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  • 51.
    Torres, Sandra
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    A preliminary empirical test of a culturally-relevant theoretical framework for the study of successful aging2003In: Journal of cross-cultural gerontology, ISSN 0169-3816, Vol. 18, p. 79-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to shed preliminary empirical light on the assumptions underpinning a culturally relevant theoretical framework for the study of successful aging. On the basis of the Kluckhohnian theory of cultural variation, this framework suggests that congruence exists between value orientations concerned with man-nature, time, activity, and relationships, and the manner in which the construct of successful aging is understood. Methodologically speaking, the research project upon which this article is based started out by adapting and further developing the vignette-based instrument that Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck designed to test the theory of cultural variation. Vignette-based interviews were then conducted with 30 Iranian immigrants to Sweden as a preliminary test of the hypothesis of congruence. The results presented in this article suggest that, as posed in the framework in question, there is a relationship between the value orientations that people prefer and the various understandings of successful aging that they uphold. The results suggest also that there is a variety of ways in which the construct of successful aging can be understood, and that variety encompasses other ways of thinking about successful aging besides the master nature, future, productivity, and individuality-oriented views that characterize the gerontological debate. Although further research is necessary, these preliminary results do infer that this framework might offer a theoretically interesting approach to the study of individual, generational, and cross-cultural understandings of successful aging

  • 52.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    A simulation model of the interactions between power producers and customers2008In: Conference proceedings SIMS 2008 in Oslo, October 7-8, 2008 / [ed] Bernt Lie, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have had a strong mechanism for interaction between power production companies and the power trading/supplier companies for a number of years by now. In the future we can expect new types of more interactive communications between single customers and groups of customers towards the energy market companies. We can expect a stronger request side from customers to buy only green energy, only nuclear etc.

    Power (kW) will be a part aside of energy (kWh) and there will be new possibilities to buy energy when it is as cheap as possible. This may include new applications like charging batteries for your car when the electricity price is low. Differentiation of price may be not only as a direct function of time, but also energy availability like when it is windy, as wind power becomes a major part of many energy systems. Energy storage will be more important and perhaps we will get new possibilities to buy shares in central energy storages like you buy space at servers for your web-pages etc.

    Other type of functions may develop as a result of the introduction of individual metering of first electricity and later on hot water and temperature. By metering the individual consumption and invoicing just what has been spent, you will have a driving force also to do actions like shutting of high demand functions like “infra-heating”, “large screen TV” and similar, when other usages are on, and the price is high. We expect displays with interaction possibilities in all homes, where you can see your consumption and pricing information.

    These new type of systems will put new demands on both hardware for supply and software to handle the services/functions. As part of developing this, mathematical modelling of the systems and tests with simulators will be an important tool. Also new soft ware functions will be developed to support the actual services, like simulators giving information on how different actions you make as a user will influence your energy consumption in the future, both short term and more long term. For the more long term case, new investments in new hardware and software may be proposed and evaluated for you in both technical and economic terms.

    In this paper the system aspects including the costs is analysed through a simulation model. This includes the physical system as well as the user behaviour and possible effects of different price models, like a combination of kW and kWh. The effect on the users, the distributors and the power producers are evaluated.

  • 53.
    Vitthayaprasart, Thanida
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Virbaitis, Stasys
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    IT/IS IN SCM– A Necessity Or Strategic Advantage?: A case study of an electrical components distributor2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research Questions: Is the usage of existing IT/IS in SCM just a necessity or a key factor contributing to their success for Company BETA?

    Purpose: The purpose of our thesis is to describe how a successful distributor like Company BETA manages their supply chain activities, then to analyze and discuss their performances as well as the IT support on their operations.

    Method: We conducted qualitative research. Our main primary data came from the interviews with employees of Company BETA while our secondary data was collected from literature books, websites, and database. The data was gathered and analyzed in the light of our literature review.

    Conclusion: Company BETA’s existing IT/IS is not the main factor contributing to their success. There are more possibilities in the markets nowadays and more importantly, Company BETA could have considered and leveraged their IT/IS better.

