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  • 351.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ameri E., Afshin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Augmented Reality-based Industrial Robot Control2011In: Proceedings of SIGRAD 2011 / [ed] Larsson, Thomas ; Kjelldahl, Lars ; Jää-Aro, Kai-Mikael, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, p. 113-114Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the interfaces which are designed to control or program industrial robots are complex and require special training for the user. This complexity alongside the changing environment of small medium enterprises (SMEs) has lead to absence of robots from SMEs. The costs of (re)programming the robots and (re)training the robot users exceed initial costs of installation. In order to solve this shortcoming, we propose a new interface which uses augmented reality (AR) and multimodal human-robot interaction. We show that such an approach allows easier manipulation of robots at industrial environments.

  • 352.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ameri E., Afshin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Intuitive Industrial Robot Programming Through Incremental Multimodal Language and Augmented Reality2011In: 2011 IEEE International Conferance on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2011), IEEE , 2011, p. 3934-3939Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing easy to use, intuitive interfaces is crucial to introduce robotic automation to many small medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Due to their continuously changing product lines, reprogramming costs exceed installation costs by a large margin. In addition, traditional programming methods for industrial robots is too complex for an inexperienced robot programmer, thus external assistance is often needed. In this paper a new incremental multimodal language, which uses augmented reality (AR) environment, is presented. The proposed language architecture makes it possible to manipulate, pick or place the objects in the scene. This approach shifts the focus of industrial robot programming from coordinate based programming paradigm, to object based programming scheme. This makes it possible for non-experts to program the robot in an intuitive way, without going through rigorous training in robot programming.

  • 353.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Interacting with industrial robots through a multi-modal language and sensory systems2008In: 39th International Sysmposium on Robotics, Seoul, Korea, 2008, p. 66-69Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few decades the use of industrial robots has increased a company's efficiency as well as strengthening their competitiveness in the market.

    Despite this fact, in many cases, robot automation investments are considered to be technically challenging as well as costly by small and medium sized enterprises (SME). We hypothesize that in order to make industrial robots more common within the SME sector, the robots should be reprogrammable by task experts rather than robot programming experts. Within this project we propose to develop a high level language for intelligent human robot interaction that relies on multi-sensor inputs providing an abstract instructional programming environment for the user. Eventually to bring robot programming to stage where it is as easy as working together with a colleague

  • 354.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Scheduling POP-Star for Automatic Creation of Robot Cell Programs2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typical pick and place, and machine tending applications often require an industrial robot to be embedded in a cell and to communicate with other devices in the cell. Programming the program logic is a tedious job, requiring expert programming knowledge, and it can take more time than programming the specific robot movements itself. We propose a new system, which takes in the description of the whole manufacturing process in natural language as input, fills in the implicit actions, and plans the sequence of actions to accomplish the task described in minimal makespan using a modified partial planning algorithm. Finally we demonstrate that the proposed system can come up with a sensible plan for the given instructions.

  • 355.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Spampinato, Giacomo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Object selection using a spatial language for flexible assembly2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 356.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Spampinato, Giacomo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Object Selection using a Spatial Language for Flexible Assembly2009In: 14th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2009. (ETFA 2009), Mallorca, Spain, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a new simplified natural language that makes use of spatial relations between the objects in scene to navigate an industrial robot for simple pick and place applications. Developing easy to use, intuitive interfaces is crucial to introduce robotic automation to many small medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Due to their continuously changing product lines, reprogramming costs are far higher than installation costs. In order to hide the complexities of robot programming we propose a natural language where the use can control and jog the robot based on reference objects in the scene. We used Gaussian kernels to represent spatial regions, such as left or above. Finally we present some dialogues between the user and robot to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed system.

  • 357.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Spampinato, Giacomo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Robust Human Robot Collaboration in Industrial Environments2010In: 5th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2010, 2010, p. 71-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a system, which is driven through natural language, that allows operators to select and manipulate objects in the environment using an industrial robot is proposed. In order to hide the complexities of robot programming we propose a natural language where the user can control and jog the robot based on reference objects in the scene. We used semantic networks to relate different types of objects in the scene

  • 358.
    Akbari, Keramatollah
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Impact of Radon Ventilation on Indoor Air Quality and Building Energy saving2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial living is caused much people do live and work in closed and confined places; offices and residential buildings. This is why in this new world more fresh air which is generally provided by forced ventilation plays a vital role in living of human being. Furthermore because of many different indoor pollutants, like radon and artificial pollutants, the amount of fresh air and in turn the energy consumption has increased. This energy consumption related to ventilation has reached up to about 30 percent of energy used of building section. So making interaction between indoor air quality (IAQ) and optimization of energy saving is a necessary work.  Radon as a natural pollutant is occurred in environment and in many countries threatens people health whereas is called the second causes of cancer. For reducing radon concentration in residential building at the acceptable level forced ventilation is used usually. Ventilation can improve IAQ but in the other side would increase the energy consumption in building sector and just now the contribution of ventilation exceeds up 50 percent of building sector's share. The aim of this thesis is to study the impact of ventilation on indoor radon by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to achieve indoor air quality and energy efficiency. Application of CFD as a new technology, because of its cost and time savings, and on the other side, of its flexibility and precision is  increasingly grown and can be used as a very important and valuable tool for the prediction and measurement of radon distribution in a ventilated building . Currently, measurement techniques and proposed standards and regulations of indoor pollutants and ventilation, particularly related to indoor radon cannot be able to provide a secure, safe and energy efficient indoor climate. This is why the indoor airflow distribution is very complex and with changing building geometry and operation condition, the treatment of air flow pattern, substantially would be changed, whereas the rules are usually independent of the buildings features. Furthermore, the indoor standards and regulations are based on average amount of pollutants in a room, whereas the pollutant distributions aren't identical and are varied throughout the room. Then the current techniques aren't so exactly valuable and acceptable.

    From different methods which is privilege to control pollutants, ventilation method is applicable in existing buildings. Designing effective ventilation can reduce radon concentration to very level low with regarding energy conservation remarks.

