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  • 351.
    Zahraoui, Younes
    et al.
    FinEst Centre for Smart Cities, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Korõtko, Tarmo
    FinEst Centre for Smart Cities, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Rosin, Argo
    FinEst Centre for Smart Cities, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Zidane, Tekai Eddine Khalil
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Mekhilef, Saad
    Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, School of Software and Electrical Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria, VIC, Australia.
    A Real-Time Simulation for P2P Energy Trading Using a Distributed Algorithm2024In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the deployment of Renewable Energy Resources (RES) , along with innovations in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), would allow prosumers to engage in the energy market and trade their excess energy with each other and with the main grid. To ensure an efficient and safe operation of energy trading, the Peer-to-Peer (P2P) energy trading approach has emerged as a viable paradigm to provide the necessary flexibility and coordinate the energy sharing between a pair of prosumers. The P2P approach is based on the concept of decentralized energy trading between prosumers (i.e., production capabilities or energy consumers). However, security protection and real-time transaction issues in the P2P market present serious challenges. In this paper, we propose a decentralized P2P energy trading approach for the energy market with high penetration of RE. First, the P2P energy market platform proposed coordinating the energy trading between energy providers and consumers to maximize their social welfare. A distributed algorithm is applied to solve the market-clearing problem based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). In this way, the computational complexity can be reduced. Furthermore, a P2P Manager (P2PM) utility is introduced as an entity to solve the synchronization problem between peers during the market clearing. Finally, through a real-time application using Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL), the effectiveness of the proposed P2PM is verified in terms of synchronizing the market participants and improving the power transaction. 

  • 352.
    Zainali, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Microclimate modelling for agrivoltaic systems2024Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing global electricity consumption and population growth have resulted in conflicts between renewable energy sources, such as bioenergy and ground-mounted photovoltaic systems, owing to the limited availability of suitable land caused by competing land uses. This challenge is further compounded by the intertwined relationship between energy and agri-food systems, where approximately 30% of global energy is consumed. In addition, considering that agricultural irrigation accounts for 70% of water use worldwide, its impact on both land and water resources becomes a critical concern. Agrivoltaics offers a potential solution to this land use conflict. However, a knowledge gap remains regarding the impact of integrating these techniques on microclimatic conditions. Addressing this gap is crucial because these conditions directly affect the growth and development of crops, as well as the efficiency of energy yields in photovoltaic panels. Experimental facilities offer valuable insights tailored to specific locations and system designs. Although they provide an in-depth understanding of a particular location, the extrapolation of this information to different locations or alternative systems may be limited. Therefore, the broader applicability of these insights to diverse settings or alternative systems remains unclear. In this thesis, a modelling procedure was developed to evaluate the photosynthetically active radiation reaching crops in typical agrivoltaic configurations across three diverse geographical locations in Europe. This is essential for understanding how solar panel shading affects the incoming photosynthetically active radiation required for crop photosynthesis. Furthermore, computational fluid dynamics were employed to model and assess the microclimate of an experimental agrivoltaic system. The developed model revealed significant variations in photosynthetically active radiation distribution across different agrivoltaic systems and locations, emphasising the need for tailored designs for optimal energy yield and crop productivity. Computational fluid dynamics analysis demonstrated its effectiveness in evaluating microclimatic parameters such as air and soil temperature, wind speed, and solar irradiance within agrivoltaic systems, providing valuable insights for system optimisation. By bridging a knowledge gap, this thesis contributes to the understanding of the modelling and simulation of agrivoltaic system microclimates, thereby facilitating the sustainable coexistence of renewable electricity conversion and agriculture.

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  • 353.
    Zainali, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lindahl, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Technology Management and Economics, SE-412 96, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lindén, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    LCOE distribution of PV for single-family dwellings in Sweden2023In: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 10, p. 1951-1967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the installations of solar photovoltaic systems are growing rapidly, and especially the market segment of small-scale distributed systems is experiencing positive growth. The current installation volumes exceed the expectations of the Swedish authorities. This study presents an up-to-date assessment of the levelized cost of electricity to be used for both agencies in their long-term scenario work of PV development and for private investors for estimating the upfront and future costs and risks associated with photovoltaic systems. The analysis is based on the turnkey system cost of 6,098 single-family dwelling photovoltaic systems commissioned in Sweden between the 1st of January 2019 and 1st of July 2020. The statistics of system investments costs are complemented by literature studies and by interviews of relevant stakeholders for the other input parameters needed to calculate the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). A Monte Carlo analysis was applied on all the input parameters provides relevant insight into the range of LCOE values. The unsubsidized levelized cost of electricity for most systems ranged from 0.85 SEK/kWh (25th percentile) to 1.15 SEK/kWh (75th percentile), with a mean at 1.02 SEK/kWh at reasonable real discount rate of 2%, but that extreme values can reach 0.30 SEK/kWh at a 0% discount rate and 5.70 SEK/kWh at a 5% discount rate. Taking into account the current (2023) Swedish tax reduction for investment in green technologies that amounts to an effective deduction of 19.4% of the total system investment costs lowers the LCOE to mean at 0.82 SEK/kWh at real discount rate of 2%. The LCOE for single-family dwelling photovoltaic systems are generally lower than the assumed LCOE in long-term scenario studies of the Swedish electricity system. This finding helps to explain to the authorities the unexpected fast deployment of distributed photovoltaic systems in Sweden.

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  • 354.
    Zainali, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ma Lu, Silvia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Amaducci, S.
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dept. of Sustainable Crop Production, Piacenza, Italy.
    Colauzzi, M.
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dept. of Sustainable Crop Production, Piacenza, Italy.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Direct and diffuse shading factors modelling for the most representative agrivoltaic system layouts2023In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 339, article id 120981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agrivoltaic systems are becoming increasingly popular as a crucial technology for attaining multiple sustainable development goals, such as affordable and clean energy, zero hunger, clean water and sanitation, and climate action. However, a comprehensive understanding of the shading effects on crops is essential for choosing an optimal agrivoltaic system, as an incorrect choice can result in significant crop yield reductions. In this study, fixed vertical, one-axis tracking, and two-axis tracking photovoltaic arrays were developed for agrivoltaic applications to analyse the shading conditions on the ground used for crop production. The models demonstrated remarkable accuracy in comparison to commercial software such as PVsyst® and SketchUp®. These models will help to reduce crop yield uncertainty under agrivoltaic systems by providing accurate photosynthetically active radiation distribution at the crop level. The photosynthetically active radiation distribution was further analysed using a light homogeneity index, and the results showed that homogeneity and photosynthetically active radiation reduction varied significantly depending on the agrivoltaic system design, ranging from 86% to 95%, and 11% to 22%, respectively. Studying the effect of shading with distribution analysis is crucial for identifying the most suitable agrivoltaic system layout for specific crops and geographical locations.

  • 355.
    Zainali, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ma Lu, Silvia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Amaducci, Stefano
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dept. of Sustainable Crop Production, Emilia Parmense 84, Piacenza, Italy.
    Colauzzi, Michele
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dept. of Sustainable Crop Production, Emilia Parmense 84, Piacenza, Italy.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Direct and diffuse shading factors modelling for the most representative agrivoltaic system layoutsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Agrivoltaic systems are becoming more popular as a critical technology for attaining several sustainable development goals such as affordable and clean energy, zero hunger, clean water and sanitation, and climate action. However, understanding the shading effects on crops is fundamental to choosing an optimal agrivoltaic system as a wrong choice could lead to severe crop reductions. In this study, fixed vertical, one-axis tracking, and two-axis tracking photovoltaic arrays for agrivoltaic applications are developed to analyse the shading conditions on the ground used for crop production. The models have shown remarkably similar accuracy compared to commercial software such as PVsyst® and SketchUp®. The developed models will help reduce the crop yield uncertainty under agrivoltaic systems by providing accurate photosynthetically active radiation distribution at the crop level. The distribution was further analysed using a light homogeneity index and calculating the yearly photosynthetically active radiation reduction. The homogeneity and photosynthetically active radiation reduction varied significantly depending on the agrivoltaic system design, from 91% to 95% and 11% to 34%, respectively. To identify the most suitable agrivoltaic system layout dependent on crop and geographical location, it is of fundamental importance to study the effect of shadings with distribution analysis.

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  • 356.
    Zainali, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Qadir, Omar
    Mälardalen University.
    Parlak, Sertac Cem
    Mälardalen University.
    Lu, Silvia Ma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Computational fluid dynamics modelling of microclimate for a vertical agrivoltaic system2023In: Energy Nexus, ISSN 2772-4271, Vol. 9, article id 100173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing worldwide population is leading to a continuous increase in energy and food demand. These increasing demands have led to fierce land-use conflicts as we need agricultural land for food production while striving towards renewable energy systems such as large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, which also require in most of the cases agricultural flat land for implementation. It is therefore essential to identify the interrelationships between the food, and energy sectors and develop sustainable solutions to achieve global goals such as food and energy security. A technology that has shown promising potential in supporting food and energy security, as well as supporting water security, is agrivoltaic (AV) systems. This technology combines conventional farm activities with PV systems on the same land. Understanding the microclimatic conditions in an AV system is essential for an accurate assessment of crop yield potential as well as for the energy performance of the PV systems. Nevertheless, the complex mechanisms governing the microclimatic conditions under agrivoltaic systems represent an underdeveloped research area. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for a vertical AV system is developed and validated. The CFD model showed PV module temperature estimation errors in the order of 0–2 °C and ground temperature errors in the order of 0–1 °C. The shading caused by the vertical PV system resulted in a reduction of solar irradiance by 38%. CFD modelling can be seen as a robust approach to analysing microclimatic parameters and assessing AV system performance.

