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  • 251.
    Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Myllyperkiö, Petri
    ABB Distribution Automation, Vaasa, Finland.
    Ekdahl, Fredrik
    ABB Robotics, Västerås, Sweden .
    Product integration improvement based on analysis of build statistics2007In: 6th Joint Meeting of the European Software Engineering Conference and the ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering, ESEC/FSE 2007, 2007, p. 505-508Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Process improvement efforts based on best practices and standards such as the CMMI use appraisal results as input and focus on implementing processes as described in reference models. Since these models are of a general character the conclusions from the assessments could easily overlook problems experienced in the daily work. In addition, process improvement programs often fail to engage practitioners. To improve this, data that can be related to the daily work can help. This paper reports on the results from a study performed to understand how process data can complement project appraisals in finding improvement possibilities. A method for mapping process data to different practices and combining this with project appraisals to form a basis for focused performance improvement is proposed and a study including four projects from three organizations is presented. 

  • 252.
    Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Myllyperkiö, Petri
    Ekdahl, Fredrik
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    How to Improve Software IntegrationIn: Information & Software Technology journalArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 253.
    Larsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Akenine-Möller, Tomas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    A dynamic bounding volume hierarchy for generalized collision detection2006In: Computers & Graphics, ISSN 0097-8493, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 451-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a new dynamic and efficient bounding volume hierarchy for breakable objects undergoing structured and/or unstructured motion. Our object-space method is based on different ways to incrementally update the hierarchy during simulation by exploiting temporal coherence and lazy evaluation techniques. This leads to significant advantages in terms of execution speed. Furthermore, we also show how our method lends itself naturally for an adaptive low memory cost implementation, which may be of critical importance in some applications. Finally, we propose two different techniques for detecting self-intersections, one using our hierarchical data structure, and the other is an improved sorting-based method.

  • 254.
    Larsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Akenine-Möller, Tomas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lengyel, Eric
    Terathon Software.
    On Faster Sphere-Box Overlap Testing2007In: Journal of graphics tools, ISSN 2165-347X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 3-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present faster overlap tests between spheres and either axis-aligned or oriented boxes. By utilizing quick rejection tests, faster execution times are observed compared to previous techniques. In addition, we present alternative vectorized overlap tests, which are compared to the sequential algorithms. Source code is available online.

  • 255.
    Larsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Flemström, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Improving Introductory Programming Courses by Using a Simple Accelerated Graphics Library2007In: SIGRAD 2007: Conference Proceedings, 2007, p. 24-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a platform independent and hardware accelerated graphics library, which has been found to be a suitable educational tool for novice programmers. The purpose of the library is to change the nature of the assignments and projects used in introductory programming courses to something that fascinate and stimulate the students, e.g., game creation. We describe our experiences from using the presented graphics library in four different course instances of our introductory C++ course. The course surveys show that most students found the approach interesting and fun. As faculty, we could clearly see how many students became highly engaged in their projects and some of them accomplished solutions way beyond our expectations. In particular, compared to the programming courses we have given in the past, in which a standard framework for creating window applications was used, we have noticed a significant improvement in terms of the quality of the students' project solutions.

  • 256.
    Lennvall, Tomas
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Adapting to Varying Demands in Resource Constrained Real-Time Devices2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom en nära framtid kommer så kallade digitala underhållningssystem att bli mer och mer populära i hemmen. En stor fördel med dessa system är att apparaterna, t.ex. TVn, DVDn, digital boxen, och datorn, kommer att kunna kopplas ihop trådlöst, vilket gör det möjligt att slippa sladdar mellan dem.Detta innebär också att flera apparater (TVn, PCn, eller mobiltelefonen) kommer att ha möjlighet att spela upp en DVD film som sitter i DVD spelaren, oavsett vart i huset apparaterna finns. Det blir till och med möjligt att flytta de mobila apparaterna medans filmen spelas upp, t.ex. kan man gå runt i huset samtidigt som man tittar på filmen på en liten handdator eller mobiltelefon. Detta är inte möjligt idag eftersom man kopplar en sladd direkt mellan DVD spelaren och TVn.

    De digitala underhållningssytemen måste klara av att hantera både ljud (musik) och bild (film) på ett sätt som är tillfredställande för den som använder systemet, d.v.s, kvaliteten på ljudet som spelas upp eller bilden som visas måste vara minst lika bra som den är idag.

