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  • 20751.
    Wulff, Cornelia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Are general mental ability and psychosocial work characteristics related to midlife health in working women and men?2010In: Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 0896-4289, E-ISSN 1940-4026, p. S199-S200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychosocial work conditions including high demands, lack of control and support have been linked to poor health. Yet, the influence of individual factors such as general mental ability (GMA) remains to be examined. The present study set out to investigate how childhood mental ability and psychosocial work characteristics relate to different health indicators in a cohort of working women (n= 271) and men (n=291). Specifically, childhood GMA and self-reports of job demands, job control and social support were linked to two positive health indicators (sense of coherence and self-rated health) and two negative health indicators (musculoskeletal problems and anxiety). In view of the gendered labor market and variations in health patterns between women and men, gender specific analyses were performed. Results revealed no linkages between childhood GMA and the health indicators included. Further, there were no significant interactions between GMA and the psychosocial factors. The overall impact of occupational level was low and controlling for occupational level did not change the results much. These findings are likely to result from the study cohort being fairly homogeneous and the women and men being in good health.

  • 20752.
    Wulff, Cornelia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Childhood General Mental Ability and Midlife Psychosocial Work Characteristics as Related to Mental Distress, Neck/Shoulder Pain and Self-rated Health in Working Women and Men2011In: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 439-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood General Mental Ability and Midlife Psychosocial Work Characteristics as Related to Mental Distress, Neck/Shoulder Pain and Self-rated Health in Working Women and Men: Cornelia WULFF, et al. Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden Psychosocial work characteristics including high demands, lack of control and poor social support have consistently been linked to poor health as has poor general mental ability (GMA). However, less is known about the relationships between stable individual factors such as GMA, psychosocial work characteristics and health. Objective: The present study investigated how childhood mental ability and psychosocial work characteristics relate to health in terms of mental distress, neck/shoulder pain (NSP) and self-rated health (SRH). Methods: Data on childhood GMA, occupational level, self-reports of demands, control and social support and health (mental distress, NSP and SRH) in midlife came from working women (n=271) and men (n=291) included in a Swedish school cohort. Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for occupational level, were used to examine associations between childhood GMA, self-reports of high demands, low control and poor social support and the three health indicators. Taking into consideration the gendered labor market and variations in health patterns between women and men, gender specific analyses were performed. Results: There were no significant associations between childhood GMA and health indicators. Further, there were no significant interactions between GMA and psychosocial work factors. As regards the strength of the associations between GMA, psychosocial work factors and health, no consistent differences emerged between women and men. Conclusions: In a cohort of healthy and working middle-aged women and men, self-reports of current psychosocial work characteristics seem to be more strongly linked to health, than are stable childhood factors such as GMA.

  • 20753.
    Wulff, Cornelia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Do general mental ability and psychosocial work characteristics predict different aspects of health in middle-aged working women and men?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychosocial work conditions including high demands, lack of control and poor support have been linked to poor health. Yet, it is unclear whether individual factors such as general mental ability (GMA) are important. Objective: The present study set out to investigate how childhood mental ability and psychosocial work characteristics relate to positive and negative health indicators. Methods: Data on childhood GMA, occupational level, self-reports of demands, control and social support and negative health indicators (anxiety and musculoskeletal disorders) and positive health indicators (sense of coherence and self-rated health) in midlife came from a cohort of working women (n=271) and men (n=291). Hierarchical regression analyses, with and without controlling for occupational level, were used to examine associations between childhood GMA and self-reports of high demands, low control and poor social support and the four health indicators. Taking into consideration the gendered labor market and variations in health patterns between women and men, gender specific analyses were performed. Results: The analyses showed no associations between childhood GMA and the health indicators. Further, there were no significant interactions between GMA and the psychosocial work factors. Moreover, the overall impact of occupational level was low and controlling for occupational level did not change the overall findings. Conclusions: In a fairly homogeneous cohort of healthy and working middle-aged women and men, current psychosocial work conditions are more strongly linked to self-reports of health, than are childhood factors such as GMA.

  • 20754.
    Wulff, Cornelia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hur förhåller sig begåvning i skolåldern och psykosocial arbetsbelastning i vuxenlivet till olika aspekter av självrapporterad hälsa bland yrkesarbetande kvinnor och män?2010Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykosociala arbetsmiljöfaktorer såsom höga krav, låg kontroll och bristfälligt socialt stöd har återkommande kopplats till sämre hälsa. Dock är det fortfarande oklart om individuella faktorer såsom begåvning har någon betydelse i sammanhanget. Föreliggande studie syftade till att undersöka hur tidig begåvning och psykosocial arbetsmiljö hänger samman med positiva och negativa aspekter av hälsa i en kohort yrkesarbetande kvinnor (n=271) och män (n=291). Begåvning i barndomen och självskattningar av krav, kontroll och socialt stöd i arbetet relaterades till självrapporterade positiva (känsla av sammanhang och självskattad hälsa) och negativa hälsoindikatorer (muskelbesvär och oro/ångest) i medelåldern. Med hänsyn till skillnader i hälsa mellan kvinnor och män och det faktum att kvinnor och män återfinns inom olika yrken och därmed möter olika psykosociala arbetsvillkor genomfördes analyser separat för kvinnor och män. Resultat från analyser med respektive utan hänsyn till yrkesnivå visade inte på någon signifikant betydelse av begåvning i relation till de olika hälsoindikatorerna. Det fanns inte heller några signifikanta interaktionseffekter mellan begåvning och psykosociala arbetsmiljöfaktorer. Yrkesnivå hade genomgående ett lågt förklaringsvärde. Dessa resultat kan hänga samman med att denna yrkesarbetande kohort är förhållandevis homogen och att dessa medelålders kvinnor och män fortfarande uppvisar en förhållandevis god hälsa.

  • 20755.
    Wulff Sahlén, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Interactive Technology in the FL Classroom: Using Polling and Chat to Promote Student Participation in Campus Education2011In: Conference Proceedings, International Conference ICT for Language Learning, 4th Edition / [ed] Pixel, Milano: Simonelli Editore - University Press , 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a project where polling and chat were used in the foreign language classroom to promote student participation and, at the same time, provide a record of student contributions. The setting is a Swedish university course in grammar and translation for advanced learners of English. The majority of seminars are devoted to discussing translation assignments that students have prepared at home. During the project, Adobe Connect Pro, a web conferencing solution for online meetings, was used, and all students had access to a computer in the classroom. For each seminar, an online meeting was set up in Adobe Connect with the following tools enabled:

    • A poll, used as a clicker at the start of the seminar to gather input from students on a specific language issue.
    • A chat, where students typed in their solutions to the translation assignment.
    • A whiteboard, where a selection of student solutions were displayed for feedback and discussion.

