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  • 251.
    Osterman, Christer
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Understanding company specific Lean production systems. Is Lean getting lost in translation?2018In: 25th Annual EurOMA conference EurOMA, Budapest, Hungary, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores how Lean could be translated from a generic concept into a company specific production system (XPS). These types of translations are in practise often made by a XPS Support Function (XPS SF). The XPS SF of three cases serves as respondents. Theoretical implications of this research concern the translation of Lean as an important tool to understand the integration of Lean. Managerial implications concern the role of using translations of all Lean principles to develop a system that develops over time. Even if Lean is not completely lost in translation there are considerable difficulties to overcome.

  • 252.
    Osterman, Christer
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Svensson Harari, Natalia
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Lundin, Anders
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Examination of the flexibility paradox in a Lean system2014In: , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores if Lean is to be considered flexible or not. A multiple case study in the automotive industry is conducted to find the dependencies between Lean and flexibility. Since many definitions of flexibility and Lean exists, a pragmatic approach is sought where each cases own definition of Lean is used to analyze if the factors that enable flexibility are to be considered Lean or not. The context of this paper is volume and product flexibility.

    Lean and flexibility are found to be independent of each other in a direct sense. However, indirectly it is found that flexibility in a Lean context is achieved through decisions made when finding solution during problem solving. Also, the level of flexibility can also be seen as a decision. Therefore Lean in itself cannot be regarded as either flexible nor inflexible but flexibility can be achieved when choosing solutions to particular problems.

  • 253.
    Palomeque, Alberto
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Impact of Embedded Software Design Decisions on the Product Life Cycle Process2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software design decisions were considered in this study, as the possibly principal factor for unplanned adjustments related to the embedded software handling, at production- and service processes. The study reveals an increase of requirement changes during the last phases in then software development projects execution, which forces late design decisions in order to fulfil the changed requirements. Consequently, the likelihood of risks for unexpected impacts on the subsequent processes will increase.

    A research approach based on interviews and data from previous projects at Volvo CE was performed. The process methodology used at Volvo CE for software development was investigated from the project planning and control view and the project team member’s perspective.

    A high amount of software-design decisions were encountered at the end of the software development process at Volvo CE, as a result of numerous requirement changes at the final phases of the projects execution. A gap was identified between how the process methodology specified the progression of activities for software development and the actual progression of the project activities in Volvo CE.

    This study discusses problem areas in the software development process at Volvo CE from an embedded design decisions perspective. As future work, the study recommends three steps to find improvements to the process methodology: 1) Update the process based on standardized procedures for management of requirements changes, risk handling, and communication. 2) Further analysis and possible adaptations of the process model 3) Develop methods and/or tools for process quality assurance.

    The management of the embedded software decisions appears to be a very complicated area, the conventional statements on the importance of the decisions in the earlier phases, at least, should be further discussed and investigated.

  • 254.
    Persevall, Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lean i SEB: SEB:s tillämpning av The Toyota Way2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 255.
    Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Tasevski, Alexander
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ekerö Trappräcke2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete omfattar 15 högskolepoäng och skrivs på Mälardalens Högskola i Eskilstuna med inriktning produktdesign – industriell design. Arbetet genomfördes under vårterminen, april till juni 2014 där en grupp på två personer utvecklade ett trappräcke på Lundbergs produkter AB i Nyköping. Lundbergs tog kontakt med gruppen innan start och presenterade fyra stycken uppdrag. Uppdraget var att utveckla Ekerö räcke i metall, där målet var att få räcket monterbart i trappor och gruppen blev tilldelad en kravspecifikation på vad företaget förväntade sig utav slutprodukten.

    På grund av den stora säkerhetsfrågan hos ett trappräcke behövdes en analys på problemet och de krav som ställdes på produkten. Gruppen började med att undersöka hur en trappa kunde vara konstruerad för att senare kunna sätta krav på trappräckets utformning. Eftersom det finns så många komponenter på den befintliga produkten så uppstod det många problem när räcket monterades i en vinklad konstruktion. Dessa problem dokumenterades och samlades ihop i olika kategorier så att gruppen senare kunde fokusera på varje område i idégenereringen. I kravspecifikationen var ett av kraven att följa boverkets regler angående trappräckesbyggen. Efter en sammanställning av boverkets regler så hade gruppen tillräckligt med material för att göra en idégenerering.

    I nästa skede påbörjades idégenerering med hjälp av metoden Brain Writing. Gruppen fokuserade på varje område var för sig där en större mängd idéer blev till ett fåtal som kom att kallas koncept. Med hjälp av verktyg som Pughs matris och QFD samt företagets tankar så uteslöts vissa koncept och andra vidareutvecklades. Efter att ha utvecklat två större koncept av tretton mindre så presenterade gruppen dem för uppdragsgivaren. Mötet resulterade i en kombination av båda koncepten så kunden får möjligheten att montera efter sitt egna val.

    När slutkonceptet var bestämt började gruppen tillverka en prototyp i skala 1:1 med hjälp av 3d-skrivare samt trä- och metallverkstaden. När gruppen arbetade på prototypen upptäcktes en risk där ett av koncepten lätt gick sönder vid montering. Då valdes koncept 1B istället för koncept 1C.

    Examensarbetet resulterade i en produkt som efterliknade Ekerö räcke i metall, som dessutom har många möjligheter att anpassas efter kundens krav, önskemål och kreativitet.

  • 256.
    Pettersson, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Zero Tolerance Program: A strategic approach to reduce operational cost and improve quality levels2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For a company to be competitive today, one way is to create a natural feedback loop from the production department to the design department with information regarding the production systems ability to deliver a finished component. The purpose with this feedback loop is to create respect for tolerances and to more design for manufacturing and assembly. The studied company in this thesis work developed a quality program to reach a spiral of continuous improvements to reduce cost of poor quality (CoPQ) and to reach an improved quality level (PPM). The object of this work was to test and improve the quality program called The Zero Tolerance Program. Delimitations were made when the work was started and ongoing which led to that the impact on PPM could not be studied. The connection to CoPQ was difficult to obtain and could only be proved theoretically, not practically, due to the short timetable.

    During the short amount of time the right root cause could not be found. The thesis work findings came to a number of identified Measurable Success Criteria and requirements which must be in place for the further progress of The Zero Tolerance Program.

  • 257.
    Pettersson, Oscar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lega Version 22010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Detta arbete går ut på att uppfinna och utveckla en enhet som integrerar människor med hjälp av teknik och som ska användas på en konsthall. Prototypframtagning och en optimerad designprocess utmynnar i underlag som ska användas för framställning av denna enhet i större skala. Detta har lösts genom brainfire som generade tre olika koncept. Dessa koncept kombinerades även i ett fjärde koncept som antogs som vinnande koncept efter genomgång av PUGHs beslutsmatris. Konceptet optimerades med hjälp av PU-verktygen DFA, DFM samt DFE. Detta ledde till en monteringsoptimerad, ekonomioptimerad och återvinningsbar enhet. Enheten kläms ihop när användaren vill säga något som ska sparas. Det sagda sparas via radio till ett minne på en klisterlapp. Klisterlappen ges sedan vidare till nästa användare som kan klistra på klisterlappen på en enhet. När enheten då passerar den plats där den förste användaren sparade det denne sade så spelar den upp en spökviskning av det den första användaren sa. På så vis ökar enheten kommunikationen mellan användarna vilket är målet med arbetet. Enheten uppfyller samtliga krav i kravspecifikationen och är återvinningsbar, optimerad för låg energiförbrukning, rengörningsbar, separabel samt innehar lång livslängd i förhållande till dess arbete. Industridesignen upplevs av utomstående som tilltalande, tilldragande, innovativ, futuristisk, intressant, karaktärsrik och ergonomisk.