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  • 357.
    Zainali, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yang, Dazhi
    Harbin Institute of Technology, China.
    Landelius, Tomas
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Site adaptation with machine learning for a Northern Europe gridded global solar irradiance product2023In: Energy and AI, ISSN 2666-5468, Vol. 15, article id 100331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gridded global horizontal irradiance (GHI) databases are fundamental for analysing solar energy applications' technical and economic aspects, particularly photovoltaic applications. Today, there exist numerous gridded GHI databases whose quality has been thoroughly validated against ground-based irradiance measurements. Nonetheless, databases that generate data at latitudes above 65˚ are few, and those available gridded irradiance products, which are either reanalysis or based on polar orbiters, such as ERA5, COSMO-REA6, or CM SAF CLARA-A2, generally have lower quality or a coarser time resolution than those gridded irradiance products based on geostationary satellites. Amongst the high-latitude gridded GHI databases, the STRÅNG model developed by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) is likely the most accurate one, providing data across Sweden. To further enhance the product quality, the calibration technique called "site adaptation" is herein used to improve the STRÅNG dataset, which seeks to adjust a long period of low-quality gridded irradiance estimates based on a short period of high-quality irradiance measurements. This study introduces a novel approach for site adaptation of solar irradiance based on machine learning techniques, which differs from the conventional statistical methods used in previous studies. Seven machine-learning algorithms have been analysed and compared with conventional statistical approaches to identify Sweden's most accurate algorithms for site adaptation. Solar irradiance data gathered from three weather stations of SMHI is used for training and validation. The results show that machine learning can substantially improve the STRÅNG model's accuracy. However, due to the spatiotemporal heterogeneity in model performance, no universal machine learning model can be identified, which suggests that site adaptation is a location-dependant procedure.

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  • 358.
    Zhang, C.
    et al.
    Robert Frederick Smith School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Department of Building Environment and Energy Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    You, F.
    Robert Frederick Smith School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States.
    Critical metal requirement for clean energy transition: A quantitative review on the case of transportation electrification2023In: Advances in Applied Energy, ISSN 2666-7924, Vol. 9, article id 100116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The clean energy transition plays an essential role in achieving climate mitigation targets. As for the transportation sector, battery and fuel cell electric vehicles (EVs) have emerged as a key solution to reduce greenhouse gasses from transportation emissions. However, the rapid uptake of EVs has triggered potential supply risks of critical metals (e.g., lithium, nickel, cobalt, platinum group metals (PGMs), etc.) used in the production of lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells. Material flow analysis (MFA) has been widely applied to assess the demand for critical metals used in transportation electrification on various spatiotemporal scales. This paper presents a quantitative review and analysis of 78 MFA research articles on the critical metal requirement of transportation electrification. We analyzed the characteristics of the selected studies regarding their geographical and temporal scopes, transportation sectors, EV categories, battery technologies, materials, and modeling approaches. Based on the global forecasts in those studies, we compared the annual and cumulative global requirements of the four metals that received the most attention: lithium, nickel, cobalt, and PGMs. Although major uncertainties exist, most studies indicate that the annual demand for these four metals will continue to increase and far exceed their production capacities in 2021. Global reserves of these metals may meet their cumulative demand in the short-term (2020–2030) and medium-term (2020–2050) but are insufficient for the long-term (2020–2100) needs. Then, we summarized the proposed policy implications in these studies. Finally, we discuss the main findings from the four aspects: environmental and social implications of deploying electric vehicles, whether or not to electrify heavy-duty vehicles, opportunities and challenges in recycling, and future research direction. 

  • 359.
    Zhang, Haoran
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. The University of Tokyo 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Japan.
    Chen, Jinyu
    The University of Tokyo 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Japan.
    Yan, Jie
    North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China.
    Song, Xuan
    Southern University of Science and Technology(SUSTech), Shenzhen, China.
    Shibasaki, Ryosuke
    The University of Tokyo 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Japan.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Urban power load profiles under ageing transition integrated with future EVs charging2021In: Advances in Applied Energy, ISSN 2666-7924, Vol. 1, p. 100007-100007, article id 100007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding ageing transition caused fine-grained changes of electricity profile is the significant insight for coping with future threatens in grid flexibility management. The research gaps for the hourly-basis knowledge exist due to challenges in microanalysis on user-side behavior. Based on billions of users’ behavior data, we investigated the changes on the load profiles due to population aging. We found that owing to ageing transition, the participation population in high electricity-density activities decreases by about 8%. The corresponding shift in driving behavior rises the 14% difference between peak charging load and valley. We concluded that population aging will dramatically change both the magnitude and shape of future dynamic-load profiles. Therefore, we further suggested a new solution with comprehensive and quantitative management for PVs development and the smart charging market with smooth operation of the grid in coupling the potential challenges caused by the ageing issue.

  • 360.
    Zhang, Haoran
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, 277-8568 Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, Japan.
    Li, Peiran
    Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, 277-8568 Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, Japan.
    Zhang, Zhiwen
    Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, 277-8568 Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, Japan.
    Li, Wenjing
    Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, 277-8568 Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, Japan.
    Chen, Jinyu
    Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, 277-8568 Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, Japan.
    Song, Xuan
    Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, 277-8568 Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, Japan.
    Shibasaki, Ryosuke
    Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, 277-8568 Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, Japan.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Epidemic versus economic performances of the COVID-19 lockdown: A big data driven analysis2022In: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 120, article id 103502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lockdown measures have been a “panacea” for pandemic control but also a violent “poison” for economies.Lockdown policies strongly restrict human mobility but mobility reduce does harm to economics. Governmentsmeet a thorny problem in balancing the pros and cons of lockdown policies, but lack comprehensive andquantified guides. Based on millions of financial transaction records, and billions of mobility data, we trackedspatio-temporal business networks and human daily mobility, then proposed a high-resolution two-sidedframework to assess the epidemiological performance and economic damage of different lockdown policies. Wefound that the pandemic duration under the strictest lockdown is less about two months than that under thelightest lockdown, which makes the strictest lockdown characterize both epidemiologically and economicallyefficient. Moreover, based on the two-sided model, we explored the spatial lockdown strategy. We argue thatcutting off intercity commuting is significant in both epidemiological and economical aspects, and finally helpedgovernments figure out the Pareto optimal solution set of lockdown strategy.

  • 361.
    Zhang, Haoran
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8568, Japan.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Co-benefits of renewable energy development: A brighter sky brings greater renewable power2022In: Joule, E-ISSN 2542-4351, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 1142-1144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution reduction is one of the most straightforward co-benefits of PV development, but its mechanism is complex. In a recent One Earth paper, Chen et al. analyzed the respective effects of different factors on solar power performance and show that the co-benefits of air pollution control policies for PV over the past decade would be grossly underestimated. 

  • 362.
    Zhang, K.
    et al.
    Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, China.
    Qian, Z.
    Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, China.
    Yang, Y.
    Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, China.
    Chen, M.
    Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for NSLSCS, School of Mathematical Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China.
    Zhong, T.
    Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, China.
    Zhu, R.
    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Lv, G.
    Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Using street view images to identify road noise barriers with ensemble classification model and geospatial analysis2022In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 78, article id 103598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road noise barriers (RNBs) are important urban infrastructures to relieve the harm of traffic noise pollution for citizens. Therefore, obtaining the spatial distribution characteristics of RNBs, such as precise positions and mileage, can be of great help for obtaining more accurate urban noise maps and assessing the quality of the urban living environment for sustainable urban development. However, an effective and efficient method for identifying RNBs and acquiring their attributes in large areas is scarce. This study constructs an ensemble classification model (ECM) to automatically identify RNBs at the city level based on Baidu Street View (BSV). Firstly, the bootstrap sampling method is proposed to build a street view image-based train set, where the effect of imbalanced categories of samples was reduced by adding confusing negative samples. Secondly, two state-of-the-art deep learning models, ResNet and DenseNet, are ensembled to construct an ECM based on the bagging framework. Finally, a post-processing method has been proposed based on geospatial analysis to eliminate street view images (SVIs) that are misclassified as RNBs. This study takes Suzhou, China as the study area to validate the proposed method. The model achieved an accuracy and F1-score of 0.98 and 0.90, respectively. The total mileage of the RNBs in Suzhou was 178,919 m. The results demonstrated the performance of the proposed RNBs identification framework. The significance of obtaining RNBs attributes for accelerating sustainable urban development has been demonstrated through the case of photovoltaic noise barriers (PVNBs).