  • 54.
    Wallin, Patrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Lycksén, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hantering av riskfaktorer för små och medelstora företag vid IT outsourcing2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kurs: Mälardalens Högskola, EIK024, Magisteruppsats i IT-ekonomi

    Författare: Anna Lycksén & Patrik Wallin, Västerås

    Titel: Hantering av riskfaktorer för små och medelstora företag vid IT Outsourcing

    Handledare: Therese Hansen

    Nyckelord: IT Outsourcing, SME, riskfaktor, hantering

    Problem: Outsourcing av affärsprocesser såsom IT har funnits länge, men fokus hartidigare varit på stora företag av ett antal olika anledningar. För det förstaville outsourcingleverantörerna vinna stora kontrakt för att uppnå stordriftsfördelarså att deras egna kostnader kunde hållas så låga som möjligt.För det andra lyckades inte de mindre outsourcingleverantörerna som försöktege sig in på marknaden för små och medelstora företag (SME) med atterbjuda tjänster som ansågs vara tillräckligt lockande för SME. Slutligen ansågde flesta SME att de inte hade något att tjäna på att outsourca. Tidernahar dock förändrats. IT outsourcing för SME blir allt mer vanligt, men trotsdetta forskas det relativt lite på området. Med tanke på ovanstående anseruppsatsförfattarna att området är såväl relevant som intressant att behandla.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att utifrån IT outsourcings tre faser beskrivaoch analysera hanteringen av riskfaktorer för små och medelstora företag(SME) vid IT outsourcing, för att därigenom belysa vad SME börtänka på för att lyckas med IT outsourcing.

    Teori: Den teoretiska referensramen börjar med ett konceptuellt ramverk därkoncept som IT Outsourcing, SME, risk och riskfaktor fastställs. Vidare innehållerteoriavsnittet en sammanställning av de tre faser som ingår i IToutsourcing, där riskfaktorer och hanteringsåtgärder kopplas till respektivefas . Ledande referenser är Chou & Chou, Aubert, Palvia och Bahli & Rivard.

    Metod: Studien utgörs av besöksintervjuer och telefonintervjuer. Intervjuer hargjorts på företagen Arvid Nordquist, Företag X, Gärdin & Persson och Byggbeslag.

    Resultat: Resultatet av studien visar att det är viktigt för SME att förbereda noggrantoch sedan välja rätt leverantör vid IT outsourcing. Vidare indikerar ocksåstudiens resultat att det är av stor vikt för SME att värdesätta och behålla

  • 55.
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Identifying and Managing Key Challenges in Architecting Software-Intensive Systems2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many traditional industry applications, such as automotive, process automation and manufacturing automation, software plays a crucial role as an enabler for the introduction of new functionality and retaining competitiveness. The system and software architecture plays an important part in ensuring the systems’ qualities. However, the design of the architecture may be neglected during system development, whilst development efforts are centered on implementing new functionality. The architecture is supposed to support and enable key quality attributes such as safety, reliability, maintainability and flexibility, and so on. This thesis identifies some of the key issues in architecting these software intensive systems. In total, 21 issues have been identified; examples of these issues are (1) there is a lack of process for architecture development, (2) there is a lack of method or model to evaluate business value when choosing architecture, (3) there is a lack of clear long-term architectural strategy, and (4) processes and methods are less valued than individuals’ knowledge and competence. Through a series of workshops, root causes were identified for a selection of these issues. Based on these root causes, five success factors were identified. The success factors are (1) define an architectural strategy (2) implement a process for architectural work (3) ensure authority for architects (4) clarify the business impact of the architecture and (5) optimize on the project portfolio level instead of optimizing each project. In an attempt to provide a possible solution to some of the issues, a method has been created to evaluate how new functionality is successfully integrated into an existing architecture. The method is a combination of the Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method, ATAM, and the Analytical Hierarchy Process, AHP. The method firstly supports a structured way of listing system goals, and secondly, it also supports design decision-making. Since several issues relate to the organization and are affected by management, a comparison was made between the view of management and architects. This study revealed that one cause for the lack of focus on architecture could be that the existing performance measurement systems used by management all focus on the later phases of development when the architecture is already set.

     

  • 56.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Practitioners’ views of Key Issues and their Solutions in the Development of System and Software ArchitectureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: In many traditional industry applications, including automotive, process automation and manufacturing automation, software plays a crucial role as an enabler in the introduction of new functionality and to stay competitive. System and software architecture plays an important part in ensuring the qualities of the systems. However, the design of the architecture may be neglected during system development, whilst development efforts are centered on implementing new functionality.

