volume 13, 2020, p. 637-648Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within an international manufacturing network (IMN), one particular factory, called the lead factory is responsible for development of new products, processes and technologies as well as transferring these to the subsidiaries within the IMN. These responsibilities require coordination, which is found difficult even in the best-performing companies due to its complexity. When the responsibility for development of Industry 4.0 technologies are included such as cyber-physical systems and Internet of Things the complexity increases further. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify what are the challenges with coordination of technology development and transfer of Industry 4.0 technologies in IMNs. Accordingly, a real-time embedded case study was carried out with six manufacturing companies. One major finding is that development of Industry 4.0 technologies does not fit the current way of organizing technology development at lead factories. Another finding is that several of the identified challenges connected to technology development can be derived from a lack of a long-term strategy ensuring competence for future needs.

  • 78.
    Badasjane, Viktoria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Ahlskog, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Enablers for coordination of digital transformation in international manufacturing networks2021In: 28th EurOMA Conference EurOMA, 2021, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The digital transformation of International Manufacturing Networks (IMNs) has been identified as a complex undertaking that requires coordination. However, knowledge about coordination in this context is lacking.  The purpose of this paper is to explore enablers for the coordination of digital transformation in IMNs. To this effect, a case study was conducted with a manufacturing company in the heavy vehicle industry. The most prominent enabler is identified as establishing an organisational structure around the digital transformation that ensures coordination and promotes collaboration across the IMN. Future research could moreover compare enablers across multiple cases.

  • 79.
    Badasjane, Viktoria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Johansson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. IPR (Innovation and Product Realisation).
    Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Critical interfaces for managing international manufacturing networks – A literature review2019In: 26 th EurOMA Conference EurOMA, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Badasjane, Viktoria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Ahlskog, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Coordination of Digital Transformation in International Manufacturing Networks—Challenges and Coping Mechanisms from an Organizational Perspective2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 4, article id 2204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordinating the digital transformation of globally dispersed factories within international manufacturing networks has become a critical issue for competitiveness, yet there has been limited attention paid to this issue in previous research. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to, from an organizational perspective, explore the challenges in coordinating the digital transformation in an international manufacturing network and the coping mechanisms to overcome those challenges. A case study is conducted in a manufacturing company within the heavy vehicle industry, thus contributing to the limited empirical research covering coordination of digital transformation. The data is analyzed through organizational structure and design theory, and the findings are mapped into four core dimensions: differentiation, integration, centralization, and formalization. The results show 15 challenges and 11 coping mechanisms for coordination of digital transformation in international manufacturing networks, identifying the significance of the coordination uncertainty within the formalization dimension that is particularly exposed to the changes induced by digital transformation. The findings include the need for a coordination-oriented organizational structure that incorporates how and where coordination can be actualized. The research implications contribute with new insights by providing a detailed description of the created organizational structure and, in contrast to previous research, focuses specifically on the coordination aspect of digital transformation in an international manufacturing network. 

  • 81.
    Badasjane, Viktorija
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Coordinating Digital Transformation in International Manufacturing Networks2023Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies have adapted to globalisation and collected their globally dispersed factories into factory networks, known as international manufacturing networks (IMNs). This requires coordination to access the associated competitive advantages, synchronise the factories, and exploit the capabilities inherent in those individual factories. However, when IMNs introduce digital transformation into the factories, the coordination is often hindered by uncertainty and complexity, as digital transformation requires an extensive adjustment that affects everything from the organisational structure to ways of working. Different parts of the network that are dependent on one another, for example, may be difficult to track and foresee the consequences of digital transformation. Hence, due to the respective challenges, complexities, and uncertainties, the coordination of digital transformation in IMN is paramount to examine. 

    This licentiate thesis begins with exploring coordination mechanisms to increase the understanding of existing research and shape it into a comprehensive overview. Moreover, through case studies, this thesis explores the challenges in and enablers for coordinating digital transformation in IMNs. Altogether, the challenges and enablers are analysed within the dimensions and categories of coordination mechanisms, i.e., they are collected into an overview and described within the case study context. The most significant findings of this thesis are related to the organisational structure, which enables the coordination of digital transformation. However, plenty of challenges remain, foremost connected to the formalisation of the organisational structure, e.g., balancing the rules and guidelines for digital transformation but providing space for people performing the activities to explore and investigate digital technologies. 

