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  • 301.
    Danielsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Marcus, Jägemar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Run-time Cache-Partition Controller for Multi-core Systems2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 302.
    Danielsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Marcus, Jägemar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Testing Performance-Isolation in Multi-Core Systems2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a methodology to be used for quantifying the level of performance isolation for a multi-core system. We have devised a test that can be applied to breaches of isolation in different computing resources that may be shared between different cores. We use this test to determine the level of isolation gained by using the Jailhouse hypervisor compared to a regular Linux system in terms of CPU isolation, cache isolation and memory bus isolation. Our measurements show that the Jailhouse hypervisor provides performance isolation of local computing resources such as CPU. We have also evaluated if any isolation could be gained for shared computing resources such as the system wide cache and the memory bus controller. Our tests show no measurable difference in partitioning between a regular Linux system and a Jailhouse partitioned system for shared resources. Using the Jailhouse hypervisor provides only a small noticeable overhead when executing multiple shared-resource intensive tasks on multiple cores, which implies that running Jailhouse in a memory saturated system will not be harmful. However, contention still exist in the memory bus and in the system-wide cache.

  • 303.
    Danielsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Tsog, Nandinbaatar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Kunnappilly, Ashalatha
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A systematic mapping study on real-Time cloud services2019Ingår i: Proceedings - 11th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing Companion, UCC Companion 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, s. 245-251, artikel-id 8605787Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing is relatively a new technique to host and use the services and applications from the internet. Although it offers a multitude of advantages like scalability, low operating cost, accessibility and maintainability, etc., they are often not utilized to the fullest due to the lack of timeliness property associated with the cloud. Cloud services are mainly designed to maximize throughput and utilization of resources and hence incorporating predictable execution time properties in to the cloud is arduous. Nevertheless, cloud still remains a highly attractive platform for hosting real-Time applications and services owing to features like elasticity, multi-Tenancy, ability to survive hardware failures, virtualization support and abstraction layer support which provides flexibility and portability. In order for real-Time safety-critical applications to exploit the potential of cloud computing, it is essential to ensure the predictable real-Time behavior of cloud services. In this paper, we perform a systematic mapping study on real-Time cloud services to identify the current research directions and potential research gaps. Our study focuses on analyzing the current architectures and software techniques that are available at present to incorporate real-Time property of the cloud services. We also aim at investigating the current challenges involved in realizing a predictable real-Time behavior of cloud services. 

  • 304.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Tran, Hung Vinh
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Girs, Svetlana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Reliability and Fairness for UAV Communication Based on Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access2019Ingår i: 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops), 2019, nr 53Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, communication using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as relay nodes has been considered beneficial for a number of applications. Moreover, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) with users being assigned different signal power levels while sharing the same time-frequency domain has been found effective to enhance spectrum utilization and provide predictable access to the channel. Thus, in this paper we consider an UAV communication system with NOMA and propose a solution to find the optimal values for the user’s power allocation coefficients (PACs) needed to achieve the required levels of communication reliability. We present a closed-form expression for the PAC of each user and also propose an algorithm for finding the optimal altitude of the UAV required to satisfy the fairness condition for all users. Finally, we provide numerical examples and compare the results for three types of communication environments.

  • 305.
    Dastani, Mehdi
    et al.
    Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Hojjat, Hossein
    Rochester Inst Technol, Rochester, USA..
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Fundamentals of Software Engineering (extended versions of selected papers of FSEN 2015) Preface2018Ingår i: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 160, s. 1-2Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 306.
    David, Alexandre
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Håkansson, John
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Guldstrand Larsen, Kim
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik. Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Model Checking Timed Automata with Priorities using DBM Subtraction2006Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 4202, 2006, s. 128-142Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe an extension of timed automata with priorities, and efficient algorithms to compute subtraction on DBMs (difference bounded matrices), needed in symbolic model-checking of timed automata with priorities. The subtraction is one of the few operations on DBMs that result in a non-convex set needing sets of DBMs for representation. Our subtraction algorithms are efficient in the sense that the number of generated DBMs is significantly reduced compared to a naive algorithm. The overhead in time is compensated by the gain from reducing the number of resulting DBMs since this number affects the performance of symbolic model-checking. The uses of the DBM subtraction operation extend beyond timed automata with priorities. It is also useful for allowing guards on transitions with urgent actions, deadlock checking, and timed games.

  • 307.
    Davidsson, Göran
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Evaluation of a Hypervisor Performance in a Distributed Embedded System2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In modern industrial systems cloud computing plays an important role. Using this technology services are given to customers more efficiently with respect to cost and performance. The main idea of using cloud is that a platform is partitioned among several end users providing a complete isolation among the services. Therefore, the resources are used more effectively instead of assigning a complete platform for only one end user. In order to provide such a partitioning among the services several techniques are already being used. One of the prominent techniques is virtualization. Virtualization can be done with the use of a hypervisor, which is a software that allows running of multiple operating systems on one platform. This thesis aims at measuring the performance of a hypervisor in a distributed embedded system. The metrics for measuring the performance are delays, jitters and throughput that are influenced by different architectures and settings. The thesis also aims at finding out if it is possible to predict the delay, jitter and throughput depending on the number of virtual machines, number of switches and amount of network load. Finally, the thesis investigates whether different settings on the virtual machines influence the performance. For these purposes, a network consisting of two hypervisors and one or two network switches is setup. On each hypervisor several virtual machines are installed. Different tools for measurement of network performance, such as Iperf and Jperf, are installed on the virtual machines. The results show that network load is the main factor influencing the delay, jitter and throughput in the network. The number of switches influence to some degree due to the processing delay. The number of virtual machines has no or very low influence on the network performance. Finally, the results show that alternating configurations on the virtual machines has no observable differences in delay, jitter or throughput, albeit with the limited changes in the settings for this experiment.