    Detta kommer att ställa höga krav på apparaterna, som måste hålla de kvalitetskrav som ljud (musik) och bildströmmar (film) har. Tack vare flexibiliteten, d.v.s, möjligheten att ha mobila apparater, i dessa system, och kraven på systemen, uppstår nya problem som inte funnits innan. T.ex. så har inte handdatorer eller mobiltelefoner den tekniska möjligheten att spela upp en DVD film med samma kvalitet som på en TV. Ett annat problem är den varierande kapaciteten i det trådlösa nätverket som knyter samman alla apparater. På grund av att nätverket är väldigt känsligt för störningar (t.ex. från mikrovågsugnar) så varierar kapaciteten för nätverket hela tiden, något som inte är fallet när man har ett nätverk med sladdar. Detta leder till problem med den trådlösa överföringen mellan olika apparater. Eftersom en DVD film kräver en hel del kapacitet från nätverket, och man inte kan vara säker på vad som finns tillgängligt så vet man inte om överföringen av filmen kommer att gå bra.

    I vår forskning presenterar vi två olika sätt att hantera problemen med olika apparaters tekniska begränsningar och det trådlösa nätverkets varierande kapacitet. För att hantera problemet med olika apparater och dess varierande tekniska möjligheter så har vi tagit fram metoder som möjliggör för oss att anpassa uppgifterna (t.ex. spela musik eller film) som utförs på apparaten beroende på den tekniska kapaciteten de har. Vi föreslår även en metod där vi mäter hur mycket kapacitet som det finns tillgängligt i det trådlösa nätverket. Eftersom kapaciteten på nätverket varierar repeterar vi mätningen med jämna mellanrum så att vi hela tiden har en aktuell bild av vad som finns tillgängligt. Vi använder sedan den informationen för att anpassa det som skall överföras (musik eller film) för att hela tiden göra det bästa möjliga av situationen.

  • 257.
    Lindell, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Assessment, Sorting and Collecting of a Thousand Drawings2006In: The First International Symposium on Culture, Creativity and Interaction Design (CCID2006) of The 20th BCS HCI Group conference in co-operation with ACM, London, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of an interactive prototype software tool for assessment, sorting and collecting of over a thousand drawings in greyscale and of one motive theme; the shape of the letter X. The research goal is the design of graphical user interfaces for creative activities, creation of music, illustration, animation, and video. The idea is to visualise all the users' content on an infinitely large two-dimensional data surface. Users navigate through three generic interaction techniques: Panning, Zoom and Search. The main research question here is: Will we find breakdowns in the interaction for this approach for content of over a thousand drawings. We found that the infinitely large two-dimensional data surface approach does not breakdown for navigation and inspection, but we are not very for from its limit.

  • 258.
    Lindgren, Markus
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Release Planning in Industry - Interview Data2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Release planning can be seen as company-wide optimization problem involving many stakeholders where the goal is to maximize utilization of the often limited resources of a company and turn them into business benefit. The release planning results in a decision of

    what to include in future release(s) of a product. In making this decision

    one needs to consider how to make a product profitable both in the short- and long-term. As input to release planning are a set of {em needs} that, when realized into a product, provides some business/customer value. Normally the cost of implementing all of the proposed needs is larger than the budget allocated to a release, therefore a decision needs to be made of what to include in a release and what to post-pone. Thus, the set of needs needs to be prioritized in order to maximize business value of the needs included in a release.

    This report documents interview data resulting from multiple case study investigating how release planning is performed in industry today. In a sense it captures state-of-the-practice for release planning.

  • 259.
    Lindhult, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sequential PLEX, and its Potential for Parallel Execution2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some computer systems have been designed under the assumption that activities in the system are executed non-preemptively. Exclusive access to any shared data in such a system is automatically guaranteed as long as the system is executed on a single-processor architecture. However, if the activities are executed on a multiprocessor, exclusive access to the data must be guaranteed when memory con- flicts are possible. An analysis of the potential memory conflicts can be used to estimate the possibility for parallel execution. Central parts of the AXE telephone exchange system from Ericsson is programmed in the language PLEX. The current software is executed on a single-processor architecture, and assumes non-preemptive execution. In this paper, we investigate some existing PLEX code with respect to the number of possible shared-memory conflicts that could arise if the existing code, without modifications, would be executed on a parallel architecture. Our initial results are promising; only by examining the data that actually can be shared, we manage to reduce the number of conflicts from the assumed 100% to figures between 25-75% for the observed programs. Simple optimizations decrease the numbers even further.

  • 260.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Model-Checking with Insufficient Memory Resources2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Resource limitations is a major problem in model checking. Space and time requirements of model-checking algorithms grow exponentially with respect to the number of variables and parallel automata of the analyzed model. We present a method that is the result of experiences from a case study. It has enabled us to analyze models with much bigger state-spaces than what was possible without our method. The basic idea is to build partitions of the state-space of an analyzed system by iterative invocations of a model-checker. In each iteration the partitions are extended to represent a larger part of the state space, and if needed the partitions are further partitioned. Thereby the analysis problem is divided into a set of subproblems that can be analyzed independently of each other. We present how the method, implemented as a meta algorithm on-top

    of the Uppaal tool, has been applied in the case study.