     

    This thesis presents results from simulation studies on ventilation and radon mitigation in residential buildings, in view points of indoor air quality and energy savings. The CFD technique is applied to predict, visualize and calculate of mixture radon-air flow. The distribution of indoor radon concentration, air velocity and room temperature also have considered together for achieving indoor air quality and energy saving. The results are also compared with the experimental data and related previous works.

     

    It was found that with increasing ventilation rate, the radon concentration is decreased, but the location of ventilation system is also important. From the simulation results, it is observed that within the ventilated room, there are some zones, which are good for living and somewhere is more polluted. The traditional radon detectors basically show the average value of radon content in 1m­3 of air. That is why detector measuring is not exact and safe.

     

    Simulation results proved that floor heat can be supported ventilation effect and speed up the mixture movement. Floor heating reinforces the buoyancy effect, which is useful to reduce radon content in the floor (seating area) and then lower ventilation rate can be applied.

  • 359.
    Akbari, Keramatollah
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Influence of residential ventilation on Radon mitigation with energy saving emphasis2009In:  PROCEEDINGS FROM SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE ON GREEN ENERGY AND IT, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many indoor pollutants in the residential buildings. High insulation and tightness in buildings in order to increase energy efficiency and to lower energy costs is led to the indoor air quality problems. To provide sufficient fresh air and to promote indoor air quality at acceptable level, it is needed to increase ventilation rate to overcome such pollutants.  

    The aim of this paper is to study about energy efficient mechanical ventilation to overcome poor indoor air quality and energy consumption associated with radon ventilation.

     

    Ventilation is a good method to dilute radon contaminant and maintain indoor air quality, but in the other hand ventilation is account for about 50 percent of energy use in residential buildings. Designing the required rate and location of ventilation systems and also choosing the best type of ventilation strategies can be provided both indoor air quality (IAQ) and building energy savings (BES).

     Computational fluid dynamics technique as a useful tool can be used to simulate and visualize radon treatment and mechanical ventilation rates for optimizing energy consumption and achieving to indoor air quality.

    Results show that the exhaust fan installed in the middle another one in the left side have different impacts on distribution of radon contents in the room. Also when the rate of ventilation is changed from 7.5 l/s to 35 l/s the radon concentration will be decreased. By choosing the optimum features of ventilation system, energy saving can be obtained.

  • 360.
    Akbari, Keramatollah
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Simulation of Indoor Radon and Energy Recovery Ventilation Systems in Residential Buildings2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate the effects of ventilation rate, indoor air temperature, humidity and using a heat recovery ventilation system on indoor radon concentration and distribution.

    Methods employed include energy dynamic and computational fluid dynamics simulation, experimental measurement and analytical investigations. Experimental investigations primarily utilize a continuous radon meter and a detached house equipped with a recovery heat exchanger unit.

    The results of the dynamic simulation show that the heat recovery unit is cost-effective for the cold Swedish climate and an energy saving of about 30 kWh per  floor area per year is possible, while it can be also used to lower radon level.

    The numerical results showed that ventilation rate and ventilation location have significant impacts on both radon content and distribution, whereas indoor air temperature only has a small effect on radon level and distribution and humidity has no impact on radon level but has a small impact on its distribution.

  • 361.
    Akbari, Keramatollah
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Mahmoudi, Jafar
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Effects of Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems on Indoor Radon2012In: PROCEEDINGS OF ECOS 2012 - THE 25TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EFFICIENCY, COST, OPTIMIZATION, SIMULATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ENERGY SYSTEMS / [ed] ECOS, 2012, , p. 10p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A heat recovery ventilation system enables us to control indoor conditions such as ventilation rate,

    temperature, relative humidity and pressure difference. These environmental conditions affect indoor radon

    levels.

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool for predicting and visualizing radon content and indoor

    air quality and is cost effective in comparison with other methods such as full scale laboratory and gas trace

    techniques.

    In this study a mechanically balanced ventilation system and a continuous radon monitor (CRM) were used

    to measure the indoor ventilation rate and radon levels. In a numerical approach the FLUENT CFD package

    was used to simulate radon entry into the building and effects on indoor air conditions.

    The effects of different ventilation rates, indoor temperature and relative humidity on indoor radon

    concentrations were investigated in a one family detached house in Stockholm. Results of numerical studies

    indicated that changes of ventilation rate, indoor temperature and moisture by means of ventilation systems

    have significant effects on indoor radon content. Ventilation rate was inversely proportional to indoor radon

    concentration. Minimum radon levels were estimated in the range of thermal comfort, i.e. at 21 and

    relative humidity between 50-70%.

    The analytical solution was used to validate numeric results at 3 distinct air change rates. Comparisons

    between numerical and analytical results showed good agreement but there was poor agreement between

    simulations and measurement results due to the short measuring period.

  • 362.
    Akbari, Keramatollah
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Mahmoudi, Jafar
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Numerical Simulation of Radon Transport and Indoor Air Conditions Effects2012In: International journal of scientific and Engineering Research, ISSN 2229-5518, Vol. 3, no 6, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool for predicting and visualizing radon content and indoor air quality and is cost effective in comparison with other methods such as full scale laboratory and gas trace techniques. The intention of this article is to use CFD to simulate indoor radon distribution and ventilation effects. In this study a mechanically balanced ventilation system and a continuous radon monitor (CRM) were used to measure the indoor ventilation rate and radon levels. In a numerical approach the FLUENT CFD package was used to simulate radon entry into the building and effects on indoor air conditions. The effects of different ventilation rates, indoor temperature and relative humidity on indoor radon concentrations were investigated in a one family de-tached house in Stockholm. Results of numerical studies indicated that changes of ventilation rate, indoor temperature and moisture by means of ventila-tion systems have significant effects on indoor radon content. Ventilation rate was inversely proportional to indoor radon concentration. Minimum radon levels were estimated in the range of thermal comfort, i.e. at 21 and relative humidity between 50-70%. The analytical solution was used to validate numeric results at 3 distinct air change rates. Comparisons between numerical and analytical results showed good agreement but there was poor agreement between simulations and measurement results due to the short measuring period.

