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  • 351.
    Zhang, Guoqiang
    et al.
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Jin, Hongguang
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Polygeneration system with CO2 capture integrated with black liquor gasification in pulp and paper mills to produce methanol and power2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the KAMa reference pulp and paper mill, polygeneration systems integrating a black liquor gasifier with CO2 captured by means of oxygen-fuel combustion and Selexol pre-combustion are introduced and studied. Compared with the reference system the polygeneration system produces additional 73.5MW methanol while reducing electricity product of 11.2MW with the investment incremental of 8.6%. The energy penalty due to CO2 capture and compression is 0.46 MJ electricity per kg CO2 avoided for oxygen-fuel method at a cost of 25.9$ /tonne CO2. However, the energy penalty can reach 1.33 MJ Methanol per kg CO2 avoided in the Selexol pre-combustion CO2 capture process at a cost of 48.6$ /tonne CO2.

  • 352.
    Zhang, Guoqiang
    et al.
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Jin, Hongguang
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Integrated Black Liquor Gasification Polygeneration System with CO2 Capture in Pulp and Paper Mills to Produce Methanol and Electricity2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the KAMa reference pulp and paper mill, polygeneration systems with a black liquorgasifier are studied. The systems introduce black liquor gasifier to replace a recovery boiler inpulp mills to produce both methanol and electricity while capturing CO2 by means of oxygen-fuelcombustion and Selexol pre-combustion. The systems are simulated and compared with or withoutCO2 capture integrated with black liquor gasification. The productions of methanol and electricityfrom the black liquor are compared with that of the reference system, which is defined as arecovery boiler based power generation system. Thermodynamic and economic performanceincluding efficiency and costs are compared between the polygeneration systems and the referencesystem. Compared with the reference system the polygeneration system produces additional73.5MW methanol while reducing electricity of 11.2MW with the investment incremental of 8.6%.The penalty due to CO2 capture and compression is 0.46 MJ electricity/kg CO2 avoided foroxygen-fuel combustion method (86% carbon capture). This penalty is much lower than that ofthe CO2 penalty in coal power plant which is in the range of about 0.91 (IGCC, 91.7% CO2capture) to 1.56 (steam power, 91.7% CO2 capture) MJ electricity/kg CO2. However, due to thelarge steam demand and methanol production, the CO2 penalty can reach 1.33 MJ Methanol /kgCO2 avoided in the Selexol capture system (73% carbon capture). The incremental cost due toCO2 capture and storage is 22.9 $/tonne CO2 for oxyfuel combustion and 48.6 $/tonne CO2 forSelexol capture. For the large demand of steam in the mill, much syngas is used to meet the steamdememd, which limits the production of methanol, especially in the case of Selexol capture ofCO2.

  • 353.
    Zhang, Guoqiang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Jin, Hongguang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Engn Thermophys, Beijing.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Integrated black liquor gasification polygeneration system with CO2 Capture in pulp and paper mills to produce methanol and electricity2011In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 275-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on KAMa pulp and paper mill, a polygeneration system integrated with a black liquor gasifier is proposed. The effects of CO2 captured by oxygen-fuel combustion and Selexol absorption on the performance of the polygeneration system are studied in terms of both thermodynamic performance and cost assessment. Using the Aspen Plus simulator, the performance of the studied polygeneration systems are analyzed from the perspectives of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Compared with the reference system, the first law efficiency of the polygeneration system increased from 15.7% to 29.3%, with an investment increment of 17.9%. The investment incremental rates for CO 2 capture by oxyfuel combustion and Selexol absorption are 15.1% and 16.7%, respectively. Energy penalty due to CO2 capture and compression is 0.61 MJ electricity/kg CO2, avoided in the oxygen-fuel method at a cost of $29.6/tonne CO2. However, energy penalty can reach 1.03 MJ product (electricity and methanol) per kg CO2, avoided in the Selexol absorption CO2 capture process at a cost of $46.0/tonne CO2.

