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  • 301.
    Ericsson, Niclas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. RISE SICS Västerås.
    Improving Development of Communication Software in Industrial Control Systems using Simulation2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the industrial domain customers expect a product longevity of 10-20 years, with high reliability and availability. Since industrial distributed control systems often are safety critical, aspects such as determinism, low latency and jitter are crucial. More and more industrial systems are becoming connected to the Internet, since end customers are requiring e.g. business intelligence and diagnostic information, anywhere at any time. Industrial systems that traditionally have been isolated are now facing entirely new challenges that will require new competences and ways of working. Introducing a new type of network in the industrial domain is a big investment, with high risks, often lacking known best practices. Time to market with sufficient quality is of high importance. A lot of time is spent on isolated activates, such as, simulations, updating tools, collecting requirements, design, coding, debugging, documentation, creating testbeds, validation and reviews. Therefore, there is a need to improve the efficiency when moving between the research and development phases for several reasons, e.g., integrate innovative research findings into industrial systems, shorten time to market, and improve product quality. This thesis focuses on improving efficiency during research and development of communication software. First, network evaluation methods are studied, and key industrial challenges are identified. For example, despite a huge research effort on network simulators and virtualization, there are still challenges that need to be addressed, in order for increased industrial benefits. Secondly, this thesis propose a flexible communication stack design that supports different run-time behaviors, from real-time operating system to bare-metal systems without an operating system, and different types of communication protocols, from real-time to non-real-time. Finally, this thesis propose a set of key features from network simulators, that are implemented and used as a case study in a research project. These contributions lead to simplification and increased automation, hence reducing the amount of manual work during research and development.

  • 302.
    Ericsson, Niclas
    et al.
    RISE SICS Västerås, Sweden.
    Lennvall, Tomas
    RISE SICS Västerås, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Custom simulation of Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network for improved efficiency during Research and Development2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Trends like the Cloud, Internet of Things and 5G are pushing for an increase in connectivity, but, introducing a new type of network in an industrial distributed control system is a big investment with high risks. Time to market with sufficient quality is crucial. However, when getting through the Research and Development (R&D) phases, a lot of time is spent on isolated activates, e.g., simulations, collecting requirements, design, coding, debugging, creating testbeds, and performing various tests. Therefore, there is a need to improve efficiency when moving between the R&D phases. For verification and validation of communication software, the most common network evaluation method in industry are real testbeds, mostly since a testbed can be very similar to the deployed system. Testbeds are, however, hard to debug and costly to maintain. Other network evaluation methods like simulators, have some strengths that testbeds are lacking, like repeatability, control over the network, and lower cost. However, code from simulators can seldom be reused, especially in industrial time-sensitive target systems, due to different abstraction levels, run-time behavior and system timing. This paper presents findings from a case study that targets improved efficiency, getting from research theories, to deployed devices in a homogeneous Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (IWSAN). We propose a small subset of network simulators features which eases changeability, reuse, and debugging of communication software. The selected simulator features are evaluated with a proof of concept implementation that is customized to a research platform. The findings indicate improved efficiency when moving back and forth between activities in different R&D phases.

  • 303.
    Ericsson, Sara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Combinatorial Modelling and Testing of PLC Software using ACTS2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Testing is a crucial and necessary part of software development used to detect faults and make sure that the software works properly. One testing method proposed in research is named combinatorial testing, where a test suite covers all combinations of parameter values in a certain way. There is some evidence that indicated that most faults are triggered by a few number of parameter value combinations. There have been various tools proposed for using combinatorial testing in practice. ACTS is one of the most popular combinatorial research tools. Even if ACTS has been used in several industrial projects, few studies have shown how such a combinatorial testing tool can be used for modelling and test generation for industrial control software.

    In this study we apply modelling and test generation using ACTS on a Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software. This kind of software is used in the safety critical domain for controlling different computer devices, such as a train control management system, which is in charge of many of the critical and safety related procedures on a train. Testing this kind of software is very important because failures can contribute to the loss of lives and money. 

    We show how ACTS can be applied to PLC software. We evaluated ACTS in terms of applicability (i.e., how can ACTS can be applied directly on modelling the PLCs) and efficiency in terms of generation time and test suite size. We used 17 PLC programs provided by Bombardier Transportation. Based on the number of inputs in a program we divided the programs into three complexity categories: small, medium and large programs. An input space model was created for each program, where the needed information was obtained from both the programs and the engineers writing the programs. Each model was created as a system in the graphical interface of ACTS. The different algorithms and combinatorial techniques supported by ACTS were used to generate test suites by varying coverage of the parameter combinations (i.e. t-way) in the command line of ACTS. In this study we used a cut-off time of 1 hour for the test generation, as this is a realistic estimation based on discussion with industrial engineers. Our results showed that not all combinations of algorithms and combinatorial strengths could generate a test suite within the cut-off time. We argue that the results of the the modelling process and the results showing the efficiency of the test generation tool can be useful for practitioners considering to use combinatorial testing for PLC software. 

  • 304.
    Ericsson, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Combinatorial modeling and test case generation for industrial control software using ACTS2018Inngår i: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 18th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security, QRS 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, s. 414-425Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Combinatorial testing has been suggested as an effective method of creating test cases at a lower cost. However, industrially applicable tools for modeling and combinatorial test generation are still scarce. As a direct effect, combinatorial testing has only seen a limited uptake in industry that calls into question its practical usefulness. This lack of evidence is especially troublesome if we consider the use of combinatorial test generation for industrial safety-critical control software, such as are found in trains, airplanes, and power plants. To study the industrial application of combinatorial testing, we evaluated ACTS, a popular tool for combinatorial modeling and test generation, in terms of applicability and test efficiency on industrial-sized IEC 61131-3 industrial control software running on Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC). We assessed ACTS in terms of its direct applicability in combinatorial modeling of IEC 61131-3 industrial software and the efficiency of ACTS in terms of generation time and test suite size. We used 17 industrial control programs provided by Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB and used in a train control management system. Our results show that not all combinations of algorithms and interaction strengths could generate a test suite within a realistic cut-off time. The results of the modeling process and the efficiency evaluation of ACTS are useful for practitioners considering to use combinatorial testing for industrial control software as well as for researchers trying to improve the use of such combinatorial testing techniques.

  • 305.
    Eriksson, Adam
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Real time image recognition of facial features for detecting a true breath2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of driving under the influence of alcohol can be severe. In an effort to reduce the number of drunk drivers, alcolocks have been deployed. However, if a driver tries to cheat the system and succeeds, the effects may cause severe damage to both humans and property. One way of beating the system is by fooling the breathalyzer that the breath produced doesn’t contain alcohol. This is usually done using a device which either filters a breath, or by having a device that blows clean air into the alcolock. In this paper the problem of if it’s possible to determine whether a true breath is made by using facial and feature detection, is answered. A true breath is an unobstructed, real breath from a person. True breath identification can be used in order to, for example, determine if a mouthpiece-less alcolock device is being used correctly. To solve this problem facial and feature detection was used. In order to find the best methods for facial and feature detection, research result in this area was used. The method used to solve this problem works by first tracking the face. The mouth is then searched for in the lower part of the face region. After that the mouth is found, the lips are to be extracted from the mouth area using various methods. The lip tracking is then used to determine the mouth state, it does this by calculating the distance between the different points produced by the lip tracking. The mouth state, mouth and face tracking are then used during the identification process to determine if a real person was present and if he/she made a true breath. The test fails if the mouth is closed during the time of breath or if there is no mouth or face present. Attempts to manipulate, result in a failed alcohol test. In the majority of the test cases the tracking and mouth state scored acceptable or better results. The performance of the system concluded that it’s possible to complete the analysis in real time. The result of this thesis is a true breath identification system. It still has some issues in cases where the illumination and lighting is uneven or bad. Facial hair may also interfere with the tracking in some cases. Although there are still some areas that needs improving, this work was more of a proof of concept. This thesis shows that it is possible, under certain circumstances, to determine a true breath using facial and feature detection.

