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  • 301.
    Lejon, Marcus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Aerodynamic Investigation of Air Inlets on Aircrafts with Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Air inlets in some form are used on all commercial airliners today. The type of air inlet investigated in this report is a NACA inlet submerged into a surface. This surface is within this thesis a test section wall of a wind tunnel. The considered wind tunnel is TWG in Göttingen (Germany) that operates in transonic speeds. Submerged inlets have the main advantage of low aeroynamic drag from the inlet itself. The importance of reducing drag, and the attention given to this subject is increasing as fuel prices rise as well as public awareness of environmental impact by all of us.

    The outcome of this thesis contributes to the government-funded project ECOCENTS which deals with the design of innovative new aircraft cooling systems and the detailed flow analysis of these systems. This thesis was carried out at the company Airbus in Bremen, Germany.

    The main objective of this report was the evaluation of the ram pressure efficiency of four different ramp angles of a NACA inlet and the estimation of the drag caused by these geometries with the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The flow solver used was TAU, a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver developed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The inlet consisted of one ramp section where the ramp angle was fixed at 7 degrees, and a second variable ramp section. The following different angles were investigated: 4, 7, 10 and 15 degrees. These configurations were evaluated at a velocity of Mach 0.8 and a Reynolds number of 10*10^6. The ramp angle of 7 degrees was evaluated at two additional velocities (Mach 0.73 and Mach 0.87) and at two additional Reynolds numbers (5*10^6 and 15*10^6) at Mach 0.8.

    The inlet efficiency outcome of this study was located between two other investigations. The results of this RANS computation predicted a higher total pressure at the inlet throat plane compared to a previous CFD investigation where a different RANS solver at the same geometry was used. In comparison to an estimation method mainly based on experimental data (ESDU method), the recent study showed a lower total pressure at the inlet throat plane. The aerodynamic drag that arised by the presence of the inlet system was calculated within this thesis to be higher than the outcome of the experimental data based (ESDU) method.

    The advantage of using a NACA type inlet was observed to be highly related to the ramp angle. Vortices are originated and develop along the edges of the intake ramp walls. These two vortices help to transport higher energy flow from the free stream into the inlet and therefore reduce the boundary layer thickness in the inlet region. For lower mass flows (0.10 - 0.20 kg/s) a ramp angle of 7 degrees was seen to be prefered in view of ram pressure efficiency. At a higher mass flow (0.25 kg/s) the 10 degrees ramp angle was prefered, followed by the 15 degrees ramp angle at the highest investigated mass flows (0.30 - 0.35 kg/s). In view of drag, the lowest ramp angle possible for a given mass flow was seen to be most advantagous.

    Future work on this subject will include simulation of an inlet in combination with a heat exchanger and a ram air outlet. This arrengement will be the same as in the investigation at the TWG test campaign and therefore comparable. The difference in outcome of the separate CFD analysis was discussed within this investigation but could not be completely cleared.

  • 302. Li, H.
    et al.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Anheden, M.
    Study of Impurity Impacts on Purification Process in Oxy-Fuel Combustion Based CO2 Capture and Storage System2007Ingår i: The 3rd International Green Energy Conference, 2007, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 303.
    Li, Y.
    et al.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing 102249, China.
    Zhang, Q.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing 102249, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Tang, Y.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing 102249, China.
    Liu, B.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing 102249, China.
    The impact of dual-credit scheme on the development of the new energy vehicle industry2019Ingår i: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, s. 4311-4317Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to further promote the development of the new energy vehicle industry, Parallel Management regulation for corporate average fuel consumption and new energy vehicle credits for passenger vehicles (dual-credit scheme) have been proposed by Ministry of Industry and Information Technology in September 2017. This study attempted to investigate the impact of dual-credit scheme on the penetration of new energy vehicles and the short-term strategies of the automotive industry. For this purpose, a market analysis model is proposed based on game theory and the credit market equilibrium to quantify the effects of the credit trading mechanism. Four categories of automakers are considered. The obtained results show that: (i) The dual-credit scheme is indeed an effective policy solution that enables the expansion of the volume of NEV market. (ii) The dual-credit scheme can accelerate the elimination of outdated technologies with lower driving mileage, and it can also promote the adoption of technologies with longer driving mileage. (iii) The dual-credit scheme allows all automakers to achieve their targets in a market efficient manner. 

  • 304.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Correlations in different scales of metro carriage fire tests2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of four series of metro carriage fire tests in different scales was carried out. These metro carriage fire tests including 1:10 model scale tests, 1:3 model scale tests, 1/3 carriage section carriage tests and full scale tunnel tests. The correlation between different scales of carriage fire tests is carefully investigated. The mechanism of fire development is very similar in different scales of tests involving fully developed. A critical fire spread is identified as the key parameter to a fully developed carriage fire and is related to a minimum heat release rate. After the critical fire spread, the fire travels along the carriage at an approximately constant speed. The maximum heat release rate obtained for a fully developed fire is dependent on the ventilation conditions and also the type and configuration of the fuels, and a simple equation has been proposed to estimate the maximum heat release rate. Good agreement has also been found between different scales of maximum gas temperature, gas concentration and extinction coefficient. The heat fluxes from the flames could be slightly overestimated in model scales.