  • 258.
    Rastegari, Ali
    Volvo Group Trucks Operation, Köping, Sweden.
    Vibration analysis of machine tool spindle units2017In: World Congress on Engineering Asset Management WCEAM, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine tools cannot produce accurate parts if performance degradation due to wear in their subsystems (e.g., spindle units) is not identified and con-trolled. Appropriate maintenance actions delay possible deterioration and mini-mize machining system stoppage time that leads to lower productivity and higher production cost. Measuring and monitoring machine tool condition has become increasingly important because of the introduction of agile production and in-creased requirements for product accuracy. Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) techniques, such as vibration monitoring, are becoming a very attractive method for companies operating high-value machines and components. One of the most common problems of rotating equipment, such as machine tool spindle units, is the condition of bearings. Vibration analysis can diagnose bearing damage by measuring the overall vibration of a spindle or, more precisely, by high-frequency techniques such as enveloping. This paper focuses on the use of vibration analysis to monitor and analyse the condition of machine tool spindle units. The method is a case study at a manufacturing company in Sweden. CBM, using vibration moni-toring, is implemented on different types of machine tools. The results of the im-plementation, as well as a vibration analysis of a spindle unit and its cost effec-tiveness, are presented in the paper.

  • 259.
    Rastegari, Ali
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Salonen, Antti
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES: INTRODUCING CURRENT INDUSTRIAL PRACTICE AND CHALLENGES2013In: 22nd International Conference on Production Research, ICPR 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an introductory review of CBM practice applied in manufacturing industry, focusing the technical constituents within condition monitoring. The empirical base for the study is a case study of two major manufacturing sites in Sweden, complemented with a brief benchmark of data from two reference manufacturing sites from France and Brazil. The data from the main studies were collected by interviews and document analysis. The result indicates that there is a wide range within current practice of applying CBM. The implementations are dependent on process type (machining, assembly or heat treatment) and product type. By analysing the empirical data, gaps and challenges for implementing CBM in industry are presented, primarily focusing condition monitoring within manufacturing industry. The paper concludes with a discussion on possible future trends and research areas, needed to increase the industrial use of CBM.

  • 260.
    Rastegari, Ali
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Volvo GTO, Köping, Sweden.
    Sasha, Shahbazi
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Condition-based maintenance effectiveness from material efficiency perspective2017In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 23-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the controversial gap between the environmental perspective and the cost perspective in a manufacturing context. The results of an empirical study on the heat treatment and phosphating processes performed by a manufacturing company indicate that implementing condition-based maintenance contributes not only to cost savings by preventing production losses and reducing equipment downtime but also to a more efficient use of resources by avoiding the generation of scraps and material wastage.

  • 261.
    Raza, Mohsin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. TPC Components AB, Hallstahammar, Sweden.
    Silva, Pedro
    TPC Components AB, Hallstahammar, Sweden .
    Irwin, Mark
    TPC Components AB, Hallstahammar, Sweden .
    Fagerström, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jarfors, Anders E. W.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Effects of process related variations on defect formation in investment cast components2018In: Archives of Foundry Engineering, ISSN 1897-3310, E-ISSN 2299-2944, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 103-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Castability of thin-walled castings is sensitive to variation in casting parameters. Variation in casting parameters can lead to undesired casting conditions which result in defect formation. Variation in rejection rate due to casting defects from one batch to another is a common problem in foundries and the cause of this variation is usually not well understood due to the complexity of the process. In this work, variation in casting parameters resulting from human involvement in the process is investigated. Casting practices of different groups of operators were evaluated and resulting variations in casting parameters were observed and analyzed. The effect of these variations was evaluated by comparing the rejection statistics for each group. In order to minimize process variation, optimized casting practices were implemented by developing specific process instructions for the operators. The significance of variation in casting parameters in terms of their impact on foundry rejections was evaluated by comparing the number of rejected components before and after implementation of optimized casting practices. It was concluded that variation in casting parameters due to differences in casting practices of various groups of operators has significant impact on casting quality. Variation in mould temperature, melt temperature and pouring rate due to differences in handling time and operator practice resulted in varying quality of components between batches. By implementing an optimized standard casting instruction, both quality and process reliability were improved significantly.

  • 262.
    Raza, Mohsin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Svenningsson, Roger
    Swerea SWECAST AB, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Irwin, Mark
    TPC Components AB, Hallstahammar, Sweden.
    Fagerström, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jarfors, Anders
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Effects of Process Related Variations on Fillablity Simulation of Thin-Walled IN718 Structures2017In: International Journal of metalcasting, ISSN 1939-5981, E-ISSN 2163-3193, Vol. 12, no 42, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the ability to produce net shape parts that maintain tight dimensional tolerances, investment casting has been widely used to manufacture components used in the hot gas path in gas turbines since 1950’s.1 In the power generation and aerospace industries, the overall weight reduction of engineering systems is much sought after, especially for turbines. Weight reduction of an engineering system can be achieved by using integrated multifunction components or by reducing component weight either by improving component design or using lightweight materials. Increased demands have been put on investment casting foundries by the turbine industry to produce complex thin-walled components.2 Weight reduction of components is essential to lower fuel consumption and reduce environmental impact.3 Casting of thin-sections is challenging due to premature solidification in thin-walled sections and long feeding distances often resulting in incomplete filling, cold shuts and shrinkage porosity.4 A number of studies have been performed to investigate important aspects of investment casting of thin-walled geometries. Flemings5 demonstrated that superheat and metal head had greater effect on fluidity than melt viscosity and surface tension for thicker sections. Flemings5 also concluded that for thin sections surface tension became important, limiting mold filling. For the nickel base superalloys (IN100 alloy), Chandraseckariah and Seshan6 concluded that the pouring temperature and mold temperature had greater effect on fluidity than other casting variables, such as, vacuum level and shell thickness. In an attempt to address the additional challenges imposed by thin-walled castings, Campbell and Oliff7 established mould filling criteria for thin walled castings. It was shown that at low heat content in a vertical mould set-up fluidity was limited by solidification which they termed flowability, a dynamic aspect, whereas at high heat content of a vertical mould system, fluidity was limited by surface tension which they termed as fillabillity, a static aspect. Campbell8 also performed investigations on the effect of capillary repulsion in thin-section moulds and surface tension on the filling pattern in the mould cavity. It was suggested that the surface oxide films formed during filling were pinned to the mould wall blocking the melt flow, resulting in decreased fluidity. These films also caused cold shuts and other internal defects in castings. Campbell9 established gating design requirements for thin-walled castings by investigating the effect of different gating methods and their effect on fillability in thin-walled castings. Bottom-gating was concluded superior to top-gated systems and bottom-gating reduced the filling instabilities. The prediction by simulation has become a vital step in the development of efficient manufacturing processes. The reliability of simulation is significantly dependent upon material properties, metallurgical models as well as accuracy in defining boundary condition.10 The boundary conditions are influenced by equipment and operation related variations arising from mould handling and melt pouring.11 Other parameters such as the mould filling sequence in casting of multi-cavity moulds are related to cluster design and equipment related limitation in process control tolerances. The degree of variation in critical process parameters is also highly dependent on the degree of automation. The relative importance of these process uncertainties on casting quality is not well understood. Although the physical principles governing fill and solidification are well established,12 it is difficult to account for uncertainties in process parameters when defining boundary conditions for simulations. As concluded in a related study,13 there is a lack of literature available that addresses the effect of variation in process parameters on the accuracy of simulation. This suggests a need for further investigation of how to define boundary conditions that more accurately describe the conditions in the foundry. The aim of this research is to investigate how the uncertainty in variation of foundry parameters can be accounted for when defining initial boundry conditions in order to improve accuracy of simulation. Characterization measurement has been performed on mould and alloy materials to eliminate uncertainties that can potentially be introduced in simulation from inaccurate material data. The discrepancy between experiments and simulations were analyzed and discussed to identify how variation in foundry parameters influence accuracy in simulation of the filling of a thin-walled mould.

