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  • 20701.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Joki, Mikael
    Eskilstuna Elektronikpartner AB, Sverige.
    Hogbrink, Jimmy
    Eskilstuna Elektronikpartner AB, Sverige.
    Siwani, Saher
    Eskilstuna Elektronikpartner AB, Sverige.
    Fast Linux Bootup using Non-Intrusive Methods for Predictable Industrial Embedded Systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast kernel boot-time is one of the major concerns in industrial embedded systems. Application domains where boot time is relevant include (among others) automation, automotive, avionics etc. Linux is one of the big players among operating system solutions for general embedded systems, hence, a relevant question is how fast Linux can boot on typical hardware platforms (ARM9) used in such industrial systems. One important constraint is that this boot-time optimization should be as non-intrusive as possible. The reason for this comes from the fact that industrial embedded systems typically have high demands on reliability and stability. For example, adding, removing or changing critical source-code (such as kernel or initialization code) is impermissible. This paper shows the steps towards a fast-booting Linux kernel using non-intrusive methods. Moreover, targeting embedded systems with temporal constraints, the paper shows how fast the real-time scheduling framework ExSched can be loaded and started during bootup. This scheduling framework supports several real-time scheduling algorithms (user defined, multi-core, partitioned, fixed-priority periodic tasks etc.) and it does not modify the Linux kernel source code. Hence, the non-intrusive bootup optimization methods together with the unmodified Linux kernel and the non-patched real-time scheduler module offers both reliability and predictability.

  • 20702.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kato, Shinpei
    Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, United States.
    A Loadable Task Execution Recorder for Hierarchical Scheduling in Linux2011In: Proceedings - 17th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, RTCSA 2011, 2011, p. 380-387Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a Hierarchical Scheduling Framework (HSF) recorder for Linux-based operating systems. The HSF-recorder is a loadable kernel module that is capable of recording tasks and servers without requiring any kernel modifications. Hence, it complies with the reliability and stability requirements in the area of embedded systems where proven versions of Linux are preferred. The recorder is built upon the loadable real-time scheduler framework RESCH (REal-time SCHed- uler). We evaluate our recorder by comparing the overhead of this solu- tion against two other recorders. Also, the tracing accuracy of the HSF- recorder is tested by running a media-processing task together with periodic real-time Linux tasks in combination with servers. We experiment with different task parameters and scheduling strategies and measure the performance of the media-processing task. The tests are recorded with the HSF-recorder, and the Ftrace recorder, in order to show the correctness of the experiments and the HSF-recorder itself.

  • 20703.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kato, Shinpei
    Towards Hierarchical Scheduling in Linux/Multi-core Platform2010In: 15th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA 2010), 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes the implementation of 4 different scheduling strategies for combining multi-core scheduling with hierarchical scheduling. Three of the scheduling schemes are analyzable with state-of-the-art schedulability analysis theory, available in the real-time systems community. Our idea is to implement these hierarchical multi-core scheduling strategies in a Linux based operating system, without modifying the kernel, and evaluate them. As of now, we have developed/implemented a prototype two-level hierarchical scheduling framework (HSF) in Linux (uni-core), which supports fixed priority preemptive scheduling (FPPS) of periodic servers at the top level, and FPPS of periodic tasks at the second level. The HSF is based on the REal-time SCHeduler (RESCH) framework.(1)

  • 20704.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kato, Shinpei
    University of California, Santa Cruz, USA.
    Towards Partitioned Hierarchical Real-Time Scheduling on Multi-core Processors2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper extends previous work on hierarchical scheduling to multi-core systems. We have implemented partitioned multi-core scheduling of servers in the Linux kernel, using the scheduling framework ExSched. Neither ExSched nor the presented scheduler require any modifications to the Linux kernel. Hence, this makes the installation and kernel-version updates easier. We also present a user-space simulator which can be used when developing new multi-core hierarchical schedulers (plug-ins) for ExSched. We evaluate the overhead of our new multi-core hierarchical scheduler and compare it to a single-core hierarchical scheduler. Our results can be useful for developers that want to minimize the scheduler overhead when using partitioned hierarchical multi-core scheduling.

  • 20705.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kato, Shinpei
    Nagoya University.
    Rajkumar, Ragunathan
    Carnegie Mellon University.
    ExSched: An External CPU Scheduler Framework for Real-Time Systems2012In: 18th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA'12), 2012, p. 240-249Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20706.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Otero Perez, Clara M.
    NXP Semiconductors/Research, High Tech. Campus.
    Kato, Shinpei
    University of Tokyo.
    Execution Time Monitoring in Linux2009In: Proceedings of the Work-In-Progress (WIP) session of 14th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Techonologies and Factory (ETFA'09), 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an implementation of an Execution Time Monitor (ETM) which can be applied in a resource management framework, such as the one proposed in the Open Media Platform (OMP) [4]. OMP is a European project which aims at creating an open, flexible and resource efficient software architecture for mobile devices such as cell phones and handsets. One of its goals is to open up the possibility for software portability and fast integration of applications, in order to decrease development costs. The task of the ETM is to measure task execution time and provide this information to the scheduler which then can schedule tasks in a more efficient and dynamic way. This implementation is our first step towards a full resource management framework that later will include a hierarchical scheduler, for soft real-time systems.