  • 363.
    Zhang, Kai
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China; State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution, Nanjing, 210023, China; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, 210023, China .
    Chen, Min
    Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for NSLSCS, School of Mathematical Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China; Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China; State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution, Nanjing, 210023, China; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Yang, Yue
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China; State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution, Nanjing, 210023, China; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, 210023, China .
    Zhong, Teng
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China; State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution, Nanjing, 210023, China; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Zhu, Rui
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Zhang, Fan
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong.
    Qian, Zhen
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China; State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution, Nanjing, 210023, China; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Lü, Guonian
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China; State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution, Nanjing, 210023, China; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Department of Chemical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 10044, Sweden.
    Quantifying the photovoltaic potential of highways in China2022In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 324, article id 119600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Installing photovoltaic (PV) modules on highways is considered a promising way to support carbon neutrality in China. However, collecting the area of the highway, and precisely assessing the shadow area of the highway under complex terrain remain challenges. That severely hinders the assessment of highway PV potential. To address these challenges, a spatiotemporal model is developed in this study to estimate the annual solar PV potential on highways over the whole Chinese territory. First, the areas of different highway segments are calculated based on highway network and highway toll stations. Second, hourly shadow area on highways created by nearby terrain is estimated based on a digital elevation model (DEM). When calculating the highway PV potential, the solar irradiation received in these shadow areas is regarded as zero. Finally, the PV potential of all lanes and emergency lanes was estimated at the prefecture-level city scale using surface radiation data and radiation assessment models. Based on the highway data with a total mileage of 143,684 km at the end of 2020, the results show that the annual PV potential is 3,932 TW and that the corresponding installed capacity is 700.85 GW, which can generate clean electricity at a rate of up to 629.06 TWh. The annual PV potential of highways in the southeast is greater than that in the northwest owing to the higher highway density in the southeast. This study provides a reference basis for highway PV construction planning and suitably assessment in each region of China for PV highway development.

  • 364.
    Zhang, Kai
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Nanjing Normal Univ, Key Lab Virtual Geog Environm, Minist Educ, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China; Jiangsu Ctr Collaborat Innovat Geog, Informat Resource Dev & Applicat, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Min
    Nanjing Normal Univ, Key Lab Virtual Geog Environm, Minist Educ, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China; Jiangsu Ctr Collaborat Innovat Geog, Informat Resource Dev & Applicat, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China; Int Res Ctr Big Data Sustainable Dev Goals, Beijing 100094, Peoples R China; Nanjing Normal Univ, Sch Math Sci, Jiangsu Prov Key Lab NSLSCS, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Rui
    ASTAR, Inst High Performance Comp IHPC, Singapore 138632, Singapore.
    Zhang, Fan
    Hong Kong Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Zhong, Teng
    Nanjing Normal Univ, Key Lab Virtual Geog Environm, Minist Educ, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China; Jiangsu Ctr Collaborat Innovat Geog, Informat Resource Dev & Applicat, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.
    Lin, Jian
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Dept Geog & Resource Management, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    You, Linlin
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Intelligent Syst Engn, Shenzhen 518107, Peoples R China.
    Lue, Guonian
    Nanjing Normal Univ, Key Lab Virtual Geog Environm, Minist Educ, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China; Jiangsu Ctr Collaborat Innovat Geog, Informat Resource Dev & Applicat, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Dept Bldg Environm & Energy Engn, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Integrating photovoltaic noise barriers and electric vehicle charging stations for sustainable city transportation2024In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 100, article id 104996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic noise barriers (PVNBs) offer a dual advantage of reducing traffic noise pollution and providing renewable electricity to cities. However, how the effective integration of PVNB-generated power into urban energy networks remains a critical area lacking research. To bridge this gap, this study proposes PVNBs-energy storage (ES)-charging station (CS; PVNBs-ES-CS) strategy. It can facilitate the actual consumption of PVNBs power and the mitigation the burden on the grid posed by electric vehicles (EVs) charging demands. The case study conducted in Guangzhou, China, reveals that PVNBs can support up to 5% of the total power demand for EVCSs. Under the PVNBs power maximization consumption scenario, PVNBs can meet up to 30% of the power demands from 60 EVCSs, with 58% of PVNBs generated power being consumed. In the PVNBs-ES-CS future utilization scenario, up to 30% of the power demand of 125 EVCSs can be met, and 36% of the power of PVNBs can be consumed. The combination of PVNBs and EVCSs offers a practical solution for incorporating renewable energy sources into urban energy networks. This application mode can be applied in various cities with EV demands and PVNB power generation data.

  • 365.
    Zhang, Kai
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Wang, D.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, PR China.
    Chen, M.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, PR China.
    Zhu, R.
    Institute of High Performance Computing (IHPC), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore 138632, Republic of Singapore.
    Zhang, F.
    Institute of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System, School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, PR China.
    Zhong, T.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, PR China.
    Qian, Z.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, PR China.
    Wang, Y.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, PR China.
    Li, H.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, PR China.
    Lü, G.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, PR China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Power generation assessment of photovoltaic noise barriers across 52 major Chinese cities2024In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 361, article id 122839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic noise barriers (PVNBs) have the potential to contribute to sustainable urban development by increasing the supply of renewable energy to cities while decreasing traffic noise pollution. However, estimating the power generation of PVNBs at the city or national scale remains a challenge due to the complexities of the urban environment and the difficulties associated with collecting data on road noise barriers (RNBs) and radiation. This study used RNBs, 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) buildings, and hourly time resolution radiation data, to estimate the power generation of PVNBs in 52 of China's major cities. First, hourly building shadows were estimated for each day of the year, covering the period from sunrise to sunset, to identify areas of RNB that are shaded at any given time. Second, hourly clear-sky radiation data were collected and corrected using a radiation correction model to simulate real weather radiation. Finally, utilizing an inclined surface radiation estimation model, the photovoltaic (PV) potential both inside and outside RNBs affected by building shadows was assessed. Subsequently, the power generation of PVNB was estimated based on parameters of mainstream PV systems in the market. The results show that the RNB mileage in 52 selected cities represents 87.7% of China's total RNB mileage. Building shadows often result in a radiation loss of approximately 30% for RNBs reception. The installed capacity and annual power generation of PVNBs in all investigated cities are 2.04 GW and 690.74 GWh, respectively. This study estimates the comprehensive PV potential of potentially exploitable PVNBs in China, offering essential scientific insights to inform and facilitate the strategic development of PVNB projects at both the national and municipal levels.

  • 366.
    Zhang, Qianzhi
    et al.
    Cornell University, United States.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Department of Building Environment and Energy Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    Gao, H. Oliver
    Cornell University, United States.
    You, Fengqi
    Cornell University, United States.
    A Systematic Review on power systems planning and operations management with grid integration of transportation electrification at scale2023In: Advances in Applied Energy, ISSN 2666-7924, Vol. 11, article id 100147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation electrification plays a crucial role in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and enabling the decarbonization of power systems. However, current research on electric vehicles (EVs) only provides a fragmented examination of their impact on power system planning and operation, lacking a comprehensive overview across both transmission and distribution levels. This limits the effectiveness and efficiency of power system solutions for greater EV adoption. Conducting a systematic review of the effects of EVs on power transmission and distribution systems (e.g., grid integration, planning, operation, etc.), this paper aims to bridge the fragmented literature on the topic together by focusing on the interplay between transportation electrification and power systems. The study sheds light on the interplay between transportation electrification and power systems, delving into the importance of classifying EVs and charging infrastructure based on powertrain design, duty cycle, and typical features, as well as methods of capturing charging patterns and determining spatial-temporal charging profiles. Furthermore, we provide an in-depth discussion on the benefits of smart charging and the provision of grid-to-vehicle (G2V) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services for maintaining power system reliability. With the holistic systems approach, this paper can identify the main objectives and potential barriers of power transmission and distribution systems in accommodating transportation electrification at scale. Concurrently, it paves the way for a comprehensive understanding of technological innovation, transportation-power system decarbonization, policy pathways, environmental advantages, scenario designs, and avenues for future research.

  • 367.
    Zhang, R.
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering of MOE, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi, Xi'an, China.
    Min, T.
    School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi, Xi'an, China.
    Chen, L.
    Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi, Xi'an, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Tao, W. -Q
    Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering of MOE, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi, Xi'an, China.
    Pore-scale study of effects of relative humidity on reactive transport processes in catalyst layers in PEMFC2022In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 323, article id 119553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High surface area carbon (HSC) particles can be adopted to increase the specific surface area of catalyst layer (CL) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Relative humidity (RH) has a significant effect on the Pt activity inside HSC particles, and the underlying mechanisms need to be further investigated. In this study, a pore-scale model considering the effects of RH on the reactive transport processes inside the CLs is developed. Two kinds of liquid water distributions affected by the RH, including capillary condensation in pores and ultra-thin liquid film on Pt surface, are considered. The liquid water distribution, Pt activity and local oxygen transport resistance (Rlocal) under different RH are studied in detail. It is found that as RH increases from 0.3 to 1.0, the condensed water in micropores of HSC particles increases, resulting in an increase in reactive surface area by about 43 %. Combined effect of the RH, Pt loading, I/C ratio and different kinds of carbon particles is investigated. It is found that due to the lack of sufficient reaction sites, compared with that under a high Pt loading, Rlocal under a low Pt loading is more sensitive to the RH. Besides, since the Pt activity inside HSC particles depends on the condensed water, the Rlocal of HSC particles is more sensitive to the RH than solid carbon particles. Finally, the Rlocal at low ionomer content is more sensitive to RH due to low ionomer coverage on Pt particles. The present study provides a pore-scale model for investigating the coupled effects of RH and CL porous structures on local transport processes, and can facilitate the optimization of CL nanoscale structures for better cell performance. 