  • 305.
    Lidar, Karl
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Improving antibiotics handling through the use of lean methods2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With the use methods originating from lean philosophy, the thesis focuses on improving health care in the specific process of mixing antibiotics. Value stream maps will be used for describing the current state of mixing antibiotics at an infection department. When viewing mixing processes from a lean perspective, all processes did not give value for the customer, in this case the patient. Through the use of different lean methods, improvements on the current state has been made. These improvements will establish the future state, a description of improved processes. 

    Conclusions drawn is that the problem can be divided into two categories, flow of information and movements. A machine were designed as a solution to the problems found in the current state. Both the flow of information and movements can then to some extent be automated, creating more value for the patient. 

  • 306.
    Liljeqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Kallin, Ludvig
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Cambrand, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Finding Triggers for Innovation Within eSports2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the creation of the internet there has been a development towards a globalized community of people. With the potential for connectivity between people all over the world subcultures are inevitably created. One such subculture is eSports. Over the past decade eSports has seen a steady increase in popularity. Recently, partly as a result of the streaming revolution, this increase has intensified and traditional media look to the internet for inspiration and help on what to do to evolve their business into the future. This paper looks to combine data from interviews conducted with people active and working in the eSports industry with theories and research in innovation, creativity, intelligence gathering and trendspotting with the goal of finding answers to What triggers innovation within the eSports industry? as well as provide suggestions for further research. The researchers suggest that eSports is a novel and unique area with high potential for new scientific developments within innovation and creativity as well as a varied field of other sciences. Culture and Open Innovation are, amongst others, suggested to be important factors for enabling change in the eSports industry.

  • 307.
    Lindberg, Anton
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lissert, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    VIDAREUTVECKLING AV KISTHANTERINGSVAGN MED AVSEENDE PÅ ANVÄNDARVÄNLIGHET OCH FORMGIVNIG2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Anton Lindberg och Daniel Lissert,studenter på programmet Innovation & Produktdesign vid Mälardalens högskola, har på uppdrag av SE AB genom Minst Innovation i Mälardalen utvecklat koncept på ett antal komponenter för en elektroniskt höj- och sänkbar vagn med användning inom begravningsbranschen.Examensarbetet bygger på tidigare produktutveckling med problemformuleringen ”att minska lyft inom begravningsbranschen”.

    Ett tidigare examensarbete låg även som grund för vidareutvecklingsarbetet.I detta projektbehandlas bland annat konstruktion, transportmoment i samband med dödsfall samt interaktion mellan produkt och användare med hänsyn till användningsområde.

    Projektet resulterade i ett koncept som uppfyller uppdragsgivarens kravspecifikation samt identifierade kundbehov. Resultatet presenteras som CAD-modell med tillhörande komponentritningar.

    Marknadsundersökning, kravspecifikation ochutvärderingsverktyg såsom FMEA, QFD och Pugh’s matris användes för att säkerställa kvalitet i konceptet som togs fram.

    Marknadsundersökningeninnehåller intervjuer, hantering och analys av omgivning.Intervjufrågor behandlade problem vid hantering av kistor och avlidna samt framkomlighet i närhet av kyrka, bårhus och äldreboende.

    Det insamlade underlaget möjliggjorde slutresultatet;en transportvagn med förenklade lastmöjliheter och ställbara lägen. Utvecklade delar består av lastplan, släde, handtag samt kontrollpanel.

    Idéer diskuterades med uppdragsgivare vid avstämningsmöten och kostnad för komponenttillverkning har tagits i beaktande.Något målvärde på kostnad har inte fastställts vilket leder till att tillverkningsmetoder och materialval kan behöva anpassas mot produktionsval. Konceptet ska ligga som grund för eventuell vidareutveckling av produkten innan slutlig produktion.

  • 308.
    Lindberg, Carl-Fredrik
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research Västerås, Sweden.
    Bhuthani, Naveen
    ABB Corporate Research Bangalore, India.
    Starr, Kevin
    ABB Process Automation Services Westerville, OH, United States.
    Horton, Robert
    ABB Optimization Service Atlanta, GA, United States.
    Conservation of energy: A paper machine fingerprint cuts energy usage2013Ingår i: ABB review, ISSN 1013-3119, nr 1, s. 58-63Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Entering the papermaking machine, the raw material that goes into a single A4 sheet of paper would look like a bucket of slightly dirty water. In fact, the stock furnished to a paper machine contains over 99 percent water and less than 1 percent actual paper fiber. Although most of the dewatering in papermaking is performed mechanically, a significant amount is done thermally – resulting in colossal energy usage and making paper production one of the most energy-hungry processes in industry. But where such large consumptions are in play, there also exist opportunities for significant savings. This is why ABB offers a paper machine energy fingerprint. This assessment quantifies energy flows and benchmarks energy use in the paper machine, enabling energy-saving opportunities to be identified.