  • 308.
    Davis, Rob
    et al.
    University of York, UK.
    Gettings, Oliver
    University of York, UK.
    Thekkilakattil, Abhilash
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dobrin, Radu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    What is the Exact Speedup Factor for Fixed Priority Pre-emptive versus Fixed Priority Non-pre-emptive Scheduling?2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 6th Real-Time Scheduling Open Problems Seminar (RTSOPS): held in conjunction with the 27th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS), Lund, Sweden, 2015, s. 23-24Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 309.
    Davis, Rob
    et al.
    University of York, York, UK.
    Thekilakkattil, Abhilash
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gettings, Oliver
    University of York, York, UK.
    Dobrin, Radu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Chen, Jian-Jia
    Technische Universität, Dortmund, Germany..
    Exact Speedup Factors and Sub-Optimality for Non-Preemptive Scheduling2018Ingår i: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383, s. 208-246Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fixed priority scheduling is used in many real-time systems; however, both preemptive and non-preemptive variants (FP-P and FP-NP) are known to be sub-optimal when compared to an optimal uniprocessor scheduling algorithm such as preemptive Earliest Deadline First (EDF-P). In this paper, we investigate the sub-optimality of xed priority non-preemptive scheduling. Speci cally, we derive the exact processor speed-up factor required to guarantee the feasibility under FP-NP (i.e. schedulablability assuming an optimal priority assignment) of any task set that is feasible under EDF-P. As a consequence of this work, we also derive a lower bound on the sub-optimality of non-preemptive EDF (EDF-NP). As this lower bound matches a recently published upper bound for the same quantity, it closes the exact sub-optimality for EDF-NP. It is known that neither preemptive, nor non-preemptive xed priority scheduling dominates the other, in other words, there are task sets that are feasible on a processor of unit speed under FP-P that are not feasible under FP-NP and vice-versa. Hence comparing these two algorithms, there are non-trivial speedup factors in both directions. We derive the exact speed-up factor required to guarantee the FP-NP feasibility of any FP-P feasible task set. Further, we derive the exact speed-up factor required to guarantee FP-P feasibility of any constrained-deadline FP-NP feasible task set.

  • 310.
    Davis, Rob
    et al.
    University of York, UK.
    Thekkilakattil, Abhilash
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gettings, Oliver
    University of York, UK.
    Dobrin, Radu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Quantifying the Exact Sub-Optimality of Non-Preemptive Scheduling2015Ingår i: Proceedings - Real-Time Systems Symposium, 2015, s. 96-106Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fixed priority scheduling is used in many real-time systems; however, both preemptive and non-preemptive variants (FP-P and FP-NP) are known to be sub-optimal when compared to an optimal uniprocessor scheduling algorithm such as preemptive Earliest Deadline First (EDF-P). In this paper, we investigate the sub-optimality of fixed priority non-preemptive scheduling. Specifically, we derive the exact processor speed-up factor required to guarantee the feasibility under FP-NP (i.e. schedulablability assuming an optimal priority assignment) of any task set that is feasible under EDF-P. As a consequence of this work, we also derive a lower bound on the sub-optimality of non-preemptive EDF (EDF-NP), which since it matches a recently published upper bound gives the exact sub-optimality for EDF-NP. It is known that neither preemptive, nor non-preemptive fixed priority scheduling dominates the other, i.e., there are task sets that are feasible on a processor of unit speed under FP-P that are not feasible under FP-NP and vice-versa. Hence comparing these two algorithms, there are non-trivial speedup factors in both directions. We derive the exact speed-up factor required to guarantee the FP-NP feasibility of any FP-P feasible task set. Further, we derive upper and lower bounds on the speed-up factor required to guarantee FP-P feasibility of any FP-NP feasible task set. Empirical evidence suggests that the lower bound may be tight, and hence equate to the exact speed-up factor in this case.

  • 311.
    de Berardinis, J.
    et al.
    The University of Manchester, School of Computer Science, United Kingdom.
    Forcina, Giorgio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Jafari, A.
    Reykjavik University, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. University, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Actor-based macroscopic modeling and simulation for smart urban planning2018Ingår i: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 168, s. 142-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing the impacts of a mobility initiative prior to deployment is a complex task for both urban planners and transport companies. Computational models like Tangramob offer an agent-based framework for simulating the evolution of urban traffic after the introduction of new mobility services. However, simulations can be computationally expensive to perform due to their iterative nature and the microscopic representation of traffic. To address this issue, we designed a simplified model architecture of Tangramob in Timed Rebeca (TRebeca) and we developed a tool-chain for the generation runnable instances of this model starting from the same input files of Tangramob. Running TRebeca models allows users to get an idea of how the mobility initiatives under study affect the traveling experience of commuters, in a short time and without the need to use the simulator during this first experimental step. Then, once a subset of these initiatives is identified according to user's criteria, it is reasonable to simulate them with Tangramob in order to get more detailed results. To validate this approach, we compared the output of both the simulator and the TRebeca model on a collection of mobility initiatives. The correlation between the results demonstrates the usefulness of using TRebeca models for unconventional contexts of application.