  • 261.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Skövde.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Offutt, Jeff
    George Mason University, Fairfax, United States .
    Generating Trace-Sets for Model-based Testing2007In: Proceedings of the 18th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability, 2007, p. 171-180Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-checkers are powerful tools that can find individual traces through models to satisfy desired properties. These traces provide solutions to a number of problems. Instead of individual traces, software testing needs sets of traces that satisfy coverage criteria. Finding a trace set in a large model is difficult because model checkers generate single traces and use a lot of memory. Space and time requirements of model-checking algorithms grow exponentially with respect to the number of variables and parallel automata of the model being analyzed. We present a method that generates a set of traces by iteratively invoking a model checker. The method mitigates the memory consumption problem by dynamically building partitions along the traces. This method was applied to a testability case study, and it generated the complete trace set, while ordinary model-checking could only generate 26%. 

  • 262.
    Lindén, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Öberg, ÅkeMälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Jacobsons Medicin och Teknik2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 263.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Trends in Timing Analysis2006In: From Model-Driven Design to Resource Management for Distributed Embedded Systems, 2006, p. 85-94Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Static Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) analysis aims to find safe upper bounds to the execution time of a program. We give a brief status report on the field of static WCET analysis, and we then present a personal perspective on the current and anticipated forthcoming trends in the area.

  • 264.
    Lo Bello, Lucia
    et al.
    University of Catani.
    Kaczynski, Giordano A.
    University of Catania.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Towards a robust real-time wireless link in a land monitoring application2006In: IEEE Symposium on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, 2006, p. 449-452Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses on-going work on providing a model of a robust real-time wireless link intended to be used to connect a mobile platform to a ground station in a land monitoring system. This work is part of a project where the mobile platform is an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), equipped with embedded devices which acquire and process sensor data to be sent to the ground station. Firstly, a temporal model of the communications link relying on radio modems is developed. Secondly, measurements have been made in order to determine packet loss probability. These two results are currently used to provide a robust real-time model of the wireless communications link.

  • 265. Lo Bello, Lucia
    et al.
    Kaczynski, Giordano A.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sorbello, Gino
    Sgro, Francesco
    Mirabella, Orazio
    An approach to support UAV to ground station real-time communications in a land monitoring system2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 266.
    Lönnblad, Jens
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Monitor the heart simply and smooth: with less artefacts using bluetooth2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 267.
    Lönnblad, Jens
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Castano, J.G
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Bäcklund, Ylva
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Optimization of wireless Bluetooth2004In: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - ProceedingsVolume 26 III, 2004, p. 2133-2136Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within this study, three different Bluetooth™ sensor systems, replacing cables for transmission of biomedical sensor data, have been designed and evaluated. The three sensor architectures are built on 1-, 2- and 3-chip solutions and depending on the monitoring situation and signal character, different solutions are optimal. Essential parameters for all systems have been low physical weight and small size, resistance to interference and interoperability with other technologies as global- or local networks, PC's and mobile phones. Two different biomedical input signals, ECG and PPG (photoplethysmography), have been used to evaluate the three solutions. The study shows that it is possibly to continuously transmit an analogue signal. At low sampling rates and slowly varying parameters, as monitoring the heart rate with PPG, the 1-chip solution is the most suitable, offering low power consumption and thus a longer battery lifetime or a smaller battery, minimizing the weight of the sensor system. On the other hand, when a higher sampling rate is required, as an ECG, the 3-chip architecture, with a FPGA or micro-controller, offers the best solution and performance. Our conclusion is that Bluetooth™ might be useful in replacing cables of medical monitoring systems.

  • 268.
    Lönnblad, Jens
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Nilsson, G
    Folke, M
    Hök, B
    Lindén, Maria
    Bäcklund, Y
    Artefacts in Continuous ECG Recording-Provoking and Preventing Manoeuvres2005In: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 167-171Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 269.
    Lüders, Frank
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    An Evolutionary Approach to Software Components in Embedded Real-Time Systems2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software engineering denotes the practice of building software from pre-existing smaller products, in particular when this is done using standardized software component models. The main expected benefits of this practice over traditional software engineering approaches are increased productivity and timeliness of development projects. While the use of software component models has become common for desktop and server-side software, this is not the case in the domain of embedded real-time systems, presumably due to the special requirements such systems have to meet with respect to predictable timing and limited use of resources. Much research exists that aims to define new component models for this domain, typically focusing on source code components, static system configuration, and relatively narrow application domains.