  • 309.
    Lindberg, Carl-Fredrik
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Starr, Kevin
    ABB Process Automation Services, US.
    Horton, Robert
    ABB Process Automation Services, US.
    Bhuthani, Naveen
    ABB Corporate Research Center, India.
    Paper Machine Energy Fingerprint2010Ingår i: Control Systems 2010, 2010, s. 208-213Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large value in making the Pulp & Paper mills more energy efficient. ABB has developed an energy assessment service where opportunities to save energy in the paper machine are identified.

    The assessment is done by both quantifying energy flows and benchmarking energy users in the paper machine. After the assessment is done an action plan is presented to the mill of what could be done to improve energy efficiency together with a return on investment.

  • 310.
    Lindell, Rikard
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Design in ecology of other artefacts2016Ingår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2016, s. 240-244Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Music software has traditionally been developed in ecosystems of technology that artists combine to create their tools for compositions. The ability to connect artefacts has developed thought the evolution of music technology. Today, the mobile platform has become an increasingly important ecosystem for music applications, combining traditional technology with the platform specific infrastructure. To make an artefact's design valid in the ecosystem, designers and developers need to support this infrastructure. This paper present the design process of c3n loops, an iOS music app based on zoomable user interface in contrast with the platform's design idioms. The c3n loops design relies on its own design idioms while balancing the support for platform specific technologies such as AudioBus/Inter-app Audio, Ableton Link beat synchronisation, and MIDI.

  • 311.
    Lindell, Rikard
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pining for the Materiality of Code2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The new ubiquitous assistive devices have increased design space for innovative highly interactive design. Designers can no longer rely on a design process based on the known interaction idioms. This impedes the design process because the non-interactive material - sketches, scenarios, storyboards - does not provide designers the essential talk-backs needed to be able to make reliable assessments of the design characteristics. However, the interactive prototypes provide these talk-backs. How can we think of code as a design material? And how can the designer's repertoire expanded to include materials familiarity even to code?

  • 312.
    Lindell, Rikard
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Surface Interaction to Support Collaborative Multimedia Live Performances2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes surface interaction applied to a research prototype used in real world longitudinal studies of collaborative multimedia live performance and rehearsal.

  • 313.
    Lindell, Rikard
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Kumlin, Tomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Augmented Embodied Performance2017Ingår i: New Interfaces for Musical Expression NIME, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the phenomenology of embodiment based on research through design and reflection on the design of artefacts for augmenting embodied performance. We present three designs for highly trained musicians; the designs rely on the musicians’ mastery acquired from years of practice. Through the knowledge of the living body their instruments —saxophone, cello, and flute — are extensions of themselves; thus, we can explore technology with rich nuances and precision in corporeal schemas. With the help of Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology of embodiment we present three hypotheses for augmented embodied performance: the extended artistic room, the interactively enacted teacher, and the humanisation of technology.

  • 314.
    Lindell, Rikard
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Tahiroglu, Koray
    Department of Media, Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture.
    Riis, Morten
    School of Communication and Culture - Information Science Aarhus University.
    Andersson Schaeffer, Jennie
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Materiality for Musical Expressions:: an Approach to Interdisciplinary Syllabus Development for NIME2016Ingår i: Proceedings of New Interfaces for Music Expression (NIME) Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We organised an elven day intense course in materiality for musical expressions to explore underlying principles of New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) in higher education. We grounded the course in different aspects of ma-teriality and gathered interdisciplinary student teams from three Nordic universities. Electronic music instrument makers participated in providing the course. In eleven days the students designed and built interfaces for musical expressions , composed a piece, and performed at the Norberg electronic music festival. The students explored the relationship between technology and possible musical expression with a strong connection to culture and place. The emphasis on performance provided closure and motivated teams to move forward in their design and artistic processes. On the basis of the course we discuss an interdisciplinary NIME course syllabus, and we infer that it benefits from grounding in materiality and in the place with a strong reference to culture .

  • 315.
    Lindhult, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Emergent innovation - towards a new paradigm for innovation research and management2013Ingår i: INFORMS Annual Meeting 2013 INFORMS2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 316.
    Lindhult, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Complexity and democracy as points of departure in Total Innovation Management2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 317.
    Lindhult, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Moving towards Total Innovation Management2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 318.
    Lindhult, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Berglund, Karin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Johansson, Anders W
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Partnerskap som socialt entreprenörskap2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 319.
    Lindhult, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Höglund, Jenny
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Mickos, Kaj
    72 hours to innovation as creative democracy2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Opening up innovation processes requires the development of forceful and efficient practices and methods that is able to mobilize and pool the creative capacities of a broader range of people. This paper will focus on a collaborative innovation design – the Innovation Plant - that in its concentrated form is a 72 hours innovation race. The purpose of the paper is to conceptualize and interpret the “72 hours to innovation” methodology from the point of view of “creative democracy”, the mobilisation of the creative capacity of all. As a form of crowd sourcing, the methodology develops concentrated creativity in order to radically accelerate innovation.