  • 263.
    Raza, Mohsin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Svenningsson, Roger
    Swerea SWECAST AB, Sweden.
    Irwin, Mark
    TPC Components AB, Sweden.
    Fagerström, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jarfors, Anders E. W.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Simulation based process design approach for manufacturing of light-weight cast components2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weight reduction of engineering systems, especially for turbines is desirable due to global requirements for lower fuel consumption and emissions. The resulting design modifications by system manufacturers place demands on foundries to be able to cast thin-walled and complex hot-gas-path components with consistent quality and shorter lead times. The ability to cast components in thinner sections can result in overall weight reduction of turbines. Casting of thin-sections is challenging due to faster solidification and is sensitive to variation in critical process parameters in the foundry. The aim of this work is to develop a framework using design of experiments and simulation to develop a robust casting process as an alternative to costly trial and error that are frequently applied. The Distance based response surface method (RSM) is used to make a Design of experiments (DoE). By using a simulation tool that replicates the process conditions, the test iterations were simulated and regression analysis of the shrinkage and misrun values predicted by the model was performed to determine the effect of casting conditions on defect formation. The optimization of the process conditions was done by adjusting ranges and targets for the response and optimal conditions were proposed for casting.

  • 264.
    Reyier, Åsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    YuMi Laserhand2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis was to produce a laser-cutting hand to ABB's collaborative robot "YuMi". The report describes the approaches, development process and results of the work.  The aim of the project was to develop a functional prototype that corresponds to the overall problem formulation: "How to achieve enough security in the laser-hand so it is safe and risk-free for users to use the hand in an office environment?"  This has been achieved by using the appropriate tests and methods of analysis to answer the questions: ➢ How to remove harmful particles from the air during laser cutting of plastic, rubber, foam rubber, cardboard and wood? ➢ How to design an external protective cover encapsulate the tool (laser beam) so it will be redundant to protective glasses (so as not to damage the eyes)? ➢ How to integrate a security feature to force the laser to turn off, if the hand increases the distance or deviate from vertical orientation higher then specified limits? The work includes concept generation, project planning, construction of encapsulation and prototype overall construction. The project resulted in a working prototype that fulfilled most of the requirements. Both the student and the company are satisfied with the result.

  • 265.
    Rosio, Carin
    et al.
    Jönköping Univ, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Exploring the design process of reconfigurable industrial production systems Activities, challenges, and tactics2018In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 85-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore activities, challenges, and suggest tactics for the design of industrial reconfigurable production systems that can easily adapt to changing market opportunities. Design/methodology/approach - The paper synthesizes the empirical findings of seven case studies including 47 in-depth interviews at four manufacturing companies. Findings - A conceptual production system design process and including activities that enables a long-term perspective considering reconfigurability is proposed. Additionally, critical challenges indicating that reconfigurable production system design is not a trivial issue but one that requires separate control and coordination are identified and tactics to overcome the challenges described. Research limitations/implications - The authors propose a process for designing reconfigurable production systems that are better suited to adjust to future needs. The knowledge of reconfigurability from the reconfigurable manufacturing system literature is applied in the general production system literature field. This study contributes to a clearer picture of managerial challenges that need to be dealt with when designing a reconfigurable production system. Practical implications - By clarifying key activities facilitating a long-term perspective in the design process and highlighting challenges and tactics for improvement, the findings are particularly relevant to production engineers and plant managers interested in increasing the ability to adapt to future changes through reconfigurability and improve the efficiency of their production system design process. Originality/value - Although reconfigurable production systems are critical for the success of manufacturing companies, the process of designing such systems is not clear. This paper stretches this by giving a comprehensive picture of the production system design process and the activities that need to be considered to meet these challenges.

  • 266.
    Rösiö, Carin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Considering Reconfigurability Characteristics in Production System Design2011In: Enabling Manufacturing Competitiveness and Economic Sustainability: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual production (CARV2011), Montreal, Canada, 2-5 October 2011, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 57-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production systems must be easy to change in different configurations in order to meet the demands of e.g. changing product volumes and product types. In order to meet the demands efficient support for design of reconfigurable production systems that is easy to apply in an industrial setting is needed. The problem is to get an understanding of how the production system design process can capture and support the design of reconfigurable production systems with technology, organization, and personnel under consideration. The objective of this paper is to describe and define reconfigurability and discuss how reconfigurability characteristics better can be considered in the production system design process. A literature review is made in order to describe the RMS design research and what is characterizing reconfigurability. A case study has also been carried out in order to analyze how the reconfigurability characteristics were considered in a production system design process. The case study motivate a structured and systematic way to consider reconfigurability in the production system design process. A tentative structure of a support to concider reconfigurability in the production system design process is presented

  • 267. Rösiö, Carin
    Enable Changeability in Manufacturing Systems2009In: Proceedings at the CARV International Conference on Changeable , Agile, Reconfigurable, and virtual Production, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 268.
    Rösiö, Carin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Supporting the Design of Reconfigurable Production Systems2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To compete, manufacturing companies need production systems that quickly can respond to changes. To handle change drivers such as volume variations or new product variants, reconfigurability is advocated as a competitive means. This implies an ability to add, remove, and/or rearrange the structure of the production system to be ready for future changes. Still, it is not clear how the production system design process can capture and support the design of reconfigurable production systems. Therefore, the objective of this thesis is to increase the knowledge of how to support the design of reconfigurable production systems.

    Reconfigurability could be defined by a number of reconfigurability characteristics including convertibility, scalability, automatibility, mobility, modularity, integrability, and diagnosability. In eight case studies, reconfigurability characteristics in production system design were studied in order to investigate reconfigurability needs, knowledge, and practice in manufacturing companies. In three of the case studies reconfigurable production systems were studied to identify the links between change drivers and reconfigurability characteristics. In the remaining five case studies, reconfigurability in the production system design processes was addressed in terms of needs, prerequisites, and consideration.