    This dissertation explores the alternative approach of using components based on binary code, allowing dynamic configuration, and targeting a broader domain. A study of a general purpose component model shows that the model is compatible with real-time requirements, although putting some restrictions on its use may be necessary to ensure predictability. A case study demonstrates how the model has been used with advantage in an industrial control system. The dissertation furthermore proposes an approach for extending the component model with run-time services for embedded real-time systems. It presents a prototype tool for supporting such services, along with two empirical studies to evaluate the approach and the tool as well as the component model itself. One study shows that both the component model and the services provided by the tool result in very modest and predictable run-time overheads. The other study, evaluating the effects on productivity and quality of using the approach in a software development project, did not produce quantitative evidence, but concludes that the approach is promising and identifies possible adjustments to it and opportunities for further studies.

  • 270.
    Lüders, Frank
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Ahmad, Shoaib
    Khizer, Faisal
    Singh-Dhillon, Gurjodh
    Use of Software Component Models and Services in Embedded Real-Time Systems2007In: Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the use of software component models has become popular in the development of desktop applications and distributed information systems, such models have not been widely used in the domain of embedded real-time systems. Presumably, this is due to the requirements such systems have to meet with respect to predictable timing and limited use of resources. There is a considerable amount of research on component models for embedded real-time systems that focuses on source code components, statically configured systems, and relatively narrow application domains. This paper explores the alternative approach of using a mainstream component model based on binary components. The effects of using the model on timing and resource usage have been measured by implementing example applications both with and without using the model. In addition, the use of a prototype tool for supporting software component services has been investigated in the same manner.

  • 271.
    Lüders, Frank
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Runeson, Per
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Adopting a Component-Based Software Architecture for an Industrial Control Systems – A Case Study2005In: Component-Based Software Development for Embedded Systems: An Overview of Current Research Trends, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2005, p. 232-248Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents a case study from a global company developing a new generation of programmable controllers to replace several existing products. The system needs to incorporate support for a large number of I/O systems, network types, and communication protocols. To leverage its global development resources and the competency of different development centers, the company decided to adopt a component-based software architecture that allows I/O and communication functions to be realized by independently developed components. The architecture incorporates a subset of a standard component model. The process of redesigning the software architecture is presented, along with the experiences made during and after the project. An analysis of these experiences shows that the component-based architecture effectively supports distributed development and that the effort required for implementing certain functionality has been substantially reduced while, at the same time, the system's performance and other run-time quality attributes have been kept on a satisfactory level.

  • 272.
    Lüders, Frank
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund University.
    Evaluation of a Tool for Supporting Software Component Services in Embedded Real-Time Systems2006In: SERPS’06, Sixth Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice in Sweden, 2006, p. 49-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of software component models has become popular in the development of desktop applications and distributed information systems. The most successful models incorporate support for runtime services of general use in their intended application domains.There has been no widespread use of such models in the development of embedded real-time systems and much research is currently directed at defining new component models for this domain. We have explored the alternative approach of extendinga mainstream component model with run-time services for embedded real-time systems. A prototype tool has been developedthat generates code for a number of such services. To evaluatethis tool, we have conducted a multiple-case study, where four teams of students were given the same development task. Two teams were given the tool while the remaining two were not. This paper describes the design of the study and our initial analysis of the results.

  • 273.
    Lüders, Frank
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Flemström, Daniel
    Wall, Anders
    ABB.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    A Prototype Tool for Software Component Services in Embedded Real-Time Systems2006In: Component-Based Software Engineering: 9th International Symposium, CBSE 2006, Västerås, Sweden, June 29 - July 1, 2006. Proceedings, Springer, 2006, p. 222-237Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of software component models has become popular during the last decade, in particular in the development of software for desktop applications and distributed information systems. However, such models have not been widely used in the domain of embedded real-time systems. There is a considerable amount of research on component models for embedded real-time systems, or even narrower application domains, which focuses on source code components and statically configured systems. This paper explores an alternative approach by laying the groundwork for a component model based on binary components and targeting the broader domain of embedded real-time systems. The work is inspired by component models for the desktop and information systems domains in the sense that a basic component model is extended with a set of services for the targeted application domain. A prototype tool for supporting these services is presented and its use illustrated by a control application.

  • 274.
    Lüders, Frank
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Lau, Kung-Kiu
    Ho, Shui-Ming
    Specification of Software Components2002In: Building Reliable Component-based Software Systems, Artech House, 2002, p. 52-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Marti, Pau
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Analysis and Design of Real-Time Control Systems with Varying Control Timing Constraints2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 276.
    Mohammadi, Peyman
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    DLE burner water rig simulations2008Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s industrial world, there are high demands on the environmental aspects.

    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB (SIT AB) is a company that is keen about the environment, and therefore spends a lot of effort in developing combustion processes in order to reduce NOx (nitrogen oxides) emissions on their engine products. They are also researching in optional fuels, which are more environment-friendly.

    In order to provide lower emissions the SIT designed a water rig to study the flow dynamics in a DLE (Dry Low Emission) burner.