  • 320.
    Lindmark, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Eriksson, Per
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    The effects of different mixing intensities during anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste2014Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 34, nr 8, s. 1391-1397Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixing inside an anaerobic digester is often continuous and is not actively controlled. The selected mixing regime can however affect both gas production and the energy efficiency of the biogas plant. This study aims to evaluate these effects and compare three different mixing regimes, 150 RPM and 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing for both digestion of fresh substrate and post-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The results show that a lower mixing intensity leads to a higher biogas production rate and higher total biogas production in both cases. 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing resulted in similar biogas production after process stabilization, while 150 RPM continuous mixing resulted in lower production throughout the experiment. The lower gas production at 150 RPM could not be explained by the inhibition of volatile fatty acids. Cumulative biogas production until day 31 was 295. ±. 2.9, 317. ±. 1.9 and 304. ±. 2.8. N. ml/g VS added during digestion of fresh feed and 113. ±. 1.3, 134. ±. 1.1 and 130. ±. 2.3. N. ml/g VS added during post digestion for the 150 RPM, 25 RPM and minimally mixed intensities respectively. As well as increasing gas production, optimal mixing can improve the energy efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process.

  • 321.
    Lindmark, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Division of Waste Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, Erik
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Division of Waste Science and Technology.
    Carlsson, My
    Luleå University of Technology, Division of Waste Science and Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Pre-treatment of Substrate for Increased Biogas ProductionManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The full biogas potential of most organic material cannot be exploited with today’s technology. The complex structures of the organic materials are broken down too slowly and the nutrients cannot become biologically available during the relatively short retention time of most digesters. This means that a lot of the bound energy in the organic material leaves the biogas plant with the liquid digestate. There is a possibility to increase the efficiency of the process by pre-treating the material before digestion. This paper explores a pre-treatment of ley crop silage using electrical fields, known as electroporation (EP). Different settings of the EP equipment were tested and the results were analysed using a batch digestion setup. The results from the experiments show that there is a possibility to double the biogas production at typical retention times of a CSTR. The energy balance of the EP equipment suggests that the pre-treatment yield is around 2-6 times larger than the energy input to the process, i.e. energy in the form of methane.  

  • 322.
    Lindmark, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Bel Fdhila, Rebei
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Västerås.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Effects of mixing on the result of anaerobic digestion: Review2014Ingår i: Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, Vol. 40, s. 1030-1047Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixing in an anaerobic digester keeps the solids in suspension and homogenizes the incoming feed with the active microbial community of the digester content. Experimental investigations have shown that the mixing mode and mixing intensity have direct effects on the biogas yield even though there are conflicting views on mixing design. This review analyzes and presents different methods to evaluate the mixing in a digester (chemical and radioactive tracers and laboratory analysis), tools for digester design (computational fluid dynamics and kinetic modeling) and current research on the effects of mixing on the anaerobic digestion process. Empirical data on experiments comparing different mixing regimes have been reviewed from both a technical and microbial standpoint with a focus both on full scale digesters and in lab-scale evaluations. Lower mixing intensity or uneven mixing in the anaerobic digestion process can be beneficial during the startup phase to allow for methanogenic biomass growth and alleviate process instability problems. Intermittent mixing has been shown to be able to yield a similar gas production as continuous mixing but with the possibility to reduce the maintenance and energy demands of the process. Problems often experienced with experimental design include the effect of mixing on the solids retention time, and measurement of steady state gas production because of startup instabilities. Further research should be aimed at studying the effects of mixing on a chemical and microbial level and on the different stages of anaerobic digestion (hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis). The focus should be on the effects of mixing on a multiple stage digestion process and also finding new methods to evaluate the effects of mixing in the one stage digestion process rather than evaluating a wider range of mixing modes, intensities and substrates.