  • 363.
    Akbari, Keramatollah
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Mahmoudi, Jafar
    Simulation of Radon Mitigation in Residential Building2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 364.
    Akbari, Keramatollah
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Mahmoudi, Jafar
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Ghanbari, M.
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran .
    Simulation of ventilation effects on indoor radon2013In: Management of environmental quality, ISSN 1477-7835, E-ISSN 1758-6119, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 394-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate indoor radon distribution and ventilation effects. This technique was used to predict and visualize radon content and indoor air quality in a one-family detached house in Stockholm. The effects of intake fans, exhaust fans and doors on radon concentration were investigated. Design/methodology/approach: In this study a mechanically balanced ventilation system and a continuous radon monitor (CRM) were used to measure the indoor ventilation rate and radon levels. In a numerical approach, the FLUENT CFD package was used to simulate radon entry into the building and ventilation effects. Findings: Results of the numerical study indicated that indoor pressure created by ventilation systems and infiltration through doors or windows have significant effects on indoor radon content. The location of vents was found to affect the indoor radon level and distribution. Research limitations/implications: It may be possible to improve any discrepancies found in this article by using a more refined representation of grids and certain boundary conditions, such as pressure and temperature differences between inside and outside and by considering some real situations in residential buildings and external situations. Originality/value: From the viewpoints of indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy savings, ventilation has two opposing functions; on the positive side it enhances IAQ and the establishment of thermal comfort, and on the negative side it increases energy consumption. This paper describes the search for a solution to cope with this contradiction.

  • 365.
    Akbari, Keramatollah
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Mahmoudi, Jafar
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ghanbari, Mahdi
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Influence of indoor air conditions on radon concentration in a detached house2013In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, ISSN ISSN 0265-931X, EISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 116, p. 166-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radon is released from soil and building materials and can accumulate in residential buildings. Breathing radon and radon progeny for extended periods hazardous to health and can lead to lung cancer. Indoor air conditions and ventilation systems strongly influence indoor radon concentrations. This paper focuses on effects of air change rate, indoor temperature and relative humidity on indoor radon concentrations in a one family detached house in Stockholm, Sweden.In this study a heat recovery ventilation system unit was used to control the ventilation rate and a continuous radon monitor (CRM) was used to measure radon levels. FLUENT, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package was used to simulate radon entry into the building and air change rate, indoor temperature and relative humidity effects using a numerical approach.The results from analytical solution, measurements and numerical simulations showed that air change rate, indoor temperature and moisture had significant effects on indoor radon concentration. Increasing air change rate reduces radon level and for a specific air change rate (in this work Ach = 0.5) there was a range of temperature and relative humidity that minimized radon levels. In this case study minimum radon levels were obtained at temperatures between 20 and 22 °C and a relative humidity of 50-60%

  • 366.
    Akbari, Keramatollah
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Mahmoudi, Jafar
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Öman, Robert
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Simulation of ventilation effects on indoor radon in a detached house2012In: WSEAS Transactions on Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1790-5087, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 146-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CFD is widely used in indoor air quality, air flow pattern, indoor pollutant distribution and thermal comfort as a cost effective and powerful tool and it can be used to predict, estimate and visualize the indoor radon level. The intention of this article is to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD), as a standalone tool to simulate indoor radon distribution and ventilation effects. This technique can be used to predict and visualize radon content and indoor air quality throughout a one family detached house in Stockholm. In this study a mechanical balanced ventilation system and a continuous radon monitor (CRM) were also used to measure the indoor ventilation rate and radon levels. In numerical approach the FLUENT, CFD package was used to simulate radon entry into the building and ventilation effects. Results of numerical study indicated that indoor pressure made by means of ventilation systems and infiltration through door or window has significant effects on indoor radon content. It is observed that the location of vents can affect the indoor radon level, particularly in breathing (seating) zone. The analytic solution is used to validate numeric results at 3 distinct air change rates. The comparison amongst analytical, numerical and measurement results shows close agreement.

  • 367.
    Akbari, Keramatollah
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Oman, Robert
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Impacts of heat recovery ventilators on energy savings and indoor radon level2013In: Management of environmental quality, ISSN 1477-7835, E-ISSN 1758-6119, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 682-694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the impact of heat recovery ventilators (HRVs) on the energy use and indoor radon in a one family detached house. Heat recovery ventilation systems, because of reducing ventilation loss through recovered exhaust air, can play a good role in the effectiveness of ventilation to reduce energy use. In addition HRVs can maintain pressure balance and outdoor ventilation rate at a required level to mitigate indoor radon level. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, a multizone model of a detached house is developed in IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA ICE 4.0). The model is validated using measurements regarding use of energy for heating, ventilation and whole energy use. The performance of the heat recovery ventilation system is examined with respect to radon mitigation and energy saving by measuring the radon concentration and analyzing the life cycle cost of a heat exchanger unit. Findings: The results of the measurements and dynamic simulation showed that the heat recovery ventilation system could lead to 74 per cent energy savings of the ventilation loss, amounting to about 30 kWh m-2 per year. Life cycle cost analysis used for assessing total costs and the result showed that using this system is quite cost-effective and investment would payback during 12 years. Research limitations/implications: Limitations of this study generally refer to radon measurement and simulation because of radon complex behavior and its high fluctuations even during short periods of time. Practical implications: Heat recovery ventilation systems with reducing radon concentration improve indoor air quality and decrease environmental problems with energy savings. Social implications: Using balanced heat recovery ventilation can have benefits from the viewpoint of environmental impacts and household economy. Originality/value: Employment of a heat recovery unit to control indoor radon level is a new usage of this technology which along with energy savings can improve sustainable development.

  • 368.
    Akbari, Keramatollah
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Öman, Robert
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Impacts of heat recovery ventilators on energy savings and indoor radon in a Swedish detached house2013In: WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN 1790-5079, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 24-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat recovery ventilation systems, because of reducing ventilation loss through recovered exhaust air, can play a good role in the effectiveness of ventilation to reduce energy use. In this paper, the impact of a heat recovery ventilator (HRV) on the energy use and indoor radon in residential buildings is investigated. This paper describes the effects of a heat recovery ventilation system on energy consumption in a detached house in Stockholm, Sweden. The performance of the heat recovery ventilation system is examined with respect to radon mitigation and energy saving by measuring the radon concentration and analyzing the life cycle cost of a heat exchanger unit. In this study, a multizone model of a detached house is developed in IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA ICE 4.0). The model is validated using measurements regarding use of energy for heating, ventilation and whole energy use. The results of the measurements and dynamic simulation showed that heat recovery ventilation system 74% energy savings of the ventilation loss, amounted about 30 kWh.m-2 per year. Life cycle cost analysis used for assessing total costs and the result showed that using this system is quite cost-effective and investment would payback during 12 years.