    This thesis further contributes to the existing body of research by untangling the complexity of coordination itself and, specifically, the coordination of digital transformation in IMNs, explicitly adding to the operations management field and the management of global operations. Practical contributions are also made, i.e., this thesis promotes practitioners’ increased understanding by providing specific examples and descriptions of the findings within their context. Based on the findings, this thesis offers multiple paths for future research, keeping in mind that coordination is not static but evolving, depending on the context in which it is performed. 

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  • 82.
    Badasjane, Viktorija
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Readiness Assessment Framework for Transfer of Production Systems - A Case Study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The implementation or transfer of production systems from the developing organisation to the receiving can induce difficulties, however a connection between achieving readiness of the receiver within the context of PSD has not been investigated previously. The aim of this thesis is thus to examine PSD in a core plant environment, focusing on the transfer activity and readiness for change. The following research questions were asked:

    • How can assessing readiness potentially benefit a PSD project?
    • How can preparation for transfer ensure readiness of the receiving organisation?

    Methodology

    A case study was performed and a company was selected due to a recently performed PSD project where the company went from a tradition line-based production to digitalised cells. The thesis is within the COPE research project; thus, some emphasis is on the global aspect. This exploratory and descriptive research study both examines and describes the studied phenomenon. The case study approach enabled the identification of organisational and human factors within the PSD project. Data collection contained interviews and a literature review was performed.

    Theoretical Framework

    A literature review was performed which provides insights regarding a general approach to a PSD process. Furthermore, core plant role and the strategic position within the network are described. Other investigated areas are within transfer of; processes, production and knowledge as well as prerequisites for those activities. Maturity assessment models are also introduced to provide an insight on assessing an organisations current state and to establish improvement strategies. An overview of competences which are required in an Industry 4.0 context are presented. Individual and organisational effect on change are presented as well as how change can be combated.

    Empirical Findings

    The empirical findings provide an overlook of the current manner in which PSD projects are executed, foremost by investigating a recent PSD project. The investigated aspects were more concretely regarding the need for a readiness assessment, and readiness to transfer a PSD project from the developing to the receiving organisation. Motivation to change and change management were also identified. Lastly, replicability within the core plant context were examined.

    Analysis and Discussion

    Possible benefits of a readiness assessment are identified, which are creation of a holistic view, alignment of vision, standardisation need and communication among other things. Participation and assignment of responsibility are also identified as lacking within the case company which is an essential asset within a PSD project. Lastly a framework is developed which can possibly guide the PSD process in achieving readiness for change.

    Conclusions and Recommendations

    Multiple benefits of a readiness assessment are identified which emphasises the human and organisational aspects of a change implied by a PSD project. The technical focus identified in the case company can be combated by acknowledging soft variables and skills and by understanding the decisions behind solutions. A framework is developed for Readiness Assessment with a focus on contesting the lack of responsibility and a “we against them” attitude. The mission of the framework is to create alignment and collaboration.

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  • 83.
    Badasjane, Viktorija
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Ahlskog, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Sauter, Barrett
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Adapting the organisational structure for coordinating the digital transformation2023In: 30th EurOMA conference, EurOMA23, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Factories within International Manufacturing Networks (IMNs) need coordination to harness globalization’s potential. Simultaneously, adding additional complexity, they seek to coordinate digital transformation across the IMNs, requiring a holistic view encompassing the organizational structure. The purpose of this paper is to identify how manufacturing companies adapt the organizational structures of their IMNs to coordinate digital transformation. Through a multiple case study of four manufacturing companies, the results show new or adapted functional units, roles and interfaces. The findings describe and exemplify global and local functional units, boundary spanner roles, and formal and informal interfaces created for coordinating digital transformation in IMNs.

  • 84.
    Baudin, Samuel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bedömning av tillverkningmetoder med MRL2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today´s industry is driven into development by an increasingly difficult situation of competition that gives less room for miscalculations in the production. One of the most important factors in maintaining your competitiveness is your ability to quickly and efficiently adopt new methods of manufacturing. With the help of new manufacturing methods, the company can improve product design, add new value creating features, and get a faster and more flexible production. However, problems arose with the grading of new manufacturing methods, in order to understand their matureness and if they are ready to be taken into production. This paper aims to investigate the possibility of a rating scale for manufacturing methods and then test this scale on a case study at Volvo CE, Eskilstuna, regarding their introduction of the method Power Skiving in their gear manufacturing.

    Through studying secondary data regarding already applicable methods for rating of the maturity of technologies and products that are to be introduced into production. Furthermore, have articles regarding proposed methods of rating the maturity of manufacturing methods been revised in order to get an insight into the current situation of rating manufacturing methods and to see what in specific could be of usefulness in rating manufacturing technologies.