  • 323. Lindwall, Oskar
    et al.
    Lymer, Gustav
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Lindström, Berner
    Bernhard, Jonte
    Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Microcomputer based laboratories and interactive lecture demonstrations - characterising the differences that makes a difference2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 324.
    Living Tronêt, Linnea
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Larsson, Alexandra
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Angbah, Josephine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Kreativa arbetsmiljöer: Den fysiska kontorsmiljöns inverkan på medarbetarnas kreativitet och innovation2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 325.
    Lopez, Lourdes
    et al.
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Hernández, Vicente
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Maján, Alberto
    Martínez-Ortega, José-Fernán
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Garcia Hernando, Ana Belen
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Da Silva Fariña, Antonio
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Análisis de Consumo Energético y Tiempo de Proceso en Cifrado AES en redes Inalámbricas de Sensores2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 326.
    Lopez, Lourdes
    et al.
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Hernández, Vicente
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Valero, Miguel-A
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Martínez-Ortega, José-Fernán
    Technical University of Madrid, SpainMadrid.
    Da Silva Fariña, Antonio
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Sistema de Cifrado para Redes Corporativas2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 327.
    Lopez, Lourdes
    et al.
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Redondo, Luis
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Martínez-Ortega, José-Fernán
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Ramiro, Manuel
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Hernández, Vicente
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Bonilla, Francisco
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Bretón, Fermín
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    SECUAREA: Security in physical and logical areas2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 328.
    Lundell, Håkan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Disruptive Innovation Som Nyckel Till Framtidens Lärande2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie behandlar teorin om disruption samt hur högskolan kan med hjälp av denna teori skapa nya utbildningar som är mera meningsfulla för studenterna. Fokus ligger på hur världen runt omkring högskolan förändras vilket gör att högskolan behöver förändras för att kunna erbjuda utbildningar som är relevanta för studenter i framtiden. För att klara av detta behövs en ny affärsmodell utvecklas som kan skräddarsy utbildningar till studenter efter deras unika behov. Orsaken till varför inte den traditionella högskolan kan erbjuda skräddarsydda utbildningar är för att affärsmodellen är standardiserad och ömsesidigt beroende. Även sättet att leverera kunskap på behöver förändras från traditionell undervisning till en datorbaserad undervisning. En av slutsatserna i denna studie är att en disruptive affärsmodell sannolikt inte kan implementeras inom högskolan, eftersom den då skulle bli omformad så att den liknar den gamla. Istället måste en separat affärsmodell bildas som kan verka oberoende från den traditionella högskolan.

  • 329.
    Lundin, Jonatan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    An Investigation of Service Engineers’ Information-Seeking Behavior in a Maintenance WorkshopIngår i: IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, ISSN 0361-1434Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 330.
    Lundstedt, Moa
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Miljömedveten produktion - Livscykelanalys2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 331.
    Lundström, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Karlsson, Emilia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Gör vi saker rätt eller gör vi rätt saker?: En studie om användandet av innovationsmodeller inom den offentliga vårdsektorn2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Användandet av innovationsmodeller inom vårdsektorn studerades, med anledning av den innovationsmodell Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting nyligen tagit fram. Offentlig sektor har i litteraturgenomgångar inte tagits upp som positiva exempel på innovativ verksamhet, men det finns mycket litteratur som visar på hur systematiserade och byråkratiska de organisationerna är. Därför är det av intresse att undersöka hur en systematiserad organisation angriper innovationsarbete med hjälp av verktyg och modeller. Genom semistrukturerade intervjuer samlades data in från fem representanter inom den offentliga vårdsektorn (från två olika kommuner och landsting), och resultaten visade på att valet och användningssättet av innovationsmodeller skiljde sig mellan respondenterna. Vissa respondenter använde redan existerande modeller, medan andra skapade egna. Vidare visade resultatet att den modell Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting tagit fram ej användes av någon respondent, och endast två kände till att modellen fanns. Studien avslutas med en diskussion gällande innovationsmodellers nivå av generalisering respektive specialisering, samt förslag på en möjlig revidering av modellen Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting tagit fram, för att på så vis sprida vetskapen om den.

  • 332.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    New Energy Carriers in Tunnels2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental issues such as climate change and scarcity of resources have forced the development of new energy carriers for vehicles. This also means that there will be an increase in the number of vehicles running on these new energy carriers in tunnels and other confined spaces. New energy carriers do not necessarily mean higher risks, but they do represent a new situation and imply new risks. These risks need to be evaluated and considered. The mixture of different energy carriers (flammable liquids, gases lighter than air, gases denser than air, batteries, etc.) can also constitute a risk itself, since there are situations where different safety measures need to be taken depending on the energy carrier used and the scenario in question.

     

    In this paper some selected new energy carriers are described, in terms of trends and properties. Some countries have restrictions on the use of some energy carriers in confined spaces. These restrictions are presented. Vehicles are involved in accidents, so also vehicles running on new energy carriers. Some vehicle fires involving new energy carriers are presented and discussed in the paper. It is important to learn from these accidents. It is also important that safety issues related to the use of new energy carriers in tunnels are considered, investigated and reported. Systems, not only components, need to be tested to study different possible scenarios and to develop models for these scenarios. When the scenarios are described in a representative way, technical safety solutions, mitigations systems, and rescue service tactics can be developed. It is also important to study how the different systems (detection, ventilation, mitigation) interact and how the models should be altered depending on the scenario.

  • 333.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Andersson, Petra
    Björklund, Anders
    CFD-simulation of under-ventilated fires - Comparison to experimental results2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate how different configurations in a large room affect the smoke spread and

    temperature during a fire, eleven tests were performed. The tests scenario was built in scale

    1:2 and can be described as a large room with small ventilation openings near the floor. The

    fire tests were simulated using the CFD (

    computational fluid dynamics) code FDS (Fire

    D

    ynamics Simulator). To see how well FDS simulates under-ventilated fires, both well

    ventilated and under-ventilated cases were selected for the validation. Gas temperatures

    and oxygen concentrations for the experiments and the simulations, respectively, are

    compared. The results of the validation show that the combustion model (mixture fraction

    combustion model), with empirical amendments for when the fire is allowed to burn, is very

    sensitive to changes in the oxygen level.

