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  • 51.
    Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Jinhyue, Yan
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Improving policy making through government-industry policy learning: the case of a novel Swedish policy framework2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 399-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change poses an unprecedented challenge for policy makers. This paper analyzes how industry sector policy expertise can contribute to improved policy making processes. Previous research has identified that policy making benefit by including non-governmental policy analysts in learning processes. Recent climate and energy policy developments, including policy amendments and the introduction of new initiatives, have rendered current policy regimes as novel both to governments and the industry. This increases business investment risk perceptions and may thus reduce the effectiveness and efficiency of the policy framework. In order to explore how government-industry policy learning can improve policy making in this context, this article studied the Swedish case. A literature survey analyzed how policy learning had been previously addressed, indentifying that the current situation regarding novel policies had been overlooked. Interviews provided how industrial actors view Swedish policy implementation processes and participatory aspects thereof. The authors conclude that an increased involvement of the industry sector in policy design and management processes can be an important measure to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of climate and energy policies.

  • 52.
    Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Climate and Energy Policy Evaluation in Terms of Relative Industrial Performance and Competitiveness2009In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 450-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to differences in greenhouse-gas abatement costs within the industrial sectors, there is an ongoing discussion on potential negative competitive effects of climate and energy policies. This article argues that policymakers must acknowledge the relative performance of industrial operations parallel to the competitors, the compulsoriness of policies, and the harmonization of policies accordingly. To this end, the authors suggest a tool aimed for robust participatory policy evaluations at decision-maker levels. The tool promotes policy learning, transparency, and consensus building, hence contributing to more effective and efficient policy design and management process. The tool is exemplified in a Swedish context.

  • 53.
    Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. KTH, Sweden.
    Negotiated Agreements as a vehicle for Policy Learning2010In: International Journal of Global Warming, ISSN 1758-2091, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 97-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper evaluates to which extent that different designs of Voluntary Agreements (VAs) can work as catalysts for Policy Learning (PL) and thus contribute to improved policy design and management processes. Through a literature study, it is found that VAs in the form of Negotiated Agreements (NAs) are more successful in promoting PL than other types of VAs that have less focus on the participatory aspect of the policy processes. The paper contributes to the existing VA policy literature through highlighting the predominately overseen learning values of implementing NA as well as providing policy recommendations on VA learning processes

  • 54.
    Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Yan, Jinyue
    Policy evaluation according to relative industrial performance and competitiveness2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Voluntary agreements as a vehicle for policy learning2009In: Proceedings of the Global Conference on Global Warming 2009 (GCGW-09), Istanbul Turkey, 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Present literature identifies policy learning (PL) as contributing to effective and efficient policy design and management processes. Similarly, the participatory nature of specific voluntary agreements (VAs) has been identified as contributing to increased policy framework effectiveness and efficiency. Against this background, this study aims to prove the hypothesis that an increased attention to the possibilities for PL that exists in the VA policy framework can contribute to a better design of VAs, as well as potentially providing more positive evaluations thereof if acknowledging said learning. Hence, the study analyses to which extent that the literature acknowledges VAs’ learning potentials, and evaluates which policy recommendations that can be provided to increase the potential for PL. The study finds that VAs in the form of negotiated agreements are more successful in promoting PL than other types of VAs that have less focus on the participatory aspect of the policy processes. The study also identifies that the policy cycle of negotiated agreements includes four different stages of learning possibilities. As to facilitate that these stages can be fruitfully explored, the study presents recommended policy design and management elements that can increase learning. To this end, the study does not aim to provide recommendations for the entire VA process, as suggestions focus specifically on the learning aspects. The paper contributes to the existing VA policy literature through highlighting the predominately overseen learning values of implementing negotiated agreements as well as providing policy recommendations on VA learning processes.

  • 56.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Energy Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Energy Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Myhren, J. A.
    Building Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Primary energy use in buildings in a Swedish perspective2016In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 130, p. 202-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector accounts for a large part of the energy use in Europe and is a sector where the energy efficiency needs to improve in order to reach the EU energy and climate goals. The energy efficiency goal is set in terms of primary energy even though there are different opinions on how to calculate primary energy. When determining the primary energy use in a building several assumptions are made regarding allocation and the value of different energy sources. In order to analyze the difference in primary energy when different methods are used, this study use 16 combinations of different assumptions to calculate the primary energy use for three simulated heating and ventilations systems in a building. The system with the lowest primary energy use differs depending on the method used. Comparing a system with district heating and mechanical exhaust ventilation with a system with district heating, mechanical exhaust ventilation and exhaust air heat pump, the former has a 40% higher primary energy use in one scenario while the other has a 320% higher in another scenario. This illustrates the difficulty in determining which system makes the largest contribution to fulfilling the EU energy and climate goals.