  • 312.
    De Boer, Frank
    et al.
    Ctr Wiskunde & Informat, Kruislaan 413,POB 94079, NL-1090 GB Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Serbanescu, Vlad
    Ctr Wiskunde & Informat, Kruislaan 413,POB 94079, NL-1090 GB Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Haehnle, Reiner
    Tech Univ Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany..
    Henrio, Ludovic
    Univ Cote dAzur, Nice, France..
    Rochas, Justine
    Univ Cote dAzur, Nice, France..
    Din, Crystal Chang
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway..
    Johnsen, Einar Broch
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway..
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Fernandez-Reyes, Kiko
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Yang, Albert Mingkun
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    A Survey of Active Object Languages2017Ingår i: ACM Computing Surveys, ISSN 0360-0300, E-ISSN 1557-7341, Vol. 50, nr 5, artikel-id 76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To program parallel systems efficiently and easily, a wide range of programming models have been proposed, eachwith different choices concerning synchronization and communication between parallel entities. Among them, the actor model is based on loosely coupled parallel entities that communicate by means of asynchronous messages and mailboxes. Some actor languages provide a strong integration with object-oriented concepts; these are often called active object languages. This article reviews four major actor and active object languages and compares them according to carefully chosen dimensions that cover central aspects of the programming paradigms and their implementation.

  • 313.
    de Oliveira, André Luiz
    et al.
    Federal University of Juiz de for A, Brazil.
    Paiva Bressan, Lucas
    Federal University of Juiz de for A, Brazil.
    Montecchi, Leonardo
    University of Campinas, Brazil.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Systematic Process for Applying the CHESS Methodology in the Creation of Certifiable Evidence2018Ingår i: 14th European Dependable Computing Conference EDCC-2018, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 314.
    de Oliveira Neto, Francisco Gomes
    et al.
    Chalmers-University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ahmad, Azeem
    Chalmers-University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Leifler, Ola
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sandhal, Kristian
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Improving Continuous Integration with Similarity-based Test Case Selection2018Ingår i: 13th IEEE/ACM International Workshop on Automation of Software Test AST'18, 2018, Vol. F137727, s. 39-45Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated testing is an essential component of Continuous Integration (CI) and Delivery (CD), such as scheduling automated test sessions on overnight builds. That allows stakeholders to execute entire test suites and achieve exhaustive test coverage, since running all tests is often infeasible during work hours, i.e., in parallel to development activities. On the other hand, developers also need test feedback from CI servers when pushing changes, even if not all test cases are executed. In this paper we evaluate similarity-based test case selection (SBTCS) on integration-level tests executed on continuous integration pipelines of two companies. We select test cases that maximise diversity of test coverage and reduce feedback time to developers. Our results confirm existing evidence that SBTCS is a strong candidate for test optimisation, by reducing feedback time (up to 92% faster in our case studies) while achieving full test coverage using only information from test artefacts themselves.

  • 315.
    Derehag, Jesper
    et al.
    Ericsson AB, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Weyuker, Elaine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ostrand, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Daniel, Sundmark
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Transitioning Fault Prediction Models to a New Environment2016Ingår i: Proceedings - 2016 12th European Dependable Computing Conference, EDCC 2016, 2016, s. 241-248, artikel-id 7780365Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the application and evaluation of fault prediction algorithms to a project developed by a Swedish company that transitioned from waterfall to agile development methods. The project used two different version control systems and a separate bug tracking system during its lifetime. The algorithms were originally designed for use on systems implemented with a traditional waterfall process at American companies that maintained their project records in an integrated database system that combined bug recording and version control. We compare the performance of the original prediction model on the American systems to the results obtained in the Swedish environment in both its pre-agile and agile stages. We also consider the impact of additional variables in the model.

  • 316.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    An analysis of a layered system architecture for autonomous construction vehicles2015Ingår i: 9th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2015 - Proceedings, 2015, s. 582-588Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested in the literature to organize software in autonomous vehicles as hierarchical layers where each layer makes its own decisions based on its own world model. This paper presents two alternative designs for autonomous construction vehicles based on the layered framework 4D/RCS. As a first step, the typical use cases for these vehicles were defined. Then one use case for a hauler was traversed through the two alternatives to see how they supported safety, flexibility and the use of a product platform. We found that the coordination between bucket control and motion control must be done at a low level in the hierarchy and that the relationship between the vehicle actuators and the built-in autonomous system is important for how the software is organized. 

  • 317.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Volvo Construction Equipment Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    Volvo Construction Equipment Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Analysis of the Information Needs of an Autonomous Hauler in a Quarry Site2016Ingår i: IEEE 11th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE2016, 2016, artikel-id 7542936Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous and intelligent construction equipment is an emergent area of research, which shares many characteristics with on-road autonomous vehicles, but also have fundamental differences. Construction vehicles usually perform repetitive tasks in confined sites, such as quarries, and cooperate with other vehicles to complete common missions. A quarry can be viewed as a system-of-systems and the vehicles are individual systems within the site system. Therefore it is important to analyze the site system, i.e. included vehicles, surrounding systems, and system context, before the introduction of autonomous vehicles. It is necessary to map the needed infrastructure, and the needed input information from on-board sensors and off-board information suppliers, before designing the vehicle electronics system. This paper describes how we identified sensory and input signal needs for an autonomous articulated hauler in a scenario at a quarry site. Different architectural alternatives are evaluated and a set-up for a quarry site is suggested.

  • 318.
    Desai, Nitin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Safety-oriented flexible design of Autonomous Mobile Robot systems2019Ingår i: 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering ISSE 2019, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 2019, nr 5Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Current industrial automation applications particularly within the smart manufacturing domain require mobility, flexibility of deployment, and scalability. In addition to these, it is important to mitigate the risk of safety hazards. In this paper we discuss a flexible, granular, and software-based system design that aims to improve both security and safety of an autonomous mobile robot (AMR) based industrial automation systems. The decentralised control architecture ensures that safety-critical functions are distributed throughout the network. To this end, we first define system-level safety requirements and identify procedures required to satisfy safety-critical functions such as emergency-stop (E-Stop). We then explain the benefits provided by the proposed system architecture vis-a-vis its resilience towards potential safety hazards.