  • 369.
    Akbari, Keramatollah
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Öman, Robert
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Radon Mitigation using Heat Recovery Ventilation system in a Swedish Detached House2013In: WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN 1790-5079, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 73-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Balanced ventilation with heat recovery has strong effects on radon mitigation and energy saving in residential buildings. This new technology enables improvement of both indoor air quality and energy efficiency without sacrificing either. Reducing radon by means of forced ventilation requires an increase in outdoor supplied air (i.e. ventilation rate), which in turn can increase energy use. Energy losses in ventilation systems are inevitable, but new technologies such as heat recovery systems make it possible to recover most of this ventilation heat loss. Heat recovery ventilation systems, which recover energy from exhaust air, can significantly reduce ventilation losses, and balancing the indoor air pressure plays a positive role in the effectiveness of ventilation to reduce and mitigate radon levels and control indoor air quality. This paper describes a case study which considers the effects of a heat recovery ventilation system on the radon concentration and energy consumption in a detached house in Stockholm, Sweden. The performance of the heat recovery ventilation system is examined with respect to radon mitigation and energy saving by measuring the radon concentration and analyzing the life cycle cost in winter. The results of the measurements and dynamic simulation showed that a heat recovery ventilation system was able to reduce the radon level from around 600 Bq.m-3 to below 100 Bq.m-3 and reduce energy loss from ventilation by 80%, equivalent to around 3500 kWh per year. The results of life cycle cost analysis used to assess total costs showed that this system is cost-effective and investment would pay for itself in 12 years. It should be noted that this saving is a representative sample, and that actual savings would be influenced by a large number of factors. IDA 4.0 Indoor Climate and Energy software was used to perform the dynamic simulations.

  • 370.
    Akbari, N.
    et al.
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Modarressi, M.
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Loni, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    A Customized Processing-in-Memory Architecture for Biological Sequence Alignment2018In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Application-Specific Systems, Architectures and Processors, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, article id 8445124Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sequence alignment is the most widely used operation in bioinformatics. With the exponential growth of the biological sequence databases, searching a database to find the optimal alignment for a query sequence (that can be at the order of hundreds of millions of characters long) would require excessive processing power and memory bandwidth. Sequence alignment algorithms can potentially benefit from the processing power of massive parallel processors due their simple arithmetic operations, coupled with the inherent fine-grained and coarse-grained parallelism that they exhibit. However, the limited memory bandwidth in conventional computing systems prevents exploiting the maximum achievable speedup. In this paper, we propose a processing-in-memory architecture as a viable solution for the excessive memory bandwidth demand of bioinformatics applications. The design is composed of a set of simple and lightweight processing elements, customized to the sequence alignment algorithm, integrated at the logic layer of an emerging 3D DRAM architecture. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture results in up to 2.4x speedup and 41% reduction in power consumption, compared to a processor-side parallel implementation. 

  • 371.
    Akgüre, Elanur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Dabiri, Shiva
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Miljövänligare inflygningar2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     Detta examensarbete handlar om miljövänligare inflygningar. Gröna- och kurvade inflygningar gör flyget mer miljövänligt. Det är ett effektivt sätt att minska flygets miljöpåverkan. Varje grön- och kurvad inflygning innebär minskad bränsleförbrukning, utsläpp samt betydligt lägre buller vid landning.

     Vid en grön inflygning, sjunker flygplanet kontinuerligt från sin marschhöjd till landningsbanan med motorerna på tomgång. En kurvad inflygning är en kombination av grön inflygning och kurvad inflygning. Med en kurvad inflygning kan man välja en väg där man inte flyger över bostadsområde. På så sätt blir det inga köbildningar i luften innan landningen. Vid kurvade inflygningar blir miljövinster större än med vanliga gröna inflygningar.

    För att ett flygplan skall kunna genomföra en grön inflygning krävs att det är utrustad med FMS (Flight Management System). Det är utrustning för navigering som bestämmer flygplants position genom att integrera navigationsuppgifter från en eller flera positionsgivare med information från flygplants fartmätar- och höjdmätarsystem.

    Flygvägar som SID och STAR skapar flygsäkerhet och ordning i luftrummet. SID är flygvägar för angående trafik och STAR är flygvägar för ankommande trafik. Syftet med P-RNAV STAR är att ett flygplan med navigeringsutrustning ska kunna programmera in färdvägen i sin FMS och på så sätt genomförs en optimal inflygning med låga koldioxidutsläpp.

    Gröna inflygningar har visat kunnat spara 100-150 kilo bränsle och 314-474 kilo koldioxidutsläpp vid varje miljövänlig inflygning beroende på flygplansmodell.

  • 372.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University.
    Arbetshälsa ur perspektiven klass, genus och etnicitet.2006In: I: Kors och tvärs: Intersektionalitet och makt i storstadens arbetsliv / [ed] Gunnarsson E., Neergard A., Nilsson A., Stockholm: Normal Förlag , 2006, p. 300-315Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 373.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Class, gender and ethnicity in relation to health care – A study on social disparities in the Swedish health care.2011In: Reconsidering social identification: race, gender, class and caste. / [ed] Janmohamed A. (Ed.), Routledge, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 374.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Female Immigrants’ Health and Working Conditions in Sweden2007In: The international journal of diversity in organisations, communities and nations, ISSN 1447-9583, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 275-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the European countries that has successively changed from a mainly ethnically homogeneous society into a multi-ethnic society. In 2001, almost 20 per cent of the Swedish population was classified as immigrants, i.e., they were either born abroad and naturalized, of foreign nationality or born in Sweden with at least one parent who had been born abroad. Reports, statistics and research have shown that the health of female immigrants is worse than that of the total population and that the incidence of long-term sickness absence and early retirement is higher in this group. The overall aim of this article is to describe, understand and analyze factors that contribute to poor health among female immigrants in Sweden from the perspective of class, gender and ethnicity. Being unemployed, on sick leave or working in occupation with low income and low status are examples that are related to class position, gender and ethnicity. The main three aspects based on class are wage, professional status and female immigrants position in the hierarchical work organisation. Other factors are discrimination due to ethnicity and gender, unfavourable physical and psychosocial work environment and absence of opportunities for skills upgrade training. Experiences of rape, domestic violence, unanswered emotional and sexual needs and patriarchal culture are examples that are related to gender. And experiencing traumatic events (in pre-migration periods such as experiences of war, prison, etc. and in post-migration periods such as experiences of discrimination and racism) are examples that are related to ethnicity.