    Student evaluations of the project express that students are positive to using online technology in the classroom. The students participated actively in the poll and chat sessions. In the subsequent oral discussions, participation was remarkably wide. From the teacher’s perspective, the chat provided a written record of student contributions that could be used for further analysis and discussion. Some challenges included managing both written and oral communication in the classroom, and dealing with larger chunks of text in the chat.

     

  • 20756.
    Wuopio, Emilié
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Källman, Malin
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    "Matte är så mycket mer än att räkna tal i en bok" Lärares syn på att undervisa utan lärobok2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att ta reda på lärares syn på att undervisa utan en lärobok i årskurs 1-3. Vårt arbete är en kvalitativ studie och vi har intervjuat åtta lärare som har erfarenhet av att undervisa utan lärobok och vi har undersökt vilka anledningar som de ser till att välja bort läroboken från undervisningen. Arbetets fokus ligger på planeringen innan själva genomförandet av matematikundervisningen, valet av material och vilka andra saker som kan tänkas påverka organiseringen av undervisningen. Därför har vi valt att utforma intervjufrågorna efter två huvudområden, först en mer allmän syn på området och sedan fördjupade vi oss i planeringen och organiseringen av undervisningen. Resultatet av vår undersökning är att läraren måste våga variera undervisningen och ge eleverna möjlighet att testa på flera olika arbetssätt. Läraren måste våga tro på sina egna kunskaper och inte alltid förlita sig på andra samtidigt så kan läroboken ses som ett hjälpmedel och en stöttning då läraren känner att man behöver det. Resultatet visar också att den största påverkan på organisering av undervisningen var tiden.      

  • 20757.
    Wyman, Oliver
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Alexander, Bannink
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Trust in financial transaction providers: A qualitative study of Swedish Millennials and the trust they place in banks and alternative financial transaction providers.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Firstly, to investigate if the decline of trust in traditional financial transaction providers, namely banks, has resulted in an increase of trust in Alternate Financial Transaction Providers (AFTP). Secondly, to identify antecedents to building trust in AFTP held by Swedish Millennials.

    Methodology: Qualitative research consisting of focus groups were used to collect primary data. A total of three focus group were held, excluding a trial session. Participants in the focus groups were Swedes between 22 and 30 years of age (Swedish Millennials).

    Findings: That trust in banks amongst Swedish Millennials is decreasing. Concurrently, there is a general willingness of Swedish Millennials to trust AFTP given the presence of certain antecedents (human, technological and organisational). 

  • 20758.
    Wäppling, Lars
    Mälardalen University.
    Varför svarar så få elever på matematikuppgifter med textformulerade frågor?: Hur agerar matematikläraren?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie tas orsaker upp till varför elever inte svarar på textuppgifter i matematik samt exempel på hur läraren agerar under elevens problemlösningsarbete vilket är syftet med studien. Metoden som använts är aktionsforskning. Exempel på svårigheter är språkbrister i svenska och matematik, som stänger ute och orsakar låsningar för eleven. Andra orsaker är brister i lärandets grundförutsättningar som klassrumsklimat med arbetsro och lärarens förväntningar. Läraren kan genom sitt sätt att förklara på olika sätt nå eleven vilket leder till en progression. Vid problemlösning är det viktigt att låta eleven få uttrycka sina tankar genom att rita och skriva. Lärarens uppgift är då att koppla tillbaks till texten under lösningen och vid behov använda laborativa hjälpmedel för att aktivera fler sinnen.

  • 20759.
    Wärdell, Jessica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bäcklund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Pusselbitar till ökat kvinnligt företagande2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår nyfikenhet till denna studie väcktes genom att vi fick reda på att det startas fler företag av kvinnor än av män på Idélab på Mälardalens högskola. Detta är en skillnad mot övriga landet, där fler företag startas av män än av kvinnor statistiskt sätt. Frågan vi ställde oss var vilka faktorer det är som påverkar att statistiken ser ut som den gör på Idélab? För att hitta svaren till detta har vi intervjuat tio kvinnliga företagare som startat sin verksamhet via Idélab, två ur personalen på Idélab och även en sakkunnig person inom ämnet. Intervjuerna gjordes i början av studien för att skapa ett öppet angreppssätt och för att inte styra resultatet allt för mycket av tidigare teorier om ämnet. Denna studie ger ett bidrag till ämnet innovationsteknik genom ytterligare en pusselbit inom området kvinnligt företagande. Även ansatsen där empiri undersökts före teori kan ses som ett bidrag till nytänkande. Avgränsningar för studien är att endast titta på en aktör, nämligen Idélab, och intervjuerna har gjorts med enbart kvinnor för att få ett större fokus på kvinnorna och deras historia.

    Resultat från studien visar att det är flera faktorer som bidrar till det höga antalet företagsstarter av kvinnor via Idélabs verksamhet. Faktorer som de intervjuade företagarna lyfter fram och uppskattar och som tillsammans skapar en arbetsmetod hos Idélab som visar sig vara gynnsam för kvinnor. De faktorer som framkommit genom intervjuerna och som kan påverka antalet kvinnliga företagsstarter via Idélab är verksamhetens värderingar och sätt att jobba, att de stöttar individen mer än själva idén. Idélab erbjuder också genom sin verksamhet tillgång till ett stort nätverk och möjlighet till samarbeten. Företagarna får tillgång till kontorsplats och många av dem får också kunder via Idélab vilket kan bidra till företagsstarterna och ökad tro på sin företagsidé. På Idélab bryts även den traditionella bilden av företagaren ned vilket kan vara gynnsamt för kvinnor då de inte behöver passa in i den traditionella mallen av företagaren som genom tiderna haft en manlig prägel. Idélab ligger också på en institution där hög andel kvinnor finns på utbildningar inom branscher som har en hög andel egna företagare. Det i sin tur gör att det finns gott om egna företagare som förebilder inom dessa yrkesgrenar på Idélab. Att det är så pass många kvinnor som startar företag via Idélabs verksamhet gör också att det över lag finns ett stort antal kvinnliga förebilder på Idélab.