  • 306.
    Eriksson Falk, Filiph
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Frenning, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Intelligent Matching For Clinical Decision Support System For Cerebral Palsy Using Domain Knowledge2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Relevant information at the right time can be critically important for clinicians when treating patients with cerebral palsy (CP). Gathering this information could be done through the usage of a clinical decision support system with a matching algorithm that finds relevant patients. The relevancy of this information for clinicians is determined by the relevancy of the matched patients. The aim of this thesis was therefore to investigate how an algorithm that matches similar patients with CP could be improved in terms of relevancy. The goal was also to explore the possibilities of domain knowledge and temporal aspects and how they could be combined and utilized in order to improve the matching algorithm. In this bachelor's thesis, we have conducted a literature study about the domain and a domain knowledge survey. The domain knowledge survey included gathering domain knowledge through contact with an expert in the area of CP. We also implemented an algorithm using intelligent similarity measurements based on validation from experts that could accurately match similar patients according to the domain knowledge gathered. The resulting algorithm is presented through a prototype of a CDSS, which allows clinicians to select and match patients through a GUI, and including features such as adjusting weight values for different attributes. The algorithm uses patient data retrieved from the CPUP database, which is specfic to patients with CP, to match with. From the CPUP database many temporal aspects could be concluded to be relevant for similarity assessment. Due to the limited scope of the thesis however, only the most important aspect was utilized. By treating this aspect as an attribute like the other domain knowledge based attributes, but with respect to other variables that affected it, a combination of temporal aspects and domain knowledge was done when identifying similar patients with CP. Using the prototype of the CDSS with the implemented algorithm could help clinicians make better informed decisions, and this leads to improved health care for children and patients with CP, which is why this thesis was important.

  • 307.
    Eriksson, Pernilla
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Informationsmaterial till kopparverket i Riddarhyttan2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten innehåller information om hur jag har gått till väga i mitt examensarbete, som har bestått i att utforma två broschyrer och tre skyltar till ett kopparverk i Riddarhyttan. I rapporten redogör jag för hur jag har gått tillväga vid utformningen av mitt arbete, de teoretiska utgångspunkterna som ligger till grund för utformningen samt det slutgiltiga resultatet.

    Bakgrunden till uppgiften är att den befintliga broschyren är, enligt min uppdragsgivare Mona Kärner Eliasson, väldigt jobbig att läsa med svåra facktermer och dåligt utförd layout. De har även tidigare funnits ett skyltsystem som de var tvungna att ta ned för att det var i dåligt skicka och det var även svårt att förstå och hänga med i texterna.

    Vid utformningen av de nya informationsmaterialen har jag både utgått från min uppdragsgivares önskemål så väl som de teoretiska erfarenheterna som jag har fått från böcker och min utbildning inom informationsdesign. Jag började med att titta på broschyren som redan fanns på plats vid kopparverket, och därefter inledde jag mitt arbete med att söka information om och bilder på kopparverket. Jag ringde även runt till olika myndigheter för att få mer information om vilka lagar och regler jag var tvungen att följa i mitt arbete. Jag sökte i olika litteraturer för att få mer kunskap om hur man utformar lättlästa och effektiva budskap. Därefter började mitt arbete med att utforma informationsmaterialen. Under arbetets gång gjorde jag tre utprovningar, en på vardera broschyr och en på skyltarna. Därefter skedde förändringar där det behövdes, innan informationsmaterialen var färdiga.

  • 308.
    Eriksson, Therése
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Mahmoud Abdelnaeim, Mohamed
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Waveform clustering - Grouping similar power system events2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, data has become a highly valuable resource. Electrical power grids deal with large quantities of data, and continuously collect this for analytical purposes. Anomalies that occur within this data is important to identify since they could cause nonoptimal performance within the substations, or in worse cases damage to the substations themselves. However, large datasets in the order of millions are hard or even impossible to gain a reasonable overview of the data manually. When collecting data from electrical power grids, predefined triggering criteria are often used to indicate that an event has occurred within the specific system. This makes it difficult to search for events that are unknown to the operator of the deployed acquisition system. Clustering, an unsupervised machine learning method, can be utilised for fault prediction within systems generating large amounts of multivariate time-series data without labels and can group data more efficiently and without the bias of a human operator. A large number of clustering techniques exist, as well as methods for extracting information from the data itself, and identification of these was of utmost importance. This thesis work presents a study of the methods involved in the creation of such a clustering system which is suitable for the specific type of data. The objective of the study was to identify methods that enables finding the underlying structures of the data and cluster the data based on these. The signals were split into multiple frequency sub-bands and from these features could be extracted and evaluated. Using suitable combinations of features the data was clustered with two different clustering algorithms, CLARA and CLARANS, and evaluated with established quality analysis methods. The results indicate that CLARA performed overall best on all the tested feature sets. The formed clusters hold valuable information such as indications of unknown events within the system, and if similar events are clustered together this can assist a human operator further to investigate the importance of the clusters themselves. A further conclusion from the results is that research into the use of more optimised clustering algorithms is necessary so that expansion into larger datasets can be considered.

  • 309.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik. Informationsdesign.
    Porathe, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik. Informationsdesign.
    How children read pictures and text in some science school books: eye-tracking studies2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the Scandinavian Workshop of Applied Eye-Tracking (SWAET 2008, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In an eye-tracking pilot-project we have asked 6 children, age of 11, to read an opening,

    from a geography book for grade five. The aim of the study was to investigate

    the role of illustrations in text-books and to what extent they contribute to the learning

    process.

  • 310.
    Ermedahl, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Deriving WCET Bounds by Abstract Execution2011Inngår i: Proc. 11th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) Analysis (WCET 2011:), 2011, s. 72-82Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard static WCET analysis methods today are based on the IPET technique, where WCET estimation is formulated as an integer linear programming (ILP) problem subject to linear program flow constraints with an objective function derived from the hardware timing model. The estimate is then calculated by an ILP solver. The hardware cost model, as well as the program flow constraints, are often derived using a static program analysis framework such as abstract interpretation. An alternative idea to estimate the WCET is to add time as an explicit variable, incremented for each basic block in the code. The possible values of this variable can then be bound by a value analysis. We have implemented this idea by integrating the time estimation in our Abstract Execution method for calculating program flow constraints. This method is in principle a very detailed value analysis. As it computes intervals bounding variable values, it bounds both the BCET and the WCET. In addition, it derives the explicit execution paths through the program which correspond to the calculated BCET and WCET bounds. We have compared the precision and the analysis time with the traditional IPET technique for a number of benchmark programs, and show that the new method typically is capable of calculating as tight or even tighter WCET estimates in shorter time. Our current implementation can handle simple timing models with constant execution times for basic blocks and edges in the CFG, but it is straightforward to extend the method to more detailed hardware timing models.

  • 311.
    Ermedahl, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Puschner, Peter
    Vienna University of Technology.
    Preface to the special issue on worst-case execution-time analysis2011Inngår i: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 57, nr 7, s. 675-676Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 312.
    Ernsund, Tommy
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Sens Ingels, Linus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Load Balancing of Parallel Tasks using Memory Bandwidth Restrictions2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Shared resource contention is a significant problem in multi-core systems and can have a negative impact on the system. Memory contention occurs when the different cores in a processor access the same memory resource, resulting in a conflict. It is possible to limit memory contention through resource reservation where a part of the system or an application is reserved a partition of the shared resource.

    We investigated how applying memory bandwidth restrictions using MemGuard can aid in synchronizing execution times of parallel tasks. We further investigate when memory bandwidth restrictions are applicable. We conduct three experiments to investigate when bandwidth restrictions are applicable. Firstly, we conducted an experiment to pinpoint when the memory bandwidth saturates a core. Secondly, we investigated our adaptive memory partitioning scheme performance against static and no partitioning. Finally, we tested how our adaptive partitioning scheme and static partitioning can isolate a workload against an interfering memory intensive workload running on a separate core.

    As the experiments only were conducted on one system, pinpointing the general point of contention was difficult, seeing that it can differ significantly from system to system. Through our experiments, we see that memory bandwidth partitioning has the ability to decrease the execution time of feature detection algorithms, which means that memory bandwidth partitioning potentially can help threads to reach their synchronization points simultaneously.

  • 313.
    Eziama, E.
    et al.
    Windsor University, Canada.
    Jaimes, L. M. S.
    Universidad de Pamplona, Colombia.
    James, A.
    Federal University of Technology, Mina, Nigeria.
    Nwizege, K. S.
    Ken Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic, Bori, Nigeria.
    Balador, Ali
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Tepe, K.
    Windsor University, Canada.
    Machine learning-based recommendation trust model for machine-to-machine communication2019Inngår i: 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology, ISSPIT 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Machine Type Communication Devices (MTCDs) are usually based on Internet Protocol (IP), which can cause billions of connected objects to be part of the Internet. The enormous amount of data coming from these devices are quite heterogeneous in nature, which can lead to security issues, such as injection attacks, ballot stuffing, and bad mouthing. Consequently, this work considers machine learning trust evaluation as an effective and accurate option for solving the issues associate with security threats. In this paper, a comparative analysis is carried out with five different machine learning approaches: Naive Bayes (NB), Decision Tree (DT), Linear and Radial Support Vector Machine (SVM), KNearest Neighbor (KNN), and Random Forest (RF). As a critical element of the research, the recommendations consider different Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication nodes with regard to their ability to identify malicious and honest information. To validate the performances of these models, two trust computation measures were used: Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROCs), Precision and Recall. The malicious data was formulated in Matlab. A scenario was created where 50% of the information were modified to be malicious. The malicious nodes were varied in the ranges of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and the results were carefully analyzed.