  • 334.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    The Effect of Air Velocity on Heat Release Rate and Fire Development during Fires in Tunnels2008Ingår i: Fire Safety Science, 2008, 2008, s. 701-712Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Model scale fire tests using wood cribs of different porosity in a ventilated tunnel are presented. The study focuses on the effect of air velocity on maximum Heat Release Rate (HRR) and fire growth rate. To study the influence of different parameters, free burn tests and fire tests inside a model-scale tunnel were performed. The tunnel was 10 m long, the widths used were 0.3 m, 0.45 m, and 0.6 m and the heights used were 0.25 m and 0.4 m. If compared to a normal traffic tunnel, these measures can correspond to a tunnel with a scale of 1:20. The tests show that for a higher porosity wood crib and higher velocities than 0.45 m/s an increasing ventilation rate increases the maximum HRR in the range of 1.3 to 1.7 timesthe value measured outside the tunnel under ambient conditions. For the lower porosity wood crib and higher velocities, the corresponding increase in the maximum HRR was 1.8 and 2.0, respectively. When compared to ambient conditions inside the tunnel based mass loss rate, this increase was found lower. For all cases when the velocity was 0.22 m/s and the low ceiling height was used, the ratio was found to be lower than one. This was not the case when high ceiling height was used. For the case with a velocity of 0.67 m/s, the fire growth rate increased by a factor of 5-10 times the free burn case. The value depends on the dimensions of the tunnel cross section. Copyright © 2008 International Association For FireSafety Science.

  • 335.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    The Influence of Tunnel Cross Section on Temperatures and Fire Development2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    During a fire in a tunnel, the temperature is a crucial parameter for the occupants of the tunnel, for the ability of the rescue service to approach the fire, and for the tunnel structure. Therefore, it is of importance to be able to derive information on temperature development and the maximum temperature for different fire scenarios and tunnels with different heights and widths. Fire tests in a model-scale tunnel have been performed to study the effect of the width and height of a tunnel on the gas temperature inside a tunnel during a fire. The model-scale tunnel was 10 m long. The widths used were 0.3 m, 0.45 m, and 0.6 m and the heights 0.25 m and 0.4 m.  Fire tests with heptane and wood cribs, respectively, were performed. There was an effect on the gas temperature of the tunnel dimension, generally decreasing temperature with increasing dimensions, even if the effect varied at different positions in the tunnel and the effect in some positions was relatively small. Also, the effect in the vicinity of the fire was opposite to the effect further downstream of the fire.

  • 336.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    The Safety and Security of Underground Hubs as an Emerging Risks Representative2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2008, the EU-project ”Early Recognition, Monitoring and Integrated Management of Emerging, New Technology Related Risks (iNTeg-Risk)” started. It focuses on the problem of emerging risks, i.e. the identification of risks that might emerge through the use of future applications. To ensure acceptance of technologies and products within EU there is a need of finding an agreed way to deal with emerging risks. The main objective of iNTeg-Risk is to improve the management of safety related to emerging risks.

    Selected case studies will be used to reach the iNTeg-Risk vision of a new concept for integrated management of industrial safety. It will be based on a unified set of methods for risk management and a new common language. The case studies, called Emerging Risks Representative (industrial) Applications (ERRA), will include both technology development and risk methodology development. The work on each selected ERRA should lead to the development of reference solutions, reference documents, methods, and tools. One such ERRA deals with the Safety and Security of underground hubs with interconnected transportation services and shopping centres. In the paper the ERRA on underground hubs is presented together with a description of the included activities and the application of the Emerging Risk Management Framework (ERMF) and the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) framework. Objects to be analysed are for example different fire loads, escape routes or air supply ducts.

  • 337.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Kristensson, Peter
    Helltegen, Mats
    Bobert, Magnus
    Fire suppression and structure protection for cargo train tunnels: Macadam and HotFoam2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing heavy goods transports and potential of transporting goods on rail has put the focus on the fire safety of rail tunnels for cargo trains. In the paper two different aspects of fire behaviour and fire safety in cargo rail tunnels are presented: the effect of the use of macadam on the burning rate of liquid fuels and the possibility of extinguishing simulated cargo trains with foam systems. Two different tests series were performed. One test series with different depth of liquid fuel (heptane and diesel) in a pool with macadam showed that the macadam had a significant influence on the burning rate of the fuel. In a second test series a High Expansion foam system (HotFoam®) was tested in tunnel fire scenarios. Four different principle fire test scenarios were used in the test series in the tunnel section built in the fire hall of SP Fire Technology: hidden fire inside a locomotive mock-up, wood pallets placed on a simulated goods wagon, pool fire placed on a simulated goods wagon, and pool fire placed under a simulated goods wagon. Different types of fuels were used: diesel, heptane, E-85, acetone, and wood pallets. The Svenska Skum HotFoam fire extinguishing system was started with a pre-defined delay after alarm from the installed detection system and was able to extinguish all reported scenarios. Easiest to extinguish (shortest time between foam production and extinguishment) were the heptane fires, both on and below the simulated goods wagon. Most difficult to extinguish (with the same nominal filling rate of foam) was Test 7 with E-85.