  • 20760.
    Wärn, Emelie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Tuikka, Heidi
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Vårdrelaterade infektioner: Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att vårda patienter med vårdrelaterade infektioner inom slutenvård2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite previous research and guidelines on how nurses and health care workers should work to reduce the risk of spread hospital acquired infection, there is still many patients in somatic care who get affected by this. Patients will be treated longer in hospitals and provides extra costs for the hospitals and the relationship between nurses and patients’ also get affected. Aim: To describe the nurse's experience of caring for patients with hospital acquired infection in closed care. Method: Literature study with qualitative articles. Results: The results showed two themes, the care relationship to the patient and the external environment. These themes describe how the nurses caring towards the patient and how the nurses experienced obstacles as fear and ignorance while it also showed that the possibilities for diligent care. The nurses wanted to give the best care, even though the patients were affected by a hospital acquired infection. The external environment revealed that increased workload and time contributed to the care relationship, both negative and positive. Conclusion: The nurses' experiences of caring for patients with hospital acquired infections, can lead to improving and maintaining good care for the patients. The hope is to reduce the number of patients to get affected and to influence the nurses' working environment in a more pleasant context.

  • 20761.
    Wärn, Sofia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Hur använder sig högstadielärare av elevernas egna erfarenheter och vardagsverkligheter enligt lärare och elever?: -       Ett nygammalt didaktiskt problem.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete har varit att undersöka i vilken grad lärarna i högstadiet arbetar med elevernas ”verkligheter” och erfarenheter. Med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer via mail och direktkontakt har jag intervjuat åtta lärare samt åtta stycken elever. Resultatet visar att lärarna till viss del arbetar på ovannämnda sätt men att detta inte alltid når fram till eleverna. Men när det gör detta så menar eleverna att de ökar motivationen. Ytterligare en  slutsats av arbetet är att det skulle behövas mer utbildning för lärarna inom området. 

  • 20762.
    Wärn, Sofia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Nybildade sammansättningar inom svensk sportjournalistik: Varför skapas de och av vem?2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att kartlägga nybildade sammansättningar inom sportjournalistiken och få ett svar på varför dessa nybildade sammansättningar uppstår och vilken funktion de har. Jag har valt ut en dagstidning i en mellansvensk stad och undersökt tidningens sportdel under månaderna februari, mars, april, juni, juli, oktober, september, november och december åren 2011, 2012 och 2013.  Jag har excerperat samtliga nybildade sammansättningar som inte funnits med i SAOL upplaga 2006 och i Språkbankens sökmotor Korp. Jag har sedan använt mig av en modell av Edlund och Hene (1992:70)  för att analysera vad orsaken samt funktionen är med att använda sig av dessa nybildade sammansättningar.

    I min studie visar det sig att det är oftast journalisterna som skapar nybildade sammansättningar.  Luckor i språket var den vanligaste orsaken till nybildade sammansättningar och funktionen för dessa var mestadels för att beteckna en ny företeelse eller utrycka en värdering. Det finns även nybildade sammansättningar som kunde placeras under orsaken förlaga på annat språk och de var antingen fullständigt eller delvis översatta från sitt originalspråk, engelskan. Gällande nybildade sammansättningar med förlaga på annat språk var de vanligaste funktionerna att beteckna en ny företeelse och variera språket.Slutsatsen för min studie är att det finns nybildade sammansättningar inom sportjournalistik. Det är oftast journalisterna som skapar dessa.

  • 20763.
    Wästborn, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Jag väljer som jag vill: En undersökning om huruvida ungdomar upplever sig påverkas av sina föräldrar vid sina gymnasieval2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats undersöks huruvida ungdomar anser sig påverkas av sina föräldrar när de gör sina gymnasieval och dessutom om det finns några skillnader i denna eventuella påverkan beroende på vid vilken skola eller vilken inriktning ungdomarna studerar vid. Undersökningen har gjorts med ungdomar som studerar vid årskurs tre vid två gymnasieskolor, en friskola samt en naturbruksskola. Den metod som användes var både en kvalitativ en kvantitativ metod, detta i form av intervjuer och enkäter, vilket innebär en metodtriangulering. Som teoretiskt perspektiv användes Pierre Bourdieus teorier om kapital, habitus och fält för att se om det har någon betydelse för hur ungdomar väljer, hur deras föräldrar eventuellt påverkar dem och om det har någon betydelse för eventuella skillnader som kan finnas mellan hur ungdomar vid olika skolor eller inriktningar väljer. Sedan finns även en förförståelse angående att det finns en skillnad i hur ungdomar har påverkats av sina föräldrar beroende på vid vilken skola eller inriktning de studerar. Resultatet av undersökningen tyder på att det finns skillnader både mellan skolorna och till viss del även mellan de olika inriktningarna inom samma skola. Resultatet visar att beroende på vilken skola ungdomarna har valt att studera vid så fanns det en skillnad på hur viktiga olika faktorer var när de sökte gymnasieskola.

  • 20764.
    Wäster Hägg, Johanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Men de kan ju redan läsa!: En kvalitativ undersökning av läsundervisning i årskurs 4–62019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna intervjustudie får sju lärare berätta om hur de läsundervisar sina elever på mellanstadiet. Ämnet har valts för att ta reda på hur lärare utformar sin undervisning i praktiken. Lärarna som tillfrågats läsundervisar genom högläsning och tyst läsning, läsgrupper och läsloggar om och i läsförståelse, lästeknik, språk och ordförråd och motiverar till läsning, inte bara i svenskämnet utan i alla ämnen. Studien visar att lärarna medvetet och omedvetet använder undervisningssätt som är väl förankrade i aktuell läsforskning. Lärarna i studien uttrycker en oro för att inte kunna hjälpa eleverna att välja rätt böcker, och en önskan om att ha mer tid för läsning, och att fler lärare lade mer tid på att arbeta med texterna före, under och efter läsningen. Studien visar också att lärarna inte alltid är helt medvetna om den fulla vidden av sitt läsundervisningsarbete, och att denna omedvetenhet kan bidra till att arbetet med läsundervisningen är mindre tydligt och synligt för elever i årskurs 4–6.