  • 314.
    Eziama, Elvin
    et al.
    Windsor Univ, Windsor, ON, Canada..
    Tepe, Kemal
    Windsor Univ, Windsor, ON, Canada..
    Balador, Ali
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. RISE SICS, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Nwizege, Kenneth Sorle
    Ken Saro Wiwa Polytech, Bori, Nigeria..
    Jaimes, Luz M. S.
    Univ Pamplona, Grp Ciencias Computac, Pamplona, Spain..
    Malicious Node Detection in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network Using Machine Learning and Deep Learning2018Inngår i: 2018 IEEE GLOBECOM WORKSHOPS (GC WKSHPS), IEEE , 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) provide effective vehicular operation for safety as well as greener and more efficient communication of vehicles in the Dedicated Short Range Communication (DRSC). The dynamic nature of the vehicular network topology has posed many security challenges for effective communication among vehicles. Consequently, models have been applied in the literature to checkmate the security issues in the vehicular networks. Existing models lack flexibility and sufficient functionality in capturing the dynamic behaviors of malicious nodes in the highly volatile vehicular communication systems. Given that existing models have failed to meet up with the challenges involved in vehicular network topology, it has become imperative to adopt complementary measures to tackle the security issues in the system. The approach of trust model with respect to Machine/Deep Learning (ML/DL) is proposed in the paper due to the gap in the area of network security by the existing models. The proposed model is to provide a data-driven approach in solving the security challenges in dynamic networks. This model goes beyond the existing works conceptually by modeling trust as a classification process and the extraction of relevant features using a hybrid model like Bayesian Neural Network that combines deep learning with probabilistic modeling for intelligent decision and effective generalization in trust computation of honest and dishonest nodes in the network.

  • 315.
    Fahlström, Albin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Henriksson, Victor
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Intrångsdetektering i processnätverk2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The threat against industrial networks have increased, which raises the demands on the industries cybersecurity. The industrial networks are not constructed with cybersecurity in mind, which makes these systems vulnerable to attacks. Even if the networks outer protection is deemed sufficient, the system may still be infected. This risk demands an intrusion detection system (IDS) that can identify infected components. An IDS scans all traffic of a point in the network and looks for traffic matching its detections parameters, if a match is made the IDS will send an alarm to the administrators. It can also analyze the network traffic using a behavior based method which means that the IDS will alert administrators if network activity deviates from the normal traffic flow. It is of vital essence that the IDS do not impair with the system, an outage of the industrial process can have a high cost for the industry. This report aims to put forward plans for the implementation of an IDS in one of Mälarenergi AB’s industrial networks, this will be made using the Bro and Snort intrusion detection systems. 

  • 316.
    Faragardi, Hamid Reza
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Resource Optimization in Multi-processor Real-time Systems2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses the topic of resource efficiency in multiprocessor systems in the presence of timing constraints. 

     Nowadays, almost wherever you look, you find a computing system. Most computing systems employ a multiprocessor platform. Multiprocessor systems can be found in a broad spectrum of computing systems ranging from a tiny chip hosting multiple cores to large geographically-distributed cloud data centers connected by the Internet. In multiprocessor systems, efficient use of computing resources is a substantial element when it comes to achieving a desirable performance for running software applications. 

     Most industrial applications, e.g., automotive and avionics applications, are subject to a set of real-time constraints that must be met. Such kinds of applications, along with the underlying hardware and software components running the application, constitute a real-time system. In real-time systems, the first and major concern of the system designer is to provide a solution where all timing constraints are met. Therefore, in multiprocessor real-time systems, not only resource efficiency, but also meeting all the timing requirements, is a major concern. 

     Industrie 4.0 is the current trend in automation and manufacturing when it comes to creating next generation of smart factories. Two categories of multiprocessor systems play a significant role in the realization of such a smart factory: 1) multi-core processors which are the key computing element of embedded systems, 2) cloud computing data centers as the supplier of a massive data storage and a large computational power. Both these categories are considered in the thesis, i.e., 1) the efficient use of embedded multi-core processors where multiple processors are located on the same chip, applied to execute a real-time application, and 2) the efficient use of multi-processors within a cloud computing data center. We address these two categories of multi-processor systems separately. 

     For each of them, we identify the key challenges to achieve a resource-efficient design of the system. We then formulate the problem and propose optimization solutions to optimize the efficiency of the system, while satisfying all timing constraints. Introducing a resource efficient solution for those two categories of multi-processor systems facilitates deployment of Industrie 4.0 in smart manufacturing factories where multi-core embedded processors and cloud computing data centers are two central cornerstones.

  • 317.
    Faragardi, Hamid Reza
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sandström, K.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västeräs, Sweden.
    Nolte, Thomas
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    A communication-aware solution framework for mapping AUTOSAR runnables on multi-core systems2014Inngår i: 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2014, 2014, s. Article number 7005244-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An AUTOSAR-based software application contains a set of software components, each of which encapsulates a set of runnable entities. In fact, the mission of the system is fulfilled as result of the collaboration between the runnables. Several trends have recently emerged to utilize multi-core technology to run AUTOSAR-based software. Not only the overhead of communication between the runnables is one of the major performance bottlenecks in multi-core processors but it is also the main source of unpredictability in the system. Appropriate mapping of the runnables onto a set of tasks (called mapping process) along with proper allocation of the tasks to processing cores (called task allocation process) can significantly reduce the communication overhead. In this paper, three solutions are suggested, each of which comprises both the mapping and the allocation processes. The goal is to maximize key performance aspects by reducing the overall inter-runnable communication time besides satisfying given timing and precedence constraints. A large number of randomly generated experiments are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed solutions.

  • 318.
    Faragardi, Hamid Reza
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rajabi, A.
    School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran .
    Shojaee, R.
    School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran .
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Towards energy-aware resource scheduling to maximize reliability in cloud computing systems2013Inngår i: Proc. - IEEE Int. Conf. High Perform. Comput. Commun., HPCC IEEE Int. Conf. Embedded Ubiquitous Comput., EUC, 2013, s. 1469-1479Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing has become increasingly popular due to deployment of cloud solutions that will enable enterprises to cost reduction and more operational flexibility. Reliability is a key metric for assessing performance in such systems. Fault tolerance methods are extensively used to enhance reliability in Cloud Computing Systems (CCS). However, these methods impose extra hardware and/or software cost. Proper resource allocation is an alternative approach which can significantly improve system reliability without any extra overhead. On the other hand, contemplating reliability irrespective of energy consumption and Quality of Service (QoS) requirements is not desirable in CCSs. In this paper, an analytical model to analyze system reliability besides energy consumption and QoS requirements is introduced. Based on the proposed model, a new online resource allocation algorithm to find the right compromise between system reliability and energy consumption while satisfying QoS requirements is suggested. The algorithm is a new swarm intelligence technique based on imperialist competition which elaborately combines the strengths of some well-known meta-heuristic algorithms with an effective fast local search. A wide range of simulation results, based on real data, clearly demonstrate high efficiency of the proposed algorithm. 

  • 319.
    Fatima, R.
    et al.
    School of Software, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Yasin, A.
    School of Software, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Liu, L.
    School of Software, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Wang, J.
    School of Software, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sharing information online rationally: An observation of user privacy concerns and awareness using serious game2019Inngår i: Journal of Information Security and Applications, ISSN 2214-2134, E-ISSN 2214-2126, Vol. 48, artikkel-id 102351Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that excessive online information disclosure is a major reason of privacy breach. It makes it easy for social engineers to gather information about their targets. The objective of this study is to gather user privacy concerns reported in the literature and categorize them into themes, then design a serious game covering the categorized privacy concerns and evaluate the educational effect of the game regarding dangers associated with excessive online information disclosure. We have conducted a literature review and extracted user privacy concerns reported in 109+ publications. Then we designed a serious game and empirically evaluated the game players awareness of dangers associated with excessive online information disclosure. We find that privacy awareness has a positive long-term impact on users online behavior in terms of controlled information sharing. However, social networking needs drive users to share information online, even knowing the potential risks. The proposed serious game shows positive effect in improving the privacy awareness of participants.