  • 354.
    Zhang, H.
    et al.
    University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Li, X.
    University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Liu, X.
    University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Enhancing fuel cell durability for fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicles through strategic power management2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 241, p. 483-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (FC-PHEVs) can have extended range while utilizing cheap grid electricity, but has poor durability of onboard fuel cells due to dynamic loading. In this study, fuel cell durability is enhanced significantly for a novel configuration of FC-PHEVs with three fuel cell stacks through strategic power management by making each fuel cell stack work only at a fixed operating point (i.e., constant output power) and by shortening its active time (operation) via on-off switching control. A hysteresis control strategy of power management is designed to make the active time evenly distributed over the three fuel cell stacks and to reduce the number of on-off switching. The results indicate that the durability of the onboard fuel cells can be increased 11.8, 4.8 and 6.9 times, respectively, for an urban, highway and a combined urban-highway driving cycle. This enhanced fuel cell durability is derived from the fact that the average power demand of real-time driving cycles is only a fraction of the maximum power that FC-PHEVs could provide, and substantially increased durability can be used to reduce the over-design, hence the cost, of fuel cells. 

  • 355.
    Zhang, J.
    et al.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Liu, J.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhang, R.
    Institute of Water Resources for Pastoral Areas, Hohhot, China .
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Gao, X.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Model of evapotranspiration and groundwater level based on photovoltaic water pumping system2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 136, p. 1132-1137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic (PV) water pumping system has been proved being environmental-friendly and low energy-cost, which has a promising prospect in arid areas which are rich in solar energy resources. However, water resources remain to be one of the main restraints to the application of PV water pumping system widely. Models to evaluate the evapotranspiration and groundwater level in the well are estimated based on the data of a field trip, which was conducted in Wulanchabu grassland, Inner Mongolia, China. Data about the performance of the PV water pumping system, including evapotranspiration and the groundwater level variation were collected. In this paper, evapotranspiration is calculated by Penman-Monteith method and Theis formula is introduced to calculate the soil characters and simulate the groundwater level variation. PRMSE and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency are used to validate the model performance with the collected lysimeter data and groundwater level. The results show that the modeling of the evapotranspiration and groundwater level is reliable. According to the water demand and energy demand, the method to optimize the pumping system is introduced. Based on the calculated result and collected data of water demand and groundwater level, groundwater in the site is abundant to support the system. However, due to the stickiness of the soil condition, the recharge rate is smaller than the pumping rate. According to the comparison, the current system is oversized. In this condition, the pump would run out of water, and have to stop pumping. Therefore, not only the water quantity is an important factor to be considered, the soil condition and recharge rate are also of great significance to the optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems.