  • 368.
    Zhang, Tingshen
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, China; Yibin Research Institute, Southwest Jiaotong University, Yibin, 640000, China .
    Cao, H.
    Yibin Research Institute, Southwest Jiaotong University, Yibin, 640000, China.
    Zhang, Z.
    Yibin Research Institute, Southwest Jiaotong University, Yibin, 640000, China.
    Kong, W.
    Yibin Research Institute, Southwest Jiaotong University, Yibin, 640000, China.
    Kong, L.
    Yibin Research Institute, Southwest Jiaotong University, Yibin, 640000, China.
    Liu, J.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Department of Building Environment and Energy Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    A variable damping vibration energy harvester based on Half-Wave flywheeling effect for freight railways2023In: Mechanical systems and signal processing, ISSN 0888-3270, E-ISSN 1096-1216, Vol. 200, article id 110611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vibrational energy, often considered a negative factor, is abundant in everyday life. Especially in railway systems, the negatively impacted track vibrations resulting from moving trains can be captured to provide a practical power supply solution for wireless sensor networks. This paper proposed a variable damping vibration energy harvester with a half-wave flywheel for a freight train-based railway. A double-sided rack as the input member converts the track vibration into the opposite rotation of the two pinions, which are then transmitted to the two parallel shafts respectively. According to the work characteristics of the one-way bearing, the upper and lower vibrations can be collected separately and output a one-way rotation to the generator module. The proposed harvester with a half-wave flywheel features a larger damping force for vibration reduction during the downward track vibration and a smaller damping force conducive to returning the track's original state during the upward track vibration. The experimental results achieve a maximum output power of 10.247 W and a maximum mechanical efficiency of 74.49%. Both simulations and experiments have verified that the proposed system with a half-wave flywheel can increase the damping force in the vibration reduction process and reduce the damping force in the reset process, which is characteristic of improving its power generation performance with a good vibration reduction effect. The VEH with the half-wave flywheel achieved an average power of 5.321 W at the train speed of 90 km/h under random vibration testing, which verifies the feasibility of self-powered wireless sensor networks in railway environments. 

  • 369.
    Zhang, Tingshen
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, China; Yibin Research Institute, Southwest Jiaotong University, Yibin, 640000, China.
    Kong, L.
    Yibin Research Institute, Southwest Jiaotong University, Yibin, 640000, China.
    Zhu, Z.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, China.
    Wu, X.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, China.
    Li, H.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, China.
    Zhang, Z.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    An electromagnetic vibration energy harvesting system based on series coupling input mechanism for freight railroads2024In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 353, article id 122047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibration energy harvesting technology is characterized by wide distribution, is pollution-free and independent of weather and climate, and is suitable for powering low-power sensors to ensure efficient and safe operation in freight railroads. This paper proposed an electromagnetic vibration energy harvester based on a series coupling input mechanism for the self-powered sensors in freight railroads. The design utilizes only one rack for vibration energy input to minimize the moment acting on the vibration source during the working process. Two pinions meshed with the rack convert the up and down vibrations into a two-way rotation. The one-way bearings and another pair of gears convert the opposite rotations of two parallel shafts into one-way rotation of the generator shaft, generating electricity. Supercapacitors and rectifier voltage regulator modules are utilized to store electrical energy efficiently. A peak power of 10.219 W and maximum mechanical efficiency of 64.31% is obtained in the experiment equipped with a flywheel under the 8 mm-4 Hz sinusoidal vibration excitation. The experimental results showed that the flywheel can enable the proposed harvester to achieve better power generation performance when the amplitude and frequency are relatively high. 

  • 370.
    Zhang, Tingshen
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China; Yibin Research Institute, Southwest Jiaotong University, Yibin, China.
    Wu, X.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China; Yibin Research Institute, Southwest Jiaotong University, Yibin, China.
    Pan, Y.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China.
    Luo, D.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China.
    Xu, Y.
    School of Design and Art, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China.
    Zhang, Z.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China; Yibin Research Institute, Southwest Jiaotong University, Yibin, China.
    Yuan, Y.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Vibration energy harvesting system based on track energy-recycling technology for heavy-duty freight railroads2022In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 323, article id 119673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure the efficient and safe operation of train transportation systems, the track vibration resulting from train movement can be utilized to power the sensors for intelligent applications. This paper presents a vibration energy harvesting system based on track energy-recycling technology for heavy-duty freight railroads. The energy-recycling system includes a vibration conversion module, a generator module and a power storage module. The irregular vertical vibrations produced by contact between the wheel and railroad are considered. The vibration conversion module converts the reciprocating vertical displacement into a one-way rotation through a scissor linkage and slider mechanism. A three-phase generator is coupled with an energy conversion module shaft and generates a three-phase direct current. Then, after rectification and filtering, the electricity is stored in the supercapacitors. Theoretical analysis, dynamic model analysis and mechanical simulation verify the dynamic response of the system under input excitation. Furthermore, mechanical testing and sensing (MTS) machine tests yield a 73.38% maximum mechanical efficiency with a 7.44 W peak power. Moreover, the charging tests of the proposed system with a supercapacitor indicate that the proposed system is suitable for self-powered sensors in railroads. 

  • 371.
    Zhang, X.
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Shaanxi, Yangling, 712100, China.
    Zheng, J.
    State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Shaanxi, Yangling, 712100, China.
    Wang, K.
    State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Shaanxi, Yangling, 712100, China.
    Wang, Xiaolin
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhang, Z.
    State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Shaanxi, Yangling, 712100, China.
    Xie, X.
    State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Shaanxi, Yangling, 712100, China.
    Cai, J.
    Institute of Resources and Environment, Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Yinchuan, 750002, China.
    Greater mineral and aggregate protection for organic carbon in the soil amended by weathered coal than by biochar: Based on a 3-year field experiment2023In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 438, article id 116639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil carbon pool stability plays an important role in reaching carbon neutrality and mitigating global warming. Applying soil amendments is a practical strategy in agricultural production to improve soil environment. Weathered coal (WC) is an organic amendment that can be used to improve soil quality. However, the effects of WC application on soil organic carbon pool stability, and its differences from the effects of biochar (BC, a common amendment) application remains unclear. In this study, BC was selected as a comparison to further evaluate the potential of WC based on a 3-year field experiment, in which WC and BC were individually applied into a loamy clay soil at 0%, 1%, and 3% (w/w) rates. Soil organic carbon and its fractions (including particulate organic carbon and mineral-bound organic carbon), soil aggregate fractions and its stability, and the organic carbon content in aggregates were examined. The results showed that both WC and BC significantly increased soil total organic carbon, particulate and mineral-bound organic carbon (P < 0.05). The mineral-bound organic carbon content in WC treatment was significantly higher than that in BC treatment (by 32% under the 3% rate) (P < 0.05), whereas, there were no significant differences in soil total organic carbon content. Both WC and BC increased the soil organic carbon content in all aggregate fractions. While only the WC improved the soil aggregate stability, and which was 15% (under 1% rate) and 28% (under 3% rate) higher in WC treatments than in BC treatments (P < 0.05). The proportion of mineral-bound organic carbon to soil total organic carbon content and the soil aggregate stability were obviously related the soil C/N, and the WC treatments had a higher proportion of mineral-bound organic carbon and soil aggregate stability than BC treatments under the same soil C/N. The results indicated that the application of WC may be more effective than BC in increasing mineral and aggregate protection for soil organic carbon and thus improving soil carbon pool stability. Additionally, the purchase cost of WC was clearly lower than that of BC. Combined with the low cost and the benefits in soil structure and carbon pool stability, the application of WC appeared to have advantages over BC. Our findings provide robust evidence that WC is more effective than BC in improving soil carbon pool stability. 

  • 372.
    Zhang, Xingjin
    et al.
    Northwest A & F Univ, Key Lab Agr Soil & Water Engn Arid & Semiarid Area, Minist Educ, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, Peoples R China.;Northwest A & F Univ, Inst Water Resources & Hydropower Res, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, Peoples R China..
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Bi, Xiaojian
    Powerchina Northwest Engn Corp Ltd, Xian 710065, Peoples R China..
    Egusquiza, Monica
    Xu, Beibei
    Northwest A & F Univ, Key Lab Agr Soil & Water Engn Arid & Semiarid Area, Minist Educ, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, Peoples R China.;Northwest A & F Univ, Inst Water Resources & Hydropower Res, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, Peoples R China.;Powerchina Northwest Engn Corp Ltd, Xian 710065, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Cong
    China Inst Water Resources & Hydropower Res, Beijing 100038, Peoples R China..
    Guo, Hongyan
    Powerchina Northwest Engn Corp Ltd, Xian 710065, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Diyi
    Northwest A & F Univ, Key Lab Agr Soil & Water Engn Arid & Semiarid Area, Minist Educ, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, Peoples R China.;Northwest A & F Univ, Inst Water Resources & Hydropower Res, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, Peoples R China..
    Egusquiza, Eduard
    Polytech Univ Catalonia UPC, Ctr Ind Diagnost CDIF, Barcelona, Spain..
    Capacity configuration of a hydro-wind-solar-storage bundling system with transmission constraints of the receiving-end power grid and its techno-economic evaluation2022In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 270, article id 116177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hydro-wind-solar-storage bundling system plays a critical role in solving spatial and temporal mismatch problems between renewable energy resources and the electric load in China. An efficient bundling system ca-pacity configuration can improve the consumption level and reduce the renewable energy transmission cost. However, the restriction between economic feasibility and technical transmission constraints of the bundling system is not well understood. This restriction is becoming more and more obvious with the decrease of renewable energy price compensation year by year. This study compares the role of technical and economic indicators of capacity configuration, as well as the constraint relationship between electricity price and trans-mission constraints. Three screening principles of capacity configuration are proposed to reveal the techno-economic interaction. This paper explores a practical engineering case of Northwest China using a bundling system capacity configuration model. The internal rate of return is assumed as 8% for the bundling system. The results show that reducing the wind curtailment rate can effectively reduce the cost per MWh when the trans-mission guarantee rate is larger than 90%. Moreover, an integrated feed-in tariff based on market competi-tiveness is obtained if the wind curtailment rate is controlled by 5%. For example, the integrated feed-in tariff is 463.7 RMB/MWh when the wind curtailment rate is less than 5% and the transmission guarantee rate is larger than 95%. These results verify that the techno-economic interaction of the bundling system offers important theoretical support for selecting techno-economic indicators and capacity configuration.