  • 320.
    Feldt, Robert
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Martin
    Lund University.
    Lüders, Frank
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Generic Skills in Software Engineering Master Thesis Projects: Towards Rubric-Based Evaluation2009Inngår i: Proceedings - 22nd Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training, CSEET 2009, IEEE Computer Society , 2009, s. 12-15Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been much recent interest in how to help students in higher education develop their generic skills, especially since this is a focus of the Bologna process that aims to standardize European higher education. However, even though the Master thesis is the final and often crucial part of a graduate degree and requires many generic skills very little research has directly focused on them. In particular, there is a lack of such knowledge for engineering education programs. In this paper we present results from a survey where we asked 23 students from three different Swedish universities about which generic skills are needed and developed in a Master thesis project in Software Engineering. One outcome of our analysis is that there is a lack of understanding on how to define, and thus examine, generic skills in software engineering thesis projects.

  • 321.
    Feljan, Juraj
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Design-time verification of component-based embedded systems with respect to extra-functional properties2011Inngår i: CompArch'11 - Proceedings of the 2011 Federated Events on Component-Based Software Engineering and Software Architecture - WCOP'11, 2011, s. 41-46Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When developing embedded systems, certain constraints regarding extra functional properties have to be guaranteed. It is desirable to be able to perform early design time verification of embedded systems with respect to their extra-functional properties, because the earlier potential design flaws are caught, the easier and cheaper it is to correct them. Employing component-based software engineering and model-driven development for the development of embedded systems can facilitate this early verification. In this paper we present our planned research on early analysis of component-based embedded systems, which enables avoiding designs infeasible with respect to constraints on timing and resource consumption. © 2011 ACM.

  • 322.
    Fernandez, Z.
    et al.
    Information and Communication Technologies Area, Ikerlan Technology Research Centre, Mondragón, Spain.
    Val, I.
    Information and Communication Technologies Area, Ikerlan Technology Research Centre, Mondragón, Spain.
    Mendicute, M.
    Signal Theory and Communications Area, Mondragon University, Mondragón, Spain.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Analysis and Evaluation of Self-Organizing TDMA for Industrial Applications2019Inngår i: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the Industry 4.0 revolution, the inclusion of wireless communications with real-time requirements has been gaining popularity in industrial applications. As existing wireless technologies do not fully satisfy the stringent requirements of the most critical industrial applications, wired, centralized networks are often used. However, when the application requires mobility, there is no other way than to use wireless communications. Further, in applications where the topology changes dynamically and a large number of devices are mobile, centralized protocols are less suitable. Unfortunately, most decentralized medium access protocols are not predictable, and thereby not able to fulfil the real-time requirements. To address these challenges, in this paper Self-Organizing Time Division Multiple Access (STDMA) is analysed to assess its suitability for use in industrial applications. The analysis has been carried out through simulations under a multipath dispersed time-variant industrial channel while subject to a variable Doppler shift. To this end, several metrics such as channel access delay, slot occupation distribution (SOD), packet losses and packet inter-arrival time (PIAT) have been evaluated, using OMNeT++ in combination with the VEINS framework. 

  • 323.
    Fersman, Elena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Krcal, Pavel
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Yi, Wang
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Task Automata: Schedulability, Decidability and Undecidability2007Inngår i: International Journal of Information and Computation, ISSN 0890-5401, Vol. 205, s. 1149-1172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a model, task automata, for real time systems with non-uniformly recurring computation tasks. It is an extended version of timed automata with asynchronous processes that are computation tasks generated (or triggered) by timed events. Compared with classical task models for real time systems, task automata may be used to describe tasks (1) that are generated non-deterministically according to timing constraints in timed automata, (2) that may have interval execution times representing the best case and the worst case execution times, and (3) whose completion times may influence the releases of task instances. We generalize the classical notion of schedulability to task automata. A task automaton is schedulable if there exists a scheduling strategy such that all possible sequences of events generated by the automaton are schedulable in the sense that all associated tasks can be computed within their deadlines. Our first technical result is that the schedulability for a given scheduling strategy can be checked algorithmically for the class of task automata when the best case and the worst case execution times of tasks are equal. The proof is based on a decidable class of suspension automata: timed automata with bounded subtraction in which clocks may be updated by subtractions within a bounded zone. We shall also study the borderline between decidable and undecidable cases. Our second technical result shows that the schedulability checking problem will be undecidable if the following three conditions hold: (1) the execution times of tasks are intervals, (2) the precise finishing time of a task instance may influence new task releases, and (3) a task is allowed to preempt another running task.

  • 324.
    Fersman, Elena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mokrushin, Leonid
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Yi, Wang
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Schedulability Analysis of Fixed Priority Systems using Timed Automata2006Inngår i: Theoretical Computer Science, ISSN 0304-3975, E-ISSN 1879-2294, Vol. 354, nr 2, s. 301-317Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In classic scheduling theory, real-time tasks are usually assumed to be periodic, i.e. tasks are released and computed with fixed rates periodically. To relax the stringent constraints on task arrival times, we propose to use timed automata to describe task arrival patterns. In a previous work, it is shown that the general schedulability checking problem for such models is a reachability problem for a decidable class of timed automata extended with subtraction. Unfortunately, the number of clocks needed in the analysis is proportional to the maximal number of schedulable task instances associated with a model, which is in many cases huge. In this paper, we show that for fixed-priority scheduling strategy, the schedulability checking problem can be solved using standard timed automata with two extra clocks in addition to the clocks used in the original model to describe task arrival times. The analysis can be done in a similar manner to response time analysis in classic Rate-Monotonic Analysis (RMA). The result is further extended to systems with data-dependent control, in which the release time of a task may depend on the time-point at which other tasks finish their execution. For the case when the execution times of tasks are constants, we show that the schedulability problem can be solved using n+1 extra clocks, where n is the number of tasks. The presented analysis techniques have been implemented in the Times tool. For systems with only periodic tasks, the performance of the tool is comparable with tools implementing the classic RMA technique based on equation-solving, without suffering from the exponential explosion in the number of tasks.

  • 325.
    Figarola, Rudy
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Vägarna mot en integrerad IT-infrastruktur2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Problembakgrund:

    Företag investerar bl.a. i affärssystem (ERP-lösningar) för att dra nytta av de fördelar systemen förväntas leverera i form av bättre beslutsstöd och effektivare processer vilka är viktiga för att företag skall uppnå en högre nivå av konkurrenskraft och tillväxt. I grund och botten av alla fungerande IS (Informationssystem) ligger en nödvändig integration mellan verksamheten samt deras IT-infrastruktur, vilken är nödvändig för förverkligandet av de nyss nämnda fördelarna. Integrationen mellan verksamheters IT-infrastruktur kan vara komplex och svår att erhålla. ERP-lösningar består av moduler för verksamhetsspecifika funktioner vilka rent hypotetiskt möjliggör en fullständig integration genom standardisering. ERP-system är en lösning på detta integrationsproblem, men andra lösningar finns vilka är baserade på integrationsverktyg för integrering av befintliga arvssystem och även nya. Det är denna integrationsproblematik och ett genuint allmänt intresse för affärssystem som lett till att uppsatsens fokus lagts på att undersöka hur verksamheter uppnår en integrerad IT-infrastruktur.

    Problemspecificering:

    Hur kan verksamheter uppnå en integrerad IT-infrastruktur?

    Syfte:

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva och analysera hur verksamheter går tillväga för att uppnå en funktionellt integrerad IT-infrastruktur.

    Metod & tillvägagångssätt:

    Inledningsvis genomfördes en granskning av befintlig tidigare forskning inom området, för att ett underlag till den teoretiska referensramen som presenteras i denna uppsats skulle erhållas. Denna gav i sin tur upphov till konstruktionen av frågeformulären som användes vid insamlandet av det empiriska materialet.

    Tidigare forskning:

    Den tidigare forskningen kring integrering av IT-infrastruktur är riklig och huvuddelen av forskningen tycks fokusera på ERP-system levererade från en och samma leverantör. Detta kan vara en lösning eller metod som passar många företag, men långt ifrån alla. EAI är en metod som går ut på att arvssystem länkas samman med modernare system och därigenom hypotetiskt löser integrationsproblematiken.