  • 20707.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Prototyping and Code Synthesis of Hierarchically Scheduled Systems using TIMES2010In: FTRA Journal of Convergence, ISSN 2093-7741, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 75-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In hierarchical scheduling a system is organized as a tree of nodes, where each node schedules its child nodes. A node contains tasks and/or subsystems, where a subsystem is typically developed by a development team. Given a system where each part is subcontracted to different developers, they can benefit from hierarchical scheduling by parallel development and simplified integration of subsystems. Each team should have the possibility to test their system before integration. Hence, we show how a node, in a hierarchical scheduling tree, can be analyzed in the Times tool by replacing all interference from nodes with a small set of higher priority tasks. We show an algorithm that can generate these tasks, including their parameters. Further, we use the Times code-generator, in combination with operating system extensions, to generate source code that emulates the scheduling environment for a subsystem, in an arbitrary level in the tree. Our experiments include two example systems. In the first case we generate source code for an industrial oriented platform (VxWorks) and conduct a performance evaluation. In the second example we generate source code that emulates the scheduling environment for a video application, running in Linux, and we perform a frame-rate evaluation.

  • 20708.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Prototyping Hierarchically Scheduled Systems using Task Automata and TIMES2010In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Embedded and Multimedia Computing (EMC-10), 2010, p. article nr: 5575626-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In hierarchical scheduling, a system is organized into multiple levels of individually scheduled subsystems (hierarchical scheduling tree), which provides several benefits for developers including possibilities for parallel development of subsystems. In this paper, we study how the model of task automata and the Times tool can be applied to provide support for rapid and early prototyping of hierarchically scheduled embedded systems. As a main result, we show how a single node, in an arbitrary level in a hierarchical scheduling tree (scheduled with fixed-priority preemptive scheduling), can easily be analyzed in Times by replacing all interfering nodes with a small set of higher priority (dummy) tasks. We show with an algorithm how these dummy tasks are generated (including task-parameters such as period, offset etc.). Further, we generate executable source code, with the Times code-generator, that emulates the scheduling environment (with our dummy tasks), i.e., the hierarchical scheduling tree and all of its preemptions, of a small example system. Yet another contribution is that we transform the generated (brickOS) source code to run on an industrial oriented platform (VxWorks), and conduct an performance evaluation.

  • 20709.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Evaluating the Run-Time Performance of Synthesised Resource-Reservation Schedulers Using TAtoC, UPPAAL and Frama-C2013Report (Other academic)
  • 20710.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Modelling, Verification and Synthesis of Two-Tier Hierarchical Fixed-Priority Preemptive Scheduling2011In: Proceedings - 23rd EUROMICRO Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS'11), 2011, p. 172-181Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hierarchical scheduling has major benefits when it comes to integrating hard real-time applications. One of those benefits is that it gives a clear runtime separation of applications in the time domain. This in turn gives a protection against timing error propagation in between applications. However, these benefits rely on the assumption that the scheduler itself schedules applications correctly according to the scheduling parameters and the chosen scheduling policy. A faulty scheduler can affect all applications in a negative way. Hence, being able to guarantee that the scheduler is correct is of great importance. Therefore, in this paper, we study how properties of hierarchical scheduling can be verified. We model a hierarchically scheduled system using task automata, and we conduct verification with model checking using the Times tool. Further, we generate C-code from the model and we execute the hierarchical scheduler in the Vx Works kernel. The CPU and memory overhead of the modelled scheduler is compared against an equivalent manually coded two-level hierarchical scheduler. We show that the worst-case memory consumption is similar and that there is a considerable difference in CPU overhead.

  • 20711.
    Åsbrink, Natalie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Elgerot, Anna
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Utformning av informationsmaterial: Med rörelse och dansglädje i fokus2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårt examensarbete har varit att producera informationsmaterial till dansskolan Danshuset i Västerås. Huvudarbetet har varit att ta fram en broschyr som ska informera om dansskolans dansklasser och förmedla rörelse och dansglädje. Vi har dessutom tagit fram en affisch som ska informera om Danshusets vårföreställning. I utformningen av vårt informationsmaterial har vi tillämpat de olika designelementen för god informationsdesign och som arbetsmetod har vi utgått från den modell vi kallar den kreativa informationsdesignprocessen. Genom att utforma vårt informationsmaterial enligt principerna för god informationsdesign anser vi oss ha större chans att få vårt budskap att nå fram med full effekt.

  • 20712.
    Åsell, Anette
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Nilsson, Christin
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    En undervisning som lyfter matematisk kommunikationsförmåga: En kvalitativ studie om förutsättningar för elever att utveckla matematisk kommunikationsförmåga i ett antal grund- och grundsärskoleklasser2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med examensarbetet var att få en fördjupad kunskap om hur undervisningen i matematik kan skapa förutsättningar för elever att utveckla matematisk kommunikationsförmåga. Vidare studerades två skolformer utifrån vilka likheter och/eller skillnader i förutsättningar de olika matematikpraktikerna eventuellt kunde visa. Examensarbetet belyser ett antal faktorer på pedagog-, elev-, grupp och miljönivå som påverkar hur elever utvecklar matematisk kommunikationsförmåga. En kvalitativ ansats var utgångspunkten och kvalitativa intervjuer och observationer i informanternas arbetsmiljö gjordes. Sju pedagoger och en speciallärare har intervjuats och sju observationer har gjorts, tre observationer i grundskolan och fyra observationer i grundsärskolan. Informationen tolkades utifrån ett utvecklingsekologiskt perspektiv med visst inslag av sociokulturellt perspektiv. Resultatet pekade på att det fanns en relativt stor variation både inom, men också mellan skolformerna. Det var störst variation inom grundsärskolan. Den över lag största skillnaden fanns i den samstämmighet kring förutsättningar för att utveckla matematisk kommunikation som grundskolans lärare visade. Alla grundskoleinformanter deltar i Matematiklyftet och resultaten i studien kan tyda på att fortbildningen har påverkat undervisningen i grundskolan till ökad samstämmighet jämfört med i grundsärskolan.