    Based on the literature review and the case studies, support for reconfigurable production system design is suggested including two parts. The first part comprises support for analyzing the need for reconfigurability. Based on relevant change drivers the need for reconfigurability must be identified to enable selection of right type and degree of reconfigurability for each specific case of application. A comprehensive view of the reconfigurability characteristics is presented and links between change drivers and reconfigurability characteristics are described. The characteristics are divided into critical characteristics, that lead to a capacity or functionality change of the production system, and supporting characteristics, that reduce system reconfiguration time but do not necessarily lead to a modification of functionality or capacity of the production system. The second part provides support in how to consider reconfigurability in the production system design process. A holistic perspective is crucial to design reconfigurable production systems and therefore constituent parts of a production system are described. According to their character physical, logical, and human reconfiguration must be considered through the whole production system design process.

  • 269.
    Rösiö, Carin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Volvo Construction Equipment Operation, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Yang, Qi
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Atlas Copco.
    Remanufacturing of production technology - Challenges in collaboration projects and decision-making2016In: 23rd EurOMA conference EUROMA 2016, Trondheim, Norway, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a global manufacturing context it becomes clear that to stay competitive production technology design and implementation needs to be carefully considered. When technology is changing it is important to assess the needs in order to decide whether new or remanufactured production equipment is the best alternative. The purpose of this article is to explore key parameters that differentiate the remanufacturing from the acquisition of new production technology projects and their impact on the collaboration with the equipment supplier. Based on these parameters we propose support for deciding whether to develop new production technology or to remanufacture the current one.

  • 270.
    Rösiö, Carin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hedsttöm, Robert
    Linking Production Strategy to Production System Specification - A Case Study2009In: Proceedings of The International 3'rd Swedish Production Symposium, Göteborg, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 271.
    Rösiö, Carin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping Tekniska Högskolan.
    Jackson, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping Tekniska Högskolan.
    Enable Changeability in Manufacturing Systems by Adopting a Life Cycle Perspective2009In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual Production, October 5-7, Munich, Germany, 2009, p. 612-621Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An overall industrial objective is to develop and operate manufacturing systems that easily can be changed according to customer requirements, production volumes, and new product generations. Such a manufacturing system needs to be developed with the manufacturing footprint in mind, comprising solutions at a conceptual and technical level that can be standardized and duplicated for new geographical locations. This demands the mindset and the incentives of the anufacturing industry to define and implement a life cycle approach when designing, thinking in system generations and recycling of solutions. It requires an integrated development process of the product and the manufacturing system with conscious planning of a ‘manufacturing systems portfolio’ that corresponds to the product portfolio. These are issues addressed in this paper with the objective to investigate available methods or tools for manufacturing system design, how they correspond to the product portfolio, and how they support life cycle perspective.

  • 272.
    Rösiö, Carin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Jönköping University.
    Reconfigurable production system design – theoretical and practical challenges2013In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786, Vol. 7, p. 998-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore theoretical and practical challenges to achieve reconfigurable production system designs. Design/methodology/approach - The empirical material of this paper includes a multiple-case study with an embedded design (Yin) including four cases, where each case represents a production system design project. The consideration of reconfigurability and its characteristics in the production system design projects was studied. To enhance validity, two real-time studies were combined with two retrospective studies (Leonard-Barton). Findings - For more than a decade foresight reports have pointed out the need for responsiveness to change through reconfigurability in production system design. In order to achieve reconfigurable production systems, three challenges were identified: to use a structured design methodology, to gain knowledge in reconfigurability and its characteristics, and to include the reconfigurability knowledge in a structured design methodology. Still there is no comprehensive support available for reconfigurability in the production system design process. Research limitations/implications - Limitations are mostly related to the chosen methodology approach, and additional empirical studies to establish generic results are required. Practical implications - By combining knowledge from the production system design field with the reconfigurable manufacturing system field a potential of meeting identified challenges is pointed out. Originality/value - This paper adds to current knowledge by pointing out three main challenges to achieving reconfigurable production systems. The paper also contributes with ideas on how to respond to these challenges.

  • 273.
    Saeedpoor, M.
    et al.
    Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran.
    Vafadarnikjoo, A.
    Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran.
    Mobin, M.
    Western New England University, MA, United States .
    Rastegari, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    A servqual model approach integrated with fuzzy AHP and fuzzy topsis methodologies to rank life insurance firms2015In: International Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Management 2015, ASEM 2015, 2015, p. 605-614Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ranking life insurance firms, particularly regarding customer-oriented criteria, has become a significant research priority of many insurance research centers. This is mainly due to the effective role of life insurance in improving the capital market and the role of service quality in customer satisfaction. This issue has remained one of the major topics associated with insurance industry which has not been sufficiently explored in the literature. This study aims at prioritizing insurance firms which hold the majority proportion of Iran's total life insurance market. Life insurers are assessed and ranked with regard to 5 criteria of customer service quality in the SERVQUAL model as well as opinions of 43 qualified insurance brokers in Tehran, Iran. Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) is utilized to determine the importance weight of each criterion of the SERVQUAL (service quality) model. After which, the Fuzzy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (Fuzzy TOPSIS) is applied in order to rank the firms. Both Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) methods are conducted in the fuzzy environment to handle the uncertainty and impreciseness of one's subjective judgments. The results revealed the ranking of 13 Iranian insurance companies in the context of life insurance. 

  • 274.
    Sahlander, Roland
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Framtagande av dynamiskt VSM-verktyg: Ett utvecklingsarbete hos ABB Robotics2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Introduction and purpose

    Development of a VSM tool has been done by performing experimental field work at ABB Robotics, a company that mass produces industrial robots and associated accessories. The tool development, the primary part of the project, mainly puts focus on production aspects. Furthermore, it has been centered on plant layouts of the product layout kind (production line).

    The purpose of the development is to create a tailored VSM tool that auto generates a foundation for value stream maps based on calculations and possibly simple simulation. The purpose is broken down into two questions where concrete problems can be illustrated:

    A) How should the VSM tool plainly signal capacity vs. demand, time balances in production and the ratio between value and non-value adding aspects as well as intuitively promote knowledge and in a simple and fast manner be applicable to different kinds of production lines?

    B) Which constraints are placed on the potential of the VSM tool due to the current situation of the company, how does this contradict the main principles of VSM and how can the company work to maximize the tool´s potential in the future?

    Methodology and knowledge

    The development which is characterized by continuous counseling and feedback with the internal mentor is mainly based on laboratory work in Excel. In addition, the work has also involved the making of a user guide as well as an adjustable function for indicating production effects with colors. An evaluation of the tool and the user guide has also been made, which mainly is supported by a test run with the internal mentor and the nature of the methodology.

    The knowledge that the development uses as its footing mainly involves process- and value stream maps from the company, discussions with company personnel, self-performed laboratory work and theory from Rother and Shooks book “Lära sig se” (2005) and Drew. A. Locher´s book “Value Stream Mapping for Lean Development” (2008).