    Best-of-Breed (BoB) är en lösning som i dagsläget med funktionsmässiga samspel mellan ERP och EAI har visat sig vara ett intressant integrationsalternativ. BoB innebär att moduler från olika leverantörer implementeras sida vid sida. Företag som erfordrar specifika lösningar kan med fördel vända sig mot implementering enligt BoB principen, förutsatt att en integration kan verkställas. BoB har sina fördelar och nackdelar, en fördel är bl.a. att företagen får möjlighet att forma ett system som passar just deras önskningar och behov. En nackdel är integrationssvårigheter mellan delsystemen (modulerna) som måste lösas genom exempelvis integrationsverktyg. Även dubbellagring av data kan vara ett problem då data bli utspridd på flera databaser.

    Resultat:

    I och med denna uppsats undersökning framkommer det att verksamheter med fördel kan integrera funktioner för kärnverksamheten med hjälp av ett ERP-system. Detta blir extra avgörande om företaget tillverkar varor. Tjänsteproducerande verksamheter kan däremot med sina specifika krav och behov integrera befintliga eller nya IT-lösningar via integrationsmotorer.

    Förutsatt att en öppen standard får fotfäste som byggsten för integrationsprodukter kan BoB-lösningar möjligen komma att framföras som ett bra alternativ till att uppnå en integrerad IT-infrastruktur.

  • 326.
    Filipovikj, Predrag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Connecting a Design Framework for Service-oriented Systems with UPPAAL model-checker2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of Service-Oriented Systems (SOS), services represent loosely coupled discrete units that can be created, invoked, composed and decomposed upon a client request. In such a setting, where complex systems are composed out of services based on the client request, ensuring the expected level of Quality-of-Service (QoS) becomes a difficult task. In systems built on service-oriented principles, the formal specification of both functional and extra-functional system behavior, service availability, compatibility and interoperability between different services and systems have become important issues. To be compliant with the new features, the REMES language has been extended towards SOS with new constructs that have been given formal semantics. In this thesis, we propose transformation rules, definitions and techniques for transforming these new constructs into Timed Automata (TA) counterparts to facilitate the formal analysis. Also, we present an extension to an existing REMES SOS IDE toolset for performing an automated transformation of the REMES SOS models into the TA framework suitable for the formal analysis with the UPPAAL model-checker. The contribution from our work is on two fronts: a) define transformation rules for all of the constructs specific for the REMES SOS modeling and b) prototype implementation of the transformation rules as an extension add-on to the already existing IDE for modeling SOS to perform the automated transformation. The benefit of performing an automated transformation of the REMES SOS models in TA is twofold. First, by automating the transformation process, the process of validation of the models becomes faster. Second, we considerably reduce the influence from the human factor in the entire process, and at the same time lower the risks of introducing errors into the systems in the phase of creating the formal model. Additional benefit from the automated process is that the SOS designer does not have to be a verification expert in order to be able to verify the modeled system. 

  • 327.
    Filipovikj, Predrag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pattern-based Specification and Formal Analysis of Embedded Systems Requirements and Behavioral Models2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the first lines of code were introduced in the automotive domain, vehicles have transitioned from being predominantly mechanical systems to software intensive systems. With the ever-increasing computational power and memory of vehicular embedded systems, a set of new, more powerful and more complex software functions are installed into vehicles to realize core functionalities. This trend impacts all phases of the system development including requirements specification, design and architecture of the system, as well as the integration and testing phases. In such settings, creating and managing different artifacts during the system development process by using traditional, human-intensive techniques becomes increasingly difficult. One problem stems from the high number and intricacy of system requirements that combine functional and possibly timing or other types of constraints. Another problem is related to the fact that industrial development relies on models, e.g. developed in Simulink, from which code may be generated, so the correctness of such models needs to be ensured. A potential way to address of the mentioned problems is by applying computer-aided specification, analysis and verification techniques already at the requirements stage, but also further at later development stages. Despite the high degree of automation, exhaustiveness and rigor of formal specification and analysis techniques, their integration with industrial practice remains a challenge.

    To address this challenge, in this thesis, we develop the foundation of a framework, tailored for industrial adoption, for formal specification and analysis of system requirements specifications and behavioral system models. First, we study the expressiveness of existing pattern-based techniques for creating formal requirements specifications, on a relevant industrial case study. Next, in order to enable practitioners to create formal system specification by using pattern-based techniques, we propose a tool called SeSAMM Specifier. Further, we provide an automated Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT)-based consistency analysis approach for the formally encoded system requirements specifications. The proposed SMT-based approach is suitable for early phases of the development for debugging the specifications. For the formal analysis of behavioral models, we provide an approach for statistical model checking of Simulink models by using the UPPAAL SMC tool. To facilitate the adoption of the approach, we provide the SIMPPAAL tool that automates procedure of generating network of stochastic timed automata for a given Simulink model. For validation, we apply our approach on a complex industrial model, namely the Brake-by-Wire function from Volvo GTT.

  • 328.
    Filipovikj, Predrag
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Scania, Sodertalje, Sweden..
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Reassessing the Pattern-Based Approach for Formalizing Requirements in the Automotive Domain2014Inngår i: 2014 IEEE 22ND INTERNATIONAL REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING CONFERENCE (RE), IEEE , 2014, s. 444-450Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of using formal methods and techniques for verification of requirements in the automotive industry has been greatly emphasized with the introduction of the new ISO26262 standard for road vehicles functional safety. The lack of support for formal modeling of requirements still represents an obstacle for the adoption of the formal methods in industry. This paper presents a case study that has been conducted in order to evaluate the difficulties inherent to the process of transforming the system requirements from their traditional written form into semi-formal notation. The case study focuses on a set of non-structured functional requirements for the Electrical and Electronic (E/E) systems inside heavy road vehicles, written in natural language, and reassesses the applicability of the extended Specification Pattern System (SPS) represented in a restricted English grammar. Correlating this experience with former studies, we observe that, as previously claimed, the concept of patterns is likely to be generally applicable for the automotive domain. Additionally, we have identified some potential difficulties in the transformation process, which were not reported by the previous studies and will be used as a basis for further research.

  • 329.
    Flemström, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Similarity-Based Test Effort Reduction2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded computer systems are all around us. We find them in everything, from dishwashers to cars and airplanes. They must always work correctly and moreover, often within certain time constraints. The software of such a system can be very large and complex, e.g. in the case of a car or a train. Hence, we develop the software for embedded systems in smaller, manageable, parts. These parts can be successively integrated, until they form the complete software for the embedded system, possibly at different levels. This phase of the development process is called the system integration phase and is one of the most critical phases in the development of embedded systems. In this phase, substantial effort is spent on testing activities.

    Studies have found that a considerable amount of test effort is wasteful due to people, unknowingly or by necessity, performing similar (or even overlapping) test activities. Consequently, test cases may end up to be similar, partially or wholly. We identified such test similarities in a case study of 2500 test cases, written in natural language, from four different projects in the embedded vehicular domain. Such information can be used for reducing effort when maintaining or automating similar test cases.

    In another case study in the same domain, we investigated several approaches for prioritizing test cases to automate with the objective to reduce manual test effort as quick as possible given that similar automated tests could be reused (similarity-based reuse). We analyzed how the automation order affects the test effort for four projects with a total of 3919 integration test cases, written in natural language. The results showed that similarity-based reuse of automated test case script code, and the best-performing automation order can reduce the expected manual test effort with 20 percentage points.

    Another way of reducing test effort is to reuse test artifacts from one level of integration to another, instead of duplicating them. We studied such reuse methods, that we denote vertical reuse, in a systematic mapping study. While the results from of our systematic mapping study showed the viability of vertical test reuse methods, our industrial case studies showed that keeping track of similarities and test overlaps is both possible and feasible for test effort reduction. We further conclude that the test case automation order affects the manual test execution effort when there exist similar steps that cannot be removed, but are possible to reuse with respect to test script code.

  • 330.
    Flemström, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Daniel, Sundmark
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gustafsson, T.
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Kobetski, A.
    RISE SICS AB, Sweden.
    From natural language requirements to passive test cases using guarded assertions2018Inngår i: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 18th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security, QRS 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, s. 470-481Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In large-scale embedded system development, requirements are often expressed in natural language. Translating these requirements to executable test cases, while keeping the test cases and requirements aligned, is a challenging task. While such a transformation typically requires extensive domain knowledge, we show that a systematic process in combination with passive testing would facilitate the translation as well as linking the requirements to tests. Passive testing approaches observe the behavior of the system and test their correctness without interfering with the normal behavior. We use a specific approach to passive testing: guarded assertions (G/A). This paper presents a method for transforming system requirements expressed in natural language into G/As. We further present a proof of concept evaluation, performed at Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, in which we show how the process would be used, together with practical advice of the reasoning behind the translation steps.