    Beyond secondary data interviews have been conducted with the division of production development at Volvo CE Eskilstuna and with the Director Global Manufacturing Technology at Volvo CE. With the goal of gaining information regarding what they consider crucial in rating manufacturing methods and what is of importance in order to make this rating scale useful in the everyday work. Visits have been made in the production of slewing rings at Volvo CE in order to be able to gather data for the case study regarding the possible introduction of Power Skiving in Volvo CE´s gear manufacturing.

    The Authors have been able to construct certain criteria that aim to support todays rating matric of introduction of new products in order for it to also work for rating the readiness of new manufacturing methods. Today rating scales for manufacturing methods aren’t widely accepted, the authors, however, assume that it will gain acceptance and there will be more research regarding this subject.

    Further studies regarding documentation of the ratings and how this rating could be further integrated into daily operation at a company is recommended.

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  • 85.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    E&E System Architecture Department, Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Functional Safety in Product Lines - A Systematic Mapping Study2016In: 42nd Euromicro Conference series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2016, 2016, p. 313-322Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software product line engineering is a widely used approach to plan and manage reuse of software. When safety critical products are developed, achieving functional safety standard compliance must be shown. The requirements stated in the functional safety standards also apply when safety critical products are developed in product lines. Managing functional safety in industrial product lines is challenging and work around solutions are applied in practice. The objective of this research is to collect and review reported research publications focusing on achieving safety in product lines and to identify gaps in todays research. We conduct a systematic mapping study of research publications reported until January 2016.We identify 39 research articles to be included in a list of primary studies and analyze how product lines are documented, which safety-related topics are covered and which evaluation method the studies apply. Generally, we find that the area of how to achieve functional safety in product lines needs more attention. Our study provides an overview on which topics have been discussed until now and which safety-related topics need more attention.

  • 86.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo Construct Equipment, E&E Syst Architecture Dept, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Industrial Challenges to Achieve Functional Safety Compliance in Product Lines2014In: 2014 40TH EUROMICRO CONFERENCE SERIES ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND ADVANCED APPLICATIONS (SEAA 2014), 2014, p. 356-360Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing safety critical products demands a clear safety argumentation for each product in spite of whether it has been derived from a product line or not. The functional safety standards do not explain how to develop safety critical products in product lines, and the product line concept is lacking specific approaches to develop safety critical products. Nonetheless, product lines are well-established concepts even in companies developing safety critical products. In this paper we present the results of an exploratory study interviewing 15 practitioners from 6 different companies. We identify typical challenges and approaches from industry and discuss their suitability. The challenges and approaches brought out by this study help us to identify and enhance applicable methods from the product line engineering domain that can meet the challenges in the safety critical domain as well.

  • 87.
    Bellgran, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    A corporate perspective on global management and development of lean production systems: A case study2014In: Handbook of Research on Design and Management of Lean Production Systems, IGI Global, 2014, p. 270-289Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge for every multinational manufacturing company with the ambition to implement the lean production concept is how to implement it worldwide within its global manufacturing footprint. There are many decisions that need to be taken from a company group perspective when planning and implementing a lean program. These concern the level of standardization on principles and tools, how to structure and organize additional resources, how to share experiences within the organization, and how to sustain the effort. These factors are elaborated in this chapter from a factory perspective based on the presentation of the lean journey of Gyproc AB, a process industry company within the Gypsum part of the large Saint Gobain group. The company has worked for about ten years with implementing world-class manufacturing and has extensive experience of the issues of starting-up and sustaining the lean-based concept. 

  • 88.
    Bellgran, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Rösiö, Carin
    School of Engineering, Jönköping University.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Decision support for production localization: Process, activities and localization factors2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional production location decisions are mainly based upon economic factors while factors that facilitate decision makers in selecting the most suitable production location in terms of operations performance are rarely considered. Therefore, this paper presents a developed decision support for production localization that emphasises operational factors to be considered in the decision making. The research methodology combines a literature study with a multiple case study method. The findings are synthesised into a five phase decision process for making production localization decisions in practice. For each of these phases, key activities with related tools and expected output are developed.