    An analyze program (GUI horizontal) was developed with new functions and the existing functions were improved. The program’s function was to evaluate different experimental tests of the flow dynamics in the 3rd generation DLE burners, of the SGT-800 gas turbine engine.

    The aim was to ensure repeatability to enhance reliability, of the experimental test results for further comparison, for upcoming projects concerning future DLE burners.

    When repeatability was achieved, implementations of different geometrical modifications were performed in the 3rd generation DLE burner.

    The reason of the geometrical alterations was to look over if better fuel air mixture could be obtained and accordingly (thus) to reduce hotspots in the burner and in that case reduce NOx emissions.

  • 277.
    Mustapic, Goran
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Architecting software for complex embedded systems : quality attribute based approach to openness2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 278.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Engineering Strength Response-Time Analysis: A Timing Analysis Approach for the Development of Real-Time Systems2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid utvecklingen av datorsystem som är en del av en större produkt, som t.ex. styrsystemet i en bil, ett flygplan eller medicinsk utrustning, ställs det ofta mycket hårda krav på säkerhet och tillförlitlighet. En av målsättningarna är även att hålla nere produkt- och utvecklingskostnaden, samtidigt som man vill öka kundnyttan genom att öka innehållet, dvs. funktionaliteten.

    Ökningen i antalet funktioner, och komplexiteten den medför, ställer krav på bättre utvecklingsmetoder, -modeller och -verktyg. Att analysera svarstider genom s.k. responstidsanalys (RTA) är ett sätt att kunna garantera systemets tidsbeteende innan produkten tas i drift. I denna avhandling presenteras nya tekniker som syftar till att förbättra existerande RTA-metoder, vilket konkret leder till följande förbättringar:

    q Precisionen i de beräknade svarstiderna blir avsevärt högre än tidigare (typiskt ca 15% kortare responstider).

    q Analyserna kan göras avsevärt snabbare än tidigare (typiskt ca 100 ggr snabbare än tidigare).

    Genom att kombinera dessa två helt oberoende tekniker, behöver man ej offra precision för snabb analys eller vice versa. Det bästa av två världar uppnås i en och samma analysmetod; snabb analystid och precisa svarstider. Högre precision i svarstider möjliggör antingen ökad funktionalitet inom ramen för en given produktkostnad, eller en lägre kostnad för en given funktionalitet. Snabbare analysmetoder innebär att utvecklingsverktyg nu kan använda RTA i praktiken även för riktigt stora system med hundratals, ja även tusentals, funktioner.

    Speciellt säkerhetskritiska tillämpningar som måste vara oerhört säkra och tillförlitliga, och många gånger måste genomgå en dyr och tidskrävande certifieringsprocess, kan dra nytta av RTA. En stor del av svensk exportindustri såsom Volvo, Saab, och ABB utvecklar realtidssystem för vilka denna forskning skulle kunna vara av strategisk betydelse.

  • 279.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Efficient Development of Real-Time Systems Using Hybrid Scheduling2005In: Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Embedded Systems and Applications, ESA'05, 2005, p. 53-59Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will show how advanced embedded realtime systems, with functionality ranging from time-triggered control functionality to event-triggered user interaction, can be made more efficient. Efficient with respect to development effort as well as run-time resource utilization. This is achieved by using a hybrid, static and dynamic, scheduling strategy. The approach is applicable even for hard real-time systems since tight response time guarantees can be given by the response time analysis method for tasks with offsets. An industrial case study will demonstrate how this approach enables more efficient use of computational resources, resulting in a cheaper or more competitive product since more functionality can be fitted into legacy, resource constrained, hardware.

  • 280.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Towards Efficient Development of Embedded Real-Time Systems, the Component Based Approach2006In: The 2006 International Conference on Embedded Systems & Applications (ESA'06), 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present our joint view for efficient development of efficient and dependable ERTS (Embedded Real-Time Systems). This view is based on the three main viewpoints of (1) the software designer, (2) the analysis tools, and (3) the code synthesis tools/run-time environment.

    Our position is that any approach that is to achieve (i) decreased development effort, (ii) increased software quality, and (iii) efficient resource utilization, needs to take all three viewpoints into consideration.

    We exemplify how our work with execution-model independent software components fits into this joint view and outline some research directions.

  • 281.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Efficient Resonse-Time Analysis for Tasks with Offset2004In: Proceedings - IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, 2004, p. 462-471Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method that enables an efficient implementation of the approximative response-timeanalysis (RTA) for tasks with offsets presented by Tindell [(1992)] and Palencia Gutierrez et al. [(1998)]. The method allows for significantly faster implementations of schedulability tools using RTA. Furthermore, reducing computation time, from tens of milliseconds to just a fraction of a millisecond, as we show, is a step towards online RTA in for example admission control systems. We formally prove that our reformulation of earlier presented equations is correct and allow us to statically represent parts of the equation, reducing the calculations during fix-point iteration. We show by simulations that the speedup when using our method is substantial. When task sets grow beyond a trivial number of tasksand/or transactions a speed-up of more than 100 times (10 transactions and 10 tasks/transaction) compared to the original analysis can be obtained.