  • 375.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Invandrade kvinnors hälsa och arbetsvillkor i Sverige2011In: Perspektiv på kvinnors hälsa i arbetslivet / [ed] Sandmark H., Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, p. 135-142Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 376.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Livssmärta - utanförskap och problem med barn.2003In: Flyktingskapet i ett långsiktigt integrationsperspektiv. / [ed] Franzen E. ., Tullinge: FOU Södertörn , 2003, p. 195-264Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 377.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Midwives’ views on factors that contribute to health care inequalities among immigrants in Sweden: a qualitative study.2012In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 11, p. article nr: 47-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in the Swedish health care system have increased. Most indicators suggest that immigrants have significantly poorer health than native Swedes. The purpose of this study was to explore the views of midwives on the factors that contribute to health care inequality among immigrants. Methods: Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with ten midwives. These were transcribed and related categories identified through content analysis. Results: The interview data were divided into three main categories and seven subcategories. The category "Communication" was divided into subcategories "The meeting", "Cultural diversity and language barriers" and "Trust and confidence". The category "Potential barriers to the use of health care services" contained two subcategories, "Seeking health care" and "Receiving equal treatment". Finally, the category "Transcultural health care" had subcategories "Education on transcultural health care" and "The concept". Conclusions: This study suggests that midwives believe that health care inequality among immigrants can be the result of miscommunication which may arise due to a shortage of meeting time, language barriers, different systems of cultural beliefs and practices and limited patient-caregiver trust. Midwives emphasized that education level, country of origin and length of stay in Sweden play a role when an immigrant seeks health care. Immigrants face more difficulties when seeking health care and in receiving adequate levels of care. However, different views among the midwives were also observed. Some midwives were sensitive to individual and intra-group differences, while some others viewed immigrants as a group of "others". Midwives' beliefs about subgroup-specific health services vs. integrating immigrants' health care into mainstream health care services should be investigated further. Patients' perspective should also be considered.

  • 378.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Patienters uppfattning om Vård på lika villkor2015In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 189-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To find out the patients’ perceptions of the care and welfare services is important in order to develop the quality of care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patients’ perspectives on care on equal terms and on their ideas about methods for a more equitable care. To achieve the purpose, qualitative methods were used in form of conducting interviews with patients’ and representatives of patient organizations. The results show that patients’ perceive that in order to achieve a more equitable care continuity, time during consultations, availability, communication and encounter should evolve and become better.

  • 379.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Promoting Equity in Primary Health Care2015In: Primary Health Care, ISSN 2167-1079, Vol. 5, no 216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equity in access to primary health care services is a central objective of the Swedish health care system. Yet, several reports have illustrated that disparities still exist in the primary health sector, and have increased since the beginning of the 1990s. This commentary analyzes and explains the reasons for continuing inequality in access to and utilization of primary health care services in a welfare system. Social and structural factors, communication, macro-sociological aspects and health care providers’ attitudes and perceptions are discussed as substantial contributors to inequality in access to and utilization of primary health care services. In conclusion, some intervention strategies for promoting more equitable primary health care are suggested.

  • 380.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Social determinants of health for female Iranian immigrants in Sweden.2012In: The Iranian community in Sweden – Multidisciplinary perspectives. / [ed] Hosseini-Kaladjani H., Tumba: The Multicultural Centre , 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 381.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Utvärdering av projektet ”Utlandsfödda kvinnor som doulor och kulturtolkar”2009Report (Other academic)
  • 382.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Vad sker med personalens inställning till Vård på lika villkor när verksamheterna deltar i Lärandeprojektet?2015In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 176-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equity in health and providing care on equal terms is one of the most important aspects of a welfare society. Several reports indicate that the health care services are not equal. The purpose of this study was to study health care providers’ perceptions on equitable care and their ideas about methods to achieve a more equitable care. An web survey was sent to health care providers whose unit were involved in the project "Care on equal terms" before and after the project period. The results show that health care providers perceived that the factors that influence clients’/ patients’ access to care on equal terms consists of: structural / organizational factors in the health care organization or in the society and clients’/ patients’ social situation.

  • 383.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Aytar, Osman
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Bogg, Lennart
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Blev det ett genombrott?: Utvärdering av det nationella lärandeprojektet – Vård på lika villkor2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjukvården i Sverige är i dag inte jämlik, har brister i tillgänglighet och erbjuds inte på likvärdiga villkor trots Hälso- och sjukvårdslagens mål om en god hälsa och en vård på lika villkor för hela befolkningen.

    För att bryta den pågående trenden och öka jämlikheten gjordes en överenskommelse mellan regeringen och SKL om lärandeprojektet Vård på lika villkor (under åren 2011–2014). Syftet med projektets har varit att inom socioekonomiskt resurssvaga bostadsområden öka jämlikheten i första linjens vård. Detta genom att testa, utveckla och identifiera effektiva arbetssätt och metoder vid sju primärvårdsverksamheter från fem landsting i Sverige.

    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, fick av SKL i uppdrag att svara för forskarstöd och att genomföra en utvärdering av de metoder och arbetssätt som utvecklades och testades i lärandeprojektet.

    Resultatet från den genomförda utvärderingen som belyser den genomförda processen, mål- och resultat samt hälsoekonomiska aspekter beskrivs närmare i denna rapport.