  • 338.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SP Safety, Sweden.
    Lange, David
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Sweden.
    Cascading effects during incidents: CascEff2016Ingår i: Risk, Reliability and Safety: Innovating Theory and Practice: Proceedings of ESREL 2016 (Glasgow, Scotland, 25-29 September 2016), CRC Press, 2016, s. 91-96Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 339.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Lindström, Johan
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Li, Y. Z.
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Model Scale Metro Carriage Fire Tests - Influence of Material and Fire Load2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the fire spread in a metro carriage, fire tests in a scale model (1:3) were performed. A total of 10 tests were carried out to investigate the effect of material, fuel load, openings (doors and windows), and ignition location on the fire development. The fuel loads consisted of PUR seats, wall and floor coverings, and in some tests longitudinal wood cribs simulating luggage. Different parameters including heat release rate, gas temperature, gas concentration, heat flux and smoke density were investigated. The results show that the material and especially the luggage play a significant role in the fire development in the tested metro carriage. This proves to make the difference between minor fire spread and a carriage totally involved in the fire. The number and size of openings are also important for the fire development and maximum heat release rate. The focus of this paper is on the influence of the material and fuel load (luggage) on the fire development and fire spread.

  • 340.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Lindström, Johan
    Li, Y. Z.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Kumm, Mia
    Large-scale Commuter Train Tests - Results from the METRO Project2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Three fire tests wereperformed under and inside commuter train carriages in a tunnel. Both tests initiatedinside the carriage developed to fully flashover conditions. The time toflashover was significantly different between the two cases. In the test with theoriginal seats and linings the maximum heat release rate (HRR) was 76.7 MW and occurred12.7 min after ignition. The maximum HRR in the case where more modern seatsand aluminium lining were used, occurred after 117.9 min. The main reason forthe difference was the difference in initial combustion behaviour between thecase with combustible wall and ceiling lining, and the case with aluminium as theexposed interior surface. In the case with combustible lining a ceiling flame wasdeveloped, radiating towards the seats and the luggage spreading the fire morequickly than in the case without exposed combustible lining. When the growthrate of the fire was rapidly increasing, a flame was observed at the ceiling.The maximum HRR calculated from the experimental results are significantlyhigher than those obtained in other documented test series. The luggage in,under or between different seats is presumed to increase the fire spreadsignificantly in both cases. This was obvious from results performed within thesame project prior to the full-scale tests.

  • 341.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Persson, Henry
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Per
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Sweden.
    Fire Safety of Waste Storage2010Ingår i: PROCEEDINGS: 7th International Conference on International Conference on Natural Sciences and Technologies for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Remediation, Emissions Related to Climate, Environmental and Economic Effects, 2010, s. 51-62Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The EC Directive on landfill of waste and the development of different national regulations, together with the need and interest for biofuels, have resulted in more extensive handling and storage of these products. Calorific value and bulk density are for most fractions lower than for example oil, which translates into a further increase in volumes of fuel needed for a given amount of energy. Since the material is to be used as a high-grade fuel, higher requirements are placed on the storage technology. There will also probably be strong desire to place stocks in direct connection with for example a specific industry or co-generation plant, to minimize the need for transport. Overall, this means that very large production and handling facilities with large stocks will be required. These new types of storages also mean new types of risks. There is therefore a great need for knowledge on the risks for spontaneous ignition, fire characteristics, and risk for fire spread for these fuels and storages. If a fire occurs it can lead to significant problems with emissions and in many cases the rescue services have problems with handling these fires. These fires can also lead to large economic losses. It is, therefore, important to know both how to avoid and how to facilitate extinguishment of these fires.

    In the paper some trends regarding storage of waste are discussed together with the risks for self-heating and emissions. Experiences from real fires are presented and some existing guidelines for storage of waste are discussed.

  • 342.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Vylund, Lotta
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Palm, Anders
    The Greater Stockholm Fire Brigade, Sweden.
    Palmkvist, Krister
    Södra Älvsborg Fire & Rescue Services, Sweden.
    Kumm, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Fridolf, Karl
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Recommendations for Firefighting in Underground Facilities2016Ingår i: Proceedings from the Seventh International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Montréal, Canada March 16-18, 2016, SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Borås, 2016, s. 115-125Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for a successful fire and rescue operation in an underground facility, e.g., a tunnel, introduces challenges both in the planning phase and during the incident. This is because these types of facilities can be very complex, and thus, specific tactics are needed compared to the more common incidents, e.g. in residential premises. When planning a fire and rescue operation and developing the tactics many different aspects need to be considered: complexity of the facility, the expected number of people involved in the operation, information available about the incident, the purpose of operation, etc. This paper contains recommendations for firefighting in underground facilities. The recommendations are structured in accordance to the sequential time period during which some specific fire safety design measures are taken. These periods are the design phase, the construction phase and finally when the facility is in operation. The recommendations presented in this paper are based on the results of the Swedish TMU research project (Tactics and methodologies for firefighting in underground facilities), results from other research projects and experience from real fire and rescue operations.