  • 20713. Åsenlöf, P,
    et al.
    Denison, Eva
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Lindberg, P,
    Individually tailored treatment targeting activity, motor behaviour, and cognitions reduces pain-related disability: a randomized controlled trial in patients with musculoskeletal pain.2005In: The Journal of Pain, no 6, p. 588-603Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20714.
    Åsenlöf, Pernilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Bring, Annika
    Uppsala University.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    The clinical course over the first year of Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD): pain-related disability predicts outcome in mildly affected sample.2013In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 14, p. Art.nr. 361-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Different recovery patterns are reported for those befallen a whip-lash injury, but little is known about the variability within subgroups. The aims were (1) to compare a self-selected mildly affected sample (MILD) with a self-selected moderately to severely affected sample (MOD/SEV) with regard to background characteristics and pain-related disability, pain intensity, functional self-efficacy, fear of movement/(re)injury, pain catastrophising, post-traumatic stress symptoms in the acute stage (at baseline), (2) to study the development over the first year after the accident for the above listed clinical variables in the MILD sample, and (3) to study the validity of a prediction model including baseline levels of clinical variables on pain-related disability one year after baseline assessments. Methods. The study had a prospective and correlative design. Ninety-eight participants were consecutively selected. Inclusion criteria; age 18 to 65 years, WAD grade I-II, Swedish language skills, and subjective report of not being in need of treatment due to mild symptoms. A multivariate linear regression model was applied for the prediction analysis. Results: The MILD sample was less affected in all study variables compared to the MOD/SEV sample. Pain-related disability, pain catastrophising, and post-traumatic stress symptoms decreased over the first year after the accident, whereas functional self-efficacy and fear of movement/(re)injury increased. Pain intensity was stable. Pain-related disability at baseline emerged as the only statistically significant predictor of pain-related disability one year after the accident (Adj r§ssup§ 2§esup§ = 0.67). Conclusion: A good prognosis over the first year is expected for the majority of individuals with WAD grade I or II who decline treatment due to mild symptoms. The prediction model was not valid in the MILD sample except for the contribution of pain-related disability. An implication is that early observations of individuals with elevated levels of pain-related disability are warranted, although they may decline treatment

  • 20715.
    Åsenlöf, Pernilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A further investigation of the importance of pain cognition and behaviour in pain rehabilitation: longitudinal data suggest disability and fear of movement are most important2010In: Clinical Rehabilitation, ISSN 0269-2155, E-ISSN 1477-0873, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 422-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tailored treatments are topical in pain rehabilitation. One key issue for correlational studies is the identification of factors having a potential causal impact on essential treatment outcomes.

    Objective: To study associations between pain beliefs and disability with regard to the amount and time-frame of available data.

    Design: A prospective, correlational design.

    Subjects and setting: Ninety-two patients consulting physical therapists in primary care for persistent musculoskeletal pain.

    Main measures: The Pain Disability Index, the Self-Efficacy Scale and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia.

    Results: Functional self-efficacy and fear of movement/(re) injury explained variance in pain-related disability pretreatment (adj R(2) = 0.41). Self-efficacy was the most salient predictor. Adding data from immediately post treatment decreased explained variance (adj R(2) = 0.25). Functional self-efficacy and fear of movement/ (re)injury lost their significant contribution in favour of pain-related disability at baseline. Change scores in functional self-efficacy and fear of movement/(re) injury accounted for a modest share of explained variance in change scores of disability (adj R(2) = 0.11). Fear of movement/(re) injury but not functional self-efficacy was related to a reliable change in pain-related disability.

    Conclusions: Longitudinal data suggest that pretreatment levels of pain-related disability and changes in fear of movement/(re) injury are most important to immediate treatment outcomes and individual reliable change. Disability and elevated fear of movement/(re) injury should therefore be addressed in tailored pain treatments. A "

  • 20716. Åsenlöf, Pernilla
    et al.
    Turk, Dennis
    Farrar, John
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Results of outcomes studies – clinically meaningful change: Workshop2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20717.
    Åsklint, Cathrine
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Den som vet mest vinner: Hur bristande formell internkommunikation i arbetslivet påverkar de anställdaIndependent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    En fungerande formell internkommunikation borde vara en grundförutsättning och självklarhet för att alla anställda i arbetslivet. Tyvärr händer det att den brister ibland vilket skapar konsekvenser för bland annat de anställda. Syftet med uppsatsen är att ge en bild av hur de anställda upplever bristen på formell internkommunikation samt vilka konsekvenser det ger för deras känsla av delaktighet, motivation, arbetsprestation samt arbetstillfredsställelse i det dagliga arbetet. Generellt sett så orsakar bristande formell internkommunikation en upplevelse av bristande kontroll samt olustkänslor hos de anställda vilket leder till att engagemanget för arbetet minskar. Framtida forskning bör fokusera på vilka konsekvenser bristande formell internkommunikation genererar, dels ur ett arbetstagarperspektiv men även hur bristande formell internkommunikation påverkar ett företags effektivitet och lönsamhet.