  • 282.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fast and Tight Response-Times for Tasks with Offset2005In: Proceedings - Euromicro Conference on Real-Time SystemsVolume 2005, 2005, 2005, p. 127-136Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous work, we presented a tight approximate response-time analysis for tasks with offsets. While providing a tight bound on response times, the tight analysis exhibits similarly long execution times as does the traditional methods for calculating response-times for tasks with offsets. The existing method for fast analysis of tasks with offsets is not applicable to the tight analysis. In this paper we extend the fast analysis to handle the distinguishing trait of the tight analysis; continuously increasing interference functions. Furthermore, we provide another speedup; by introducing pessimism in the modelling of interference at certain points, we speed up the convergence of the numerical solving for response-times without increasing the pessimism of the resulting response-times. The presented fast-and-tight analysis is guaranteed to calculate the same response-times as the tight analysis, and in a simulation study we obtain speedups of more than two orders of magnitude for realistically sized tasks sets compared to the tight analysis. We also demonstrate that the fast-and-tight analysis has comparable execution time to that of the fast analysis. Hence, we conclude that the fast- and-tight analysis is the preferred analysis technique when tight estimates of response-times are needed, and that we do not need to sacrifice tightness for analysis speed; both are obtained with the fast-and-tight analysis.

  • 283.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Tighter Response-Times for Tasks with Offsets2004In: Real-time and Embedded Computing Systems and Applications Conference (August 2004), 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 284.
    Möller, Anders
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Software Component Technologies for Heavy Vehicles2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    Control-systems for heavy vehicles have advanced from an area where Industrial Requirements on Component Technologies for Embedded Systemsmainly mechanic and hydraulic solutions were used, to a highly computerised domain using distributed embedded real-time computer systems. To cope with the increasing level of end-customer demands on advanced features and functions in future vehicle systems, sophisticated development techniques are needed. The development techniques must support software in numerous configurations and facilitate development of systems with requirements on advanced functionality, timeliness, and safety-criticality. In order to meet these requirements, we propose the use of component-based software engineering. However, the software component-technologies available on the market have not yet been generally accepted by the vehicular industry. In order to better understand why this is the case, we have conduced a survey - identifying the industrial requirements that are deemed decisive for introducing a component technology. We have used these requirements to evaluate a number of existing component technologies, and one of our conclusions is that none of the studied technologies is a perfect match for the industrial requirements. In addition, we have implemented and evaluated the novel component model SaveCCM, which has been designed for safety-critical automotive applications. Our evaluation indicates that SaveCCM is a promising technology which has the potential to fulfil the industrial requirements. However, tools are still immature and incomplete. In the final part of this work, we propose the use of monitored software components, as a general approach for engineering of embedded systems. In our approach, a component's execution is continuously monitored and experience regarding the behaviour is accumulated. As more and more experience is collected the confidence in the component grows.

  • 285.
    Möller, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. CC Systems, Sweden.
    Joakim, Fröberg
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. Volvo Construction Equipment, Sweden .
    Mikael, Nolin
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Industrial Requirements on Component Technologies for Embedded Systems2004In: Component-Based Software Engineering, 2004, p. 146-161Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software component technologies have not yet been generally accepted by embedded-systems industries. In order to better understand why this is the case, we present a set of requirements, based on industrial needs, that are deemed decisive for introducing a component technology. The requirements we present can be used to evaluate existing component technologies before introducing them in an industrial context. They can also be used to guide modifications and/or extensions to component technologies, to make them better suited for industrial deployment. One of our findings is that a major source of requirements is non-technical in its nature. For a component technology to become a viable solution in an industrial context, its impact on the overall development process needs to be addressed. This includes issues like component life-cycle management, and support for the ability to gradually migrate into the new technology.

  • 286.
    Möller, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fredriksson, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Mikael, Nolin
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Evaluation of Component Technologies with Respect to Industrial Requirements2004In: Conference Proceedings of the EUROMICRO, 2004, p. 56-63Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We compare existing component technologies for embedded systems with respect to industrial requirements. The requirements are collected from the vehicular industry, but our findings are applicable to similar industries developing resource constrained safety critical embedded distributed real-time computer systems. One of our conclusions is that none of the studied technologies is a perfect match for the industrial requirements. Furthermore, no single technology stands out as being a significantly better choice than the others; each technology has its own pros and cons. The results of our evaluation can be used to guide modifications or extensions to existing technologies, making them better suited for industrial deployment. Companies that want to make use of component-based software engineering as available today can use this evaluation to select a suitable technology.