  • 20765.
    Wätte, Regina
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Empati inom social omsorg: En teoretisk och begreppsanalytisk studie av begreppet empati inom social omsorgsverksamhet2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångspunkten för uppsatsen var mitt intresse för omsorgsmötet inom social omsorg. Syftet med studien är att studera begreppet empati utifrån olika teorier, att se vilka kopplingar jag kan göra mellan empati och social omsorg samt att se på vilka sätt empatibegreppet kan bidra till att belysa olika förhållningssätt inom social äldreomsorg. Metoden är kvalitativ litteraturstudie och jag har låtit mig inspireras av hermeneutiken som vetenskapsteori och som tolkningsmetod. Studiet av begreppet empati visar att empati innebär en känsloaspekt och en förståelseaspekt men olika teorier betonar de olika aspekterna olika mycket och lägger olika betydelser i aspekterna. Det visade sig också att man kan ha empati och att man kan vara empatisk. Att ha empati är att känna med och förstå den andra men att vara empatisk innebär att uttrycka empatin för den andra i handling. Fem avhandlingar om social äldreomsorg studeras och analyseras med hjälp av de olika teorierna om empati. Resultatet visar generellt att personalen har empatiska förmågor och att de känner empati med de äldre, men resultatet visar även att det till stor del stannar vid känsla och förståelse och att förståelsen inte leder till empatisk handling. På det sättet är personalens förhållningssätt till omsorgsmottagarna bara delvis empatiskt. Resultatet visar att bristande empatiskt förhållningssätt kan bero på

    omständigheter som organisationsstruktur och arbetets organisering. Även personalens inre psykologiska, känslomässiga och sociala behov samt lojalitetskonflikter och grupptryck kan hindra ett empatiskt förhållningssätt till de äldre. Personalens förståelse för de äldre kan utgå från en generell bild av gruppen äldre och inte från den individuella omsorgsmottagaren. Förhållningssättet är då inte empatiskt, som jag tolkat det. Studien visar att en personlig medvetenhet och ett personligt ansvarstagande i det konkreta omsorgsmötet kan leda till ett empatiskt förhållningssätt.

  • 20766.
    Wätterbjörk, Inger
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Hägglund, Doris
    Örebro universitet.
    Provider strategies for contraceptive counselling among Swedish midwives2011In: British journal of midwifery, ISSN 0969-4900, E-ISSN 2052-4307, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 296-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that in contraceptive counselling the provider sets the agenda. The aim of this study was to describe how a group of Swedish nurse-midwives think and act in their role as contraceptive counsellors. Semi-structured questions were put to a convenience sample of 16 nurse-midwives. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Five categories were identified: exploring the woman's situation; providing information about contraceptive methods; performing medical evaluation; guiding the decision-making process; and following up on the counselling. Results showed that the providers had developed their own strategies and suggest the use of interventions which combine counselling methods to provide information, with a theory for decision-making, to help in giving advice. This study could contribute to personal reflection on contraceptive counselling in practice, both for experienced counsellors and those new to the task.

  • 20767.
    Wågenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Tinglöf, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Hur amning och bröstmjölkersättning framställs i tidskrifter för föräldrar2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20768.
    Wåhlin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Enhanching the Human-Team Awareness of a Robot2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of autonomous robots in our society is increasing every day and a robot is no longer seen as a tool but as a team member. The robots are now working side by side with us and provide assistance during dangerous operations where humans otherwise are at risk. This development has in turn increased the need of robots with more human-awareness. Therefore, this master thesis aims at contributing to the enhancement of human-aware robotics. Specifically, we are investigating the possibilities of equipping autonomous robots with the capability of assessing and detecting activities in human teams. This capability could, for instance, be used in the robot's reasoning and planning components to create better plans that ultimately would result in improved human-robot teamwork performance. we propose to improve existing teamwork activity recognizers by adding intangible features, such as stress, motivation and focus, originating from human behavior models.

    Hidden markov models have earlier been proven very efficient for activity recognition and have therefore been utilized in this work as a method for classification of behaviors.

    In order for a robot to provide effective assistance to a human team it must not only consider spatio-temporal parameters for team members but also the psychological.To assess psychological parameters this master thesis suggests to use the body signals of team members. Body signals such as heart rate and skin conductance. Combined with the body signals we investigate the possibility of using System Dynamics models to interpret the current psychological states of the human team members, thus enhancing the human-awareness of a robot.

  • 20769.
    Wålberg, Ditte
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Solman, Ann - Sofie
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Stadieövergång - starten på något nytt eller början till slutet: En studie om hur elevers behov av stöd i matematik möts när de börjar på gymnasieskolan2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med examensarbetet var att få fördjupad förståelse av hur elevers tidigare erfarenheter och behov av anpassningar och stöd i matematik i grundskolan möts i årskurs 1 på två gymnasieskolor, samt hur informationen kring eleverna överförs mellan skolformerna.

    Studien utgår från en kvalitativ ansats med ett utvecklingsekologiskt och ett sociokulturellt perspektiv. Metoden har varit att få information genom intervjuer vilket har skett genom enskilda intervjuer med åtta matematiklärare på gymnasiet samt två fokusgruppsintervjuer med studie- och yrkesvägledare, speciallärare, specialpedagog och skolsköterska, totalt åtta personer. De två fokusgrupperna är fördelade på en grupp från grundskolan och en grupp från gymnasieskolan. I den samverkan som sker mellan elevhälsan på grundskolan och gymnasieskolan görs överlämning av information kring elever i matematiksvårigheter. Informationen är knapphändig och vanligaste åtgärden är att eleven har undervisats i liten grupp på grundskolan. Informationen om eleverna förmedlas till undervisande lärare via mentor eller på överlämningsträffar, i de fall vårdnadshavare gett sitt tillstånd till informationsöverföringen. De flesta lärare kartlägger elevernas förkunskaper och matematiklärande när de kommer till gymnasieskolan för att skapa sig en bild av eleverna. Detta underlag används vid planering av undervisningen för att förebygga hinder i elevers matematiklärande. Hur elevers behov av anpassningar och särskilt stöd möts i undervisningen beror på den enskilde läraren och vilka resurser som finns på skolan. Ett dilemma är att det saknas speciallärare för att möta denna elevgrupps behov.

  • 20770.
    Wållberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sundström, Helene
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ledung, Erika
    Mälardalen University, Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering.
    Hewitt, Christopher J
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Enfors, Sven-Olof
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Monitoring and quantification of inclusion body formation in Escherichia coli by multi-parameter flow cytometry2005In: Biotechnology Letters, ISSN 0141-5492, Vol. 27, no 13, p. 919-926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-parameter flow cytometry was used to monitor the formation of promegapoietin (PMP) inclusion bodies during a high cell density Escherichia coli fed-batch fermentation process. Inclusion bodies were labelled with a primary antibody and then with a secondary fluorescent antibody. Using this method it was possible to detect PMP inclusion body formation with a high specificity and it was possible to monitor the increased accumulation of the protein with process time (6-48 mg PMP/g CDW) whilst highlighting population heterogeneity.