  • 20718.
    Åslund, C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Larm, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Starrin, B.
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden .
    Nilsson, K. W.
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    The buffering effect of tangible social support on financial stress: Influence on psychological well-being and psychosomatic symptoms in a large sample of the adult general population2014In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, no 1, p. Article number 85-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conclusions: Social support had its strongest effect at high levels of financial stress. The question whether the altering of our social networks may improve physical health is important for the prevention of ill health in people experiencing financial stress. Strengthening social networks may have the potential to influence health-care costs and improve quality of life. Introduction. Financial stress is an important source of distress and is related to poor mental and physical health outcomes. The present study investigated whether tangible social support could buffer the effect of financial stress on psychological and psychosomatic health. Results: Individuals with high financial stress and low tangible social support had six to seven times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and many psychosomatic symptoms. By contrast, individuals with high financial stress and high tangible social support had only two to three times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and three to four times increased odds ratios for many psychosomatic symptoms, suggesting a buffering effect of tangible social support. Consistent with the buffering hypothesis, there were significant interactions between financial stress and social support, particularly in relation to low psychological well-being.

  • 20719.
    Åslund, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Små tårar är lika stora: Sju mödrar berättar hur de möter sina barns sorg2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Barn får idag inte alltid möjlighet att bearbeta sin sorg. I tron om att de skyddar sina barn utesluter föräldrar barnen från viktiga delar i sorgeprocessen. Hur en person upplever sorghantering i barndomen har inverkan på vilka möjligheter denne får till en hälsosam sorghantering i vuxen ålder. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur föräldrar kan tala med sina barn om sorg, vilken roll föräldrar kan uppleva att de har i sina barns sorghantering samt hur föräldrar kan uppleva att deras barndomsrelaterade erfarenheter av sorghantering har inflytande på hur de talar med sina barn om sorg. Intervjuer gjordes med sju föräldrar. Föräldrarna berättade att de är öppna, lyhörda, involverande och visar närhet samt upplever sin roll i barnens sorg som primär. Tydligt blev att föräldrarnas barndomsrelaterade erfarenheter haft inflytande i hur de talar med sina barn om sorg då majoriteten av föräldrarna medvetet hanterar sorg tvärtemot hur deras föräldrar gjort.

  • 20720.
    Åslund, Pierre
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Fotbollsdomares upplevelser och hantering av kritik samt vad som motiverar dem2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fotbollsdomare utsätts för en mängd olika stressorer. De använder sig av olika copingstrategier för att klara av dessa. Domare får utstå både knuffar, sparkar, slag och dödshot. Motivationen till att trots allt fortsätta döma har visat sig ligga i kärleken till sporten. Det saknas dock kvalitativ forskning inom området. Syftet var att undersöka fotbollsdomares upplevelser och hantering av kritik samt vad som motiverar dem att fortsätta. En intervjuundersökning genomfördes med åtta fotbolldomare. Resultatet gav nya insikter som visade att domare upplever kritiken de möter som träffande, förföljande, utsättande, ångestfull, påhoppande samt gav dem prestationskrav. Man hanterar kritiken genom att ta in viss kritik och undvikande av konflikter. Det som motiverade dem var att ta ansvar, hög strävan, glädje och inspiration. Att inte avancera i seriesystemet fick dem att tappa motivation. Domarna använde sig inte av mentala förberedelser inför match. Mentala förberedelser kan kanske underlätta för domare i sin arbetssituation.

  • 20721.
    Åstrand, Elaine
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A continuous time-resolved measure decoded from EEG oscillatory activity predicts working memory task performance2018In: Journal of Neural Engineering, ISSN 1741-2560, E-ISSN 1741-2552, Vol. 15, no 3, article id 036021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Working memory (WM), crucial for successful behavioral performance in most of our everyday activities, holds a central role in goal-directed behavior. As task demands increase, inducing higher WM load, maintaining successful behavioral performance requires the brain to work at the higher end of its capacity. Because it is depending on both external and internal factors, individual WM load likely varies in a continuous fashion. The feasibility to extract such a continuous measure in time that correlates to behavioral performance during a working memory task remains unsolved. Approach. Multivariate pattern decoding was used to test whether a decoder constructed from two discrete levels of WM load can generalize to produce a continuous measure that predicts task performance. Specifically, a linear regression with L2-regularization was chosen with input features from EEG oscillatory activity recorded from healthy participants while performing the n-back task, n is an element of [1, 2]. Main results. The feasibility to extract a continuous time-resolved measure that correlates positively to trial-bytrial working memory task performance is demonstrated (r = 0.47, p < 0.05). It is furthermore shown that this measure allows to predict task performance before action (r = 0.49, p < 0.05). We show that the extracted continuous measure enables to study the temporal dynamics of the complex activation pattern of WM encoding during the n-back task. Specifically, temporally precise contributions of different spectral features are observed which extends previous findings of traditional univariate approaches. Significance. These results constitute an important contribution towards a wide range of applications in the field of cognitive brain-machine interfaces. Monitoring mental processes related to attention and WM load to reduce the risk of committing errors in high-risk environments could potentially prevent many devastating consequences or using the continuous measure as neurofeedback opens up new possibilities to develop novel rehabilitation techniques for individuals with degraded WM capacity.