  • 356.
    Zhang, Jie
    et al.
    Univ Maryland, USA..
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yao, Tian
    Univ Space Res Assoc, Columbia, USA..
    Zhang, Yang
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundblad, Anders
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Melton, Forrest
    NASA ARC CREST, Calif State Univ Monterey Bay, USA..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The water-food-energy nexus optimization approach to combat agricultural drought: a case study in the United States2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, p. 449-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The frequent recent drought events in the Great Plains of United States have led to significant crop yield reductions and crop price surges. Using an integrated water-food-energy nexus modelling and optimization approach, this study laid the basis for developing an effective agricultural drought management system by combining real-time drought monitoring with real-time irrigation management. The proposed water-food-energy simulation and optimization method is spatially explicit and was applied to one major corn region in Nebraska. The crop simulations, validated with yield statistics, showed that a drought year like 2012 can potentially reduce the corn yield by 50% as compared to a wet year like 2009. The simulation results show that irrigation can play a key role in halting crop losses due to drought and in sustaining high yields of up to 20 t/ha. Nevertheless, the water-food-energy relationship shows that significant investments on water and energy are required to limit the negative effects of drought. The multi-criteria optimization problem developed in this study shows that the optimal crop yield does not necessarily correspond to the maximum yield, resulting in potential water and energy savings. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 357.
    Zhang, X.X.
    et al.
    Beijing Forestry University, China.
    Liu, J.G.
    South University of Science & Technology of China (SUSTC), China.
    Tang, Y.
    South University of Science & Technology of China, China.
    Zhao, X.
    Hohai University, China.
    Yang, H.
    University of Basel, Suisse.
    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Van Vliet, M.T.H
    Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    China's coal-fired power plants impose pressure on water resources2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 161, p. 1171-1179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coal is the dominant fuel for electricity generation around the world. This type of electricity generation uses large amounts of water, increasing pressure on water resources. This calls for an in-depth investigation in the water-energy nexus of coal-fired electricity generation. In China, coal-fired power plants play an important role in the energy supply. Here we assessed water consumption of coal-fired power plants (CPPs) in China using four cooling technologies: closed-cycle cooling, once-through cooling, air cooling, and seawater cooling. The results show that water consumption of CPPs was 3.5 km(3), accounting for 11% of total industrial water consumption in China. Eighty-four percent of this water consumption was from plants with closed-cycle cooling. China's average water intensity of CPPs was 1.15 l/kWh, while the intensity for closed-cycle cooling was 3-10 times higher than that for other cooling technologies. About 75% of water consumption of CPPs was from regions with absolute or chronic water scarcity. The results imply that the development of CPPs needs to explicitly consider their impacts on regional water resources. 

  • 358.
    Zhang, Y.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lundblad, A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, L.
    Chongqing University, Chongqing, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Swed.
    The Influence of Photovoltaic Models and Battery Models in System Simulation and Optimization2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1184-1191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting accurate and robust models is important for simulation and optimization of a clean energy system. This paper compares two photovoltaic (PV) models and two battery models in an open-source code, Opti-CE. The PV models are single diode model and its simplified model. The battery models are Improved Shepherd model and energy balance model. The models are compared from a perspective of overall system simulation and optimization in particular on both accuracy and computational time. The results indicate that simplified PV model causes 0.86% normalized root mean square error (nRMSE) compared with the single diode model, while decreases the simulation time from more than 800s to less than 0.01s. The energy balance battery model reduces simulation time from more than 5s to less than 0.03s. The energy balance model tends to underestimate the battery State of Charge (SOC) compared with the Improved Shepherd model. However, the error is not accumulative during the simulation. Compared to the Pareto front with single diode model and Improved Shepherd model, the simplified PV model increases the Pareto front values and result in both higher Self Sufficiency Ratio (SSR) and Net Present Value (NPV), while the energy balance battery model decreases the part of Pareto front, where individuals have low NPV. 

  • 359.
    Zhang, Y.
    et al.
    KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yang, Ying
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lundblad, A.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Energy flexibility from the consumer: Integrating local electricity and heat supplies in a building2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 223, p. 430-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing penetration level of renewable energy requires more flexibility measures to be implemented in future energy systems. Integrating an energy consumer’s local energy supplies connects multiple energy networks (i.e., the electrical grid, the district heating network, and gas network) in a decentralized way. Such integration enhances the flexibility of energy systems. In this work, a Swedish office building is investigated as a case study. Different components, including heat pump, electrical heater, battery and hot water storage tank are integrated into the electricity and heat supply system of the building. Special focus is placed on the flexibility that the studied building can provide to the electrical grid (i.e., the building modulates the electricity consumption in response to the grid operator’s requirements). The flexibility is described by two metrics including the flexibility hours and the flexibility energy. Optimization of the component capacities and the operation profiles is carried out by using Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). The results show that the system fully relies on electricity for the heat demand when not considering the flexibility requirements of the electrical grid. This suggests that district heating is economically unfavorable compared with using electricity for the heat demand in the studied case. However, when flexibility requirements are added, the system turns to the district heating network for part of the heat demand. The system provides great flexibility to the electrical grid through such integration. The flexibility hours can be over 5200 h in a year, and the flexibility energy reaches more than 15.7 MWh (36% of the yearly electricity consumption). The yearly operation cost of the system slightly increases from 62,273 to 65,178 SEK when the flexibility hours increase from 304 to 5209 h. The results revealed that flexibility can be provided from the district heating network to the electrical grid via the building.