  • 331.
    Flemström, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pasqualina, Potena
    RISE.
    Daniel, Sundmark
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bohlin, Markus
    RISE.
    Similarity-Based Prioritization of Test Case Automation2018Inngår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 1421-1449Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of efficient software testing procedures is driven by an ever increasing system complexity as well as global competition. In the particular case of manual test cases at the system integration level, where thousands of test cases may be executed before release, time must be well spent in order to test the system as completely and as efficiently as possible. Automating a subset of the manual test cases, i.e, translating the manual instructions to automatically executable code, is one way of decreasing the test effort. It is further common that test cases exhibit similarities, which can be exploited through reuse when automating a test suite. In this paper, we investigate the potential for reducing test effort by ordering the test cases before such automation, given that we can reuse already automated parts of test cases. In our analysis, we investigate several approaches for prioritization in a case study at a large Swedish vehicular manufacturer. The study analyzes the effects with respect to test effort, on four projects with a total of 3919 integration test cases constituting 35,180 test steps, written in natural language. The results show that for the four projects considered, the difference in expected manual effort between the best and the worst order found is on average 12 percentage points. The results also show that our proposed prioritization method is nearly as good as more resource demanding meta-heuristic approaches at a fraction of the computational time. Based on our results, we conclude that the order of automation is important when the set of test cases contain similar steps (instructions) that cannot be removed, but are possible to reuse. More precisely, the order is important with respect to how quickly the manual test execution effort decreases for a set of test cases that are being automated.

  • 332.
    Flemström, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Vertical Test Reuse for Embedded Systems: A Systematic Mapping Study2015Inngår i: The 41st Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA'15, 2015, s. 317-324Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical test reuse refers to the the reuse of test cases or other test artifacts over different integration levels in the software or system engineering process. Vertical test reuse has previously been proposed for reducing test effort and improving test effectiveness, particularly for embedded system development. The goal of this study is to provide an overview of the state of the art in the field of vertical test reuse for embedded system development. For this purpose, a systematic mapping study has been performed, identifying 11 papers on vertical test reuse for embedded systems. The primary result from the mapping is a classification of published work on vertical test reuse in the embedded system domain, covering motivations for reuse, reuse techniques, test levels and reusable test artifacts considered, and to what extent the effects of reuse have been evaluated.

  • 333.
    Florin, Ulrika
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Från idé till gestaltningsförslag: fallstudie från Projekt Konstpaus2010Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Populär sammanfattning

    I vårt samhälle finns många offentliga konstverk. Dessa verk har kommit till på olika sätt men gemensamt är att konstverken i de allra flesta fall upphandlats med utgångspunkt i någon form av skiss. Skissen föregår det kommande konstverket och tjänar som underlag för beslut om upphandling av verket i full skala. Kunskapen om hur skisser kan tydas varierar och dessutom förekommer flera typer av skisser som var för sig fordrar olika sorters insikter av betraktaren (beslutsfattaren) för att kunna tolkas. Det övergripande temat för avhandlingen är kommunikationsprocesserna i relation till utvecklingen av 12 konstnärers gestaltningsförslag, tävlingsbidrag, samt hur juryns bedömning av dessa ser ut. Studien är baserad på material insamlat från de deltagande konstnärernas processer i Projekt Konstpaus, ett projekt delfinansierat av EU. Syftet med studien är att öka förståelsen för hur konstnärer utformar sina gestaltningsförslag, samt hur dessa förslag används och värderas. För att göra detta har tävlingsbidragen analyserats och konstnärerna intervjuats. Konstnärliga gestaltningsprocesser har synliggjorts liksom kommunikationen mellan beställare och konstnär.Bland annat har det framkommit att det finns en större potential att förmedla ett komplext gestaltningsinnehåll till en jury med stöd av digitala skisser, än vid användande av traditionella skisser. Det har visat sig att det kommande konstverkets kvaliteter blir synliga, men också att de brister som finns i gestaltningen tydliggörs i 3D- skisserna. Liksom teknologier tidigare i historien haft sin påverkan på bildutvecklingen, tolkningen och seendet har också övergången till digitala skisstekniker denna inverkan. Det har också visat sig att den text som tillhör respektive tävlingsbidrag haft avgörande betydelse för utfallet av jurybedömningen. Muntliga och skriftliga presentationer, bilagor och brev har påverkat juryn i sina beslut.Studien har också visat hur konstnärer kan tolka och förmedla resultat av en inventering och genom sina skisser förmedla dessa tolkningar. Konsten som tolkare av miljö, tid och tanke, kan gestalta information om en plats och i och med detta också fungera värnande för ett samhälles identitet i olika faser av en utveckling.Studien har bidragit med en djupare inblick i konstnärliga gestaltningsprocesser och hur de kan beskrivas samt i och med detta också en fördjupad förståelse i allmänhet av kreativa processer.

  • 334.
    Florin, Ulrika
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Lindhult, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Norms and Ethics: Prerequisites for Excellence in Co-production2015Inngår i: Högskola och Samhälle i Samverkan HSS´15, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Knowledge production is increasingly made in broader Mode 2 (Gibbons, 1994) network of stakeholders and contributing actors, e.g. in the form of participatory, interactive and action research. Historically this has always been an important part of scientific and academic activity, particularly important in certain scientific fields of research, e.g. engineering, business administration, organization and working life research, pedagogics and social work studies, as well in methodological traditions like action research and participatory research (Reason & Bradbury, 2008). When roles in knowledge production are more interconnected traditional research ethics focused on ethical treatments of research objects when they also are subjects (e.g. information, consent, and confidentiality) need to be significantly supplemented. When knowledge is seen as co-produced in interaction between equal parties with different contribution to the process and knowledge interest, this creates the need for recognition and guidance of special norms and ethical codes as prerequisites for excellent practice. This paper is aiming to explore and discuss norms of excellence and ethical concerns in co-production between academia and enterprises and how collaboration could be organized to increase both validity and utility of the knowledge created in such settings. All parties in such collaborative setting have the responsibility to generate practical agreements as to form the ground for a beneficial co-production, however this includes rules for securing non-violation of rights, like confidentiality and intellectual property. The parties share responsibility in review and control of quality of processes and results in relation to these agreements, although it differs in what matters considered important to address in academic traditions and enterprises cultures. The purpose of this paper is to develop an extended set of norms and ethical principles for co-production oriented research. The main focus is relational dimension between involved parties instead of how one party (the researcher) treats other affected parties. We have therefore developed a list of norms with clarification and argument as basis for their use. Examples are: acknowledgement and respect should be given to different forms of knowledge, theoretical and practical, explicit and formal as well as implicit and tacit; care should be taken to provide space for expression of different perspectives of involved parties in order to secure validation and useful results, open discussion on equal terms; democratic dialogue, is a core medium for good co-productive relations, different knowledge needs and interests of involved and concerned parties, practical as well as scientific; to the co-production should be considered in the aims and procedures, and that the parties have a mutual responsibility to develop sufficient understanding of the needs and interests of others. The proposed norms developed in this paper can be considered as a tool or a guideline for the development of ethical and excellence co-produced research.

  • 335.
    Fogel, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    IP version 6 in larger city networks and at Internet service providers2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 90ies a bunch of problems and flaws in the old Internet Protocol version four has occurred.The biggest problem is the extinction of addresses which will come soon, soon in the matter of theclassic “wolf is coming” matter, but as in the fairy tale the wolf will finally come. When this will happenis unknown, but not many believes it won’t. Carl-Henrik Swanberg CEO for Ericsson once said that year2020 there will be 50 billion mobile units connected to internet. Considering there is maximum 4 billionaddresses in IPv4 the needs for more addresses will be significant. The solution of this is the version sixof Internet Protocol released in middle of the 90ies. This thesis mentions a lot of the problems with theold version and tries to make a good explanation of the benefits and possibilities that lies within thenew. It also contains a larger amount of information on the protocols that lies within this, like newversion of OSPF, the extensions of BGPv4 called multiprotocol BGP (MP-BGP) and new things likenetwork discovery protocol (NDP). The later chapter is about the planning of an implementation atMälarenergi City Network and the implementation at the internet service provider MDFnet whichnowadays runs IPv6 in their core and office network.

  • 336.
    Forsberg, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Larsson, Christoffer
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Vidareutveckling av PROFIBUS-modul2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport beskriver ett examensarbete som gjordes på företaget Motion Control i Västerås AB. Rapporten följer projektets utvecklingssteg och beskriver hur arbetet med att ta fram elektronik och inbyggd programvara för en kommunikationsmodul har framskridit. Kommunikationsmodulen ska fungera som en länk mellan en styrenhet och en I/O-enhet.