  • 20722.
    Åstrand, Elaine
    University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Mapping retinal degeneration and loss-of-function in Rd-FTL mice2009In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 50, no 12, p. 5955-5964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a blinding disease caused by the degeneration of photoreceptors. To further understand the process of degeneration in RP, the authors have traced activation patterns associated with rod and cone photoreceptor degeneration in a mouse model of RP METHODS. The authors used a double-mutant mouse, Rd-FTL, which contains a natural mutation, rd1, affecting the rod photoreceptors and an axon-targeted beta-galactosidase reporter system, which is under the regulation of the promoter of the c-fos gene. These mice allowed the authors to trace degeneration-related activity that corresponded to rod and cone death RESULTS. The authors traced cell death-associated activation in both rods and cones, allowing them to accurately determine the time course of cone degeneration in these mice. In the analysis of downstream activation patterns in the inner retina, they found that amacrine and ganglion cells maintain their photopic light-related activation until at least the initiation of cone degeneration. These cell populations then show increased activity during the peak time of cone cell degeneration. The authors also examined light-regulated functional activation of a subclass of amacrine cells, the dopaminergic amacrine cells. These cells showed light-induced functional activation after rod photoreceptor death and until the period of cone photoreceptor death, suggesting that they can be regulated by cone photoreceptors alone CONCLUSIONS. These findings have helped to accurately trace the periods of photoreceptor degeneration in this model of RP and show that correct light-regulated inner retinal activation is maintained until the time of cone degeneration. (Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:5955-5964) DOI: 10.1167/iovs.09-3916

  • 20723.
    Åstrand, Elaine
    et al.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, France .
    Enel, P.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, France .
    Ibos, G.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, France .
    Dominey, P.F.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, France .
    Baraduc, P.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, France .
    Hamed, S.B
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, France .
    Comparison of Classifiers for Decoding Sensory and Cognitive Information from Prefrontal Neuronal Populations.2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decoding neuronal information is important in neuroscience, both as a basic means to understand how neuronal activity is related to cerebral function and as a processing stage in driving neuroprosthetic effectors. Here, we compare the readout performance of six commonly usedclassifiers at decoding two different variables encoded by the spiking activity of the non-human primate frontal eye fields (FEF): the spatial position of a visual cue, and the instructed orientation of the animal's attention. While the first variable is exogenously driven by the environment, the second variable corresponds to the interpretation of the instruction conveyed by the cue; it is endogenously driven and corresponds to the output of internalcognitive operations performed on the visual attributes of the cue. These two variables were decoded using either a regularized optimal linear estimator in its explicit formulation, an optimal linear artificial neural network estimator, a non-linear artificial neural network estimator, a non-linear naïve Bayesian estimator, a non-linear Reservoir recurrent network classifier or a non-linear Support Vector Machine classifier. Our results suggest that endogenous information such as the orientation of attention can be decoded from the FEF with the same accuracy as exogenous visualinformation. All classifiers did not behave equally in the face of population size and heterogeneity, the available training and testing trials, the subject's behavior and the temporal structure of the variable of interest. In most situations, the regularized optimal linear estimator and the non-linear Support Vector Machine classifiers outperformed the other tested decoders.

  • 20724.
    Åstrand, Elaine
    et al.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, France .
    Ibos, Guilhem
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, France .
    Duhamel, Jean-René
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, France .
    Hamed, S.B
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, France .
    Differential dynamics of spatial attention, position, and color coding within the parietofrontal network2015In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 3174-3189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite an ever growing knowledge on howparietal and prefrontal neurons encode low-level spatial and color information or higher-level information, such as spatial attention, an understanding of how these cortical regions process neuronal information at the population level is still missing. A simple assumption would be that the function and temporal response profiles of these neuronal populations match that of its constituting individual cells. However, several recent studies suggest that this is not necessarily the case and that the single-cell approach overlooks dynamic changes in how information is distributed over the neuronal population. Here, we use a time-resolved population pattern analysis to explore how spatialposition, spatial attention and color information are differentially encoded and maintained in the macaque monkey prefrontal (frontal eye fields) and parietal cortex (lateral intraparietal area). Overall, our work brings about three novel observations. First, we show that parietal and prefrontal populations operate in two distinct population regimens for the encoding of sensory and cognitive information: a stationary mode and a dynamic mode. Second, we show that the temporal dynamics of a heterogeneous neuronal population brings about complementary information to that of its functional subpopulations. Thus, both need to be investigated in parallel. Last, we show that identifying the neuronal configuration in which a neuronal population encodes given information can serve to reveal this same information in a different context. All together, this work challenges common views on neural coding in the parietofrontal network. 

  • 20725.
    Åstrand, Elaine
    et al.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Wardak, C.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Hamed, S.B.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Selective visual attention to drive cognitive brain-machine interfaces: from concepts to neurofeedback and rehabilitation applications2014In: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5137, E-ISSN 1662-5137, Vol. 8, no 144, p. 144-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) using motor cortical activity to drive an external effector like a screen cursor or a robotic arm have seen enormous success and proven their great rehabilitation potential. An emerging parallel effort is now directed to BMIs controlled by endogenouscognitive activity, also called cognitive BMIs. While more challenging, this approach opens new dimensions to the rehabilitation of cognitivedisorders. In the present work, we focus on BMIs driven by visuospatial attention signals and we provide a critical review of these studies in the light of the accumulated knowledge about the psychophysics, anatomy, and neurophysiology of visual spatial attention. Importantly, we provide a unique comparative overview of the several studies, ranging from non-invasive to invasive human and non-human primates studies, that decodeattention-related information from ongoing neuronal activity. We discuss these studies in the light of the challenges attention-driven cognitive BMIs have to face. In a second part of the review, we discuss past and current attention-based neurofeedback studies, describing both the covert effects of neurofeedback onto neuronal activity and its overt behavioral effects. Importantly, we compare neurofeedback studies based on the amplitude of cortical activity to studies based on the enhancement of cortical information content. Last, we discuss several lines of future research and applications for attention-driven cognitive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), including the rehabilitation of cognitive deficits, restored communication in locked in patients, and open-field applications for enhanced cognition in normal subjects. The core motivation of this work is the key idea that the improvement of current cognitive BMIs for therapeutic and open field applications needs to be grounded in a proper interdisciplinary understanding of the physiology of the cognitive function of interest, be it spatial attention, working memory or any other cognitive signal.