  • 20771.
    Wårdh, Inger
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Munhälsa hos cancerpatienter. Muntlig presentation2005In: Vårdstämman i Älvsjö, Stockholm den 22 april. 2005, 2005Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 20772.
    Wårdh, Inger
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sörensen, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
    Development of an index to measure oral health care priority among nursing staff2005In: Gerodontology, ISSN 0734-0664, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 84-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an index to measure oral health care priority among nursing staff. BACKGROUND: Nursing staff, working on hospital wards, at nursing homes and at other facilities, have to deal with oral health care and there are many reports about the low priority that is given to oral health care by nursing staff. It is difficult to measure oral health care priority among nursing staff. A Dental Coping Beliefs Scale (DCBS) index was used in an intervention study and was found to be easy to handle but did not have the ability to reveal significant differences in small study samples. A development process consisting of added items and item numbering by chance was carried out. During this process, different nursing staff test groups were used. The aim was to develop an oral health care priority index that can be used both on hospital wards and at special facilities to measure oral health care priority among nursing staff over time and between groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nursing staff at both special facilities and hospital wards and nursing students. RESULTS: It was found that the index, the nursing DCBS, was more stable compared with the version that was used in the initial intervention study. It was also noted that its ability to discriminate between the items was improved. CONCLUSION: The nursing DCBS index is a suitable tool for use in further studies where the aim is to measure how different nursing staff groups give priority to and allocate responsibility for oral health care, even where study samples are small.

  • 20773.
    Wårdh, Inger
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wikström, M.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sörensen, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Oral bacteria and clinical variables in dependent individuals at a special facility2004In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 185-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oral health of dependent residents at special facilities has often been reported as being poor, but it is difficult to relate oral health to general health and define the need for oral health care. Microbiological analyses of the oral flora have been suggested as a suitable method for evaluating oral health in this group of patients. A study was performed at a nursing facility where 33 individuals participated. The aim was to describe their oral flora in relation to other health variables and to classify the residents on different risk levels. An oral examination of the residents was made at the facility, together with a 3-day food record and an oral microbiological analysis. The analysis classified the residents in different categories according to both acid-producing bacteria and the flora correlated with a reduction in general health. The categories were based on previous studies conducted at the Department of Microbiology (Faculty of Odontology in Göteborg). The present study revealed that the level for acid-producing bacteria was high in 12 individuals and the micriobial level according to decreased general health was high in seven individuals. A high level of acid-producing bacteria was related to functional impairment, which was in turn related to nutritional problems and help with oral hygiene. The microbial level according to the reduction in general health did not significantly correlate with other variables.

  • 20774.
    Wærn, Einar
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Pumpkraftverk som energilagring vid off-grid anläggning: Kombination av sol, vind och vattenkraft i ett autonomt system2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The downside of using energy from the wind is its fluctuations. The downside of using energy from solar panels is that it produces a low amount of energy during the wintertime when the demand is at its greatest. When said demand is at its lowest the energy from the solar panels is at its peak. To solve this problem and even out the energy production so it coincides with the demand a pump hydroelectric powerplant is being used. In this study, an autonomously system consisting of these three will power a theoretic village of 50 households in the southern part of Sweden. After simulating different scenarios using Excel as the main tool the conclusion is that a system like this is only possible if there is a large water reservoir stationed at an elevated position. This sets requirements on how the geography looks. The study shows that the energy from the solar panels demands a larger reservoir then the energy from the windmills. It also shows that that the energy from the solar panels is more consistent. The perfect combination is a reservoir of at least 2,6 million m3, a windmill with a blade length of 20 meters and solar panels covering an area of 3925 m2. This combination needs a total pump flow of 4000 m3/h. The total efficiency of this system is 45 %. If the pump flow is decreased to 800 m3/h the efficiency will only decrease approximately one percent, however the solar panel area must then increase with approximately 600 m2. So whether this is a viable idea depends on the cost of the pump versus the cost of the solar panels.

  • 20775.
    Xaajixasan, Bisharo
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Samtalsledarnas upplevelse av ett kulturanpassat föräldrastödsprogram för somaliska föräldrar: En kvalitativ studie om samtalsledarnas upplevelse av föräldrastödprogram till somaliskfödda föräldrar2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20776.
    Xavier, Vera
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    J., Xue
    University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Let's study whole-program cache behaviour analytically2002In: Proceedings - International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture, 2002, p. 175-186Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a new characterisation of data reuse across multiple loop nests, we preset a method, a prototyping implementation and some experimental results for analysing the cache behaviour of whole programs with regular computations. Validation against cache simulation using real codes shows the efficiency and accuracy of our method. The largest program, we have analysed, Applu from SPECfP95, has 3868 lines, 16 subroutines and 2565 references. In the case of a 32KB cache with a 32B line size, our method obtains the miss ratio with an absolute error of about 0.80% in about 128 seconds while the simulator used runs for nearly 5 hours on a 933MHz Pentium. III PC. Our method can be used to guide compiler locality optimisations and improve cache simulation performance.

  • 20777.
    Xi, X.
    et al.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yang, X.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China.
    Yu, Z.
    Department of Energy and Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, Stavanger 4036, Norway.
    Air pollution related externality of district heating - A case study of Changping, Beijing2019In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, p. 4323-4330Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution, caused by the use of fossil fuel, has been an environmental plague in China. It has a strong negative impact on human health. Since the costs of damage to health are not born by the pollution producers, these costs translate to social externality. Policies have an important role in optimizing resource allocation, such as penalizing the pollutant producers and incentivizing clean energy development. Among others, replacing coal with natural gas for heating represents an important example of air quality improvement measures. This paper presents a study that evaluates the health impacts from air pollution and the external cost of the "Coal-To-Gas" policy in district heating using Changping District (Beijing, China) as an example. Four scenarios were considered based on the historical and standard PM2.5 concentration. Results show that PM2.5 is responsible for causing an increase of 40% premature deaths in 2015 and that the monetary value of damage to health is higher than 1.2 billion CNY. In 2016 and 2017, the reported air quality was better than that in 2015. As a result, 13.3% and 26% premature deaths caused by air pollution were avoided in 2016 and 2017 compared to 2015 respectively. If the PM2.5 concentration level were to be reduced to national standard, the number of premature deaths attributed to PM2.5 could further decrease to 47.7% compared to 2015. Overall, the Coal-To-Gas policy in district heating reduces 0.017%~0.45% of premature death caused by air pollution each year. Air pollution reduction policies, which are expected to improve air quality together in the future, and the specific policy of Coal-To-Gas in district heating, could make great contribution to reducing the premature death caused by environmental problem and need more attention from the government and the public.