  • 373.
    Zhang, Z.
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Chen, M.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Zhong, T.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Zhu, R.
    Institute of High Performance Computing (IHPC), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), 1 Fusionopolis Way, Singapore, 138632, Singapore.
    Qian, Z.
    School of Geography, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Zhang, F.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong.
    Yang, Y.
    School of Geography, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Zhang, K.
    School of Geography, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Santi, P.
    Senseable City Laboratory, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 02139, MA, United States.
    Wang, K.
    Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, Chin.
    Pu, Y.
    School of Geography and Ocean Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Tian, L.
    Key Laboratory for NSLSCS, Ministry of Education, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Lü, G.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Department of Building Environment and Energy Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Carbon mitigation potential afforded by rooftop photovoltaic in China2023In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 2347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rooftop photovoltaics (RPVs) are crucial in achieving energy transition and climate goals, especially in cities with high building density and substantial energy consumption. Estimating RPV carbon mitigation potential at the city level of an entire large country is challenging given difficulties in assessing rooftop area. Here, using multi-source heterogeneous geospatial data and machine learning regression, we identify a total of 65,962 km2 rooftop area in 2020 for 354 Chinese cities, which represents 4 billion tons of carbon mitigation under ideal assumptions. Considering urban land expansion and power mix transformation, the potential remains at 3-4 billion tons in 2030, when China plans to reach its carbon peak. However, most cities have exploited less than 1% of their potential. We provide analysis of geographical endowment to better support future practice. Our study provides critical insights for targeted RPV development in China and can serve as a foundation for similar work in other countries. 

  • 374.
    Zhang, Z.
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Qian, Z.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Zhong, T.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Chen, M.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Zhang, K.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Yang, Y.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Zhu, R.
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Zhang, F.
    Senseable City Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 02139, MA, United States.
    Zhang, Haoran
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, 277-8568, Japan; LocationMind Inc, 3-5-2 Iwamotocho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101-0032, Japan.
    Zhou, F.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Yu, J.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Zhang, B.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Lü, G.
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Department of Chemical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 10044, Sweden.
    Vectorized rooftop area data for 90 cities in China2022In: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable information on building rooftops is crucial for utilizing limited urban space effectively. In recent decades, the demand for accurate and up-to-date data on the areas of rooftops on a large-scale is increasing. However, obtaining these data is challenging due to the limited capability of conventional computer vision methods and the high cost of 3D modeling involving aerial photogrammetry. In this study, a geospatial artificial intelligence framework is presented to obtain data for rooftops using high-resolution open-access remote sensing imagery. This framework is used to generate vectorized data for rooftops in 90 cities in China. The data was validated on test samples of 180 km2 across different regions with spatial resolution, overall accuracy, and F1 score of 1 m, 97.95%, and 83.11%, respectively. In addition, the generated rooftop area conforms to the urban morphological characteristics and reflects urbanization level. These results demonstrate that the generated dataset can be used for data support and decision-making that can facilitate sustainable urban development effectively. 

  • 375.
    Zhao, J.
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Xiong, J.
    Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Yu, H.
    Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Bu, Y.
    Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Zhao, K.
    State Grid Customer Service Center, Tianjin, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, P.
    Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Wang, C.
    Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Reliability evaluation of community integrated energy systems based on fault incidence matrix2022In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 80, article id 103769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliability evaluation is essential for the planning, operation, and analysis of community integrated energy systems (CIESs). However, it is still challenging to quantify the reliability of CIESs accurately and efficiently because of the diverse energy characteristics and energy conversion relationships. In this paper, a reliability evaluation method for CIESs based on fault incidence matrix (FIM) is proposed to analytically demonstrate the impact of equipment failures on system energy supply. The energy-bus-based unified reliability evaluation model of CIESs is presented to describe the energy flows of the system in a unified matrix form. Three types of FIMs are constructed to reveal the different consequences of device failures on energy supply. The reliability indices of a CIES can be directly calculated through simple algebraic and Boolean operations based on the FIMs, improving the calculation efficiency significantly. The FIMs make it easy to identify the vulnerability segments of the system, which is desirable in the practice of device maintenance or upgrade to improve the reliability of the CIES. Case studies are conducted on a typical CIES to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  • 376.
    Zhao, Jinli
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Tian, Zhen
    Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Ji, Haoran
    Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Ji, Jie
    Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wu, Jianzhon
    Institute of Energy, School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
    Li, Peng
    Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Wang, Chengshan
    Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Peer-to-Peer electricity trading of interconnected flexible distribution networks based on Non-Cooperative games2023In: International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, ISSN 0142-0615, E-ISSN 1879-3517, Vol. 145, article id 108648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the integration of power electronic devices represented by soft open points (SOPs), distribution networks have gradually evolved into interconnected flexible distribution networks (FDNs). Considering the deregulation of electricity market and user privacy, multiple stakeholders have participated in the operation of FDNs. Peer-to-peer (P2P) electricity trading is promising to alleviate operational problems of interconnected FDNs. As multiple regions pursue the maximum profits individually, non-cooperative game methods can be utilized to realize fair profit allocation in P2P trading. In this paper, a non-cooperative game-based P2P trading method is proposed to meet the electricity trading needs of multi-region interconnected FDNs. First, based on non-cooperative games, a two-layer P2P electricity trading framework is established to realize cost reduction and voltage profile improvement of multi-region interconnected FDNs. Then, a P2P trading adjustment mechanism is designed to improve the operational profits of SOP, in which spatial active power trading adjustment, temporal dispatching of energy storage (ES) link and reactive power support are incorporated. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified based on a practical distribution network with four-terminal SOP in Tianjin. The results show that the proposed P2P electricity trading method can promote the economic operation performance of interconnected FDNs and improve the operational profit of SOP.

  • 377.
    Zhao, Jinli
    et al.
    Tianjin Univ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Minist Educ, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Ziqi
    Tianjin Univ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Minist Educ, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China..
    Yu, Hao
    Tianjin Univ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Minist Educ, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China..
    Ji, Haoran
    Tianjin Univ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Minist Educ, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China..
    Li, Peng
    Tianjin Univ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Minist Educ, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China..
    Xi, Wei
    Tianjin Univ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Minist Educ, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China.;China Southern Power Grid, Digital Grid Res Inst, Guangzhou 510670, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wang, Chengshan
    Tianjin Univ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Minist Educ, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China..
    Cloud-Edge Collaboration-Based Local Voltage Control for DGs With Privacy Preservation2023In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 98-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased distributed generators (DGs) have exacerbated voltage violations in active distribution networks (ADNs). Local reactive power control of DG inverters can realize a fast response to frequent voltage fluctuations. However, commonly used model-based voltage control depends upon accurate network parameters and entire ADN data, which may cause the sensitive information leakage of ADN and DG behaviors in practical operation. In this article, a cloud-edge collaboration-based local voltage control strategy for DGs is proposed with privacy preservation. First, a local voltage control framework is established based on cloud-edge collaboration, in which a surrogate model is built based on the graph convolutional neural networks to estimate the ADN voltages. By transferring the surrogate model, the edge side can obtain the exact voltage estimation in the local curve tuning process without the authority of the whole ADN data, preserving the network parameters of ADN. Then, the interarea coordination based on federated learning is proposed to realize the parameter updating of DG control curves, which can achieve better voltage control performance. By updating surrogate submodels based on private data distributed across multiple edge devices, federated learning can effectively preserve DG behaviors. Finally, the effectiveness and adaptability of the proposed control strategy are validated using the modified IEEE 33-node system. The proposed local DG control strategy can effectively cope with voltage problems and enhance the adaptability to variations in practical operation states while considering privacy preservation.

  • 378.
    Zhao, Ning
    et al.
    Cornell University, United States.
    Zhang, Haoran
    Peking University, China.
    Yang, Xiaohu
    Xi'an Jiaotong University, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Department of Building Environment and Energy Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    You, Fengqi
    Cornell University, United States.
    Emerging information and communication technologies for smart energy systems and renewable transition2023In: Advances in Applied Energy, ISSN 2666-7924, Vol. 9, article id 100125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the energy sector is the dominant contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions, the decarbonization of energy systems is crucial for climate change mitigation. Two major challenges of energy systems decarbonization are renewable transition planning and sustainable systems operations. To address the challenges, incorporating emerging information and communication technologies can facilitate both the design and operations of future smart energy systems with high penetrations of renewable energy and decentralized structures. The present work provides a comprehensive overview of the applicability of emerging information and communication technologies in renewable transition and smart energy systems, including artificial intelligence, quantum computing, blockchain, next-generation communication technologies, and the metaverse. Relevant research directions are introduced through reviewing existing literature. This review concludes with a discussion of the industrial use cases and demonstrations of smart energy technologies.