  • 360.
    Zhang, Y.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundblad, A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comparative Study of Battery Storage and Hydrogen Storage to Increase Photovoltaic Self-sufficiency in a Residential Building of Sweden2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 103, p. 268-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic (PV) is promising to supply power for residential buildings. Battery is the most widely employed storage method to mitigate the intermittence of PV and to overcome the mismatch between production and load. Hydrogen storage is another promising method that it is suitable for long-term storage. This study focuses on the comparison of self-sufficiency ratio and cost performance between battery storage and hydrogen storage for a residential building in Sweden. The results show that battery storage is superior to the hydrogen storage in the studied case. Sensitivity study of the component cost within the hydrogen storage system is also carried out. Electrolyzer cost is the most sensitive factor for improving system performance. A hybrid battery and hydrogen storage system, which can harness the advantages of both battery and hydrogen storages, is proposed in the last place.

  • 361.
    Zhang, Y.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Benavente, F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Battery sizing and rule-based operation of grid-connected photovoltaic-battery system: A case study in Sweden2017In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 133, p. 249-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optimal components design for grid-connected photovoltaic-battery systems should be determined with consideration of system operation. This study proposes a method to simultaneously optimize the battery capacity and rule-based operation strategy. The investigated photovoltaic-battery system is modeled using single diode photovoltaic model and Improved Shepherd battery model. Three rule-based operation strategies—including the conventional operation strategy, the dynamic price load shifting strategy, and the hybrid operation strategy—are designed and evaluated. The rule-based operation strategies introduce different operation parameters to run the system operation. multi-objective Genetic Algorithm is employed to optimize the decisional variables, including battery capacity and operation parameters, towards maximizing the system's Self Sufficiency Ratio and Net Present Value. The results indicate that employing battery with the conventional operation strategy is not profitable, although it increases Self Sufficiency Ratio. The dynamic price load shifting strategy has similar performance with the conventional operation strategy because the electricity price variation is not large enough. The proposed hybrid operation strategy outperforms other investigated strategies. When the battery capacity is lower than 72 kW h, Self Sufficiency Ratio and Net Present Value increase simultaneously with the battery capacity.

  • 362.
    Zhang, Y.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Employing battery storage to increase photovoltaic self-sufficiency in a residential building of Sweden2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 88, p. 455-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic (PV) or hybrid PV-battery systems are promising to supply power for residential buildings. In this study, the load profile of a multi apartment building in Gothenburg and the PV production profile under local weather conditions are compared and analyzed. Three different types of batteries, including lead acid, NaNiCl (Sodium-Nickel-Chloride) and Lithium ion, are studied in combination with the PV systems. It is found that Lithium ion battery system is superior in achieving higher Self-Sufficiency Ratio (SSR) with the same Life Cycle Cost (LCC). Achieving high SSR with the hybrid PV-battery system is unrealistic because of the seasonal mismatch between the load and electricity production profile. The capacity match between the PV and battery to maximize SSR was investigated, showing different trends under system LCC range of 0.1-40 Million SEK (1SEK≈0.12USD). The system LCC should be lower than 10.6 Million SEK (at the SSR of 36%) in order to keep the payback time positive. 