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  • 89.
    Bellini, E.
    et al.
    University of Campania, Caserta, Italy.
    Bagnoli, F.
    University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
    Caporuscio, M.
    Dept. of Computer Science and Media Tech, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Damiani, E,
    Center for Cyber Physical Systems, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Linkov, I.
    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Concord, MA, USA.
    Liò, P.
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Uk.
    Marrone, S.
    University of Campania, Caserta, Italy.
    Resilience learning through self adaptation in digital twins of human-cyber-physical systems2021In: 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR), 2021: 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR), 2021, 2021, p. 168-173Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-Cyber-Physical-Systems (HPCS), such as critical infrastructures in modern society, are subject to several systemic threats due to their complex interconnections and interdependencies. Management of systemic threats requires a paradigm shift from static risk assessment to holistic resilience modeling and evaluation using intelligent, data-driven and run-time approaches. In fact, the complexity and criticality of HCPS requires timely decisions considering many parameters and implications, which in turn require the adoption of advanced monitoring frameworks and evaluation tools. In order to tackle such challenge, we introduce those new paradigms in a framework named RESILTRON, envisioning Digital Twins (DT) to support decision making and improve resilience in HCPS under systemic stress. In order to represent possibly complex and heterogeneous HCPS, together with their environment and stressors, we leverage on multi-simulation approaches, combining multiple formalisms, data-driven approaches and Artificial Intelligence (AI) modelling paradigms, through a structured, modular and compositional framework. DT are used to provide an adaptive abstract representation of the system in terms of multi-layered spatially-embedded dynamic networks, and to apply self-adaptation to time-warped What-If analyses, in order to find the best sequence of decisions to ensure resilience under uncertainty and continuous HPCS evolution.

  • 90.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Användandet av tillståndsbaserat underhåll i svensk industri - en enkätundersökning genomförd på Underhållsmässan 20042004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Som ett led i forskningsprojektet ”Tillståndsbaserat underhåll i tekniska system2 ” genomfördes en enkät för att ta reda på i vilken utsträckning olika företag och industrier/branscher använder sig av tillståndsbaserat underhåll. Enkäten bestod av 10 stycken frågor med olika svarskategorier (se Metod och Bilaga). Syftet med enkäten var att snabbt få en bild av hur svensk industri utför sina underhållsaktiviteter. Total samlades 28 ifyllda enkäter in. För att underlätta sammanställning delades enkätsvaren in i fyra kategorier av industrier: process-, verkstads-, läkemedels/livsmedels- och energiindustrin. Resultatet ur en sådan här liten undersökning behöver naturligtvis inte vara representativt för hela den svenska industrin, dock kan vissa slutsatser dras.

  • 91.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Classification of Machine Equipment2011In: Published in Proceedings of 1st Conference on Maintenance Performance Measurement & Management, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden, Editor(s):Galar, D., Parida, A., Schunnesson, H., and Kumar, U., Luleå, Sweden: Luleå tekniska universitet , 2011, p. 99-103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to present the process, results, and range of usability of a machine classification in a company that is producing discrete items. The classifications were built on the four factors of: (1) if the machines had any redundancy, (2) the utilization factor of the machines, (3) the quality impact of the machines, and finally, (4) the age of the machines. Through different levels and an assessment process the machines were classified in AAA-, AA-, A-, B-, or C-classes, AAA being the most critical. The classifications were performed in teams consisting of representatives from maintenance- and production engineering as well as production managers and operators, this, in order to achieve a consensus regarding the classification results. The result not only gave a deepened view on the factory layout, it also gave a good foundation to prioritize many improvement initiatives. Several ranges of use will be illustrated in the paper, as well as how the process and results has been received by the employees.

  • 92.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Condition based maintenance systems: An Investigation of Technical Constituets and Organizational Aspects2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 93.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Using a game-based learning approach in teaching overall equipment effectiveness2020In: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 489-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel training material for the performance indicator overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) in the form of a game-based learning (GBL) approach to be used in Industry and University context. The paper will present the development of the game as well as results from tests of the game with Industry employees and University students. Design/methodology/approach – The data that are used in the game have been acquired from real OEE data logs of a reference company. The game has been refined iteratively using feedback from the participants of the tests. Findings – The paper presents the game with its components and learning objectives. A comparison of various theoretical factors on GBL and the novel trainingmaterial is performed and future improvements are suggested. Research limitations/implications – The game has been developed based on OEE data logs from only one reference company. Practical implications – The training material and specifically the game can be used to train Industrial workers and University students to better envision OEE as a performance indicator. Originality/value – Serious games on lean manufacturing have been developed and played for a long time. While some of these games include OEE as an important result parameter, none really demonstrates how it is measured and analyzed.