  • 319.
    Di Rocco, J.
    et al.
    University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy .
    Di Ruscio, D.
    University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy .
    Pierantonio, Alfonso
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy .
    Cuadrado, J. S.
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain .
    De Lara, J.
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain .
    Guerra, E.
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain .
    Using ATL transformation services in the MDEForge collaborative modeling platform2016Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Volume 9765, 2016, 2016, s. 70-78Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last years, the increasing complexity of Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) tools and techniques has led to higher demands in terms of computation, interoperability, and configuration management. Harnessing the software-as-a-service (SaaS) paradigm and shifting applications from local, mono-core implementations to cloud-based architectures is key to enhance scalability and flexibility. To this end, we propose MDEForge: an extensible, collaborative modeling platform that provides remote model management facilities and prevents the user from focussing on time-consuming, and less creative procedures. This demo paper illustrates the extensibility of MDEForge by integrating ATL services for the remote execution, automated testing, and static analysis of ATL transformations. The usefulness of their employment under the SaaS paradigm is demonstrated with a case-study showing a wide range of new application possibilities. 

  • 320.
    Ding, Jing
    et al.
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Du, Lichan
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Pan, Gechuanqi
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Jianfeng
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Wei, Xiaolan
    South China Univ Technol, Sch Chem & Chem Engn, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Li, Jiang
    Natl Supercomp Ctr Guangzhou, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Weilong
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Inst Technol, Energy Proc Div, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Molecular dynamics simulations of the local structures and thermodynamic properties on molten alkali carbonate K2CO32018Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 220, s. 536-544Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Molten carbonate salts have received particular attention for high-temperature thermal energy storage and heat Molecular dynamics simulation transfer applications due to desirable thermal characteristics, such as wide operating temperature range, low Molten alkali carbonates causticity and excellent thermal stability. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed Local structures on molten alkali carbonate K2CO3 based on an effective pair potential model, a Born-Mayer type combined with Thermodynamic properties a Coulomb term. The radial distribution functions (RDF) and coordination number curves of the molten salt were characterized to explore the temperature dependences of macroscopic properties from microscopic view. The results suggest that the distance between K2CO3 particles is getting larger with temperature increasing, resulting in the increase of molar volume and the diminished ability of resistance to shear deformation and heat transfer by vibration between ions. Besides, it can be concluded that the structure of CO32- is inferred reasonably to be ortho-triangular pyramid from the comprehensive analysis of local structures including the angular distribution functions (ADF). Moreover, the thermodynamic properties were simulated in detail from 1200 to 1600 K including the density, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat capacity, sheer viscosity, thermal conductivity and ion self-diffusion coefficient, which was hard to be measured from experiments under high-temperature extreme conditions, All the simulation results are in satisfactory agreement with available experimental data with high accuracy, and the minimum simulation error is as low as 1.42%.

  • 321.
    Dobrin, Radu
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Desai, Nitin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    On Fault-tolerant Scheduling of Time Sensitive Networks2019Ingår i: 4th International Workshop on Security and Dependability of Critical Embedded Real-Time Systems CERTS 2019, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Time sensitive networking (TSN) is gaining attention in industrial automation networks since it brings essential real-time capabilities at the data link layer. Though it can provide deterministic latency under error free conditions, TSN still largely depends on space redundancy for improved reliability.In many scenarios, time redundancy could be an adequate as well as cost efficient alternative. Time redundancy in turn will have implications due to the need for over-provisions needed for timeliness guarantees. In this paper, we discuss how to embed fault-tolerance capability into TSN schedules and describe our approach using a simple example.

  • 322.
    Dobrin, Radu
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Fohler, Gerhard
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Handling Non-periodic Events Together with Complex Constrained Tasks in Distributed Real-Time Systems2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we show how off-line scheduling and fixed priority

    scheduling (FPS) can be combined to get the advantages of both - the

    capability to cope with complex timing constraints while providing

    run-time flexibility. We present a method to take advantage of the

    flexibility provided by FPS while guaranteeing complex constraint

    satisfaction on periodic tasks. We provide mechanisms to include FPS

    servers to our previous work, to handle non-periodic events, while

    still fulfilling the original complex constraints on the periodic

    tasks.

    In some cases, e.g., when the complex constraints can not be

    expressed directly by FPS, we split tasks into instances (artifacts)

    to obtain a new task set with consistent FPS attributes. Our method

    is optimal in the sense that it keeps the number of artifacts

    minimized.

  • 323.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Agent Based Modeling with Applications to Social Computing2011Ingår i: Proceedings IACAP 2011. The Computational Turn: Past, Presents, Futures?3, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 324.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Computational Dynamics of Natural Information Morphology, Discretely Continuous2017Ingår i: Philosophies MDPI, ISSN 2409-9287, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a theoretical study of the binary oppositions underlying the mechanisms of natural computation understood as dynamical processes on natural information morphologies. Of special interest are the oppositions of discrete vs. continuous, structure vs. process, and differentiation vs. integration. The framework used is that of computing nature, where all natural processes at different levels of organisation are computations over informational structures. The interactions at different levels of granularity/organisation in nature, and the character of the phenomena that unfold through those interactions, are modeled from the perspective of an observing agent. This brings us to the movement from binary oppositions to dynamic networks built upon mutually related binary oppositions, where each node has several properties.