  • 287.
    Möller, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fredriksson, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Industrial Requirements on Component Technologies for Vehicular Control Systems2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software component technologies for automotive applications are desired due to the envisioned benefits in reuse, variant handling, and porting; thus, facilitating both efficient development and increased quality of software products. Component based software development has had success in the PC application domain, but requirements are different in the embedded domain and existing technologies does not match. Hence, software component technologies have not yet been generally accepted by embedded-systems industries.

    In order to better understand why this is the case, we present two separate case-studies together with an evaluation of the existing component technologies suitable for embedded control systems.

    The first case-study presents a set of requirements based on industrial needs, which are deemed decisive for introducing a component technology. Furthermore, in the second study, we asked the companies involved to grade these requirements.

    Then, we use these requirements to compare existing component technologies suitable for embedded systems. One of our conclusions is that none of the studied technologies is a perfect match for the industrial requirements. Furthermore, no single technology stands out as being a significantly better choice than the others; each technology has its own pros and cons.

    The results can be used to guide modifications and/or extensions to existing component technologies in order to make them better suited for industrial deployment in the automotive domain. The results can also serve to guide other software engineering research by showing the most desired areas within component-based software engineering.

  • 288.
    Naeser, Gustaf
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    A Formal Approach to Embedded High-Integrity Real-Time Systems2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här avhandlingen handlar inte om obskyra teoretiska datavetenskapliga hemligheter, den handlar om hur datorsystem kan göras säkrare. Ur ett annat perspektiv kan den sägas försöka sig på att göra svåra metoder, som formella sådana, lättare att använda så att fler programmerare och systemdesigners kan dra nytta av dem. Massor av dagligen använda system tros vara korrekta, utan att de bevisats vara det. Testning, den vanligaste metoden för att upptäcka defekter och fel kan bara hitta fel som testaren letar efter, de problem som förväntas. Formell verifiering, en mindre använd metod för att hitta fel, kan bättre hitta oväntade problem.

    Med ökningen i antal säkerhetskritiska system ökar även kraven som ställs på att de ska fungera tillförlitligt. Samtidigt måste de som utvecklar systemen hålla nere utvecklingskostnaden och med de begränsade resurser som finns tillhanda kan de oftast inte kosta på sig att nyttja alla traditionellt säkra, men dyra, metoder för att tillse systemens tillförlitlighet.

    SafetyChip-ramverket, som presenteras i den här avhandlingen, ger ett sätt att angripa problemet genom maskinell modellering som används till att både assistera formell verifiering samt till att låta delar av investeringen i dem återanvändas senare under systemets livscykel. T.ex. använder specialkonstruerad hårdvara biprodukter från verifieringen till att övervaka och styra systemet under drift.

    Flera problem som begränsar användandet av formella metoder i säkerhets\-kritiska system undersöks och löses, t.ex. med användandet av en realtidskärna för Ravenscar (en programmeringsprofil). Kärnan beskrivs formellt, verifieras och realiseras delvis i hårdvara. Experiment för att värdera användbarheten av ramverket i en medelstor tillämpningar har genomförts med lovande utgång.

  • 289.
    Naeser, Gustaf
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    A Run-Time Kernel for RavenscarManuscript (Other academic)
  • 290.
    Naeser, Gustaf
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Transforming Timing Skeletons to Timed AutomataManuscript (Other academic)
  • 291.
    Naeser, Gustaf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Furunäs, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    SafetyChip: A Time Monitoring and Policing Device2005In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGAda Annual International Conference; SIGAda, 2005, p. 63-68Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The SafetyChip proposes a strategy where parts of the effort invested in the formal verification during the development of a system can be reused during the system's operation. The strength in a formal verification of a system is that a system can mathematically be proven to fulfil certain requirements, e.g., timing requirements. The SafetyChip uses information from verification to monitor and police a system during run-time. The monitoring is done by surveillance of the applications communication with the run-time kernel. If deviance from the predefined verified behaviour is detected, the SafetyChip can signal (police) this in different ways, e.g., by generating interrupts the system can respond to. In our experiments we use systems written in Ravenscar compliant Ada code and have automated model extraction from source code to the models used to verify the system. This paper presents the functionality and design of the SafetyChip. Properties of an implementation of the Safety-Chip are also presented. 