  • 20726.
    Åstrand, Elaine
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Wardak, Claire
    Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Baraduc, Pierre
    Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Ben Hamed, Suliann
    Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Direct Two-Dimensional Access to the Spatial Location of Covert Attention in Macaque Prefrontal Cortex.2016In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 26, no 13, p. 1699-1704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct access to motor cortical information now enables tetraplegic patients to precisely control neuroprostheses and recover some autonomy. Incontrast, explicit access to higher cortical cognitive functions, such as covert attention, has been missing. Indeed, this cognitive information, known only to the subject, can solely be inferred by an observer from the subject's overt behavior. Here, we present direct two-dimensional real-time access to where monkeys are covertly paying attention, using machine-learning decoding methods applied to their ongoing prefrontal cortical activity. Decoded attention was highly predictive of overt behavior in a cued target-detection task. Indeed, monkeys had a higher probability of detecting a visual stimulus as the distance between decoded attention and stimulus location decreased. This was true whether the visual stimulus was presented at the cued target location or at another distractor location. In error trials, in which the animals failed to detect the cued target stimulus, both the locations of attention and visual cue were misencoded. This misencoding coincided with a specific state of the prefrontal cortical population in which the shared variability between its different neurons (or noise correlations) was high, even before trial onset. This observation strongly suggests a functional link between high noise-correlation states and attentional failure. Overall, this real-time access to the attentional spotlight, as well as the identification of a neural signature of attentional lapses, open new perspectives both to the study of the neural bases of attention and to the remediation or enhancement of the attentional function using neurofeedback.

  • 20727.
    Åström, Adam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Wallberg, Matilda
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Molander, Frida
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Arbetstagarens Marknad: - Hur kan företagen upprätthålla arbetstillfredsställelse hos sina anställda?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Datum:         2018-06-05

    Nivå:            Kandidat/Magisteruppsats Företagsekonomi, 15 hp

    Akademi:     Akademin för Ekonomi, Samhälle och Teknik, Mälardalens Högskola

    Författare: 

    • Frida Molander 920422   
    • Matilda Wallberg 960510  
    • Adam Åström 930214

    Titel: Arbetstagarens marknad - Hur kan företagen upprätthålla arbetstillfredsställelse hos sina anställda?

    Handledare: Klara Regnö

    Nyckelord:   Arbetstillfredsställelse, motivation, uppsägningsbenägenhet, organisation

    Forskningsfrågor: 

    • Vilka faktorer främjar arbetstillfredsställelse hos de anställda?                      
    • Vilka faktorer skapar missnöje hos de anställda?                      
    • Vilka faktorer kan leda till att en anställd byter jobb?

    Syfte:  Studien syftar till att undersöka och bidra till ökad förståelse för hur företag inom redovisning kan agera för att upprätthålla arbetstillfredsställelse hos sina anställda.    

    Metod: Uppsatsen grundas i en kvalitativ ansats där det empiriska materialet samlats in med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer.

    Slutsats:  Enligt den här studien framkommer vissa gemensamma nämnare kring vilka faktorer som påverkar en anställds tillfredsställelse. Faktorer som påverkar arbetstillfredsställelsen positivt är relationer inom arbetet, erkännande, arbetsuppgiften i sig samt möjlighet till utveckling. Faktorer som påverkar arbetstillfredsställelsen negativt och därmed skapar missnöje, är arbetsbördan samt när det är brist på organisatoriskt engagemang, etiskt korrekt ledarskap och arbetsro. Faktorer som kan påverka att en anställd byter jobb är när arbetsbördan blir för tung och när arbetsuppgifterna inte längre känns stimulerande.

  • 20728.
    Åström, Agnes
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Ljungman, Evelina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Kvinnor som ledare inom industriföretag: En studie om hur kvinnor kan ta sig tillledande positioner2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research question: How does the industrial company Scania work to get more women in leadership positions?

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to describe how companies in a male-dominated industry can work to get a higher share of female leaders.

    Method: This survey was based on a deductive approach with a qualitative method. Theories have been obtained primarily from scientific articles and the empirical part has been collected through interviews from the companies Wiminvest and Scania.

    Conclusion: The conclusions the study came up with was different elements that companies in male-dominated industries can work with to get a higher share of female leaders. The first thing that companies can do is to join the project BON or similar projects to work on this issue. They can work with workshops and lectures to disseminate knowledge about the topic. Companies can also create a central function with the responsibility to control the equality work in the organization. They can also work on creating clear goals in terms of gender equality in the company. Companies in this industry can work on to bring more mentors and role models through different communication channels and to design career plans and development opportunities for women. A talent pool or something similar for women can be helpful to create where women can have a valuable network and thereby find mentors and role models. Companies can work with reviewing their recruitment process by, for example, to advertise all positions, for a longer period, try to have an equal distribution of men and women at the recruitment for managerial positions and create a clearer profile of requirements.

  • 20729.
    Åström, Jenny-Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Haddad, Wendelina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Rabi Navarro, Rosalia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Bryr sig konsumenter om CSR? - En studie om vilka samband som finns mellan företagets samhällsansvar och konsumentvärdet inom klädkonsumtion.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract - Do consumers care about CSR? A study about the relation between corporate social responsibility and consumer value when purchasing clothes.