  • 343.
    Macchia, Teresa
    et al.
    University of Trento, Italy.
    D'Andrea, Vincenzo
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Mazzini, Roberto
    Giolli Cooperative, Italy.
    Di Fiore, Angela
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Cozza, Michela
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Exploring Theater of the Oppressed for Participatory Design2016Ingår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2016, Vol. 2, s. 125-126Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Design challenges refer to a difficulty of corresponding human and contextual complexity (i.e. needs, roles, and resources) in design practices. Such an issue calls for combining deep investigations with relevant design experiences. We propose a workshop for disentangling and discussing design practices by adopting the Theatre of the Oppressed techniques. These techniques allow enacting personal performances as well as the construction of a shared narrative about the participants' roles, needs, and resources. By this workshop, we aim to improve the participants' competence in understanding people's needs and developing a design solution accordingly. Finally, possible outcomes are: a special issue of an international peer reviewed journal, and/or a live performance that the conference attendees can enjoy as an experiential design occasion.

  • 344.
    Mahmoudi, Jafar
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling. Outokumpu Copper, Sweden.
    Nabati, Hamid
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    An Experimental Study on Productivity and Quality Improvement of Horizontal Continuous Casting Process2006Ingår i: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 185-199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current work is to provide information on how to improve the productivity and quality in the Horizontal Continuous Casting process (HCC). After a first numerical 2D/3D survey about the solidification in the HCC, an experimental investigation has been carried out to validate numerical results. Some casting parameters have been measured and collected: inlet and outlet temperatures, flow rate, heat flux and casting temperature. The study results lead to a correlation between these casting parameters and the casting quality. To obtain the best quality for each alloy, a set of operating parameters has been proposed. There is a very good agreement between the current results and earlier numerical results. Also based on the results, one can gain an insight on the productions of each casting machine and the grades of its quality.

  • 345.
    Maji, K. J.
    et al.
    Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India .
    Dikshit, Anil Kumar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India .
    Deshpande, A.
    Berkeley, CA, United States.
    Assessment of city level human health impact and corresponding monetary cost burden due to air pollution in India taking Agra as a model city2017Ingår i: Aerosol and Air Quality Research, ISSN 1680-8584, E-ISSN 2071-1409, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 831-842Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives of the present study are to provide quantitative estimations of air pollution health impacts and monetary burden on people living in Agra city, the fourth most populated city in Uttar Pradesh, India. To estimate the direct health impacts of air pollution in Agra city during year 2002 to 2014, ‘Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution’ model was used which is adopted from air quality health impact assessment software, developed by world health organization (WHO). Concentrations of NO2, SO2 and PM10 have been used to assess human health impacts in terms of attributable proportion of the health outcome as- annual number of excess cases of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, respiratory mortality, hospital admission chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), hospital admission respiratory disease and hospital admission cardiovascular disease and it was observed that attributable number of cases were 1325, 908, 155, 138, 1230 and 348 respectively in year 2002. However, after thirteen years these figures increased to 1607, 1095, 189, 167, 1568 and 394 respectively. From these results, it was observed that from 2002 to 2014, the attributable number of cases increased almost by 13.43 to 27.52%. As a result, the monetary cost burden due to air pollution related health effects also increased very highly; it was 67.99 million US$ in 2002, which transformed into 254.52 million US$ in 2014. In future, if air quality continues to follow current pollutant concentration trend, the monetary cost burden will reach a level of US$ 570.12 million in year 2020, which is not only a thoughtful matter but also a threatful matter and it signifies the importance of rectification measures for air quality in Agra city. 

  • 346.
    Martínez-Ortega, José-Fernán
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Contribución a la gestión de configuración en servicios avanzados de telecomunicación con componentes distribuidos2001Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 347.
    Martínez-Ortega, José-Fernán
    et al.
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    López, Mario
    THALES Communications S.A..
    Hernández, Vicente
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Jean-Marie, Kathlyn
    THALES Communications S.A..
    Garcia Hernando, Ana Belen
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Lopez, Lourdes
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Herrera, Cristina
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Sánchez-Alarcos, Carlos-J
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    A security architectural approach for DPWS-based devices2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 348.
    Martínez-Ortega, José-Fernán
    et al.
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Villamor, Jesús
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Yelmo, Juan-C.
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    A Distributed-Based Approach for Advanced Telecommunication Services Management2000Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 349.
    Martínez-Ortega, José-Fernán
    et al.
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Villamor, Jesús
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Yelmo, Juan-C.
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    SCARAB Service Management Subsystem: Subscription and Configuration Management for Advanced Telecommunication Services2000Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 350.
    Martínez-Ortega, José-Fernán
    et al.
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Yelmo, Juan-C.
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Servicio de Gestión de Configuración Basado en CORBA y Java para su Utilización en Entornos de Ingeniería Distribuida1999Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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