  • 292.
    Naeser, Gustaf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Furunäs, Johan
    Evaluation of Delay Queues for a Ravenscar Hardware Kernel2005In: Proceedings - Third ACM and IEEE International Conference on Formal Methods and Models for Co-Design, MEMOCODE'05, 2005, p. 247-248Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 293.
    Naeser, Gustaf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Component-Based Approach to Run-Time Kernel Specification and Verification2005In: Proceedings - Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, 2005, p. 68-76Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 294.
    Naeser, Gustaf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Temporal Skeletons for Verifying Time2005In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGAda Annual International Conference; SIGAda, 2005, p. 49-56Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an intermediate notation used in a framework for verification of real-time properties. The framework aims at overcoming the need for the framework user to have significant knowledge of the verification specific detail that formal verification at some level is bound to impose on a model. In order to accomplish this, model extraction from source code of an initial formal model, a timing skeleton, is made automatically. The model refinement needed to transform the temporal skeleton into a model that can be verified is not done immediately. This allows postponement of the abstraction and specialisation needed for the verification which further improves the readability of the skeleton. The purpose of the timing skeleton is that it easily can be validated to represent the source code it was created from. The timing skeleton is then automatically refined with verification detail, and then hidden for the user, transformed into the notation of a verification tool. This transformation is hidden from the user. In order to reduce the complexity of the application model the framework uses a formally verified run-time kernel with a clear separation from the application. The kernel supports preemption, dynamic priorities and multiple processors.

  • 295.
    Neander, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Using Existing Infrastructure as Support for Wireless Sensor Networks2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advancements in electronic design, such as low-power circuits, energy efficient wireless communication, and improved energy supply, has enabled the vision of wireless sensor networks to become a reality. Wireless sensor networks typically consist of hundreds up to thousands of collaborating low-cost, battery-driven and wireless sensor nodes with scarce resources. The wireless sensor nodes are typical small physical entities, and usually small as a matchbox but can in extreme cases be no larger than a cubic millimeter.

    In this thesis we present an architecture called AROS that uses existing infrastructure to aid in the management of wireless sensor networks. As an example, the existing infrastructure could be situated in hospitals or industrial buildings. The existing infrastructure can aid in prolonging the lifetime of the wireless sensor network by having "unlimited'' energy, long range radio capacity, and high-speed computers. We enable prolonged lifetime by centralizing some of the energy consuming administrative functionality of wireless sensor networks.

    We show, by simulations, that the AROS architecture is able to prolong the lifetime of the sensor nodes. AROS is compared to a well known cluster based architecture, LEACH. The comparisons show that AROS with static configuration performs at least as well as LEACH in small wireless sensor networks in the size 100x100m, and up to 97 % better in long distance wireless sensor networks in the size of 400x400m. We show that AROS still has got 88 % of its sensor nodes alive when LEACHs' network demises.

    In our simulations we have also studied how dynamic network clustering in AROS, using a TDMA scheduler and non-mobile wireless sensor nodes, affects the amount of data received by a base station. We show that AROS is better than LEACH-C in collecting data to the base station with the same total amount of energy for long distance networks and that AROS performs as well or better than LEACH-C in small wireless sensor networks.

  • 296.
    Neander, Jonas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansen, Ewa
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    A TDMA scheduler for the AROS architecture2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) scheduler for the Asymmetric communication and ROuting in Sensor networks architecture (AROS). The scheduler enables dynamic network configurations of the AROS architecture. We show that asymmetric multihop communication with dynamic network configurations in AROS prolongs the lifetime of sensor nodes in long distance networks compared to the LEACH architecture.

  • 297.
    Neander, Jonas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansen, Ewa
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Prolonging Network Lifetime in Long Distance Sensor Networks using a TDMA Scheduler2007In: Real-Time in Sweden – (RTiS’07), Västerås, Sweden, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) scheduler for the Asymmetric communication and ROuting in Sensor networks architecture (AROS). The scheduler enables dynamic network reconfigurations of the AROS architecture.

  • 298.
    Neander, Jonas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansen, Ewa
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Prolonging Network Lifetime in Long Distance Sensor Networks using a TDMA Scheduler2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) scheduler for the Asymmetric communication and ROuting in Sensor networks architecture (AROS). The scheduler enables dynamic network reconfigurations of the AROS architecture.

  • 299.
    Neander, Jonas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansen, Ewa
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Asymmetric Multihop Communication in Large Sensor Networks2006In: 2006 1st International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive ComputingVolume 2006, 2006, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing interest in wireless sensor networks, energy efficient communication infrastructures for such networks are becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we compare and simulate asymmetric and symmetric communication in sensor networks. We do this by extending LEACH, a well-known TDMA cluster-based sensor network architecture, to use asymmetric communication. The extension makes it possible to scale up the network size beyond what is feasible with LEACH and its variants LEACH-C and LEACH-F.

  • 300.
    Neander, Jonas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansen, Ewa
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Björkman, Mats
    Prolonging Network Lifetime in Long Distance Sensor Networks using a TDMA Scheduler2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) scheduler for the Asymmetric communication and ROuting in Sensor networks architecture (AROS). The scheduler enables dynamic network configurations of the AROS architecture. We show that asymmetric multihop communication with dynamic network configurations in AROS prolongs the lifetime of sensor nodes in long distance networks compared to the LEACH architecture.

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