    Results

    The VSM tool manages, in a relevant way, to factor in all aspects that can be interpreted using a typical value stream map. In addition it also provides the following: balances between workstations and production lines, suggestions for amount of WIP between these, simple simulation of WIP between these, disturbance aspects, three total times; manufacturing lead time, inventory time and value adding time as well as a graphic illustration over production courses. The results are considered to fulfill the purpose of the project.

    Conclusion and future meaning

    The development results in a hybrid solution of sorts, a tool that exists somewhere in-between the typical draw-by-hand VSM work and simulation software. Its advantage is that it combines VSM theory with intuitive, swift and practical usage, which goes well in hand with today´s fluctuating conditions where time pressure of different kinds are present. The drawback is that the concept as a whole requires complementing in the form of Lean knowledge and gemba observations. Furthermore, there are implications associated with some types of parallel production and editing of the tool, which is to be addressed before implementation. In order to fully utilize the tool, the company also has to examine production times and make a minor adjustment to the process of collecting disturbance data. Three suggestions for the future are given; to study availability, transport aspects and the measuring of production times.

  • 275.
    Salloum, Mohammed
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    From Metrics to Process: Towards a Dynamic and Flexible Performance Measurement System for Manufacturing Systems2009In: Proceedings of third swedish production symposium / [ed] B-G Rosén, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance measurement systems are challenged by today’s rapidly changing and highly competitive markets. Measures and management of these systems often fail to continuously reflect the dynamic business environment. This purpose of this paper is to discuss how to achieve a dynamic and flexible performance measurement system applicable for manufacturing sites. The analysis is based on a literature review on major performance measurement schemes, as well as a problem identified in industry. The paper introduces an industrial case where the current measurement at Operations is briefly evaluated and put in relation to the findings made in the literature study. The industrial challenges and possibilities are set as one basis for a proposed future structure. Important aspects on unctionalities/abilities for future research as well as development at the case company when choosing indicators and their implementation are discussed.

  • 276.
    Salloum, Mohammed
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Johansson, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Aligning Dynamic Performance Measures2010In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE, Wroclaw, Poland, 2010, p. 339-349Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few existing performance measurement systems emphasis the need for a performance management process, instead management is perceived as a once-off initial occurrence. Therefore performance measures and management of these measurement systems often fail to continuously reflect the current dynamic business environment. This creates a paradox with organisations using performance metrics that are obsolete or redundant due to the unfamiliarity of changing them. Few researchers have tried to answer the question how performance measures evolve and act in their milieus after the implementation phase. The need for a dynamic approach to performance measurement is not widely addressed and viable processes which can be used by management teams in a consistent manner are inquired. Corporations need tools to integrate and update performance measurement systems rationally and systematically as context and opportunities change. Without a nurturing infrastructure a performance measurement system can not stay viable. Without a process keeping the performance measurement system viable measuring becomes valueless and even destructive. As it is generally accepted both in academia and practice that business strategy is dynamic and ever changing in nature a consensus is growing that performance measurement systems must be accounted for when direction changes. The purpose of this paper is twofold, firstly to primary single out and present theoretically crucial characteristics for dynamic and flexible performance measurement systems. Secondly, to investigate to what extent the theoretical parameters are applied in practice. The article is divided into three parts; firstly, the literature within the field of performance measurement systems is filtrated to identify theoretically crucial factors for a dynamic performance measurement system. Secondly, the theoretical factors are observed in practice through two case studies and a cross-case analysis. Finally, the article is rounded up with a discussion over why organisations should focus on alignment of measures and objectives as a first step in their pursuit of dynamic measurement systems.

  • 277. Salonen, Antti
    Formulation of maintenance strategies: A simplified process2012In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 9-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is large financial potential in optimum production maintenance. Research has indicated that as much as one third of the maintenance cost is unnecessarily spent due to bad planning, overtime costs, bad use of preventive maintenance etc. However, studies have shown that few manufacturing companies consider maintenance to be a strategic area. Even among those firms that do have a maintenance strategy it is not evident that their strategies are clearly linked to the business strategies. Many companies in the manufacturing industry seem to find formulation of maintenance strategies to be difficult. To some extent this is due to lack of formal competence in maintenance management. Also companies often find the formulation process too resource demanding. Therefore, maintenance strategies are not widely used in manufacturing industry today. In addition, there seems to be no clear picture of what components a maintenance strategy could or should include. With this in mind, this paper aims at presenting a process for the formulation of maintenance strategies in discrete item manufacturing organizations. Important criteria for the formulation process are that it is easy to follow and that it does not require vast amount of resources.

    The results show that the formulation process, developed and tested in this study, has been easy to use and understand. The three case companies have found that their new maintenance strategies have given them a good picture of the present situation, as well as good guidance in their necessary improvement work.

  • 278.
    Salonen, Antti
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Identification of Maintenance Performance Indicators through consensus investigation2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimum maintenance may be expressed as: “to achieve the agreed plant operating pattern, availability and product quality within the accepted plant condition (for longevity)and safety standards, and at minimum resource cost.” But in order to achieve this, the use of performance indicators is necessary in order to evaluate both the efficiency and the effectiveness of the maintenance activities. There are numerous measures to be used for this and not always easy to select which ones to use. Several authors have expressed the need for alignment with the main organizational goals, and also the need for stakeholder involvement when identifying feasible measures. In this paper a case study is presented, in which an attempt to identify suitable maintenance performance indicators through stakeholder involvement has been performed. Except for the maintenance department, external customer, that is, the production department has been involved in expressing their expectations on the use of maintenance performance indicators. The result from the investigation, together with the expressed vision and mission of the maintenance and production department, has formed a solid foundation for establishing a feasible set of maintenance performance indicators.

  • 279.
    Salonen, Antti
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Tabikh, Mohamad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Downtime Costing-Attitudes in Swedish Manufacturing Industry2016In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 10TH WORLD CONGRESS ON ENGINEERING ASSET MANAGEMENT (WCEAM 2015), 2016, p. 539-544Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the process industry, generally shows a high awareness on the financial implications of low availability, the manufacturing industry is still quite ignorant. The traditional setup of discrete item manufacturing systems has been fairly forgiving of low availability. However, by applying lean principles, the discrete item production system resembles process industry, regarding sensitivity to disturbances. Still, the awareness of the financial impact of downtime seems to be low in manufacturing industry. This is a problem since it makes it harder to justify costs for investments in increased availability. This paper presents a study of the view and attitudes towards the cost of downtime in Swedish manufacturing industry. The answers indicate that the respondents have rather vague ideas of the costs associated with downtime. Further, they rarely quantify the downtime costs that often associated with maintenance of production equipment. However, without any proper financial measures for downtime costs, the companies lack proper incentives for investing time and resources on the necessary optimization of their maintenance programs.