    Objective: We present the challenges, problems, and success factors that are central to the architectural development of software intensive systems as judged by practitioners.

    Method: The method used consisted of three steps. First, we used semi-structured interviews to collect data in an exploratory manner. In a second step, a survey based on issues extracted from the structured interview data was used to investigate the occurrence of these issues in a wide range of organizations. In order to identify and suggest solutions to the issues that were considered important, we finally performed root cause analysis workshops.

    Results: A total of 21 issues have been identified, and examples of these issues are (1) there is a lack of process in architecture development, (2) there is a lack of methodology or models for evaluating business value when choosing architecture, (3) there is a lack of clear long-term architectural strategy, and (4) processes and methods are of less value than the knowledge and competence of individuals.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, we are convinced that the following success factors are crucial components in developing software intensive systems: (1) defining an architectural strategy, (2) implementing a process for architectural work, (3) ensuring authority for architects, (4) clarifying the business impact of the architecture, and (5) optimization at the project portfolio level, instead of optimizing each project.

     

  • 57.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    On Security in Safety-Critical Process Control2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Licentiate thesis is about security in automation networks with emphasis on fieldbus communication. In the process industry, network and system security have become even more important since the introduction of Ethernet-based fieldbus protocols. As an example, a successful attack on a power plant, supporting large cities with energy, could result in a temporal but total power loss. Such attacks could be devastating for the society. The security threats are real, and motivations for attacking industrial communication systems may be political or economical.

    The visions of autonomous systems, which can be supervised, diagnosed and maintained from remote is not far from reality, but stress the need for security and safety measures. Wired fieldbus protocols are mature when it comes to safety and there are existing standards for safe communication. In a setup like an autonomous system security measures over safe communication has to be taken into account.

    The state-of-the-art in automation security is to use firewalls to restrict incoming and outgoing traffic to the networks. Firewalls can be deployed between different automation networks, i.e. server, control, and fieldbus networks, and even protect a single automation cell with a dedicated firewall. If an adversary can penetrate the perimeter defenses, no other security countermeasures exist in process automation to protect the safety-critical communication from sabotage.

    In this thesis we initially explore the possibilities of security attacks on the automation protocols PROFINET IO and PROFIsafe. We show that it is possible to attack safety-related communication to take control of safety-critical fieldbus nodes. We propose the concept of Security Modules in combination with PROFINET IO and PROFIsafe to achieve safe and secure real-time fieldbus communication.

  • 58.
    Öhrman, Frida
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Texter om QUASI-projektet: Att popularisera forskningsinformation2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    QUASI-projektet är ett tvärvetenskapligt forskningsprojekt som inkluderar universitet och högskolor i fem europeiska länder. QUASI-samarbetet fokuserar på forskning om jästceller. Projektet avslutades i maj 2007 och de vetenskapliga resultaten ska förklaras för allmänheten. Syftet med mitt examensarbete har varit att utforma lättbegripliga texter om QUASI-projektet för att informera allmänheten om projektet och resultaten. Texterna ska publiceras på en webbsida. Min frågeställning har varit: Hur förenklar man forskningsinformation så att människor utan bakgrundskunskaper i ämnet förstår informationen på ett bra sätt? Jag har använt flera olika metoder för att komma fram till ett slutresultat. Genom att samla in litteratur och genomföra en enkätundersökning fick jag ett material att utgå från. Därefter har jag producerat mina texter, utprovat dem på tänkta användare, bearbetat och utprovat igen. Jag har även utprovat bilder i texterna, och sedan låtit en illustratör göra nya bilder. Jag har arbetat fram texter som enligt utprovningar är lättbegripliga för målgruppen. Jag blev klar med mina texter i tid och de blev godkända av uppdragsgivaren. Därmed har jag uppnått syftet med mitt examensarbete. Jag har lärt mig att det är väldigt personligt hur man populariserar forskning. Att skriva texter är ett hantverk som tar tid att lära sig. Jag har utarbetat ett sätt som fungerar bra för mig, men jag tror att alla har sina egna sätt att arbeta på. Det viktigaste är att man utprovar sitt material i flera omgångar på tänkta slutanvändare, och verkligen lyssnar på vad de har att säga och ändrar sina texter efter det.

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