  • 325.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Context Dependence and Value Systems in Science: Computing Paradigm Shift2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    http://www.idt.mdh.se/projects/PIFF/Context%20Dependence%20and%20Value%20Systems%20in%20Science.pdf

  • 326.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Info-Computationalism and Philosophical Aspects of Research in Information Sciences2014Ingår i: Philosophy, Computing and Information Science / [ed] Ruth Hagengruber, Routledge, 2014Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 327.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Knowledge as Computation in vivo: Semantics vs. Pragmatics as Truth vs. Meaning2006Ingår i: Proceedings from computers & philosophy,, 2006, s. 202-215Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. Following the worldwide increase in communications through computer networking, not only economies, entertainment, and arts but also research and education are transforming into global systems. Attempts to automate knowledge discovery and enable the communication between computerized knowledge bases encounter the problem of the incompatibility of syntactically identical expressions of different semantic and pragmatic provenance. Coming from different universes, terms with the same spelling may have a continuum of meanings. The formalization problem is related to the characteristics of the natural language semantic continuum. The human brain has through its evolution developed the capability to communicate via natural languages. We need computers able to communicate in similar, more flexible ways, which calls for a new and broader understanding far beyond the limits of formal axiomatic reasoning that characterize the Turing machine paradigm. This paper arguments for the need of a new approach to the ideas of truth and meaning based on logical pluralism, as a consequence of the new interactive understanding of computing, that necessitates going far beyond Turing limit.

  • 328.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Morphological computing as self-organisation of a cognizing intelligent agent2016Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 329.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Workplace Gossip and Rumor: The Information Ethics Perspective2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

  • 330.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Computational Aspects of Model-Based Reasoning2017Ingår i: Springer Handbook of Model-Based Science / [ed] Magnani, Lorenzo and Bertolotti, Tommaso, Springer International Publishing , 2017, s. 695-718Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational models and tools provide increasingly solid foundations for the study of cognition and model-based reasoning, with knowledge generation in different types of cognizing agents, from the simplest ones like bacteria to the complex human distributed cognition. After the introduction of the computational turn, we proceed to models of computation and the relationship between information and computation. A distinction is made between mathematical and computational (executable) models, which are central for biology and cognition. Computation as it appears in cognitive systems is physical, natural, embodied, and distributed computation, and we explain how it relates to the symbol manipulation view of classical computationalism. As present day models of distributed, asynchronous, heterogeneous, and concurrent networks are becoming increasingly well suited for modeling of cognitive systems with their dynamic properties, they can be used to study mechanisms of abduction and scientific discovery. We conclude the chapter with the presentation of software modeling with computationally automated reasoning and the discussion of model transformations and separation between semantics and ontology.

  • 331.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Giovagnoli, RaffaelaPUL Rome, Italy.
    Representation and Reality in Humans, Animals and Machines2017Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 332.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology Sweden.
    Schroeder, MarcinAkita International University, Japan.
    Contemporary Natural Philosophy and Philosophies - Part 12019Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 333.
    Du, Jiaying
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Kade, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gerdtman, Christer
    Motion Control, Västerås, Sweden.
    Özcan, Oguzhan
    Koç University, Turkey.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    The effects of perceived USB-delay for sensor and embedded system development2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBSVolume 2016, 2016, s. 2492-2495, artikel-id 7591236Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceiving delay in computer input devices is a problem which gets even more eminent when being used in healthcare applications and/or in small, embedded systems. Therefore, the amount of delay found as acceptable when using computer input devices was investigated in this paper. A device was developed to perform a benchmark test for the perception of delay. The delay can be set from 0 to 999 milliseconds (ms) between a receiving computer and an available USB-device. The USB-device can be a mouse, a keyboard or some other type of USB-connected input device. Feedback from performed user tests with 36 people form the basis for the determination of time limitations for the USB data processing in microprocessors and embedded systems without users' noticing the delay. For this paper, tests were performed with a personal computer and a common computer mouse, testing the perception of delays between 0 and 500 ms. The results of our user tests show that perceived delays up to 150 ms were acceptable and delays larger than 300 ms were not acceptable at all.

  • 334.
    Dunkels, Adam
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Sweden.
    Schmidt, Oliver
    TU Delft, Netherlands .
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Sweden.
    Ali, Muneeb
    TU Delft, Netherlands .
    Protothreads: Simplifying Event-Driven Programming of Memory-Constrained Embedded Systems2006Ingår i: SenSys'06: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, 2006, s. 29-42Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Event-driven programming is a popular model for writing programs for tiny embedded systems and sensor network nodes. While event-driven programming can keep the memory overhead down, it enforces a state machine programming style which makes many programs difficult to write, maintain, and debug. We present a novel programming abstraction called protothreads that makes it possible to write event-driven programs in a thread-like style, with a memory overhead of only two bytes per protothread. We show that protothreads significantly reduce the complexity of a number of widely used programs previously written with event-driven state machines. For the examined programs the majority of the state machines could be entirely removed. In the other cases the number of states and transitions was drastically decreased. With protothreads the number of lines of code was reduced by one third. The execution time overhead of protothreads is on the order of a few processor cycles

  • 335.
    Ebrahimi, M.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    EbDa: A new theory on design and verification of deadlock-free interconnection networks2017Ingår i: Proceedings - International Symposium on Computer Architecture, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, s. 703-715Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Freedom from deadlock is one of the most important issues when designing routing algorithms in on-chip/off-chip networks. Many works have been developed upon Dally's theory proving that a network is deadlock-free if there is no cyclic dependency on the channel dependency graph. However, fnding such acyclic graph has been very challenging, which limits Dally's theory to networks with a low number of channels. In this paper, we introduce three theorems that directly lead to routing algorithms with an acyclic channel dependency graph. We also propose the partitioning methodology, enabling a design to reach the maximum adaptiveness for the n-dimensional mesh and k-ary n-cube topologies with any given number of channels. In addition, deadlock-free routing algorithms can be derived ranging from maximally fully adaptive routing down to deterministic routing. The proposed theorems can drastically remove the diffculties of designing deadlock-free routing algorithms. 