  • 280.
    Samuelsson, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Lundgren, Micaela
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Lean automation: Riktlinjer för arbete med robotceller i ett lean produktionssystem2007Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    THIS PAPER IS BASED on thesis work done at Volvo CE Component

    Division in Eskilstuna, from April to October 2007. The thesis work

    considered industrial robots within lean production. The purpose was to

    come up with guidelines on how to work with industrial robots and

    design productions cells in a lean environment. The authors have used

    various techniques e.g. literature study, study visit and interviews to reach

    their result. First the authors tried to make a picture of and define lean

    automation and then they wanted to compare that picture with the

    present state of the factory. The purpose was to limit the thesis work to

    the part of automation that is built by industrial robots and therefore only

    this type of automation is considered in the current state analysis. The

    authors consider that a holistic view and a stable foundation are the most

    important things to start to work with lean automation. The result that is

    presented in this thesis is most of the times far from specific for the design

    of the individual cells since the authors felt it more important to focus on

    building the right environment for lean automation. The easiest and

    quickest way to summarize the work is the guidelines that are based on

    the current state analysis made at CE Component Division and the

    authors’ definition of lean automation. The purpose of the guidelines are

    to give Component a picture of how to work to create clearer directives

    when, where and how much the company wishes to implement

    automation. At the same time they are also meant to help build a structure

    for work with maintenance, internal transports, packaging etc. The paper

    also presents a way to work as well as a suggestion on how to work with

    building an individual cell could be conducted.

  • 281.
    Sandberg, Pontus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A work process supporting the implementation of smart factory technologies developed in smart factory compliant laboratory environment2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The industry is facing major challenges today. The challenges are tougher global competition, customers who require individualized products and shorter product lifecycles. The predicted industrial revolution is a way to deal with these challenges. Industry 4.0 includes strategies linked to several technologies that will meet the new needs. Smart factory is a central concept in industry 4.0, which involves connected technologies of various kinds. Such as digital manufacturing technology, network communication technology, computer technology, automation technology and several other areas. In this work, these were defined as smart factory technologies. Implementing such technologies will result in improved flexibility, resource productivity and efficiency, quality, etc. But, implementing smart factory technologies poses major challenges for the companies.

    Laboratory environments can be utilized to address the challenges. This results in a new problem, how to transfer a smart factory technology developed in a laboratory environment to a full-scale production system. In the literature study no, structured approach was identified to handle this challenge. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to: create a work process that supports the technology transfer from a smart factory compliant laboratory environment to a full-scale production system. To justify the purpose, the following research questions were answered:

    RQ1: What are the differences in the operating environment between the laboratory and the full-scale production system?

    RQ2: How is a smart factory technology determined ready to be implemented into a full-scale production system?

    RQ3: What critical factors should a work process for the implementation of smart factory technologies include?

    The research questions were answered by conducting a multiple-case study in collaboration with Scania CV AB. During the case studies, interviews, observations and other relevant types of data collection were conducted.

    The results were as follows:

    RQ1: How difficult it is to transfer a technology from a laboratory environment to a full-scale production system depends on how large the differences between these are. The general difference is that laboratory environments are used to experiment and develop technologies and a full-scale production system is used to produce products. Some want the laboratory environment to be an exact copy of a full-scale production system, but this is not appropriate because it means you lose the freedom of experimentation and it would be much more expensive.

    RQ2: Determining whether a smart factory technology is ready consists of two parts, laboratory activities and pilot testing. A structured assessment method has been developed. The laboratory operations reduce the risks and contribute to raising the degree of maturity of the technology. In pilot testing, it is important not to interfere with the full-scale production system stability. This is the reason for doing pilot testing in a delimited area first and checking that the technology works as desired.

    RQ3: The critical factors identified were: competence and knowledge, technology contributing to improvements, considering risks with implementation, cost versus potential improvement, clear goals and reason for implementation and communication.

  • 282.
    Sannö, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Blixtlåsmodellen: Införande av hållbarhet i produktion2018Report (Other academic)
  • 283.
    Sannö, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Ahlskog, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Integrating knowledge for manufacturing technology development2019In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 23, p. 65-83Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry of today is constantly challenged with new requirements that have to be fulfilled in order to stay competitive on both the short term and the longer term. These new requirements can trigger the need to develop the technology in production. With technology development come uncertainties which can be reduced by integrating new knowledge in the organisation. The overall purpose of this paper is to explain empirically how knowledge integration can be managed in order to reduce the uncertainty of manufacturing technology development while balancing resources towards the short-term production needs. The findings of the current research highlight collaboration, specialist competence and a systematic approach considering the setting, which needs to be managed when conducting manufacturing technology development during full production.

  • 284.
    Sannö, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Deleryd, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Drivers for implementing environmental requirements - an international explorative study within manufacturing2015In: Journal of Operations and Supply Chain Management, ISSN 1984-3046, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies need to adapt their production processes in order to meet future environmental requirements. The implementation of new technology can be time-consuming and requires skills in change management but also an awareness of possible impacts and effects on the life cycle of the products. This paper combines theories from change management with empirical data from four cases of adaption of new requirements on surface treatment processes in manufacturing. Key factors for change triggered by environmental requirements are identified and verified with factors identified in change management literature. Results show that, in order not to influence functionality and performance negatively, testing and verification as well as changing few variables are important for environmental change management. Furthermore, knowledge and skills in the specific area as well as experimental capabilities are required but also collaboration internally and with external stakeholders are of importance. A model of change is proposed including three phases; readiness for change, technology verification and implementation in production. In addition, four time-related aspects are considered important to plan for; sense of urgency, time for development, strategic path and reviews for long-term projects.

  • 285.
    Sannö, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Deleryd, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    IMPLICATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS: – CHANGE PROCESSES IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS2013In: International Conference on Production Research, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New requirements from environmental and sustainability perspectives trigger new demands on companies and abilities to change their production systems. The objective of this paper is to present a multiple, retrospective case study where new solutions to meet environmental requirements have been implemented. The cases have been reviewed based on how the companies have managed to sustain and assure the functionality and performance of products when they were adapting and developing surface treatment processes. The paper presents criteria for a successful implementation, as well as obstacles and their effect on the business. A risk exposure is identified when changing the chemical processes, and certain key factors, such as testing and verification, cooperation, management and clear directives, committed key persons, and the number of variables in change, are identified as important for a successful implementation.

  • 286.
    Sannö, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Rothenberg, Sandra
    Saunders College of Business, Rochester Institute of Technology, US.
    Long-term Technical Change in a Fast-paced Manufacturing SettingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 287.
    Sannö, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Ström, Carin
    City of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Deleryd, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Management of environmentally driven change projects2016In: International Journal of Sustainable Economy, ISSN 1756-5804, E-ISSN 1756-5812, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 189-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry is a key player in the transition to a more sustainable society. Nevertheless, even though several efforts have been made in practice and in academia, more research is needed in relation to implementing sustainable solutions. Accordingly, the aim of the paper is to understand how manufacturing organisations can develop their operations to improve their way to respond to and manage change projects driven by environmental requirements. A multiple international case study is conducted, including nine case companies. The paper explores how the key factors for managing environmentally driven change can be integrated in the organisation, from the project – the core process – and the cultural perspective. A model is developed that can be used for operations managers to support their strategic planning of environmental change projects.