  • 20778.
    Xia, Rui
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Sun, Zhe
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    The Entrepreneurial individual: A case study of YEStravel2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The Entrepreneurial individual-----A case study of YEStravel

    Problems: How (individual) entrepreneur develops his/her international company in a short period successfully?What are the characteristics for this kind of companies?

    Purpose: This research would be useful for the new individual business start-ups/ entrepreneurs as well as the researchers who are focused on the investigation of why INV grows faster than other types of business. We intend to analyze and reveal the secret behind their success. We also aim to enlarge the data base of INVs study for further research.

    Method: Qualitative research, interview and story-telling

    Target: Start-ups, especially entrepreneurs and students who tend to be entrepreneurs; YEStravel Company;

    Conclusion: We try to analyze the secrets why small firms could grow up rapidly. With the case story of YEStravel, we found there are four variables are worthy to look into. They are entrepreneurship, social network, special products and the influences from communication and transportation. These three main factors enhanced the speed of the INV’s growth which gives an answer to our first research question. We also evaluated the characteristic of small firms which depend on the portfolio entrepreneurship as their original developing factor. They handle two or more businesses at the same time to earn the enough resources which they lack of. This conclusion represents our second research question that what are the characteristics of this kind of firm.

  • 20779.
    Xiao, Junchao
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Search-based resource scheduling for bug fixing tasks2010In: Proceedings - 2nd International Symposium on Search Based Software Engineering, SSBSE 2010, 2010, p. 133-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The software testing phase usually results in a large number of bugs to be fixed. The fixing of these bugs require executing certain activities (potentially concurrent) that demand resources having different competencies and workloads. Appropriate resource allocation to these bug-fixing activities can help a project manager to schedule capable resources to these activities, taking into account their availability and skill requirements for fixing different bugs. This paper presents a multi-objective search-based resource scheduling method for bug-fixing tasks. The inputs to our proposed method include i) a bug model, ii) a human resource model, iii) a capability matching method between bug-fixing activities and human resources and iv) objectives of bug-fixing. A genetic algorithm (GA) is used as a searchalgorithm and the output is a bug-fixing schedule, satisfying different constraints and value objectives. We have evaluated our proposed scheduling method on an industrial data set and have discussed three different scenarios. The results indicate that GA is able to effectively schedule resources by balancing different objectives. We have also compared the effectiveness of using GA with a simple hill-climbing algorithm. The comparison shows that GA is able to achieve statistically better fitness values than hill-climbing.

  • 20780.
    Xie, J.
    et al.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Guo, J.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Ma, Z.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Xue, J. -H
    University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Sun, Q.
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    SEA: A Combined Model for Heat Demand Prediction2018In: Proceedings of 2018 6th IEEE International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content, IC-NIDC 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 71-75Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat demand prediction is a prominent research topic in the area of intelligent energy networks. It has been well recognized that periodicity is one of the important characteristics of heat demand. Seasonal-trend decomposition based on LOESS (STL) algorithm can analyze the periodicity of a heat demand series, and decompose the series into seasonal and trend components. Then, predicting the seasonal and trend components respectively, and combining their predictions together as the heat demand prediction is a possible way to predict heat demand. In this paper, STL-ENN-ARIMA (SEA), a combined model, was proposed based on the combination of the Elman neural network (ENN) and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, which are commonly applied to heat demand prediction. ENN and ARIMA are used to predict seasonal and trend components, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed SEA model has a promising performance.

  • 20781.
    Xie, Jianyuan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Factors Related to Local Supply Base Development Affecting Production Localisation in China2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years, foreign manufacturers have extended their manufacturing footprint to include China. According to the World Bank China has overtaken Japan as the world’s second-largest economy since 2010. China’s growth is largely funded by a continuous manufacturing boom where both domestic industries and infrastructure have developed extensively, facilitating foreign-owned manufacturing companies to locate production in China. An important issue of common interest to all manufacturing companies in the course of localising production to China is how to develop an efficient supply base.The purpose of the thesis is to identify the factors related to local supply base development that affect production localisation in China. An identification and analysis of factors for foreign manufactures to consider when developing the supply base for their China production facilities is presented.The thesis work is executed based on a comprehensive literature study and interviews with twelve manufacturing firms (comprising eight foreign manufacturers and four local supplier companies) in China from April to July, 2012. The thesis investigates factors of importance to supply base localisation in China. The analysis of the empirical and theoretical findings constitutes the bases for increased understanding supporting foreign manufactures, especially for those small and medium firms, in their development of a supply base and sourcing strategy for production in China.

  • 20782.
    Xie, Ren
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wang, Feng
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Effective Media Channels Evaluation: A case study of Toyota’s Intermediate Cars2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

     

    The aim of this project is to investigate the characteristics of Chinese people who are the target customers and the potential ones for intermediate cars of Toyota, as well as evaluate the effectiveness of different media channels for Toyota. Our ultimate goal is to give some suggestion for Toyota to select the effective media for their intermediate cars in China.

  • 20783.
    Xie, Ren
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wang, Feng
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Effective Media Channels Evaluation: A case study of Toyota’s Intermediate CarsIndependent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20784.
    Xin, Mai
    Mälardalen University, Department of Mathematics and Physics.
    Monte Carlo Simulation on historical data: a Java based solution2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
  • 20785.
    Xinhai, Yu
    et al.
    East China University of Science and Technology.
    Hongliang, Li
    East China University of Science and Technology.
    Shan-Tung, Tu
    East China University of Science and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Pt-Co catalyst-coated channel plate reactor for preferential CO oxidation2011In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 3778-3788Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve preferential CO oxidation, a PteCo catalyst-coated channel plate reactor (CCPR)was produced via conventional mechanical milling and catalyst coating. The proposedreactor performed well under a wide range of operating temperatures and providedsatisfactory results at low temperatures (CO concentrations of 1e10 ppm at 413e443 K and1e50 ppm at 413e453 K). In the proposed CCPR, significant deactivation was not observedduring continuous operation for 100 h. In addition, the reactor exhibited excellent toleranceto undesirable conditions, including reaction temperature runaway and feedingstream failure. Characterisation results indicated that the catalytic activity of the proposedCCPR was high due to the formation of Pt3Co intermetallic compounds and nanoscalemetal particles. The capacity per channel of the proposed CCPR was approximately 50e100times greater than those of conventional microchannel reactors; thus, problems associatedwith excessive reactors were significantly reduced. In general, the results indicated thatCCPR has great potential in the small-scale production of hydrogen for fuel cells.