  • 336.
    Ebrahimi, Masoumeh
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Weldezion, Awet Yemane
    Hangofay AB, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    NoD: Network-on-Die as a Standalone NoC for Heterogeneous Many-core Systems in 2.5D ICs2017Ingår i: 2017 19TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE AND DIGITAL SYSTEMS (CADS), 2017, s. 28-33Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a high cost of 3D IC process technology, the semiconductor industry is targeting 2.5D ICs with interposer as a fast and low-cost alternative to integrate dissimilar technologies. In this paper, we propose an independent network-on-chip die, called Network-on-Die (NoD), for 2.5D ICs that operates as a communication backbone for heterogeneous many-core systems on interposer. NoD is responsible for routing packets from a source router to a destination router, and the connections between routers and cores pass through the interposer. This technique eliminates the complexity of the routing algorithms in heterogeneous systems by turning the irregular form of NoC in 2.5D ICs into a regular/optimized one in NoD. The performance evaluation is verified through RTL simulations for a heterogeneous many-core system of varying die sizes and with asymmetric shapes. We provide the theoretical justification for our simulation results.

  • 337.
    Ekdahl, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Experience Report: Using Internal CMMI Appraisals to Institutionalize Software Development Performance Improvement2006Ingår i: Proceedings - 32nd Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA, 2006, s. 216-222Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical to any successful performance improvement initiative is to achieve a state of continuous or institutionalized improvement. Some improvement can happen quickly, but long-term improvement is typically a matter of sustaining focus. This requires an infrastructure that keeps activities focused and drives them forward. In ABB, the IDEALSM model is used as a guide for setting up improvement activities in development centers. Central to the IDEALSM model is the diagnostic activity, i.e. the evaluation of current performance in the unit against a suitable reference model. Over the last eight years, ABB has used diagnostics in the form of internal CMM/CMMI appraisals to lay the foundation for improvement activities. In this experience report, the use of internal appraisals as a means for sustaining improvement focus will be discussed. Experiences and lessons learnt, as well as some of the specifics of ABB's internal appraisals will be presented.

  • 338.
    Ekelin, Svante
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik. Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hartikainen, Erik
    Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Andreas
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Mångs, Jan-Erik
    Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Melander, Bob
    Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Real-time Measurement of End-to-End Available Bandwidth Using Kalman Filtering2006Ingår i: IEEE Symposium Record on Network Operations and Management Symposium2006,, 2006, s. 73-84Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new method, BART (Bandwidth Available in Real-Time), for estimating the end-to-end available bandwidth over a network path. It estimates bandwidth quasi-continuously, in real-time. The method has also been implemented as a tool. It relies on self-induced congestion, and repeatedly samples the available bandwidth of the network path with sequences of probe packet pairs, sent at randomized rates. BART requires little computation in each iteration, is light-weight with respect to memory requirements, and adds only a small amount of probe traffic. The BART method uses Kalman filtering, which enables real-time estimation (a.k.a. tracking). It maintains a current estimate, which is incrementally improved with each new measurement of the inter-packet time separations in a sequence of probe packet pairs. The measurementmodel has a strong non-linearity, and would not at first sight be considered suitable for Kalman filtering, but we show how this non-linearity can be handled. BART may be tuned according to the specific needs of the measurement application, such as agility vs. stability of the estimate. We have tested an implementation of BART in a physical test network with carefully controlled cross traffic, with good accuracy and agreement. Testmeasurements have also been performed over the Internet. We compare the performance of BART with that of pathChirp, a state-of-the-art tool for measuring end-to-end available bandwidth in real-time. 

  • 339.
    Eklund, Simon
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    ON THE USE OF BASE CHOICE STRATEGY FOR TESTING INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SOFTWARE2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing is one of the most important parts of software development. It is used to ensure that the software is of a certain quality. In many situations it is a time consuming task that is manually performed and error prone. In the last couple of years a wide range of techniques for automated test generation have been explored with the goal of performing more efficient testing both in terms of cost and time. Many of these techniques are using combinatorial methods to explore different combinations of test inputs. Base Choice (BC) is a combinatorial method that has been shown to be efficient and effective at detecting faults. However, it is not very well studied how BC compares to manual testing performed by industrial engineers with experience in software testing. This thesis presents the results of a case study comparing BC testing with manual testing. We investigate the quality of manual tests and tests created using BC strategy in terms of decision coverage, fault detection capability and cost efficiency (in terms of number of test cases). We used recently developed industrial programs written in the IEC 61131-3 FBD language, a popular programming language for embedded software using programmable logic controllers. For generating tests using BC we used the Combinatorial Testing Tool (CTT) developed at M¨alardalen University. The results of this thesis show that manual tests performed significantly better than BC generated tests in terms of achieved decision coverage and fault detection. In average manually written tests achieved 97.38% decision coverage while BC tests suites only achieved 83.10% decision coverage. In fault detection capabilities, manual test suites found in average 88.90% of injected faults compared to 69.53% fault detection by BC generated test suites. We also found that manual tests are slightly shorter in terms of number of tests compared to BC testing. We found that the use of BC is heavily affected by the choice of the base values chosen by the tester. By using more precise base choice values in BC testing may have yielded different results in terms of decision coverage and fault detection.