    Date: May 26th, 2016

    Level: Bachelor Thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS

    Institution: School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University

    Authors: Wendelina Haddad 910915, Rosalia Rabi Navarro 890828, Jenny-Maria Åström 870630

    Title: Do consumers care about CSR? A study about the relation between corporate social responsibility and consumer value when purchasing clothes.

    Tutor: Cecilia Erixon

    Examiner: Jimmy Röndell

    Keywords: CSR, CSR activities, value, consumer value.

    Research Question: What correlations can be found between CSR activities and consumer value?

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate what correlations can be found between CSR activities and consumer value while purchasing clothes. The CSR activities are divided into three dimensions; philantrophic, business-related and product-related CSR activities while the consumer value is divided into emotional, social and functional values.

    Method: The quantitative study was based on academic litterature such as scientific articles within the subject of CSR and consumer value. A survey was conducted, based on a convenience sample, in order to collect the primary data which resulted in 223 valid questionnaires. A correlation analysis was executed to evaluate the results.

    Conclusion: The study showed that there are correlations between the three dimensions of CSR activities and the consumers emotional and functional value, while no correlations were found between the CSR activities and the social consumer value. The results can not be generalized to the whole population since the research was based on a convenience sample. 

  • 20730.
    Åström, Julia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Juhlin, Malin
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Alla kan sjunga, det låter lite olika bara: En kvalitativ undersökning av åtta förskollärares uppfattningar om sin musikaliska kompetens2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns mycket att vinna med att arbeta med musik i förskolan. Forskare menar dock att förskollärares osäkerhet och bristande musikaliska kompetens kan leda till att musik prioriteras bort i förskolan. Syftet med undersökningen var därför att få kunskap om förskollärares uppfattningar om sin musikaliska kompetens samt belysa relationen mellan dessa uppfattningar och hur musiken används som ett didaktiskt redskap. Metoden som användes var semistrukturerade intervjuer där åtta förskollärare deltog. Intervjusvaren har tolkats genom det hermeneutiska perspektivet som handlar om att tolka och förstå forskningsobjektet. I resultatet framkom en variation av förskollärarnas uppfattningar om sin musikaliska kompetens och hur de använder musik som didaktiskt redskap. Anmärkningsvärt var att den musikaliska kompentensen inte nödvändigtvis påverkade förskollärarnas känsla av trygghet i sitt musikanvändande. Slutsatsen är att förskollärarnas uppfattningar om sin musikaliska kompetens till viss del påverkar hur musiken används som ett didaktiskt redskap. Däremot går det inte att utesluta att andra faktorer kan påverka musikens omfattning i förskolan.

  • 20731.
    Åström, Karl
    et al.
    Lund university.
    Persson, Lars-ErikLuleå university.Silvestrov, SergeiMälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Analysis for Science, Engineering and Beyond The Tribute Workshop in Honour of Gunnar Sparr held in Lund, May 8-9, 20082012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 20732.
    Åström, Therese
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Blomgren, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    ENSAMSTÅENDE ÄLDRES UPPLEVELSER AV VÅRDRELATIONEN2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Being older means losses of many kinds, including physical abilities, loss o fkin, and the ability to maintain or establish new relationships. At a nursing home, the elderly are not objectively alone, there’s always other people around. Despite this there are many older people who experience loneliness their last time in life. Previous research has shown that it is important that the caregiver is responsive, open and show reciprocity in the caring relationship. Problem: For many lonely elderly the care relationship is the only relationship they have. Aim: To describe the care relationships importance for the single elderly in retirement homes. A systematic literature review was performed on eleven qualitative studies that were analyzed using a descriptive synthesis. The results showed that the experiences of the elderly without relatives at the nursing home were greatly affected by the care relationship. Thriving and perceptions of quality of care were affected by the care relationship. Furthermore their sense of purpose and belonging were affected, and the caring relationship was significant for whether the elderly felt respected and affirmed as unique individuals. It is important that caregivers understand how much the care relationship means for older people's experiences and further research on single older people's experiences of loneliness in retirement homes is of utmost importance.

  • 20733.
    Åström, Therése
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Genus i läromedel - en djupstudie av läromedlet Wings i engelska för de senare åren2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att granska det engelska läromedlet Wings ur ett genusperspektiv. En innehållsanalys har gjorts av två böcker ur läromedelsserien Wings; Base book och Activity book i årskurs 7, detta genom att använda en checklista där bland annat antalet kvinnor respektive män som förekommer i texterna i de båda böckerna har räknats. Resultatet visar att männen statistiskt sett dominerar i texterna och att det också finns en snedfördelning vad gäller variationen av egenskaper, yrken och fritidsintressen mellan kvinnor och män. Slutsatsen som nåtts är att författarna till läromedlet Wings åk 7 inte aktivt har arbetat för att skapa ett jämställt läromedel, vilket märks tydligt bland annat på fördelningen av huvudrollsinnehavare i texterna i Activity book.

  • 20734.
    Åteg, Mattias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Åberg, Marie
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Köping Olsson, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Önnered, Loe
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Tasks in the generative leadership; creating conditions for autonomy and integration2009In: The 6th International Conference on Researching Work and Learning, Roskilde, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20735.
    Åteg Vandell, Nickolina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Gustavsson, Pia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Minska matsvinnet i landets alla skolor som ett led i arbete med hållbar utveckling.: " ett roligt sättför er skola att nå kunskapskraven"2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Summary The purpose of this essay was that we wanted to make a finished material for schools that they can practically use in the classes in a way that inspires the students to the scientific topics in school and for sustainable development. We started to talk about this kind of work a few semesters ago and how we could make the lessons more interesting for the students. We also wanted to make a specialty work that the teachers could take home from the internet and use immediately. At the start of our work we discovered the limitations of the bookshelves and made the decision of using the internet instead.  At the same time we stayed connected to our partner schools to make sure that our work could be used in the classes. The answer that we collected from the teachers showed that we were on the right track and so we continued working and the finished results were a student brochure and a teacher's guide. We believe these will help the classes that are going to use this specialty work to reduce their leftovers and get a bigger knowledge about sustainable development.