  • 57.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Myhren, J. A.
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Potential for district heating to lower peak electricity demand in a medium-size municipality in Sweden2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 186, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden faces several challenges with more intermittent power in the energy system. One challenge is to have enough power available in periods with low intermittent production. A solution could be to reduce peak demand and at the same time produce more electricity during these hours. One way of doing this is to convert electricity-based heating in buildings to district heating based on combined heat and power. The study analyzes how much a Swedish municipality can contribute to lowering peak electricity demand. This is done by quantifying the potential to reduce the peak demand for six different scenarios of the future heat demand and heat market shares regarding two different energy carriers: electricity-based heating and district heating. The main finding is that there is a huge potential to decrease peak power demand by the choice of energy carrier for the buildings’ heating system. In order to lower electricity peak demand in the future, the choice of heating system is more important than reducing the heat demand itself. For the scenario with a large share of district heating, it is possible to cover the electricity peak demand in the municipality by using combined heat and power. 

  • 58.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Myhren, J. A.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Life cycle cost of building energy renovation measures, considering future energy production scenarios2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 14, article id 2719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common way of calculating the life cycle cost (LCC) of building renovation measures is to approach it from the building side, where the energy system is considered by calculating the savings in the form of less bought energy. In this study a wider perspective is introduced. The LCC for three different energy renovation measures, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and two different heat pump systems, are compared to a reference case, a building connected to the district heating system. The energy system supplying the building is assumed to be 100% renewable, where eight different future scenarios are considered. The LCC is calculated as the total cost for the renovation measures and the energy systems. All renovation measures result in a lower district heating demand, at the expense of an increased electricity demand. All renovation measures also result in an increased LCC, compared to the reference building. When aiming for a transformation towards a 100% renewable system in the future, this study shows the importance of having a system perspective, and also taking possible future production scenarios into consideration when evaluating building renovation measures that are carried out today, but will last for several years, in which the energy production system, hopefully, will change.

  • 59.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Byggteknik.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Life Cycle Cost of Heat Supply to Areas with Detached Houses: A Comparison of District Heating and Heat Pumps from an Energy System Perspective2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 3266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are different views on whether district heating (DH) or heat pumps (HPs) is or are the best heating solution in order to reach a 100% renewable energy system. This article investigates the economic perspective, by calculating and comparing the energy system life cycle cost (LCC) for the two solutions in areas with detached houses. The LCC is calculated using Monte Carlo simulation, where all input data is varied according to predefined probability distributions. In addition to the parameter variations, 16 different scenarios are evaluated regarding the main fuel for the DH, the percentage of combined heat and power (CHP), the DH temperature level, and the type of electrical backup power. Although HP is the case with the lowest LCC for most of the scenarios, there are alternatives for each scenario in which either HP or DH has the lowest LCC. In alternative scenarios with additional electricity transmission costs, and a marginal cost perspective regarding the CHP investment, DH has the lowest LCC overall, taking into account all scenarios. The study concludes that the decision based on energy system economy on whether DH should expand into areas with detached houses must take local conditions into consideration.

  • 60.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Högskolan Dalarna, Sweden.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna, Sweden.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Mapping of heat and electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in Sweden2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1434-1439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic electricity system faces many challenges with an increased share of intermittent power from renewable sources. One such challenge is to have enough capacity installed to cover the peak demands. In Sweden these peaks appear during the winter since a lot of electricity is used for heating. In this paper a mapping of the heat and electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in Sweden is presented. The paper analyze the potential for a larger market share of district heating (DH) and how it can affect the electrical power balance in the case study. The current heat market (HM) and electricity consumption is presented and divided into different user categories. Heating in detached houses not connected to DH covers 25 % of the HM, and 30 % of the electricity consumption during the peak hours. Converting the detached houses not connected to DH in densely populated areas to DH could reduce the annual electricity consumption by 10 %, and the electricity consumption during the peak hours by 20 %.