  • 384.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Aytar, Osman
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Bogg, Lennart
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Temaledare: Vård på lika villkor – Vad kan vi lära av Lärandeprojektet?2015In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 103-106Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 385.
    akhavan, sharareh
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Bildt, C
    National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden .
    wamala, S
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    The health of female Iranian immigrants in Sweden: A qualitative six-year follow-up study2007In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 339-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigration affects life and health in many different ways. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze female Iranian immigrants' perception of various factors that influence their health over time. Data collection was based on semistructured interviews with 10 female Iranianimmigrants. Baseline interviews were conducted in 1996, with follow-up interviews in 2002. The results suggest that during the first decade after migration, female immigrants may overcome some health-related factors such as experiences of traumatic events. Other health determinants such as unemployment or experiences of discrimination and racism, however, were observed even two decades after migration.

  • 386.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. National Institute for Working Life, Sweden.
    Bildt, C
    National Institute for Working Life, Sweden.
    Wamala, S
    National Institute for Working Life, Sweden.
    Work-related health factors among female immigrants in Sweden2007In: WORK – A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 135-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work-related health has been a focus of research since the rate of sickness-related absences began to increase in Sweden. The incidence of sickness-related absences and early retirement is higher among female immigrants than among others in the total population. This study is based on a questionnaire survey which was conducted in a municipality in Sweden. The study population consisted of 2 429 native and immigrant female employees. The aim was to study work-related health factors for female immigrants. The results of this study show that about 20% of female immigrants who participate in the survey have temporary employment while the proportion is 8% for native women. The perception of ethnic discrimination among female immigrants was three times as much as among native females. The results also show that 69% of female immigrants report having received no opportunity to discuss their wages with managers, in comparison to 63% of native females. About 40% of female immigrants and 35% of native women report that they do not get opportunities to upgrade their skills. Female immigrants over the age of 50 experience gender and ethnic discrimination and lack of access to skills training programs more often than younger immigrants. They also participate in health-care activities more often.

  • 387.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Sweden.
    Bildt, C
    National Institute for Working Life, Sweden.
    Wamala, S
    National Institute for Working Life, Sweden.
    Work-related health factors among female immigrants in Sweden – A qualitative study on a sample of twenty workers.2006In: Italian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1723-7807, E-ISSN 1723-7815, Italian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1723-7807, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 60-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to explore work-related health factors amongst female immigrants in Sweden.

    Methods: Qualitative methods were used in order to get the broadest possible picture of female immigrants’ perceptions on work-related health factors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty female immigrants who worked in different departments of a municipality adjacent to a large city in Sweden. Most of the interviewed women came from the Middle East, Africa and Latin America, while some came from eastern and southern Europe as well as Finland. The women had lived in Sweden for 5-27 years. Content analysis, which is based on analysis by topic, was used to analyse the data.

    Results: Results from the interviews show that female immigrants perceived that work-related health is strongly associated with class. The three aspects of class that arose from this study were wage, professional status and their position within the organisations hierarchy. Other factors that were identified as being associated to work-related health were discrimination due to ethnicity and gender, unfavourable physical and psychosocial work environment and lack of training opportunities for upgrading their skills.

    Conclusions: The public health implications of the findings in this study suggest that measures that ought to be taken to improve female immigrants working conditions and health are primarily systematic efforts to counteract discrimination because of gender and ethnicity in areas such as wage setting and opportunities for skill up-grade training. This should result in improved employment opportunities for female immigrants, particularly those who work in low status and low-paid jobs.

  • 388.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bildt, Carina
    National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Franzen, Elsie
    Wamala, Sarah
    National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Health in relation to unemployment and sick leave among immigrants in Sweden from a gender perspective2004In: Journal of Immigrant Health, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 103-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to analyze health in relation to unemployment and sick leave among immigrants from a gender perspective. Questionnaire, observations, and group discussions were used for data collection. The study group consisted of 60 unemployed persons with immigrant or refugee background, 30 women and 30 men. Slightly more than half of the participants considered theirhealth to be poor and experienced physical and/or mental disorders. The female participants in comparison to male participants experienced poorer health. The results show that there is a reciprocal influence between health, work, and migration. Immigration may cause poor health, which as a selection effect leads to unemployment and/or sick leave. Immigration may also bring about an inferior position in the labor market, which leads to poor health due to exposure effects. The influence on health is more marked for immigrant women than for immigrant men.

  • 389.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Karlsen, S.
    University College London.
    Practitioner and client explanations for disparities in health care use between migrant and non-migrant groups in Sweden: A qualitative study2013In: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 188-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate variations in explanations given for disparities in health care use between migrant and non-migrant groups, by clients and care providers in Sweden. Qualitative evidence collected during in-depth interviews with five 'migrant' health service clients and five physicians. The interview data generated three categories which were perceived by respondents to produce ethnic differences in health service use: "Communication issues", "Cultural differences in approaches to medical consultations" and "Effects of perceptions of inequalities in care quality and discrimination". Explanations for disparities in health care use in Sweden can be categorized into those reflecting social/structural conditions and the presence/absence of power and those using cultural/behavioural explanations. The negative perceptions of 'migrant' clients held by some Swedish physicians place the onus for addressing their poor health with the clients themselves and risks perpetuating their health disadvantage. The power disparity between doctors and 'migrant' patients encourages a sense of powerlessness and mistreatment among patients.