  • 340.
    Ekström, Martin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Berglomma, Marcus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Reliable Wireless ECG Sensor Network2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 341.
    El Hachem, Jamal
    et al.
    Universite Pau & Pays Adour, LIUPPA, France.
    Sedaghatbaf, Ali
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lisova, Elena
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Causevic, Aida
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Using Bayesian Networks for a Cyberattacks Propagation Analysis in Systems-of-Systems2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    System of Systems (SoS) represent a set of independent Constituent Systems (CS) that collaborate in order to provide functionalities that they are unable to achieve independently. We consider SoS as a set of connected services that needs to be adequately protected. The integration of these independent, evolutionary and distributed systems, intensifies SoS complexity and emphasizes the behavior uncertainty, which makes an SoS security analysis a critical challenge. One of the major priorities when designing SoS, is to analyze the unknown dependencies among CS services and vulnerabilities leading to potential cyberattacks. The aim of this work is to investigate how Software Engineering approaches could be leveraged to analyze the cyberattack propagation problem within an SoS. Such analysis is essential for an efficient SoS risk assessment performed early at the SoS design phase and required to protect the SoS from possibly high impact attacks affecting its safety and security. In order to achieve our objective, we present a model-driven analysis approach, based on Bayesian Networks, a sensitivity analysis and Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) with aim to discover potential cyberattacks propagation and estimate the probability of a security failure and its impact on SoS services. W

  • 342.
    El Shobaki, Mohammed
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för Datavetenskap.
    Lindh, Lennart
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för Datavetenskap.
    A hardware and software monitor for high-level system-on-chip verification2001Ingår i: Proceedings - International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design, ISQED, 2001, s. 56-61Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Verification of today's Systems-on-Chip (SoC) occur at low abstraction-levels, typically at register-transfer level (RTL). As the complexity of SoC designs grows, it is increasingly important to move verification to higher abstraction levels. Hardware/software co-simulation is a step in this direction, but is not sufficient due to inaccurate processor models, and slow hardware simulation speeds. System level monitoring, commonly used for event-based software debugging, provides information about task scheduling events, inter-task communication and synchronisation, semaphores/resources, I/O interrupts, etc. We present MAMon, a monitoring system that can both monitor the logic-level and the system-level in single/multiprocessor SoCs. A small hardware probe-unit is integrated in the SoC design and connects via a parallel port link to a host-based monitoring tool environment. The probe-unit collects all events in the target system in runtime, and timestamps them with a resolution of J ps. The events are then stored in a database on the host for further processing. The paper will describe MAMon and how it works for software and hardware monitoring. The paper also describe how system-level monitoring can be achieved non-instrusively by using a hardware-based Real-Time Kernel. 

  • 343.
    Eldh, S.
    et al.
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Demeyer, S.
    University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Borg, M.
    RISE SICS AB, Sweden.
    Causevic, Adnan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    The 1st IEEE Workshop on the Next Level of Test Automation: (NEXTA 2018) - From the Program Chairs2018Ingår i: 11th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2018, s. xix-xxiArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 344.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    How to save on quality assurance challenges in software testing2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality assurance, and in particular software testing and verification, are areas that yet have much to offer to the industry. Companies that develop software need to improve their skills in this area to get the best return on investments. Important future strategies for survival are to collaborate with academia to find solutions to several difficult problems within software testing. Some of the areas and experiences in software testing that needs to be improved from an industry perspective is discussed, like test automation and component test. We have created a way to improve designers testing, which we call software quality rank. This ranking system takes known research results, including knowledge and tools from static- and run-time analysis and making them work in industry. The software quality rank aims to improve testing on the component level. We have saved a lot of money by improving the test area, and we share some of the lessons learned to aid other businesses with the same endeavor.

  • 345.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Pettersson, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Framework for Comparing Efficiency, Effectiveness and Applicability of Software Testing Techniques2006Ingår i: Proceedings - Testing: Academic and Industrial Conference - Practice and Research Techniques, TAIC PART 2006, 2006, s. 159-170, artikel-id 1691683Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software testing is expensive for the industry, and always constrained by time and effort. Although there is a multitude of test techniques, there are currently no scientifically based guidelines for the selection of appropriate techniques of different domains and contexts. For large complex systems, some techniques are more efficient in finding failures than others and some are easier to apply than others are. From an industrial perspective, it is important to find the most effective and efficient test design technique that is possible to automate and apply. In this paper, we propose an experimental framework for comparison of test techniques with respect to efficiency, effectiveness and applicability. We also plan to evaluate ease of automation, which has not been addressed by previous studies. We highlight some of the problems of evaluating or comparingtest techniques in an objective manner. We describe our planned process for this multi-phase experimental study. This includes presentation of some of the important measurements to be collected with the dual goals of analyzing the properties of the test technique, as well as validating our experimental framework.