  • 94.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Andersson, L. -G
    Operations, Volvo Construction Equipment, Sweden.
    Ekström, P.
    Operations, Volvo Construction Equipment, Sweden.
    Misconceptions within the Use of Overall Equipment Effectiveness - A Theoretical Discussion on Industrial Examples2020In: Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, Volume 13, IOS Press BV , 2020, p. 36-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) is a common performance measure used in manufacturing industry to identify and prioritize losses to perform improvement work on in order to increase the effectiveness of equipment. There exist challenges though, both in implementing OEE as well as in running an OEE-program. Some of these challenges include lack of training and awareness, lack of focus, risk of misunderstanding the measure etc. This paper will deal with some of the possible misconceptions within the use of OEE that might arise during implementation or in continuously running an OEE-program. Some of the topics of misconceptions that will be discussed include: no financial issues are taken into consideration; that the factors of availability; performance and quality are not weighted; the connection to productivity is not always clear; the importance of cross-functionality of the measurement and work method; the issue of comparison of OEE results; and last but not least the view on and hunt for world class levels. The paper will discuss these (and some additional ones) theoretically and suggest some counter-Actions so that they may be avoided. 

  • 95.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Jackson, Mats
    Important Aspects to take into Consideration when Deciding to Implement Condition Based Maintenance2004In: COMADEM 2004 Proceedings, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Kurdve, Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Swerea IVF, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Machining Equipment Life Cycle Costing Model with Dynamic Maintenance Cost2016In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 48, p. 102-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents how a Life cycle cost or Total cost of ownership analysis has been performed on machining equipment in a Swedish company. Life cycle cost models used in case studies are compared to an empirical model, used at the company, where dynamic energy, fluid, and maintenance cost are included. Linear and variable factors in the models are analyzed and discussed regarding data availability and estimation, especially with emphasis on maintenance. The life cycle cost aspect of the equipment give guidelines to consider operation, maintenance, tools, energy, and fluid cost in addition to acquisition cost, when designing/specifying the equipment.

  • 97.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Volvo Construction Equipment Operations, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Lundström, Gunnar
    Volvo Construction Equipment Operations, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    On the importance of combining "the new" with "the old" - One important prerequisite for maintenance in industry 4.02018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 118-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development and technological advancement within Industry 4.0 is on top of agendas worldwide. The prediction that cost of technology will decrease while computational power will increase may lead to a maintenance community putting too much trust in technological advancement, leaving basic maintenance concepts and management underdeveloped or even unimplemented in the future. This paper will, through a case study, exemplify the importance of combining basic maintenance concepts and management, e.g., early equipment management, predetermined preventive maintenance, and root-cause failure analysis and elimination, with technological advancement, e.g., predictive maintenance, cyber-physical systems, internet of things, and big data, in order to increase total maintenance effectiveness.

  • 98.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Olsson, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Technical Design of Condition Based Maintenance Systems - A Case Study Using Sound Analysis and Case-Based Reasoning2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Productivity is a key weapon for manufacturing companies to stay competitive in a continuous growing global market. Increased productivity can be achieved through increased availability. This has directed focus on different maintenance types and maintenance strategies. Increased availability through efficient maintenance can be achieved through less corrective maintenance actions and more accurate preventive maintenance intervals. Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) is a technology that strives to identify incipient faults before they become critical which enables more accurate planning of the preventive maintenance. CBM can be achieved by utilizing complex technical systems or by humans manually monitoring the condition by using their experience, normally a mixture of both is used. Although CBM holds a lot of benefits compared to other maintenance types it is not yet commonly utilized in industry. One reason for this might be that the maturity level in complex technical CBM system is too low. This paper will acknowledge this possible reason, although not trying to resolve it, but focusing on system technology with component strategy and an open approach to condition parameters as the objective is fulfilled. This paper will theoretically discuss the technical components of a complete CBM system approach and by a case study illustrate how a CBM system for industrial robot fault detection/diagnosis can be designed using the Artificial Intelligence method Case-Based Reasoning and sound analysis.

  • 99.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Olsson, Erik
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Technical Design of Condition Based Maintenance Systems: A Case Study using Sound Analysis and Case-Based Reasoning2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Volvo Construct Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden..
    Salonen, Antti
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Requirements and Needs-A Foundation for Reducing Maintenance-Related Waste2016In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 10TH WORLD CONGRESS ON ENGINEERING ASSET MANAGEMENT (WCEAM 2015), 2016, p. 105-112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to discuss and elaborate on requirements of maintenance and the resulting maintenance needs in order to maintain said requirements without introducing waste while doing so, taking into account both external and internal wastes. The paper will present, and elaborate on, conceptual models that can be utilized in maintenance operations in order to increase awareness of the importance of well-founded customer/stakeholder requirements in order to articulate appropriate maintenance needs in order to balance effectiveness and efficiency as well as to reduce or eliminate maintenance-related waste.

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