     

    De inledande delarna av rapporten tar upp undersökningar på kommunikationsprotokollen PROFIBUS och PROFINET som är vanliga kommunikationsmetoder inom industrin. Undersökningarna låg till grund för vilket protokoll som skulle användas i modulen. PROFIBUS valdes och en sådan modul togs fram utifrån de krav som ställdes. Vidare beskriver rapporten hur hårdvara samt den inbyggda programvaran har utvecklats. Vid testerna av modulen verifierades om alla krav och önskemål var uppfyllda.

     

    Projektet som helhet var lyckat och efter några mindre hårdvaruförändringar skulle modulen kunna användas i produkter som företaget säljer där PROFIBUS-kommunikation önskas.

  • 337.
    Forsberg, Nils
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Evaluation of Real-Time Performance in Virtualized Environment2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this report is documented the research, tests and conclusions of a thesis work with the aim of investigating the possibilities of running real-time tasks in a virtualization environment. First we introduce the reader to the concepts and technology we will be touching on, and then we investigate the available solutions. We find that most of these are merely in a theoretical or development stage, and so we evaluate them theoretically. We also attempt to test one of the solutions that are fully developed and available, but fail because of issues related to the design of the solution. Based on our experiences and evaluations we come to the conclusion that the solutions available are lacking, and we give a suggestion of our own that we think should address the issues we have found.

  • 338.
    Forsman, Viking
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    MEASURING SITUATION AWARENESS IN MIXED REALITY SIMULATIONS2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Off-highway vehicle, such as excavators and forklifts, are heavy machines that are capable of causing harm to humans or damage property. Therefore, it is necessary to be able to develop interfaces for these kind of vehicles that can aid the operator to maintain a high level of situational awareness. How the interface affects the operators’ situational awareness is consequently an important metric to measure when evaluating the interface. Mixed reality simulators can be used to both develop and evaluate such interfaces in an immersive and safe environment.

    In this thesis we investigated how to measure situational awareness in a mixed-reality off-highway vehicle simulation scenario, without having to pause the scenario, by cross-referencing logs from the virtual environment and logs from the users' gaze position. Our method for investigating this research question was to perform a literature study and a user test. Each participant in the user test filled out a SART post-simulation questionnaire which we then compared with our measurement system.

  • 339.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Causevic, Adnan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Communication and Security in Health Monitoring Systems - A Review2016Inngår i: Proceedings - International Computer Software and Applications Conference, 2016, s. 545-554Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The fast development of sensing devices and radios enables more powerful and flexible remote health monitoring systems. Considering the future vision of the Internet of Things (IoT), many requirements and challenges rise to the design and implementation of such systems. Bridging the gap between sensor nodes on the human body and the Internet becomes a challenging task in terms of reliable communications. Additionally, the systems will not only have to provide functionality, but also be highly secure. In this paper, we provide a survey on existing communication protocols and security issues related to pervasive health monitoring, describing their limitations, challenges, and possible solutions. We propose a generic protocol stack design as a first step toward handling interoperability in heterogeneous low-power wireless body area networks.

  • 340.
    Frascarelli, Antonio Ezio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Object Detection2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades the interest about computer vision raised steadily with multiple applications in fields like medical care, automotive, entertainment, retail, industrial, and security. Objectdetection is part of the recognition problem, which is the most important scope of the computervision environment.The target of this thesis work is to analyse and propose a solution for object detection in a real timedynamic environment. RoboCup@Home will be the benchmarking event for this system, which willbe equipped on a robot competing in the 2018 event. The system has to be robust and fast enoughto allow the robot to react to each environment change in a reasonable amount of time.The input hardware used to achieve such system comprise of a Microsoft Kinect, which providesan high definition camera and fast and reliable 3D scanner. Through the study and analysis ofstate-of-the-art algorithms regarding machine vision and object recognition, the more suitable oneshave been tested to optimise the execution on the targeted hardware. Porting of the application toan embedded platform is discussed.

  • 341.
    Fredriksson, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Transformation of component models to real-time models2005Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry is constantly looking for new developments in software for use in increasingly complex computer applications. Today, the development of component-based systems is an attractive area for both Industry and Academia. The systems we focus on in this thesis are embedded computers, in particular those in automotive systems. A modern car incorporates several embedded computers that control different functions of the car, e.g., anti-spin and anti-lock breaks. The main purpose of this thesis is to investigate how component technologies for use in embedded systems can reduce resource usage without compromising non-functional requirements, such as timeliness. The component-technologies available have not yet been used extensively in the vehicular domain. To understand why this is the case we have conducted a survey and performed evaluations of the requirements of the vehicular industry with respect to software and software development. The purpose of the evaluation was to provide a foundation for defining models, methods and tools for component-based software engineering. The main contribution of this work is the implementation and evaluation of a framework for resource-efficient mappings between component-models and real-time systems. Few component technologies today consider the mapping between components and run-time tasks. We show how effective mappings can reduce memory usage and CPU-overhead. The implemented framework utilizes genetic algorithms to find feasible, resource efficient mappings. We show how component-models designed for resource constrained safety-critical embedded real-time systems can use powerful compile-time techniques to realize the component-based approach and ensure predictable behaviour. Further, we propose a resource reclaiming strategy for component-based real-time systems, to decrease the impact of pessimistic execution time predictions. In our approach, components run in different quality levels as unused processor time is accumulated.

  • 342.
    Frick Kolmyr, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Juhlin Thingvall, Katarina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Samhällsinformation för alla?: Hur man anpassar ett informationsmaterial till både en lässvag och lässtark målgrupp2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vårt examensarbete är att skapa ett informationsmaterial för nyinflyttade i Västerås kommun som så många som möjligt ska kunna ta del av. Vårt mål är att både lässvaga och lässtarka människor ska känna sig lika betydelsefulla när de läser informationsmaterialet. Vår forskningsfråga är därför: Går det att kombinera principerna för informationsdesign och principerna för lättläst för att nå både en lässvag och en lässtark grupp så att båda känner sig lika viktiga och tar till sig budskapet? Och om det går, hur kan man då gå tillväga?

    Vår uppdragsgivare är Centrum för lättläst som arbetar med att göra information tillgänglig för dem som har svårt att läsa. De behöver ett utprovat referensmaterial av ett lättillgängligt informationsmaterial som de kan visa upp för olika kommuner i sitt arbete mot ett tillgängligt samhälle.

    För att besvara vår forskningsfråga använder vi oss av litteraturstudier, samt kvalitativa och kvantitativa studier i form av utprovningar. Resultaten från utprovningarna är avgörande för hur informationsmaterialet bearbetas och färdigställs.

    Vår slutsats för examensarbetet är att principerna för informationsdesign och principerna för lättläst är en bra kombination för att göra ett informationsmaterial tillgängligt. För att veta hur tillgängligt ett material är krävs utprovningar på olika målgrupper. Varje målgrupp har sina egna behov och det är omöjligt att tillfredställa alla med ett och samma informationsmaterial. Våra utprovningar visar däremot att det går att nå flera olika målgrupper med ett och samma informationsmaterial.

  • 343.
    Fridell, Niklas
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Andersson, Jennie
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Hoxha, Visar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    ERP-system i små och medelstora företag: Möjligheter och problem2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

     

    Date                   May 28, 2009

    Level                  Bachelor thesis in Business Administration/Information Technology

    Authors             Jennie Andersson, Niklas Fridell, Visar Hoxha

    Tutor                  Marie Mörndal

    Department    HST

    Title                    ERP-solutions in small to medium sized enterprises – possibilities and problems

    Summary          ERP-solutions have penetrated the market for SME: s, offering the same advantages larger enterprises have enjoyed for years. For a significantly cheaper price, SME: s can nowadays acquire ERP-solutions and become more effective and increase their profit.  The authors have examined five SME: s in both the production and service company segment and have come to the conclusion that an ERP-solution would indeed benefit these companies in many levels but also induce certain obstacles the examined companies must overcome, both financial and organizational.

    Purpose            The purpose of this thesis is to examine if and how SME: s can become more efficient and developed and increase their profit by implementing an ERP-solution. Further, the purpose is to discuss which conditions that exists for the examined SME: s in order to implement an ERP-solution.

    Method            The thesis consists of a qualitative research where the authors have interviewed either the owner or employees at management level by using semi-structured interviews. The results from the interviews have been analyzed based on the theoretical framework.