  • 288.
    Sauter, Barrett
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hanging installation which strengthens a business' image2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is to use the tools and methods used when developing a product to develop a large hanging installation for a business wishing to strengthen their identity. The business is that of a local gym, Crossfit Walleye. The business continuously strives to develop their members as athletes as well as their gym as a space which portrays the identity of the business.By introducing an installation, Crossfit Walleye hopes to strengthen their identity and continue in their development. The installation shall blend in with the current gym environment and also enhance the atmosphere of its environment. Therefore the problems which were undertaken through this project include discovering how the business’ image could be displayed through a large, hanging installation, what form the installation would take, and determining what components and manufacturing methods would be necessary to bring the installation to fruition.The methods used through this process included examining all aspects of the problems set out, examining the current gym environment, conducting interviews of both the business owners and the members, and observing other current products which would fulfill the problems set out in similar ways. Solutions to the problem were modeled in various ways such as both physically and digitally, and in all sizes such as scaled-down and life size. The manufacturing methods and materials were also explored for producing the separate components.The final product resulted in a large hanging installation which conforms to the requirements set out by Crossfit Walleye. It resembles three hanging banners which would be placed in the corner of the large gym space. The final piece fits in with its current surroundings through shape, color, and feeling, as well as strengthening the atmosphere of the gym. By following a technical method and utilizing processes such as those used in product design, a sculptural installation was realized which adds interest and a visual focal point to the gym environment and strengthens Crossfit Walleye’s image.

  • 289.
    Sauter, Barrett
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ultra-light weight design through additive manufacturing2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABB Corporate Research was looking to redevelop one product to be manufactured via polymer additive manufacturing (AM), as opposed to its previously traditionally manufacturing method. The current product is cylindrical in shape and must withstand a certain amount of hydrostatic pressure. Due to the pressure and the current design, the cannister is prone to buckling failure. The cannister is currently produced from two cylindrical tube parts and two spherical end sections produced from solid blocks of the same material. For assembly, an inner assembly is inserted into one of the tube parts and then all parts are welded together. This product is also custom dimensioned for each purchase order. The purpose of investigating this redevelopment for AM is to analyse if an updated inner design unique to additive manufacturing is able to increase the performance of the product by increasing the pressure it can withstand from both a material failure standpoint and a buckling failure. The redevelopment also aims to see if the component count and process count can be decreased. Ultimately, two product solutions are suggested, one for low pressure ranges constructed in ABS and one for high pressure ranges constructed in Ultem 1010. To accomplish this, relevant literature was referred to gain insight into how to reinforce cylindrical shell structures against buckling. Design aspects unique to AM were also explored. Iterations of these two areas were designed and analysed, which led to a final design choice being decided upon. The final design is ultimately based on the theory of strengthening cylindrical structures against buckling through the use of ring stiffeners while also incorporating AM unique design aspects in the form of hollow network structures. By utilizing finite element analysis, the design was further developed until it held the pressure required. Simulation results suggest that the ABS product can withstand 3 times higher pressure than the original design while being protected against failure due to buckling. The Ultem simulation results suggest that the product can withstand 12 times higher pressure than the current design while also being protected against failure due to buckling. Part count and manufacturing processes are also found to have decreased by half. Post-processing treatments were also explored, such as the performance of sealants under pressure and the effects of sealants on material mechanical properties. Results show that one sealant in particular, an acrylic spray, is most suitable to sealing the ABS product. It withstood a pressure of 8 bar during tests. The flexural tests showed that the sealant did indeed increase certain mechanical properties, the yield strength, however did not affect the flexural modulus significantly. This work gives a clear indication that the performance of this product is feasibly increased significantly from redeveloping it specifically to AM.

  • 290.
    Schaeffer, Jennie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Johansson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Karlsson, Helena
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Presencing and Downloading: in Photo-supported Group Discussions on Innovation2017In: XXVIII ISPIM Innovation Conference ISPIM 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The overall research focus in the study is how photographs can be used in workplace innovation processes. This work-in-progress paper discusses photo-supported group discussions on innovation as an approach to incorporate employees in the development of a radically innovative culture. The method involves managers and engineers in a process that transforms their conceptions of innovation into visuals and words, and provides a possibility for collective reflection based on these formulations. Enabling all employees to use their experiences and knowledge in workplace innovation is an opportunity being pursued in Sweden. The paper is a starting point to discuss whether or not the method of photo supported discussion on innovation could be helpful to support a shift to a radically innovative culture. The concepts of downloading or presencing are introduced to analyse the method.

  • 291.
    Schaeffer, Jennie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Lindell, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Emotions in design2016In: Information Design Journal, ISSN 0142-5471, E-ISSN 1569-979X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 19-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operators in highly automated control rooms are said to be constantly bored, and boredom is an emotional state that can have economic and environmental consequences. This article presents insights into users' emotions and their role in the design of control rooms. The study focused on the users' experience in two control rooms, where operators explored their emotions in relation to a situation, object, place, or action. Based on the results of the study and previous research, this article examines control room's information design and makes recommendations on how it might be given a tangible and ambient form.

  • 292.
    Schedin, Joel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Assessment of newness in a production system: Experiences from the heavy duty vehicle industry2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 293.
    Schedin, Joel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Deleryd, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Newness analysis - an approach to quality assurance in production system development2016In: 23rd EurOMA conference EUROMA 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 294.
    Schedin, Joel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Svensson Harari, Natalia
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Deleryd, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Management of newness in an assembly system2016In: Journal of Machine Engineering, ISSN 1895-7595, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 92-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for new products to suit differentiated customer needs and shorter product life-cycles, forces manufacturers to change or modify products and production systems at more frequent intervals. The objective of this paper is to discuss management of newness within assembly system design in the vehicle industry. Based on a case study covering four assembly development projects, a model using the quality concept of “7M” is presented to evaluate the level of newness. The results show that the model provides a promising platform for evaluation of newness. 

  • 295.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    MATERIAL EFFICIENCY MANAGEMENT IN MANUFACTURING2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Material efficiency is a key solution to provide a reduction in the total environmental impact of global manufacturing, which contributes to avoid generating larger volumes of industrial waste, to reduce extracting and consuming ever more resources and to decrease energy demand and carbon emissions. However, the area of material efficiency in manufacturing has been under-researched and related knowledge is limited.

    The research objective of this thesis is to contribute to the existing body of knowledge regarding material efficiency in manufacturing - to increase understanding, describe the existing situation and develop support for improvement. This thesis focuses on value of process and residual materials in material efficiency: to increase homogenous quality of generated waste with higher segregation rate, decreasing the amount of material becoming waste and reduce total virgin raw material consumption without influencing the function and quality of a product or process.

    To achieve the objective, material efficiency strategies, existing state of material efficiency in manufacturing and barriers that avert higher material efficiency improvement have been investigated. The results are supported by four structured literature reviews and two [MW1] empirical multiple case studies at large global manufacturing companies in Sweden, mainly automotive. Empirical studies include observations, interviews, waste stream mapping, waste sorting analysis, environmental report reviews and walkthroughs in companies to determine the material efficiency and industrial waste management systems.

    The empirical results revealed that material efficiency improvement potential of further waste segregation to gain economic and environmental benefits is still high. Determining different waste segments and relative fractions along with calculating material efficiency performance measurements facilitate improvements in material efficiency. In addition to attempts for waste generation reduction, avoiding blending and correct segregation of different waste fractions is an essential step towards material efficiency. The next step is to improve the value of waste fractions i.e. having more specific cost-effective fractions. Waste Flow Mapping proves to be an effective practical tool to be utilized at manufacturing companies in order to check and explore the improvement opportunities.