  • 379.
    Zhao, Ziwen
    et al.
    Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Northwest A&F University, Shaanxi Yangling, China..
    Mahmud, Md. Apel
    Electrical Power and Energy Systems Research Lab, School of Engineering, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3216, Australia..
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Hredzak, Branislav
    School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, The University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW, Australia..
    Luo, Jie
    Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Northwest A&F University, Shaanxi Yangling 712100, China..
    Chen, Diyi
    Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Northwest A&F University, Shaanxi Yangling 712100, China..
    Xu, Beibei
    nstitute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Northwest A&F University, Shaanxi Yangling, China.
    Harmonics propagation and interaction evaluation in small-scale wind farms and hydroelectric generating systems2022In: ISA transactions, ISSN 0019-0578, E-ISSN 1879-2022, Vol. 129, p. 334-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The harmonics exacerbated by the integration of distributed energy such as wind power has been extensively studied. However, the interaction and propagation mechanism between harmonic sources in the hydro-wind complementary generation system are still not clear. To tackle this challenge, the presented study establishes the hydro-wind complementary generation system model and explores the harmonics propagation and interaction in all components. Then three operation mode of complementary system (scenario 1: stand-alone Hydroelectric Generating System, scenario 2: stand-alone Wind Farm (WF) and scenario 3: complementary generation system) are selected. The results demonstrate that the integration of HGS diminishes the harmonic at DFIG side but at the grid side. In complementary generation system, the THDu rises but the corresponding THDi declines due to the regulation of power grid. Furthermore, the odd harmonics interactions analysis reveal that the doubly-fed induction generator's (DFIG) side and the stator's side are the two high-risk sources in the complementary generation process. The presented results provide a basis for power quality evaluation of hydro-wind complementary generation system. 

  • 380.
    Zheng, Wandong
    et al.
    Tianjin University, China.
    Hu, Jingfan
    Tianjin University, China.
    Wang, Zhaoying
    Tianjin University, China.
    Li, Jinbo
    Tianjin University, China.
    Fu, Zheng
    Tianjin University, China.
    Li, Han
    Tianjin University, China.
    Jurasz, Jakub
    Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Chou, S.K.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    COVID-19 Impact on Operation and Energy Consumption of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Systems2021In: Advances in Applied Energy, ISSN 2666-7924, Vol. 3, p. 100040-100040, article id 100040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is favourable for regulating indoor temperature, relative humidity, airflow pattern and air quality. However, HVAC systems may turn out to be the culprit of microbial contamination in enclosed spaces and deteriorate the environment due to inappropriate design and operation. In the context of COVID-19, significant transformations and new requirements are occurring in HVAC systems. Recently, several updated operational guidelines for HVAC systems have been issued by various institutions to control the airborne transmission and mitigate infection risks in enclosed environments. Challenges and innovations emerge in response to operational variations of HVAC systems. To efficiently prevent the spread of the pandemic and reduce infection risks, it is essential to have an overall understanding of impacts caused by COVID-19 on HVAC systems. Therefore, the objectives of this article are to: (a) provide a comprehensive review of the airborne transmission characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 in enclosed spaces and a theoretical basis for HVAC operation guideline revision; (b) investigate HVAC-related guidelines to clarify the operational variations of HVAC systems during the pandemic; (c) analyse how operational variations of HVAC systems affect energy consumption; and (d) identify the innovations and research trends concerning future HVAC systems. Furthermore, this paper compares the energy consumption of HVAC system operation during the normal times versus pandemic period, based on a case study in China, providing a reference for other countries around the world. Results of this paper offer comprehensive insights into how to keep indoor environments safe while maintaining energy-efficient operation of HVAC systems.

  • 381. Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Aslanidou, Ioanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Effect of spray operation conditions on Nox emission control in a power station2023In: Chemical engineering research & design, ISSN 0263-8762, E-ISSN 1744-3563, Vol. 191, p. 214-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adequately mixing of reactants is an important factor for efficient deNOx process in power station NOx emission control system. In this study, an experimental validated CFD simulation is conducted to investigate the effect of spray operation conditions on the mixing uniformity of reactant ammonia vapor in deNOx process occurring in a power station's furnace. According to the CFD simulation results, it is found that spray momentum ratio, initial droplet size and initial ammonia concentration all affect the mixing uniformity of ammonia vapor. Overall, a larger spray momentum ratio, larger initial droplet size and lower ammonia concentration contributes positively to the mixing uniformity. By comparing the same spray momentum ratio but different nozzle inlet velocity and furnace inlet velocity, it is found that the impact of spray momentum ratio mainly comes from furnace inlet velocity not nozzle inlet velocity. In addition, gravity should not be neglected. In the end, the method described in this study could provide a systematic way to study the effects of nozzle operation conditions on deNOx process.

  • 382.
    Zhou, Yuanye
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Aslanidou, Ioanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    An explainable AI model for power plant NOx emission control2024In: Energy and AI, ISSN 2666-5468, Vol. 15, article id 100326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, developing Artificial Intelligence (AI) models for complex system has become a popular research area. There have been several successful AI models for predicting the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system in power plants and large boilers. However, all these models are in essence black box models and lack of explainability, which are not able to give new knowledge. In this study, a novel explainable AI (XAI) model that combines the polynomial kernel method with Sparse Identification of Nonlinear Dynamics (SINDy) model is proposed to find the governing equation of SNCR system based on 5-year operation data from a power plant. This proposed model identifies the system's governing equation in a simple polynomial format with polynomial order of 1 and only 1 independent variable among original 68 input variables. In addition, the explainable AI model achieves a considerable accuracy with less than 21 % deviation from base-line models of partial least squares model and artificial neural network model.

  • 383.
    Zhou, Yuanye
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Jiang, L.
    School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ningbo University, Zhejiang, 315211, China .
    Identification of swirling air flow velocity by non-neutrally buoyant tracer particle based on machine learning2023In: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 91, article id 102363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the non-intrusive measurement of swirling air flow, helium-filled soap bubbles (HFSBs) are ideal neutrally buoyant tracer particles However, there are some researchers that do not use HFSBs in the non-intrusive measurement of swirling air flow, leading to some kind of measurement inaccuracy. Since the flow velocity data has been implicitly included in the physical equations of any kind of tracer particles, it is possible to extract such hidden flow velocity from particle trajectory. In this study we propose a physics-informed procedure of adopting SINDy algorithm to identify the hidden physical equations of non-neutrally buoyant particle dynamics, so that the implicit flow velocity can be discovered. First of all, the numerical experiment is conducted to generate particle trajectory in a 2D swirling air flow in small cyclone separator. Based on the numerical experiment trajectory data, the input variables for SINDy algorithm are properly constructed. The output of SINDy algorithm, which are the identified physical equations, are evaluated and validated on two different-density particle trajectory data. Our results show that the physical equations of tracer particle dynamics can be identified and the discovered flow velocity data has a maximum deviation of 1.4% from the truth (R2≥0.999). The proposed method may remove the requirement of NB tracer particle in non-intrusive measurement of swirling air flow, and may be applied to recognize the physical equations of complex particle laden flow.

  • 384.
    Zhu, L.
    et al.
    School of Economics and Management, Beihang University, China.
    Zhang, L.
    School of Economics and Management, Beihang University, China.
    Liu, J.
    School of Economics and Management, Beihang University, China.
    Zhang, H.
    School of Urban Planning and Design, Peking University, Shenzhen, China.
    Zhang, W.
    School of Management, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Bian, Y.
    SILC Business School, Shanghai University, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Department of Building Environment and Energy Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    Unpacking the effects of natural gas price transmission on electricity prices in Nordic countries2024In: iScience, E-ISSN 2589-0042, Vol. 27, no 6, article id 109924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the Russia-Ukraine war in February 2022, European electricity prices have experienced considerable turbulence, primarily attributed to a shortage in the natural gas supply. We investigate the relationship between natural gas prices in the European continent and electricity prices in Nordic countries before and after the outbreak of war. Despite the low proportion of natural gas electricity generation, the empirical analysis reveals both direct and indirect transmission paths for natural gas prices in Nordic countries. Meanwhile, the theoretical analysis demonstrates how Nordic renewable (wind and solar) and other non-gas generators exercise market power through price bidding in the anticipation of an increase in gas prices or a shortage of gas supply, which results in higher electricity prices. Understanding the underlying factors and dynamics driving substantial price fluctuations in the Nordic electricity market is essential for comprehending the intricate interconnections within the European energy landscape.