    Result                Several improvement areas have been identified, most typically the processes are lacking efficiency in some areas even if the SME already had an ERP-solution (or similar) or did not have one at all. Most SME: s did lack the financial resources required for an ERP-solution deployment.

    Conclusion      The findings show that there are development possibilities within the examined SME:s. The biggest revenue improvement would be decreased manual labor and improved processes. An ERP-solution would help the SME: s achieve that since it automates many tasks and are designed with “best practices” in mind. Despite most of the SME:s lacking financial resources for an ERP-solution, there were some exceptions which contradicted the theoretical framework, mainly because they were SME: s but acted under a larger owner/franchise chain.

     

  • 344.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Engineering Automotive Electronic Systems: Decision Support for Successful Integration2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic system of a modern vehicle is essential to achieve a successful automotive product. Vehicle development is performed by integrating components that include embedded electronics from several suppliers.

    This thesis present results on the subject of integration of automotive electronic systems. Our studies aim at providing knowledge on how to integrate automotive electronic systems successfully in a setting where vehicles are developed based on existing platforms. We focus on early phases of automotive electronic system development and in particular on the decisions taken in integration of electronic sub-systems. The contribution is the presented support for making decisions to successfully integrate electronic systems for modern vehicles. The contribution includes an overview of driving factors of automotive electronics system design, a validated set of success practices for the integration of electronic components, and the proposal and demonstration of a decision model. The influential factors and the validated set of practices stems from case studies of products and projects while the proposed decision model is a result of combining two general models for architecture analysis and decision making, ATAM and AHP.

    We demonstrate that choices in strategy and design preceding integration are central to achieve a successful integration. Our studies show that problems arise from omitted strategy decisions and we provide a checklist for decision making in the areas; functionality, platform, integration design, and assigning responsibilities. We provide a recommendation that we validate in a multiple cases study where fulfillment of recommendations is demonstrated to affect project success in integration projects.

    The potential gain for OEMs using our results lies in achieving more solid foundations for design decisions. Designers and managers could potentially find central decisions on integration strategy early that, if omitted, could cause delays. Thus, applying the result could avoid pitfalls and enable successful integration projects.

  • 345.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Key Factors for Achieving Project Success in Integration of Automotive Mechatronics2007Inngår i: Journal of Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering, ISSN 1614-5046, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 141-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a multiple case study on integration of automotive mechatronic components. Based on the findings, we identify that the root causes of problems in integration are largely related to decisions omitted in electronic strategy.

    We present and recommend use of checklists defining key factors to address in order to achieve successful integration projects in terms of cost and quality. Our recommendations are defined by checklists for critical decisions in areas; functionality, platform, integration, and stakeholder involvement.

    The recommendations are established based on practitioner experience and then validated in a multiple case study. Five cases of integration are studied for different heavy vehicles in one company, and the fulfillment of our recommendations is measured. Finally we define project success criteria and we compare the level of fulfillment with the project success in terms of time plan and resource consumption.

    The main contribution of this study is the validated recommendations, each including a set of checkpoints that defines recommendation fulfillment. We also present defining characteristics to identify a high risk project. We provide a set of observable project properties and show how they affect project risk.

  • 346.
    Funk, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Case Based Reasoning and Knowledge Discovery in Medical Applications with Time Series2006Inngår i: Computational intelligence, ISSN 0824-7935, E-ISSN 1467-8640, Vol. 22, nr 3/4, s. 238-253Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the role and integration of knowledge discovery (KD) in case-based reasoning (CBR) systems. The general view is that KD is complementary to the task of knowledge retaining and it can be treated as a separate process outside the traditional CBR cycle. Unlike knowledge retaining that is mostly related to case-specific experience, KD aims at the elicitation of new knowledge that is more general and valuable for improving the different CBR substeps. KD for CBR is exemplified by a real application scenario in medicine in which time series of patterns are to be analyzed and classified. As single pattern cannot convey sufficient information in the application, sequences of patterns are more adequate. Hence it is advantageous if sequences of patterns and their co-occurrence with categories can be discovered. Evaluation with cases containing series classified into a number of categories and injected with indicator sequences shows that the approach is able to identify these key sequences. In a clinical application and a case library that is representative of the real world, these key sequences would improve the classification ability and may spawn clinical research to explain the co-occurrence between certain sequences and classes.

  • 347.
    Funk, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Discovering Key Sequences in Time Series Data for Pattern Classification2006Inngår i: Advances in Data Mining. Applications in Medicine, Web Mining, Marketing, Image and Signal Mining: 6th Industrial Conference on Data Mining, ICDM 2006, Leipzig, Germany, July 14-15, 2006. Proceedings, 2006, s. 492-505Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of discovering key sequences from time series data for pattern classification. The aim is to find from a symbolic database all sequences that are both indicative and non-redundant. A sequence as such is called a key sequence in the paper. In order to solve this problem we first we establish criteria to evaluate sequences in terms of the measures of evaluation base and discriminating power. The main idea is to accept those sequences appearing frequently and possessing high co-occurrences with consequents as indicative ones. Then a sequence search algorithm is proposed to locate indicative sequences in the search space. Nodes encountered during the search procedure are handled appropriately to enable completeness of the search results while removing redundancy. We also show that the key sequences identified can later be utilized as strong evidences in probabilistic reasoning to determine to which class a new time series most probably belongs.

  • 348.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Fabre, Laurent
    Critical Systems Labs Inc, Vancouver, Canada.
    Benefits of Security-informed Safety-oriented Process Line Engineering2015Inngår i: Digital Avionics Systems Conference DASC-34, Prague, Czech Republic: IEEE , 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, given the growing aircraft connectivity, security-informed safety is crucial. To certify aircrafts, safety as well as security standards need to be taken into consideration. In this context, a process engineer has to succeed in mastering the growing complexity of the standards interplay. To support process engineers, we propose to: first, consider a common terminological framework, aimed at reconciling security and safety within dependability; then identify and systematize commonalities and variabilities between the processes. To enable this systematization we introduce Security-informed Safety-oriented Process Line Engineering (SiSoPLE), which extends SoPLE to address security concerns. To show the effectiveness and benefits of SiSoPLE, we apply this new process line engineering to two aerospace standards, SAE ARP 4761 (Safety) and RTCA DO-326A (Security). We then provide our lessons learned and concluding remarks. Finally, we sketch some perspectives for future investigation.

  • 349.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Malardalen Univ, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Gomez-Martinez, Elena
    Univ East London, London, England..
    Earle, Clara Benac
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Madrid, Spain..
    Deriving Safety Case Fragments for Assessing MBASafe's Compliance with EN 501282016Inngår i: SOFTWARE PROCESS IMPROVEMENT AND CAPABILITY DETERMINATION (SPICE 2016), 2016, s. 3-16Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    According to EN 50129, manufacturers of rail vehicles shall justify via a safety case that their vehicles are adequately safe for their intended applications. MBASafe is a recently proposed and potentially innovative design and verification process. In the presence of compelling arguments concerning its adequacy as process evidence, MBASafe could support the safety claims within the required safety cases. In this paper, we contribute to partially justify the adequacy of MBASafe to act as process evidence. To do that, we first manually check if MBASafe includes EN 50128-compliant process elements, then we model MBASafe in compliance with Software Process Engineering Meta-model 2.0, then, we derive process-based arguments from the MBASafe process model by using MDSafeCer, the recently introduced Model Driven Safety Certification method. By doing so, we provide a twofold contribution: we further validate MDSafeCer in the rail domain and we strengthen MBASafe.

  • 350.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Guelfi, N.
    Laboratory for Advanced Software Systems, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Reusing transaction models for dependable cloud computing2012Inngår i: Software Reuse in the Emerging Cloud Computing Era, IGI Global , 2012, s. 248-277Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing represents a technological change in computing. Despite the technological change, however, the quality of the computation, in particular its dependability, remains a fundamental requirement. To ensure dependability, and more specifically, reliability, transaction models represent an effective means. In the literature, several transaction models exist. Choosing (reusing entirely) or introducing (reusing partially) transaction models for cloud computing is not an easy task. The difficulty of this task is due to the fact that it requires a deep understanding of the properties that characterize transaction models to be able to discriminate reusable from non reusable properties with respect to cloud computing characteristics. To ease this task, the PRISMA process is introduced. PRISMA is a Process for Requirements Identification, Specification and Machine-supported Analysis that targets transaction models. PRISMA is then applied to engineer reusable requirements suitable for the achievement of the adequate transaction models for cloud computing.

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