  • 363.
    Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Anders, Lundblad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Comparative study of hydrogen storage and battery storage in grid connected photovoltaic system: Storage sizing and rule-based operation2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 201, p. 397-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper studies grid-connected photovoltaic (PV)-hydrogen/battery systems. The storage component capacities and the rule-based operation strategy parameters are simultaneously optimized by the Genetic Algorithm. Three operation strategies for the hydrogen storage, namely conventional operation strategy, peak shaving strategy and hybrid operation strategy, are compared under two scenarios based on the pessimistic and optimistic costs. The results indicate that the hybrid operation strategy, which combines the conventional operation strategy and the peak shaving strategy, is advantageous in achieving higher Net Present Value (NPV) and Self Sufficiency Ratio (SSR). Hydrogen storage is further compared with battery storage. Under the pessimistic cost scenario, hydrogen storage results in poorer performance in both SSR and NPV. While under the optimistic cost scenario, hydrogen storage achieves higher NPV. Moreover, when taking into account the grid power fluctuation, hydrogen storage achieves better performance in all three optimization objectives, which are NPV, SSR and GI (Grid Indicator). 

  • 364. Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Anders, Lundblad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhang, Chi
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH, Sweden.
    Building Energy System: From System Planning To Operation2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 365.
    Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Energy Proc, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Energy Proc, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.; Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Lundblad, Anders
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Safety & Transport Elect, SE-50462 Boras, Sweden..
    Zheng, Wandong
    Tianjin Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Technol, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Energy Proc, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.; Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Planning and operation of an integrated energy system in a Swedish building2019In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 199, article id 111920Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More flexibility measures are required due to the increasing capacities of variable renewable energies (VRE). In buildings, the integration of energy supplies forms integrated energy systems (IES). IESs can provide flexibility and increase the VRE penetration level. To upgrade a current building energy system into an IES, several energy conversion and storage components are needed. How to decide the component capacities and operate the IES were investigated separately in studies on system planning and system operation. However, a research gap exists that the system configuration from system planning is not validated by actual operation conditions in system operation. Meanwhile, studies on system operation assume that IES configurations are predetermined. This work combines system planning and system operation. The IES configuration is determined by mixed integer linear programming in system planning. Actual operation conditions and forecast errors are considered in system operation. The actual operation profiles are obtained through year-round simulations of different energy management systems. The results indicate that the system configuration from system planning can meet energy demands in system operation. Among different energy management systems, the combination of robust optimization and receding horizon optimization achieves the lowest yearly operation cost. Meanwhile, two scenarios that represent high and low forecast accuracies are studied. Under the high and low forecast accuracy scenarios, the yearly operation costs are about 4% and 6% higher than that obtained from system planning.

  • 366.
    Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yang, Ying
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lundblad, Anders
    Division Safety and Transport/Electronics, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, SE-50462 Borås, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Energy Flexibility through the Integrated Energy Supply System in Buildings: A Case Study in Sweden2018In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 145, p. 564-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing penetration level of renewable energies requires more flexibility measures at the consumption side. Flexible energy prices have been placed by energy providers to promote flexibility measures from energy users. However, because of the current energy supply system in buildings, these flexible energy prices haven’t been fully taken advantage of. This study focuses on the integrated energy supply system in buildings. A Swedish office building is used as the case study. The integrated energy supply system is built by installing new components, including battery, heat pump and electrical heater, and hot water tank. Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problems are solved to determine the optimal component capacities and operation profiles. The results indicate that all the studied system configurations achieve lower net present cost (NPC) than the current system. It suggests that the integrated energy supply system can take advantage of the flexible energy prices and lower the overall energy cost in the building. Among the studied configurations, the combination of air source heat pump (ASHP) and electrical heater (EH) has the lowest investment cost. This combination also has the lowest NPC except in the scenario with low borehole cost.