  • 20786.
    Xinhai, Yu
    et al.
    East China University of Sciency and Technology.
    Zhenzhong, Wen
    East China University of Sciency and Technology.
    Hongliang, Li
    East China University of Sciency and Technology.
    Shan-Tung, Tu
    East China University of Sciency and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Transesterification of Pistacia chinensis oil for biodiesel catalyzed by CaO–CeO2mixed oxides2011In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 1868-1874Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the use of CaO–CeO2 mixed oxides as solid base catalysts for the transesterificationof Pistacia chinensis oil with methanol to produce biodiesel. These CaO–CeO2 mixed-oxide catalysts wereprepared by an incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Ramanspectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The cerium improvedthe heterogeneous catalytic stability remarkably due to the defects induced by the substitution of Ca ionsfor Ce ions on the surface. The best catalyst was determined to be C0.15-973 (with a Ce/Ca molar ratio of0.15 and having been calcined at 973 K), considering its catalytic and anti-leaching abilities. The effects ofreaction parameters such as the methanol/oil molar ratio, the amount of catalyst amount and the reactiontemperature were also investigated. For the C0.15-973 regenerated after five reuses, the biodiesel yieldwas 91%, which is slightly less than that of the fresh sample. The test results revealed that theCaO–CeO2 mixed oxides have good potential for use in the large-scale biodiesel production.

  • 20787.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A case-based approach to decision analysis (Ein Fallbasiertes Verfahren zur Beschlussanalysis)2009In: AT-AUTOMATISIERUNGSTECHNIK, ISSN 0178-2312, Vol. 57, no 9, p. 477-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a novel approach for integrating case-based reasoning (CBR) and decision theory for case-based decision analysis. CBR is employed as a methodology to reason from previous cases for building a decision model given a current situation, while decision theory is applied to the decision model learnt from previous cases to identify the most promising, secured, and rational choices. We have also tackled the issue of imprecise utility in individual cases and explained how fuzzy decision analysis can be conducted when case specific utilities are represented with fuzzy data.

  • 20788.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A new case-based reasoning method based on dissimilar relations2014In: WSEAS Transactions on Systems, ISSN 1109-2777, Vol. 13, p. 263-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning relations of objects has recently emerged as a new promising trend for supervised machine learning. Case-based reasoning (CBR) is a subfield of machine learning, which attempts to solve new problems by reusing previous experiences. There is a close link between learning of relations and case-based reasoning in the sense that relation analysis between cases is a core task in a CBR procedure. Traditional CBR systems built upon similar relations can only use local information, and they are restricted by the similarity requirement, i.e., the availability of similar cases to new problems. This paper proposes a new CBR approach that exploits the information about dissimilar relations for solving new problems. A fuzzy dissimilarity model consisting of fuzzy rules has been developed for assessing dissimilarity between cases. Identifying dissimilar cases enables global utilization of more information from the case library and thereby contributes to the avoidance of the similarity constraint with a conventional CBR method. Empirical studies have demonstrated that fuzzy dissimilarity models can be built upon a small case library while still yielding competent performance of the CBR system.

  • 20789.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Assessing Similarity between Cases by Means of Fuzzy Rules2009In: 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FUZZY SYSTEMS, VOLS 1-3, 2009, p. 1953-1958Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of similarity plays a fundamental role in case-based reasoning. However, the meaning of "similarity" can vary in different situations and remains an issue. This paper proposes a novel similarity model consisting of fuzzy rules to represent the semantics and evaluation criteria for similarity. We believe that fuzz), if-then rules present a more powerful and flexible means to capture domain knowledge for utility oriented similarity modeling than traditional similarity measures based on feature weighting. Fuzzy rule-based reasoning is utilized as a case matching mechanism to determine whether and to which extent a known case in the case library is similar to a given problem in query. Further, we explain that such fuzzy rules for similarity assessment can be learned from the case library. The key to achieving this is pair-wise comparisons of cases with known solutions in the case library such that sufficient training samples can be derived for fuzzy rule learning. The evaluations conducted have shown that the proposed method yields more precise similarity values to approximate case utility than conventional ways of similarity modeling and that fuzzy similarity rules can be learned from a rather small case base without the risk of over-fitting.

  • 20790.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Case-based reasoning and its relation to information fusion2012In: 2012 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Software Engineering (CiSE 2012), 2012, p. 17-20Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20791.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fuzzy Dissimilarity Learning in Case-Based Reasoning2012In: RECENT ADVANCES in SYSTEMS SCIENCE and MATHEMATICAL MODELLING, Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference of Systems (ECS '12), 2012, p. 322-327Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20792.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fuzzy Rule-Based Similarity Model Enables Learning from Small Case Bases2013In: Applied Soft Computing, ISSN 1568-4946, E-ISSN 1872-9681, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 2057-2064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of similarity plays a fundamental role in case-based reasoning. However, the meaning of “similarity” can vary in situations and is largely domain dependent. This paper proposes a novel similarity model consisting of linguistic fuzzy rules as the knowledge container. We believe that fuzzy rules representation offers a more flexible means to express the knowledge and criteria for similarity assessment than traditional similarity metrics. The learning of fuzzy similarity rules is performed by exploiting the case base, which is utilized as a valuable resource with hidden knowledge for similarity learning. A sample of similarity is created from a pair of known cases in which the vicinity of case solutions reveals the similarity of case problems. We do pair-wise comparisons of cases in the case base to derive adequate training examples for learning fuzzy similarity rules. The empirical studies have demonstrated that the proposed approach is capable of discovering fuzzy similarity knowledge from a rather low number of cases, giving rise to the competence of CBR systems to work on a small case library.

  • 20793.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Generating Fuzzy Rules to Identify Relevant Cases in Case-Based Reasoning2008In: 2008 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FUZZY SYSTEMS, VOLS 1-5, 2008, p. 2361-2366Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new fuzzy case-based reasoning system In which fuzzy rule-based reasoning is utilized as a mechanism for matching between cases. The motivation is that fuzzy if-then rules present a more powerful and flexible means to represent the knowledge about case relevance than traditional distance based similarity measurements. With such fuzzy rules available, every case in the case base can be examined via fuzzy reasoning to predict whether it is relevant to a target problem in query. Those cases that are predicted as relevant are then retrieved and delivered to the next stage of decision fusion. Further, we claim that the set of fuzzy rules for case relevance prediction can be learned from the case base. The key to this is doing pair-wise comparisons of cases with known solutions In the case base such that sufficient samples of case relevance can be derived for fuzzy rule learning. The evaluations conducted on a benchmark data set have shown that the fuzzy rules in demand can be learned from a rather small case base without the risk of over-fitting and that the proposed system yields high information recall rate by capturing more cases that are relevant while not undermining the precision for the set of retrieved cases.