  • 385.
    Zhu, X.
    et al.
    School of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, Chin.
    Li, Q.
    China Energy Science and Technology Research Institute Co., Ltd., Nanjing, China.
    Bi, J.
    School of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, Chin.
    Lv, Y.
    School of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, Chin.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhang, C.
    School of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, Chin.
    Techno-economic Analysis of Roof-Mounted Solar Photovoltaic in University Campus2021In: Energy Proceedings, Scanditale AB , 2021, Vol. 22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar photovoltaic technology is a mature, stable and sustainable energy solution with important social and economic benefits. This study aims to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of installing solar PV systems on the building roofs in the university campus. The techno-economic analysis was carried out under three installation scenarios: PV modules parallel to the pitched roof, PV modules aligned at the optimal tilt angle on flat roof and pitched roof, respectively. The results show that, the flat roof has the potential installed capacity of 3.82 MW with an annual generation capacity of 4.51 GMh, while the pitched roof has the potential installed capacity of 2.45 MW and 2.64 MW with an annual generation capacity of 2.89 GWh and 3.11 GWh depending on two installation orientations and tilt angles, respectively. The economic analysis of the above three scenarios shows that all PV systems are in profit and positive net cash flow in year 5 for PV projects installed at optimal tilt on flat roofs and parallel to the roof on pitched roofs, and positive net cash flow in year 6 for PV projects installed at optimal tilt on pitched roofs.

  • 386.
    Zidane, Tekai Eddine Khalil
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Aziz, Ali Saleh
    Al-Hussain University College, Iraq.
    Zahraoui, Younes
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Kotb, Hassam
    Alexandria University, Egypt.
    Aboras, Kareem M.
    Alexandria University, Egypt.
    Kitmo,
    National Advanced School of Engineering of University of Maroua, Cameroon.
    Jember, Yosef Berhan
    Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia.
    Grid-Connected Solar PV Power Plants Optimization: A Review2023In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 11, p. 79588-79608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to photovoltaic (PV) technology advantages as a clean, secure, and pollution-free energy source, PV power plants installation have shown an essential role in the energy sector. Nevertheless, the PV power plant cost of energy must be competitive when compared to traditional energy sources. Therefore, numerous studies are continuously being conducted aiming to optimize PV power plants, including components arrangements within the installation site, the inverter topology, cables, PV modules and inverters numbers, PV module tilt angle and shading effect. For selecting the most suitable combinations for system parameters, this study seeks to systematically analyze and synthesize the design of the PV power plant optimization from the current literature. The study also examines component sizing for PV power plants, involving PV modules tilt angle, inverter, transformer, and cables. Moreover, it provides an overview of the main components employed to install the PV power plant, which includes PV modules, inverter, transformer and wiring. It examines the different inverter topologies used in PV power plants along with a comparison between these topologies.

  • 387.
    Zimmerman, Nathan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Modelling Towards Control of Dynamic Systems: Applications on RDF Fired CFB Performance and DHN Distribution2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of global warming along with increasing energy demand necessitates the importance of improving processes pertaining to the production and consumption of energy in combined heat and power plants. This thesis brings to light transient factors currently burdening process performance for circulating fluidized bed boilers (CFBs) combusting refuse derived fuels (RDFs) and district heating networks (DHN). These two domains are not completely disconnected from one another, which is the case for Northern European countries. Heat can be generated from a central location to be distributed through a network of customers to meet a heating demand. Results show that first-principle modelling techniques have the capacity to capture transients factors associated within the aforementioned entwined energy systems.

    On the production side, obtaining real-time information pertaining to the lower heating value of refuse derived fuel affords the ability to implement feed-forward model predictive control. Therefore, feed-forward model predictive control has the potential to minimize combustion temperature swings by making the necessary controls moves before changes in the fuel’s composition are actualized by the process. On the consumption side, attaining a deeper understanding of district heating network dynamics, e.g. heat propagation, network losses, distribution delays, and end-user requirements, introduces the possibility to analyse network performance and reduce peak load production. The perspective of quick network performance can be achieved by an automated approach to building and simulating district heating networks. Nonconventional end-user heating configurations, e.g. homes utilizing district heating and a heat pump, has the potential of illustrating how heating consumption patterns may change over time. Peak load reduction is achievable in district heating networks when it is possible to reduce network supply temperature. This can be achieved by predicting end-user heating requirements and using this information for feed-forward model predictive control.

    The overall observations made in this thesis demonstrates that process improvements are obtainable for transient energy systems. Despite the presented work focusing on only one type of energy production and one type of consumption, the approach described unlocks a flexibility that eliminates the need for unambiguous modelling and simulations by allowing for the reusability of model components. The exportability of these models further distinguishes them, as they can be used to test new control approaches within an energy system as real-time predictions within each energy sub-system become more accessible.

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  • 388.
    Zlatkovikj, Milan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dynamic model for large scale hot water storage tank2023In: Energy proceedings, ISSN 2965, Vol. 30, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the growing share of intermittent renewable energy sources (RES), the requirement for flexibility in the energy system is increasing to balance the generation and demand of electricity. It has been well recognized that Combined heat and power plants (CHPs) can contribute towards improved flexibility in the energy system. Thermal energy storage (TES), using hot water as working fluid, is a commonly integrated in CHPs, which allows for decoupling of heat and electricity generation. It has been verified that proper control of the operation of TES can improve the flexibility provided by CHP. The development of advanced control system relies on accurate dynamic modeling of TES. In this work, a one-dimension (1D) dynamic model for large scale TES is developed in Dymola, based on mass and energy balances. It is validated against the operational data from a real CHP plant. Results show that the model can capture the dynamic variation in the operation of the TES energy content with maximum deviations of 6.5% from the maximum value.

  • 389.
    Zlatkovikj, Milan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zaccaria, Valentina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Aslanidou, Ioanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Development of feed-forward model predictive control for applications in biomass bubbling fluidized bed boilers2022In: Journal of Process Control, ISSN 0959-1524, E-ISSN 1873-2771, Vol. 115, p. 167-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to accommodate more intermittent renewable energy sources, biomass fueled combined heat and power plants (bio-CHPs) can contribute towards sustainable and flexible energy systems. However, the varying properties of biomass, such as moisture contents and heating values, can clearly affect the combustion in boilers, which further affects the flexibility provided by bio-CHPs. In order to achieve better control, this paper proposes a feed-forward model predictive controller (FF MPC) to handle the variation of biomass properties. A dynamic model was built in Dymola to simulate the performance of a bubbling fluidized bed boiler, which was validated against the real operation data. Based on the simulation, the key manipulated variables were optimized for the given controlled variables. The advantages of the proposed FF MPC were demonstrated through comparisons with proportional- integral (PI), FF PI and MPC. The results of FF MPC show the best performance, such as the lowest magnitude of fluctuations for 3 outputs (thermal load, steam and fluidized bed temperature), and the most stable operation. Consequently, FF MPC can potentially increase the electricity generation and further lead to an economic benefit. Using one week in winter as an example, compared to PI, FF PI and MPC, FF MPC can generate more electricity and improve revenues by 14.77 MWh/590 =C, 4.1 MWh/164 =C and 5.03 MWh/211.2 =C respectively.

  • 390.
    Zlatkovikj, Milan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zaccaria, Valentina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Aslanidou, Ioanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Simulation study for comparison of control structures for BFB biomass boiler2020Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 391.
    Zlatkovikj, Milan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zaccaria, Valentina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Influence of fuel properties on the performance of the feed forward model predictive control (FF MPC) for biomass boilers2023In: Energy Proceedings, ISSN 2004-2965, Vol. 32, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing share of renewable energy sources drives the need for increased flexibility in the energy systems. The flexibility provision from thermal plants is limited by the boiler’s thermal inertia as a bottleneck. Advanced controllers, such as model predictive control (MPC), have been identified as potential flexibility enablers. Fuel properties are crucial input for controllers. This work investigated the feasibility of using the properties obtained online by using near infrared spectroscopy based soft sensor to further improve the control performance. The performance of the existing proportional integral (PI) controller is compared with those of 2 feed forward (FF) MPC controllers. Both FF MPCs have significant improvement compared to PI controller and the FF MPC based on the full elemental composition shows the best performance due to more complete fuel information. There is a potential for revenues improvement with advanced control up to 1050 euros for one operation day.

  • 392.
    Zlatkovikj, Milan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zaccaria, Valentina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Influence of the transient operation of a large-scale thermal energy storage system on the flexibility provided by CHP plants2023In: e-Prime - Advances in Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Energy, ISSN 2772-6711, Vol. 4, article id 100160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among many technical options to improve the flexibility in combined heat and power (CHP) plants, thermal energy storage (TES) has attracted the most attention with its high applicability and benefit. Previous studies normally adopted a simplified approach for modelling a TES system, which assumes the optimized charged or discharged rate of heat can always be realized within the rated capacity. However, this may yield unfeasible results as the charging and discharging rates are dependent on the dynamic status of a TES, such as the state of charge (SOC) and water temperature, and the water flowrate for charging and discharging. In order to consider the transient operation of a TES, a 1D dynamic model was developed and validated against measured data from a real CHP plant. To analyze the dynamic performance of a TES, two key performance indicators (KPI), the maximum charging/discharging rate (C/D-ratemax) and the constant maximum charging/discharging rate that can be maintained constantly for one hour (CC/CD-ratemax) were employed. By doing simulations, it has been found that the CC/CD-ratemax was lower than the C/D-ratemax for most given SOCs of the studied TES. The developed model was also used to examine the optimized operation of a TES for providing flexibility. Some unfeasible results have been identified, as the optimized hourly charging/discharging rates were constrained by the CC/CD-ratemax. Therefore, it is of great importance to integrate a detailed dynamic model when optimizing the dispatch of electricity and heat for a CHP plant. 