  • 61.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping Univ.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    An energy efficiency program for Swedish industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises2010In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 18, no 13, p. 1339-1346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy programs such as energy audit programs and long-term agreements (LTAs) are one of the most common means of promoting energy efficiency in industry. As a result of the European Energy End-Use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive from 2006, the Swedish Government Bill proposed a national energy program towards industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) using more than 500 MWh energy annually. The aim of this paper is to present the structure and design of the program, adopted in 2010, the logics in brief behind the structure, as well as an ex-ante evaluation of the program's cost-effectiveness. The paper is aimed towards the part of the program involving industry, i.e. not the part involving companies within service and sales etc. The proposed design primarily includes a subsidized energy audit with some minor LTA-elements, such as the need to report results from the energy audit, to present a plan over which measures to conduct, and after three years present which measures that were implemented. The ex-ante evaluation of the program shows a cost-effectiveness of 0.25-0.50 Eurocents/kWh, yielding savings of about 700-1 400 GWh annually.

  • 62.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Fortum.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Automatic meter reading provides opportunities for new prognosis and simulation methods2007In: 2007 IEEE Lausanne POWERTECH, Proceedings, 2007, p. 2006-2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of top-down models, for load forecasting purposes, has been the dominating method over the last decades. However, there is now a discussion regarding the performance of the top-down models, e.g. in situations with unusual weather conditions due to the lack of historical data. This paper considers an alternative bottom-up approach with a stronger relation to the laws of physics. Electricity companies in Sweden are installing automatic meter reading systems for their customers, and using the consumption data gives new possibilities when adapting the modeling parameters in a bottom-up model for each single customer. A method for analyzing individual consumption series is suggested, where different periods in time is used to divide and identify different parts of the electricity load; base load, heat load and household loads. A review of previous work is presented, and suggestions how to link the load analysis to construction parameters for an individual building is proposed.

  • 63.
    Wetterlund, E.
    et al.
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University.
    Leduc, S.
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kindermann, G.
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), 2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Optimal use of forest residues in Europe under different policies-second generation biofuels versus combined heat and power2013In: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6815, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has set a 10 % target for the share of renewable energy in the transportation sector for 2020. To reach this target, second generation biofuels from, for example, forest residues are expected to replace around 3 % of the transport fossil fuel consumption. However, forest residues could also be utilised in the heat and electricity sectors where large amounts of fossil fuels can be replaced, thus reducing global fossil CO2 emissions. This study investigates the use of forest residues for second generation biofuel (ethanol or methanol) or combined heat and power (CHP) production at the European level, with focus on the influence of different economic policy instruments, such as carbon cost or biofuel policy support. A techno-economic, geographically explicit optimisation model is used. The model determines the optimal locations of bioenergy conversion plants by minimising the cost of the entire supply chain. The results show that in order to reach a 3 % second generation biofuel share, a biofuel support comparable to today's tax exemptions would be needed. With a carbon cost applied, most available forest residues would be allocated to CHP production, with a substantial resulting CO2 emission reduction potential. The major potential for woody biomass and biofuel production is found in the region around the Baltic Sea, with Italy as one of the main biofuel importers.

  • 64.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    Int Inst Appl Syst Anal, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Kindermann, Georg
    Int Inst Appl Syst Anal, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Optimal localisation of biofuel production on a European scale2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 462-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development and use of an optimisation model suitable for analysis of biofuel production scenarios in the EU, with the aim of examining second generation biofuel production. Two policy instruments are considered - targeted biofuel support and a CO2 cost. The results show that over 3% of the total transport fuel demand can be met by second generation biofuels at a cost of approximately 65-73 EUR/MWh. With current energy prices, this demands biofuel support comparable to existing tax exemptions (around 30 EUR/MWh), or a CO2 cost of around 60 EUR/t(CO2). Parameters having large effect on biofuel production include feedstock availability, fossil fuel price and capital costs. It is concluded that in order to avoid suboptimal energy systems, heat and electricity applications should also be included when evaluating optimal bioenergy use. It is also concluded that while forceful policies promoting biofuels may lead to a high biofuel share at reasonable costs, this is not a certain path towards maximised CO2 emission mitigation. Policies aiming to promote the use of bioenergy thus need to be carefully designed in order to avoid conflicts between different parts of the EU targets for renewable energy and CO2 emission mitigation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 65. Widarsson, Björn
    et al.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Bayesian network-based early-warning for leakage in recovery boilers2008In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 754-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early-warning for leakage in a recovery boiler can help the process operator to detect faults and take action when a dangerous situation is developing. By analysing the mass-balances on both the steam and combustion side of the boiler in a Bayesian network, the probability of leakage can be determined and used as an early-warning. The method is tested with real plant data combined with leakage simulations. The results show that it is possible to detect considerably smaller leakages using this method than using the type of simple steam-side mass-balance method that is in use today. Bayesian network is an efficient tool to combine information from measurement signals and calculations giving an early-warning system that is robust to signal faults

12 51 - 65 of 65
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