  • 367.
    Zhanga, C.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Business model innovation on the photovoltaic water pumping systems for grassland and farmland conservation in China2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 1483-1486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Penetration of the renewable market of Photovoltaic PV technologies calls for the extension of the additional values generated from the technology including climate and social co-benefits as radical innovations in a new business model. Compared with existing PV business models, this paper extends the value proposition into operation system and customer segmentation, investigated by a pilot demonstration of PV water pumping (PVWP) systems for the conservation of grassland and farmland in China. The paper suggests that the integrated PVWP systems can combine the implementation of technology with environmental co-benefits, agricultural products by developing an interactive interface to link a social network. This can further disseminate benefits to stimulate the active participations of investments from individuals and corporations. Discounted cash flow (DCF) model and net present value (NPV) evaluations have been conducted on the traditional PV roof, PVWP pilot and PVWP scale up scenarios. The results show that the scenario of integrated PVWP system with social network products can significantly improve the payback period (PP) and increase internal rate of return (IRR). Based on the PVWP pilots and relevant industrial environments, the results in this paper provide how the innovative PV business model innovation can improve the present practices and policies on PV technologies implementation.

  • 368.
    Zhou, Wei
    et al.
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ.
    Yang, Hongxing
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ.
    Rissanen, Markku
    ABB AB.
    Nygren, Bertil
    ABB AB.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Decrease of energy demand for bioethanol-based polygeneration system through case study2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 95, p. 305-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic competitiveness of bioethanol production strongly depends on the amount of heat and power consumed during the production process. Integration of different energy conversion processes by polygeneration is one of the solutions to minimize the use of energy resources to best meet user's energy demands. In this study, a biogas generation system, a Fuel Cell system and a green house are integrated in the bioethanol plant to form a polygeneration system. At the same time, in order to further reduce the consumption of external energy sources, possibilities of heat energy integration, which looks for the best utilization of energy flows generated or consumed inside the process, have been investigated. Simulation of the polygeneration system is carried out by Simulink; energy saving potential for the polygeneration plant is analyzed to find the optimum configuration to maximize the electricity production while producing sufficient heat from both the Fuel Cell unit and pellets combustion to satisfy the energy requirements of the whole plant. Based on the simulation results, detailed energy and mass flow processes of the whole polygeneration plant was presented.

  • 369.
    Zhu, K.
    et al.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Xueqiang
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. School of Chemical Science & Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Techno-economic feasibility of integrating energy storage systems in refrigerated warehouses2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 216, p. 348-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work evaluates the techno-economic feasibility of integrating the cold energy storage system and the electrical energy storage system in a refrigerated warehouse for shifting the power consumption. A dynamic model has been developed in TRNSYS®. Based on the dynamic simulation, the performance and benefit of those two types of energy storage systems were compared. Results showed that, the integration of a cold energy storage can reduce the electricity consumption and operational cost by 4.3% and 20.5%, respectively. Even though integrating a battery system will increase the electricity consumption by 3.9%, it can reduce the operational cost by 18.7%. The capacity of the energy storage systems, the battery price and the peak electricity price had been identified as key parameters affecting the performance and benefit. To achieve a payback period less than 3 year, for the integration of a cold energy storage system, the peak electricity price should be increased by 25% from the current level, while for the integration of a battery system, the battery price should drop to 0.7 kRMB/kWh.

  • 370.
    Zhu, Z. -S
    et al.
    Beijing Institute of Technology.
    Liao, H.
    Beijing Institute of Technology.
    Cao, H. -S
    Beijing Institute of Technology.
    Wang, L.
    Beijing Institute of Technology.
    Wei, Y. -M
    Beijing Institute of Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The differences of carbon intensity reduction rate across 89 countries in recent three decades2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 113, p. 808-815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent decades, most countries' CO2 intensity has decreased, but their decline rates are significantly different. Based on the data set of 89 countries from 1980 to 2008, this paper tries to quantitatively investigate the potential reasons for their differences, and discusses the possibility for developing countries to maintain a high carbon intensity reduction rate in the future as before. The econometric analysis implicate that (1) the decline rate of CO2 intensity in countries with high initial carbon intensity will be higher, which means CO2 intensity across the world has a significant convergence trend; and (2) keeping fast and steady economic growth can significantly help CO2 intensity decline, yet total carbon dioxide emissions will grow dramatically. Therefore, with the two objectives of intensity reduction and total amount control, carbon abatement policies need to weigh one against another. The results are robust to the initial year selection and country classification.

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