  • 390.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Client/patient perceptions of achieving equity in primary health care: a mixed methods study2015In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 1-12, article id 196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Introduction: To provide health care on equal terms has become a challenge for the health system. As the front line in health services, primary care has a key role to play in developing equitable health care, responsive to the needs of different population groups. Reducing inequalities in care has been a central and recurring theme in Swedish health reforms. The aim of this study is to describe and assess client/patient experiences and perceptions of care in four primary health care units (PHCUs) involved in Sweden's national Care on Equal Terms project. Methods: Mixed Method Research (MMR) was chosen to describe and assess client/patient experiences and perceptions of health care with regard to equity. There was a focus group discussion, and individual interviews with 21 clients/patients and three representatives of patient associations. Data from the Swedish National Patient Survey (NPS), conducted in 2011 and followed up in 2013, were also used. Results: The interview data were divided into two main categories and three subcategories. The first category "Perception of equitable health care" had two subcategories, namely "Health care providers' perceptions" and "Fairness and participation". The second category "To achieve more equitable health care" had four subcategories: "Encounter", "Access", "Interpreters and bilingual/diverse health care providers" and "Time pressure and continuity". Results from the NPS showed that two of the PHCUs improved in some aspects of patient perceived quality of care (PPQC) while two were not so successful. Conclusions: Clients/patients perceived health care providers' perceptions of their ethnic origin and mental health status as important for equitable health care. Discriminatory perceptions may lead to those in need of care refraining from seeking it. More equitable care means longer consultations, better accessibility in terms of longer opening hours, and ways of communicating other than just via voice mail. It also involves continuity in care and access to an interpreter if needed. Employing bilingual/diverse kinds of health providers is a way of providing more equitable primary health care.

  • 391.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Aytar, Osman
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Bogg, Lennart
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Practice and Policy in Promoting Health and Equity –experiences from a national project in primary health care in Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The Swedish Health Care Law requires the health system to provide good care on equal terms to all. However, several reports from different governmental agencies have revealed that health care is uneven in quality, lacking in accessibility, and not offered on equal terms to all people. Recent public health reports show that inequalities in health in the population have increased. To provide health care on equal terms has become a challenge for health care.

    In order to apply methods for developing practice and policy in promoting health and equity the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions developed and implemented a national project entitled Care on Equal Terms. The project began in 2011 and was completed in 2014 at seven Primary Health Care Units (PHCUs) in five regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of this project.

    Methods: Based on a program theoretical approach an evaluation design was developed which included process, results and economical evaluation. In the data collection and analysis mixed methods were applied.

    Results: According to the process evaluation, seven different strategies were applied in the process to develop primary health care on equal terms. One of the key observations was that in order to achieve health on more equal terms, health care needs to be provided on unequal terms, i. e. more needs to be done to reach those who need more assistance to access health services. Health promotion was one of the applied strategies and it was the most common strategy at some of the health care centers with the aim of developing patients' knowledge, awareness and understanding about health, care and self-care. The results evaluation showed that the PHCUs staff identified structural and organizational factors in health care as important factors for developing health promotion and equity in access. The health economic evaluation showed that the costs for implementing the activities for an improved equity were limited. Yet the majority of the PHCUs thought that the detailed regulation of their financing and reporting requirements were a limitation in their work for improved equity. Four of five county councils have recently introduced a primary care provider payment system (ACG) which may not be supportive of efforts to improve equity in access.

    Conclusions: It is possible to develop and maintain practices that can contribute to more equitable care and increase health care personnel’s awareness about practice and policy in promoting health and equity.

  • 392.
    Akinyi Obondo, Margaret
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Teachers of Newcomer Immigrants in Provincial Schools in Sweden: A Quest for Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Era of Homogenization2018In: Diaspora, Indigenous and Minority Education, ISSN 1559-5692, E-ISSN 1559-5706, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 111-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on teachers of new arrival migrant pupils in a provincial school district in mid-Sweden. The paper draws from qualitative interviews with these teachers and extracts from lessons of as well as written reflections of these lessons. The study explores the teachers’ perspectives and pedagogical responses to newcomer migrants in their classrooms. The pedagogical practices are analyzed for culturally responsive teaching, referring to the extent to which the lessons build on the personal and cultural strengths of the pupils, their linguistic capabilities, as well as their prior knowledge and experiences. The findings demonstrate attempts at building on the pupils’ cultural and linguistic experiences, which compares well with some hallmarks of culturally responsive pedagogy. However, as pressures to teach for tests increase, the teachers face the dilemma on how to create spaces for culturally responsive teaching in school contexts that face powerful ideologies of cultural and linguistic homogenization.

  • 393.
    Akkurt, Amanuel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Ling, Mathias
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Återhämtning efter stroke: Patienters erfarenheter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stroke is one of the illnesses that take up most beds at hospitals in Sweden. A stroke can be a life-changing experience that affects patients and their relatives. Relatives find it difficult to see the patient in a state where they are not as independent as before. Nurses feel that they are a central part in patients rehabilitation, as they have information about patients and care for them from a holistic perspective. Aim: To describe patients’ experiences of post-stroke recovery. Method: A qualitative manifest content analysis based on six autobiographies. Results: Patients describe how they achieved progress during recovery and it is described as long and challenging. The presence of other people is important to have your needs seen and to be understood and thus obtain the help needed. They feel that they lost themselves and yearn for a better future. They describe the importance of other people to see their needs and the value of being understood to get the help needed. Conclusion: Patients describe a need to get more access to help during recovery. Getting guidance during recovery appears to have a positive impact on patients as they are seen as individuals and their needs are met. By allowing nurses to take part of the patient’s experiences they can more easily satisfy the needs expressed in patients.

    Keywords: Content analysis, experiences, nurses, patients, recovery, stroke

  • 394.
    Akkurt, Nizamettin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Huuhka, Taru
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    RISK FÖR UTSATTHET HOS BARN OCH UNGDOMARMED FUNKTIONSNEDSÄTTNING2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study review was to examine risk for vulnerability of children and youth with disabilities and in which kind of environments. Three themes were discovered during the study and these were body functioning, activity and participation and surrounding factors. Earlier studies showed the different kinds of risks that children with disabilities could be vulnerable for and in what extent. The risks varied from physical, psychological and sexual abuse to bullying and less participation in various school- and out-of-school activities. The study was a systematic review which means to search, examine and compile existing literature of the topic at hand. The results showed that children with disabilities are at increased risk for different types of vulnerability in comparison to children without disabilities. It also showed that children with disabilities participate less in activities at school and out of school than children without disabilities and that home- and school environments did propose a risk for vulnerability. Girls with disabilities were overrepresented in the risk category of sexual abuse. Conclusions that could be drawn from this review were that socioeconomic factors had a relation with children with disabilities being or not being vulnerable.