  • 393.
    Zou, B.
    et al.
    College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan, Changsha, China.
    Peng, J.
    College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan, Changsha, China.
    Yin, R.
    College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan, Changsha, 410082, China.
    Li, H.
    College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan, Changsha, China.
    Li, S.
    College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan, Changsha, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yang, H.
    Renewable Energy Research Group (RERG), Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Capacity configuration of distributed photovoltaic and battery system for office buildings considering uncertainties2022In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 319, article id 119243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In practice, the actual operation conditions are generally different from those assumed in the design stage, which causes uncertainties of actual building load and photovoltaic (PV) power generation. This study conducted an optimization design for PV-battery (PVB) system with consideration of these uncertainties. Three groups of factors with uncertainty, relating to outdoor conditions, building construction and indoor conditions, were discussed. An uncertainty-based multi-objective optimization design method was proposed for the PVB system based on the random simulations and weight sum method. Compared with conventional deterministic optimization method, the uncertainty-based optimization method is more likely to achieve the optimal configuration of PV and batteries in actual conditions. When the weight factors are the same, the impacts of self-consumption rate (SCR) on the PVB system configuration are larger than that of the self-sufficiency rate (SSR). The performance of the PVB system is much more sensitive to PV capacity than to battery capacity. In practice, on the premise of achieving the required SCR, the PV capacity should be maximized while the battery capacity be minimized. Representative values of technical indicators (SCR and SSR), of which a relative deviation of 5% covers more than 84% of all the results, were determined. Based on the representative values, the configuration indices of PV and battery capacities for office buildings in the hot-summer and cold-winter, and the IV solar resource zone of China, were proposed, and summarized in the form of table. The proposed configuration indices can be used directly as guide for PVB system design. 

  • 394.
    Zou, X.
    et al.
    National Engineering Laboratory for Pipeline Safety/Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Fuxue Road No.18, Changping District, Beijing, 102249, China.
    Qiu, R.
    National Engineering Laboratory for Pipeline Safety/Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Fuxue Road No.18, Changping District, Beijing, 102249, China.
    Zhang, B.
    National Engineering Laboratory for Pipeline Safety/Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Fuxue Road No.18, Changping District, Beijing, 102249, China.
    Klemeš, J. J.
    Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory – SPIL, NETME Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology – VUT Brno, Technická 2896/2, Brno, 616 69, Czech Republic.
    Wang, B.
    National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Harbor Oil & Gas Storage, Transportation Technology/Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Pollution Control, Zhejiang Ocean University, No. 1 Haida South Road, Zhoushan, 316022, China.
    Liao, Q.
    National Engineering Laboratory for Pipeline Safety/Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Fuxue Road No.18, Changping District, Beijing, 102249, China.
    Liang, Y.
    National Engineering Laboratory for Pipeline Safety/Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Fuxue Road No.18, Changping District, Beijing, 102249, China.
    Zhang, Haoran
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, 277-8568, Japan.
    Roadmap to urban energy internet: Techno-enviro-economic analysis of renewable electricity and natural gas integrated energy system2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 373, article id 133888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integrated energy system which coordinates natural gas, renewable energy, and other energy subsystems is an effective way to promote a low-carbon economy. An effective framework for system assessment and optimisation is a critical issue. This paper takes a natural gas-wind-photovoltaic integrated energy system as the research object and uses the simulation software to analyse its techno-enviro-economic feasibility. Firstly, a mathematical model is customised to optimise the system installation and operation plans. Renewable electricity replaces some natural gas, resulting in pipeline pressure fluctuation. Here, the Stoner Pipeline Simulator software is used to simulate pipeline network operation to quantify the aforementioned pressure fluctuations. The proportion of renewable energy is gradually reduced until the network pressure fluctuation is less than 20% to ensure the stability of pipeline operation. Then, the optimal operation scheme can be determined. Taking three cities in Shandong, China, as cases, the results show that the proposed system is beneficial for urban energy internet development: (i) the total net present cost is reduced by 19.7%, 19.8%, and 20.8%, (ii) annual CO2 emission is reduced by 23.7%, 18.4%, and 12.2%; (iii) the levelised cost of energy is 0.142 $/kWh, 0.143$/kWh, and 0.153$/kWh. 

  • 395.
    Öman, Robert
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Byggnaders energibalans: Aktiv - passiv och köpt - gratis2019In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, no 4, p. 52-55Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Energianvändning i byggnader handlar definitivt inte bara om teknik, eftersom vi människor påverkar så mycket genom våra vanor och ovanor. I den här artikeln behandlas energibalansen med fokus på en indelning i aktiv uppvärmning och passiv värme, och även en helt annan indelning i köpt energi och gratis. Artikeln är avgränsad till energianvändning under bruksskedet för en byggnad utan komfort-kyla. Innehållet bygger delvis vidare på två tidigare artiklar, se referenserna. Det mesta gäller för alla typer av byggnader, men huvudfokus avser bostäder. Några exempel visas från författarensegna småhus med olika årssummor av el inklusive inverkan av berg-värme och solceller. Det är mycket viktigt att ta hänsyn till all köpt energi. Om man till exempel bortser från köpt energi i form av hushållsel så blirresultatet att ökad energieffektivisering avseende hushållsel medför att byggnaden framstår som sämre eftersom minskad passiv värmefrån hushållsel då till stor del kompenseras av ökat energibehov för aktiv uppvärmning.

  • 396.
    Öman, Robert
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Energianvändning per kvadratmeter golvarea2019In: Energi och miljö, ISSN 1101-0568, no 11-12, p. 44-47Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Robert Öman, lektor i byggnadsteknik, beskrev i Energi & Miljö nr 10/2019 den logiska energibalansen mellan aktiv/passiv och köpt/gratis. I den här artikeln förklaras olika begränsningar med att ange energianvändning i förhållande till golvarean. Artikeln har tidigare publicerats i tidningen Bygg & teknik nr 5/2019.

    För att ange energianvändningen under bruksskedet i byggnader vill man gärna använda ett specifikt mått av flera olika skäl. Det vanligaste är att ange energianvändning per kvadratmeter golvarea och år, men ett problem är då att minskad energianvändning i princip belönas lika som ökad golvarea. Om en ökad energianvändning kombineras med en ännu större ökning av golvarean blir ju resultatet att ökad energianvändning framstår som en förbättring eftersom utspädningen är större än den ökade energianvändningen.

    I den här artikeln förklaras olika begränsningar med att ange energianvändning i förhållande till golvarean med några enkla exempel för bostäder, och avslutningsvis argumenteras för att i stället ange energianvändning per person. Artikeln är avgränsad till bruksskedet, och i ett exempel jämförs både boende och bilåkande. Det finns naturligtvis möjligheter att bredda perspektivet till att innefatta all energianvändning ”från vaggan till graven” för en byggnad genom att studera en period på kanske 50 eller 100 år.

  • 397.
    Öman, Robert
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Energianvändning per kvadratmeter golvarea.: Om energieffektivitet, utspädning och människor i byggnader.2019In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, no 5, p. 52-55Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    För att ange energianvändningen under bruksskedet i byggnader såvill man gärna använda ett specifikt mått av flera olika skäl. Det vanligaste är att ange energianvändning per kvadratmeter golvarea och år, men ett problem är då att minskad energianvändning i princip belönas lika som ökad golvarea. Om en ökad energianvändning kombineras med en ännu större ökning av golvarean så blir ju resultatet att ökad energianvändning framstår som en förbättring eftersom utspädningen är större än den ökade energianvändningen. I den här artikeln förklaras olika begränsningar med att ange energianvändning i förhållande till golvarean med några enkla exempel för bostäder, och avslutningsvis argumenteras för att i stället ange energianvändning per person. Artikeln är avgränsad till bruksskedet, och i ett exempel jämförs både boende och bilåkande. Det finns naturligtvis möjligheter att bredda perspektivet till att innefatta all energianvändning ”från vaggan till graven” för en byggnad genom att studera en period på kanske 50 eller 100 år.

  • 398.
    Öman, Robert
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Logisk energibalans med aktiv/passiv och köpt/gratis. 2019In: Energi & miljö, ISSN 1101-0568, no 10, p. 56-59Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Energianvändning i byggnader handlar definitivt inte bara om teknik, eftersom vi människor påverkar så mycket genom våra vanor och ovanor. I den här artikeln behandlas energibalansen med fokus på en indelning i aktiv uppvärmning och passiv värme, och även en helt annan indelning i köpt energi och gratis. Den här artikeln har tidigare publicerats i tidningen Bygg & teknik nr 4/2019.

    Artikeln är avgränsad till energianvändning under bruksskedet för en byggnad utan komfortkyla. Innehållet bygger delvis vidare på två tidigare artiklar, se referenserna. Det mesta gäller för alla typer av byggnader, men huvudfokus avser bostäder. Några exempel visas från författarens eget småhus med olika årssummor av el inklusive inverkan av bergvärme och solceller. Det är mycket viktigt att ta hänsyn till all köpt energi. Om man till exempel bortser från köpt energi i form av hushållsel blir resultatet att ökad energieffektivisering avseende hushållsel medför att byggnaden framstår som sämre eftersom minskad passiv värme från hushållsel då till stor del kompenseras av ökat energibehov för aktiv uppvärmning.

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