  • 346.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Experiments with Component Tests to Improve Software Quality2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In commercial systems, time to market pressure often result in short cuts in the design phase where component test is most vulnerable. It is hard to define how much testing is cost effective by the individual developers, and hard to judge when testing is enough. Verification activities constitute a major part of the product cost. Failures unearthed during later phases of product development escalate the cost substantially. To reduce cost in later stages of testing by reducing failures is important not only for Ericsson, but for any software producer. At Ericsson, we created a scheme, Software Quality Rank (SQR). SQR is a way to improve quality on components. SQR consists of five steps, where the first is where the actual "ranking" of components takes place. Then a selection of components is targeted for improvement in five levels. Most components are targeted for rank 3, which is the cost-efficient quality level. Rank 5 is the target for safety-critical code. The goal of SQR was to provide developers with a tool that prioritizes what to do before delivery to next system test phase. SQR defines a stepwise plan, which describes how much and what to test on component level for each rank. It gives the process for how to prioritize components; re-introduces reviews; requires usage of static analysis tools and defines what coverage to be achieved. The scheme has been used with great success at different design organizations within and outside Ericsson and we believe it supports industry in defining what cost-efficient component test in a time to market situation.

  • 347.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Component Testing is not Enough - A Study of Software Faults in Telecom Middleware2007Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4581, 2007, s. 74-89Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The interrelationship between software faults and failures is quite intricate and obtaining a meaningful characterization of it would definitely help the testing community in deciding on efficient and effective test strategies. Towards this objective, we have investigated and classified failures observed in a large complex telecommunication industry middleware system during 2003- 2006. In this paper, we describe the process used in our study for tracking faults from failures along with the details of failure data. We present the distribution and frequency of the failures along with some interesting findings unravelled while analyzing the origins of these failures. Firstly, though "simple" faults happen, together they account for only less than 10%. The majority of faults come from either missing code or path, or superfluous code, which are all faults that manifest themselves for the first time at integration/system level; not at component level. These faults are more frequent in the early versions of the software, and could very well be attributed to the difficulties in comprehending and specifying the context (and adjacent code) and its dependencies well enough, in a large complex system with time to market pressures. This exposes the limitations of component testing in such complex systems and underlines the need for allocating more resources for higher level integration and system testing.

  • 348.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Daniel, Sundmark
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Causevic, Adnan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Comparative Study of Manual and Automated Testing for Industrial Control Software2017Ingår i: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2017, 2017, s. 412-417, artikel-id 7927994Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated test generation has been suggested as a way of creating tests at a lower cost. Nonetheless, it is not very well studied how such tests compare to manually written ones in terms of cost and effectiveness. This is particularly true for industrial control software, where strict requirements on both specification-based testing and code coverage typically are met with rigorous manual testing. To address this issue, we conducted a case study in which we compared manually and automatically created tests. We used recently developed real-world industrial programs written in the IEC 61131-3, a popular programming language for developing industrial control systems using programmable logic controllers. The results show that automatically generated tests achieve similar code coverage as manually created tests, but in a fraction of the time (an average improvement of roughly 90%). We also found that the use of an automated test generation tool does not result in better fault detection in terms of mutation score compared to manual testing. Specifically, manual tests more effectively detect logical, timer and negation type of faults, compared to automatically generated tests. The results underscore the need to further study how manual testing is performed in industrial practice and the extent to which automated test generation can be used in the development of reliable systems.

  • 349.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Frasheri, Mirgita
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Test Agents: Adaptive, Autonomous and Intelligent Test Cases2018Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth of software size, lack of resources to perform regression testing, and failure to detect bugs faster have seen increased reliance on continuous integration and test automation. Even with greater hardware and software resources dedicated to test automation, software testing is faced with enormous challenges, resulting in increased dependence on complex mechanisms for automated test case selection and prioritisation as part of a continuous integration framework. These mechanisms are currently using simple entities called test cases that are concretely realised as executable scripts. Our key idea is to provide test cases with more reasoning, adaptive behaviour and learning capabilities by using the concepts of intelligent software agents. We refer to such test cases as test agents. The model that underlie a test agent is capable of flexible and autonomous actions in order to meet overall testing objectives. Our goal is to increase the decentralisation of regression testing by letting test agents to know for themselves when they should be executing, how they should update their purpose, and when they should interact with each other. In this paper, we envision software test agents that display such adaptive autonomous behaviour. Emerging developments and challenges regarding the use of test agents are explored-in particular, new research that seeks to use adaptive autonomous agents in software testing.

  • 350.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Causevic, Adnan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mutation-Based Test Generation for PLC Embedded Software using Model Checking2016Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2016, Vol. 9976, s. 155-171Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing is an important activity in engineering of industrial embedded software. In certain application domains (e.g., railway industry) engineering software is certified according to safety standards that require extensive software testing procedures to be applied for the development of reliable systems. Mutation analysis is a technique for creating faulty versions of a software for the purpose of examining the fault detection ability of a test suite. Mutation analysis has been used for evaluating existing test suites, but also for generating test suites that detect injected faults (i.e., mutation testing). To support developers in software testing, we propose a technique for producing test cases using an automated test generation approach that operates using mutation testing for software written in IEC 61131-3 language, a programming standard for safety-critical embedded software, commonly used for Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). This approach uses the Uppaal model checker and is based on a combined model that contains all the mutants and the original program. We applied this approach in a tool for testing industrial PLC programs and evaluated it in terms of cost and fault detection. For realistic validation we collected industrial experimental evidence on how mutation testing compares with manual testing as well as automated decision-coverage adequate test generation. In the evaluation, we used manually seeded faults provided by four industrial engineers. The results show that even if mutation-based test generation achieves better fault detection than automated decision coverage-based test generation, these mutation-adequate test suites are not better at detecting faults than manual test suites. However, the mutation-based test suites are significantly less costly to create, in terms of testing time, than manually created test suites. Our results suggest that the fault detection scores could be improved by considering some new and improved mutation operators (e.g., Feedback Loop Insertion Operator (FIO)) for PLC programs as well as higher-order mutations.

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