  • 20794.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Learning Flexible Structured Linguistic Fuzzy Rules for Mamdani Fuzzy Systems2009In: 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FUZZY SYSTEMS, VOLS 1-3, 2009, p. 86-91Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One significant challenge in building fuzzy systems for complex problems is the "curse of dimensionality". For the sake of a reduced size of the knowledge base, some rules with incomplete premise structures covering larger areas of the input domain are often desirable. This paper presents a genetic algorithm based approach to searching for suitable antecedents of rules under which specific fuzzy consequences can be recommended. The rule premises are coded in a flexible way allowing for presence as well as absence of an input variable in them, in combination with a certain class of input and output fuzzy sets. On the other hand, a consistency index is introduced to give a numerical evaluation of the coherence among individual rules. This index is incorporated into the fitness function of the genetic algorithm to search for a set of optimal rule premises yielding not only good problem solving performances but also little conflict in the rule base. The effectiveness of our work is demonstrated through experiment results on controlling an inverted pendulum.

  • 20795.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Learning fuzzy rules for similarity assessment in case-based reasoning2011In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 38, no 9, p. 10780-10786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental to case-based reasoning is the assumption that similar problems have similar solutions. The meaning of the concept of "similarity" can vary in different situations and remains an issue. This paper proposes a novel similarity model consisting of fuzzy rules to represent the semantics and evaluation criteria for similarity. We believe that fuzzy if-then rules present a more powerful and flexible means to capture domain knowledge for utility oriented similarity modeling than traditional similarity measures based on feature weighting. Fuzzy rule-based reasoning is utilized as a case matching mechanism to determine whether and to which extent a known case in the case library is similar to a given problem in query. Further, we explain that such fuzzy rules for similarity assessment can be learned from the case library using genetic algorithms. The key to this is pair-wise comparisons of cases with known solutions in the case library such that sufficient training samples can be derived for genetic-based fuzzy rule learning. The evaluations conducted have shown the superiority of the proposed method in similarity modeling over traditional schemes as well as the feasibility of learning fuzzy similarity rules from a rather small case base while still yielding competent system performance.

  • 20796.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Toward Coherent Matching in Case-Based Classification2011In: Cybernetics and systems, ISSN 0196-9722, E-ISSN 1087-6553, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 198-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building suitable similarity models presents a key issue in developing case-based classification systems. A good similarity model should reflect the real usefulness of a previous case for solving a new problem. This article proposes a new approach to learning of similarity assessments by optimizing local compatibility functions. The goal is to achieve a set of matching functions that are coherent in the sense of most supportive evidences whereas least inconsistence when applied to the case library. The effectiveness of the presented method has been demonstrated by the evaluation results on a set of data sets in the University of California-Irvine (UCI) Machine Learning Repository.

  • 20797.
    Xiong, Ning
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Christensen, Henrik
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svensson, Per
    Swedish Defense Research Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Agent negotiation of target distribution enhancing system survivability2007In: International Journal of Intelligent Systems, ISSN 0884-8173, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 1251-1269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes an agent negotiation model for target distribution across a set of geographically dispersed sensors. The key idea is to consider sensors as autonomous agents that negotiate over the division of tasks among them for obtaining better payoffs. The negotiation strategies for agents are established based upon the concept of subgame perfect equilibrium from game theory. Using such negotiation leads to not only superior measuring performance from a global perspective but also possibly balanced allocations of tasks to sensors, benefiting system robustness and survivability. A simulation test and results are given to demonstrate the ability of our approach in improving system security while keeping overall measuring performance near optimal.

  • 20798.
    Xiong, Ning
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Christensen, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svensson, Per
    Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reactive tuning of target estimate accuracy in multisensor data fusion2007In: Cybernetics and Systems, ISSN 0196-9722, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 83-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dealing with conflicting and target-specific requirements is an important issue in multisensor and multitarget tracking. This paper aims to allocate sensing resources among various targets in reaction to individual information requests. The proposed approach is to introduce agents for every relevant target responsible for its tracking. Such agents are expected to bargain with each other for a division of resources. A bilateral negotiation model is established for resource allocation in two-target tracking. The applications of agent negotiation to target covariance tuning are illustrated together with simulation results presented. Moreover, we suggest a way of organizing simultaneous one-to-one negotiations, making our negotiation model still applicable in scenarios of tracking more than two targets.

  • 20799.
    Xiong, Ning
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A novel framework for case-based decision analysis2008In: TENTH SCANDINAVIAN CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, 2008, p. 141-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Case-based reasoning (CBR) and decision analysis have been two separate research areas aiming to solve problems from different perspectives. CBR is powerful to offer solutions to problems by reusing previous experiences, while decision theory exhibits its strength in dealing with uncertain, nondeterministic situations subject to likelihoods, risks, and probable consequences. In this paper, we present a novel framework of integrating CBR and decision analysis for the purpose of case-based decision analysis. CBR is employed as a methodology to reason from previous cases for building a decision model given the current situation, while decision theory is applied to the decision model learnt from previous cases to identify the most promising, Secured, and rational choices. In such a way, we take advantage of both the ability of CBR to learn without domain knowledge and the strength of decision theory to analyze under uncertainty. 

  • 20800.
    Xiong, Ning
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Building similarity metrics reflecting utility in case-based reasoning2006In: Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems, ISSN 1064-1246, E-ISSN 1875-8967, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 407-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental to case-based reasoning is the idea that similar problems have similar solutions. The meaning of the concept of "similarity" can vary in different situations and remains an issue. Since we want to identify and retrieve truly useful or relevant cases for problem solving, the metrics of similarity must be defined suitably to reflect the utility of cases for solving a particular target problem. A framework for utility-oriented similarity modeling is developed in this paper. The main idea is to exploit a case library to obtain adequate samples of utility from pairs of cases. The task of similarity modeling then becomes the customization of the parameters in a similarity metric to minimize the discrepancy between the assessed similarity values and the utility scores desired. A new structure for similarity metrics is introduced which enables the encoding of single feature impacts and more competent approximation of case utility. Preliminary experimental results have shown that the proposed approach can be used for learning with a surprisingly small case base without the risk of over-fitting and that it yields stable system performance with variations in the threshold selected for case retrieval.

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