  • 395.
    Akman, Namik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Akapon, Tongprasert
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    ORGANIC FOOD CONSUMERS’ LIFESTYLE IN SWEDEN2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organic food market is very challenging in Europe and growing rapidly as consumers areconcerned about health and environment particularly Sweden is one of the greenest countries.Many of previous researches have been done on attitudes toward organic food consumptionbased on demographics data. This paper presents the relationship between lifestyle which is apart of psychographics and organic food consumption in Sweden. Quantitative data iscollected by survey method consisting of structured question and analyzed the relationship oflifestyle and organic food consumption by regression analysis.The result shows that there is the significant relationship between organic food consumptionand lifestyle. There are also relationships between organic food consumption age, gender,education, income, and perceived risks but we cannot find its relationship with motivationfactor that are health concern, environmental concern and values.

  • 396.
    Akpinar, Laura
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Etableringsreformen - en möjlighet för nyanlända till att bli delaktiga: En studie om samhällsvägledares arbete2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien undersöks hur samhällsvägledare från två olika verksamheter i en kommun arbetar med etableringsreformen för att göra nyanlända delaktiga i det svenska samhället. Studien har en kvalitativ ansats med semistrukturerade frågor. Samhällsvägledares arbetssätt kan innebära allt ifrån att ge information till att vara stöd för nyanlända. Resultatet visar att samhällsvägledare gör nyanlända delaktiga dels i form av samhällsorientering men också i form av vägledande samtal. Samhällsvägledare upplever att olika faktorer som påverkar nyanlända i etableringen kan medföra hinder i arbetet. I bakgrundsavsnittet beskrivs hur Länsstyrelsen poängterar att de som arbetar med etableringsreformen ska göra den nyanlända delaktig och därmed självgående i det svenska samhället. I studien är delaktighet ett centralt område, då studien utförs utifrån att undersöka hur nyanlända blir delaktiga i det svenska samhället med hjälp av olika insatser av samhällsvägledare. Inom pedagogik är delaktighet ett av de centrala begreppen, vilket gör delaktighet relevant för studiens pedagogiska betydelse. 

  • 397.
    Aksit, Kaan
    et al.
    Koç University, Turkey.
    Kade, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Özcan, Oguzhan
    Koç University, Turkey.
    Ürey, Hakan
    Koç University, Turkey.
    Head-worn Mixed Reality Projection Display Application2014In: ACM International Conference Proceedings Series (ICPS), 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of this research is to develop a mixed real- ity (MR) application to support motion capture actors. This application allows seeing and exploring a digital environment without occluding the actor’s visual field. A prototype is built by combining a retro-reflective screen covering surrounding walls and a headband consisting of a laser scanning projector with a smartphone. Built-in sensors of a smartphone provide navigation capabilities in the digital world. The integrated system has some unique advantages, which are collectively demonstrated for the first time: (i) providing fixed field-of- view (50o in diagonal), fixed retinal images at full-resolution, and distortion-free images that are independent of the screen distance and shape; (ii) presenting different perspectives to the users as they move around or tilt their heads, (iii) allow- ing a focus-free and calibration-free display even on non-flat surfaces using laser scanning technology, (iv) enabling mul- tiple users to share the same screen without crosstalk due to the use of retro-reflectors, and (v) producing high brightness pictures with a projector of only 15 lm; due to a high-gain retro-reflective screen. We demonstrated a lightweight, com- fortable to wear and low cost head-mounted projection dis- play (HMPD) which acts as a stand-a-lone mobile system. Initial informal functionality tests have been successfully per- formed. The prototype can also be used as a 3D stereo system using the same hardware by additionally mounting polarized glasses and an active polarization rotator, while maintaining all of the advantages listed above. 

  • 398.
    Akterhag Lyxell, Kajsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att åka berg-och-dalbana utan säkerhetsbälte: Upplevelser av att leva tillsammans med en partner med bipolär sjukdom2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bipolär sjukdom är en kronisk psykiatrisk sjukdom som karaktäriseras av kraftiga affektiva svängningar. Att vara nära anhörig och informell vårdgivare till en person med bipolär sjukdom associeras med en påtaglig börda. Rapporter visar att 46% av informella vårdgivare uppvisar depressiv problematik. Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur partners till personer med bipolär sjukdom upplever sin livssituation. En inledande öppen enkät identifierade urvalet som bestod av sex personer. I steg två genomfördes semistrukturerade djupintervjuer med deltagarna. Analysen visade fem teman: långsiktiga konsekvenser, emotionell och kommunikativ begränsning, egna känsloreaktioner, negativa och positiva beteenden samt framtidssyn. Resultatet visade en substantiell subjektiv samt objektiv börda upplevd av deltagarna, som oberoende av varandra delade samstämmiga känsloupplevelser och hur stigmatisering påverkade dem negativt i de copingstrategier de utvecklat med tiden. Studiens resultat bekräftar tidigare forskning men visade även på en brist på förståelse för gruppen.

  • 399.
    Aktermo, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Andersson, Jonatan
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Begagnatköparens besök i bilhall: − En studie om kundupplevd tjänstekvalitet2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The customers visit at the car dealership – A thesis about customerperceived service quality

    Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to examine customer perceived servicequality during the visit to the car dealership. The information canlater be used by car retailers to improve their service quality.

    Method: In order to satisfy our purpose, the authors decided to use bothqualitative and quantitative research methods. The empirical datawas collected by both questionnaires and semi‐structuredinterviews, which both took place at Bilia in Västerås. The abovemethods were both based on and analyzed using SERVQUAL, theGapanalysis and the model for total perceived quality.

    Conclusion: The customers pointed out that most of the different dimensions ofthe service delivery can be improved. While keeping that in mind,the study showed greater need for improvement in the SERVQUALdimensions named Responsiveness and Empathy and whatGrönroos calls Functional Quality. These areas can be described ashow the customers are met and taken care of during their visit atthe car dealership. In other words, the main areas that needimprovement are related to the human interaction between thecustomer and the company. According to the authors, if thecompany manages to increase the perceived quality in these areas,a competitive edge will be gained. This will lead to increased salesof used cars.

  • 400.
    Akyildiz, Timur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Willenius, Tobias
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    CSR ( Corporate social responsibility): En studie om hur H&M:s kunder upplever företagets kommunikation av CSR på den inhemska marknaden.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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