    In addition, a number of barriers that hinder material efficiency was identified. The most influential material efficiency barriers are Budgetary, Information, Management and Employees. The majority of identified material efficiency barriers are internal, originate inside the company itself and are dependent upon the manufacturing companies’ characteristics. As a result, management and employees’ attitude, environmental knowledge and environmental motivation, as well as their internal communication and information sharing, and companies’ core value and vision are the enablers for material efficiency improvement.

  • 296.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Swerea IVF, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Wiktorsson, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kurdve, M.
    Swerea IVF, Mölndal, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Using the green performance map: Towards material efficiency measurement2018In: Operations Management and Sustainability: New Research Perspectives, Palgrave Macmillan , 2018, p. 247-269Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous environmental studies indicate several barriers to circular economy and material efficiency including a lack of detailed methodologies for manufacturing improvement in terms of environmental and operational performances to measure, monitor and evaluate material consumption and waste generation. A lean and green tool, the green performance map (GPM), is an appropriate tool for different environmental initiatives including training, improvement, reporting and development. Through literature review and multiple case study methodology, this chapter presents the current application of GPM in industry and its usage to regularly measure and monitor material efficiency measurements on different levels and to remove barriers to improved material efficiency. 

  • 297.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Kurdve, Martin
    Swerea IVF, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Christina
    Swerea IVF, Sweden.
    Bjelkemyr, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Material efficiency in manufacturing: swedish evidence on potential, barriers and strategies2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 127, p. 438-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved material efficiency is a key to improve the circular economy and capturing value in industry. Material efficiency reduces the generation of industrial waste, the extraction and consumption of resources, and energy demands and carbon emissions. However, material efficiency in the manufacturing sector, as a means of improving the recyclability, reusability, reduction and prevention of industrial waste, is little understood. This study aims to investigate, on a micro-level, further material efficiency improvement opportunities, barriers and strategies in selected manufacturing companies in Sweden, focusing on increasing waste segregation into high quality circulated raw material. Improvement opportunities at large global manufacturing companies are investigated; barriers hindering material efficiency improvement are identified and categorized at two levels; and strategies that have been deployed at manufacturing companies are reviewed. Empirical findings reveal (1) further potential for improving material efficiency through higher segregation of residual material from mixed and low quality fractions (on average, 26% of the content of combustible waste, in weight, was plastics; 8% and 6% were paper and cardboard, respectively); (2) the most influential barriers are within budgetary, information, management, employee, engineering, and communication clusters; (3) a lack of actual material efficiency strategy implementation in the manufacturing companies. According to our analysis, the majority of barriers are internal and originate within the manufacturing companies, therefore they can be managed (and eradicated if possible) with sufficient resources in terms of man hours, education and investment, better operational and environmental (waste) management, better internal communication and information sharing, and deployment of material efficiency strategies.

  • 298.
    Sjögren, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Considering Engineering Change Management in Project Realisation: The Case of Offshore Platform Projects2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshore wind converter platforms are complex installations that increase the competitiveness of offshore wind as an energy source. Prior research in the field of offshore platform project execution has focused on early project phases and planning as means to increase project reliability. Later phases such as fabrication, transport and installation have not received the same attention from academia and industry. Projects of this type frequently suffer both large and small deviations. The further projects progress, the more deviations they accumulate. The accumulated deviations have to be resolved in a timely manner so as to avoid impairing the quality and scheduling of an overall project. This research explores the design of converter platforms and the management of engineering change in relation to fabrication, transport and installation in order to increase the overall reliability of projects.

    Two offshore platform projects in three case studies form the source of empirical data. The first of the three studies considered prior research connected to fabrication and installation of offshore platforms. In the second study, the effect of two different platform designs on the fabrication and installation process was investigated. The third study considered engineering change management as a tool to achieve changeability, and examined its ability to buffer against deviations affecting later project phases i.e. fabrication, transport and installation. The findings revealed that the design’s effects on a project’s outcome are often not the driver of reliability. Rather, it was found that engineering change management is essential to any project to manage the changeable nature of projects. This research also raises concerns as to how much engineering change to allow for and in what project phase. That engineering change, as a tool, should preferably be used sparingly in early phases and as necessary in later phases. The observed engineering change process in the studied projects was chaotic.  This research suggests that engineering change can be organised around change carriers. In this way, it is predicted that the processes of change can become more stable and predictable. 

  • 299.
    Sjögren, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Towards a Learning Process for Ad hoc Engineering Change Teams2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering changes disrupt plans, can affect technical solutions negatively, and put project organisations under strain. However, engineering changes are a crucial part of the design process and a prerequisite in adapting to a dynamic project environment.

    Prior research has suggested the efficacy of the pre-emptive actions of reducing the number of, and front-loading, changes. However, pre-emptive measures to stop engineering changes from materialising are difficult to achieve if there are shortcomings in the project processes. Even with formal processes in place, they often fall by the wayside when changes occur, replaced by ad hoc practices. In such cases, when a change is raised, an ad hoc team of practitioners is formed to manage it. In the informal handling of the change that follows, practitioners tend to focus on risk aversion rather than weighing risks against the opportunities.

    To improve the performance of ad hoc teams in managing engineering changes, an organisational-learning approach has been developed. This research is based on the fields of both project- and engineering-change management and applies a multiple case study design with cases from product development and engineering-type projects. Research results are based on data from over 40 interviews with project managers and engineers as well as over 100 change requests, the contents of which were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The research methodologies both of soft systems and projects-as-practice were used to analyse results from qualitative data.

    This research further develops the concept of ad hoc teams in the context of engineering design, thus contributing to the field of strategic guidelines and organisational issues regarding engineering-change management. The strength of the suggested process lies in its capture both of the specific and the practical. It is specific in the sense that it focuses on issues related to emergent changes and its sibling initiated changes to raise awareness of their differences and how they relate to possible opportunities within changes. It is practical in that it acknowledges the importance of an active line-management organisation that supports project planning, execution, and development to sustain a culture of learning as it relates to the engineering-change management process, pre-, in- and post-change. Through a systems view, the process also incorporates change types and the concept of change carriers. Finally, the suggested process includes practical management guidelines for emergent changes and initiated changes. To that end, this research specifies a workshop structure to heighten practitioners’ awareness of their practices and praxis in handling engineering changes. 

  • 300.
    Sjögren, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fagerström, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Structuring the engineering change management process around change carriers2015In: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, 2015, p. 416-420Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research in the field of offshore platform project execution has mainly focused on early project phases and planning, as a means to increase project reliability for offshore installations. Later phases, however, as fabrication, transport and installation have not been given the same attention. Projects of this kind frequently suffer both large and small deviations and as projects progress deviations accumulate. Deviations then have to be resolved in a timely manner not to impair quality and scheduling of an overall project. Empirical data was gathered from two offshore platform projects in the form of archival data, observations and interviews. The findings revealed that engineering change, as a tool, should preferably be used sparingly in early phases and as necessary in later phases. This research also suggests that engineering change can be organized around change carriers. In this way, it is predicted that the processes of change can become more stable and predictable.

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