  • 20736.
    Çollaku, Vasja
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Shestani, Paolo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Formal Analysis Framework For EAST-ADL Architectural Models Extended With Behavioral Specifications In Simulink2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Model-Driven Development is a development approach which is being used frequently in the automotive context in order to design models. EAST-ADL is an architectural language which models systems according to their architectural features, whereas Simulink is a tool environment which models systems according to their behavior. In this thesis work, we propose a set of transformation rules that take into consideration the EAST-ADL architectural model details and the behavioral specifications in Simulink, and generate a formal model, which can be verified UPPAAL model checker. Moreover, we implement these proposed transformation rules in a tool that automates them. The transformation rules proposed in this thesis work would be implemented for every EAST-ADL file with Simulink behavior specifications, generated by the MetaEdit+ tool. Properties like timing constraints, triggering and hierarchy in both EAST-ADL and Simulink have been considered by the transformation rules. Finally, the Brake-by-Wire case study is used to validate the tool and assess the mapping of the elements.

  • 20737.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Layout and function of the intracortical connections within the primary visual cortex2003Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 20738.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kalaykov, Ivan
    Robotics for SME´s – increased flexibility through mobility and ease of use2009Report (Other academic)
  • 20739.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Akan, Batu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Industrial Robots with Human Like Moral Responsibilities2010In: 5th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2010, Osaka, Japan, 2010, p. 85-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots do not have any capability of taking moral responsibility. At the same time industrial robotics is entering a new era with "intelligent" robots sharing workbench with humans. Teams consisting of humans and industrial robots are no longer science fiction. The biggest worry in this scenario is the fear of humans losing control and robots running amok. We believe that the current way of implementing safety measures have shortcomings, and cannot address challenges related to close collaboration between humans and robots. We propose that "intelligent" industrial robots of the future should have moral responsibilities towards their human colleagues. We also propose that implementation of moral responsibility is radically different from standard safety measures.

  • 20740.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lansner, Anders
    Configuration-specific facilitation phenomena explained by layer 2/3 summation pools in V12009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20741.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Lansner, Anders
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Configuration-specific facilitation phenomena explained by the layout of the V1 horizontal connections2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20742.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Lansner, Anders
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    On the development and functional roles of the layer 4 horizontal connections in the primary visual cortex2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20743.
    Öberg, Belinda
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Påhlsson, Frida
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Olika barn i en likvärdig förskola: En undersökning om förskollärarnas tankar och strategier kring arbetet med likabehandling med fokus på barn i behov av särskilt stöd2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20744.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    The Institutionalization of the Sharing Economy Business Models2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20745.
    Öberg, Filip
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Modellering av Panna 5 Mälarenergi AB: utveckling av en beräkningsmodell med simuleringsverktyget IPSEpro2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Heat and power stations are often in need of optimizations. A simulation model is a tool for findingways to optimize the plant. The scope of this diploma work is to develop a simulation model ofBoiler 5 at Mälarenergi AB. Boiler 5 is a circulated fluidized bed boiler that was taken into service inyear 2001. Among the included parts in the boiler are cyclone, convection part andINTREX-chambers. The software that was used for the simulation was SimTech’s IPSEpro. IPSEprois a heat and mass balance software for steady state calculations. The program comes with a set ofmodules in a library called APP_lib which contains modules such as preaheaters, pump, boiler andturbine stages. The user can however design own modules in the Model Development Kit, since thelibrary code is open source. The development of the simulation model started with an updating of anold model from year 2003. Values provided from Foster Wheeler where then used to make the modelcalculate in a right way. Thereafter some calculations of the super heaters’ heat transfer coefficientswere made. The coefficients were then translated into IPSEpro’s own programming language ModelDescription Language, and were put into the model’s modules. The results were compared with realvalues from the plant’s system. It showed that the calculated values needed more investigations to bemore accurate. The conclusion was that the final model needs more equations to describe the plant in amore realistic way.

  • 20746.
    Öberg, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Davis, Jane
    The Reader Organisation, Liverpool, UK.
    Prescott, Debbie
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
    Avery, Barry
    Kingston University, London, UK .
    A Doctoral Community of Practice: A Spatial Entity Across Social Media2017In: Implementing Communities of Practice in Higher Education: Dreamers and Schemers / [ed] Jacquie McDonald ans Aileen Cater-Steel, Singapore: Springer Singapore , 2017, p. 305-324Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter is situated in the context of the growing desire by educators to support learning through the facilitation of communities of practice. The original conceptualisation of communities of practice is revisited, with a focus on its ethereal rather than located features. In so doing, the chapter takes a journey away from the notion of space as being located and considers instead a more ethereal, chaotic entity. We suggest that the spatial realm is one in which communities of practice thrive, through the development of processes, practices and inter-relationships. The chapter follows a multinational group of doctoral students as they develop a community of practice outside the bounds of their formal learning community and considers the differing impacts of their landscapes of practice, of bounded place and open space. The chapter closes by considering the value of spatial communities of practice, the nature and potential impact of facilitation, and the implications of the cultivation of such communities within higher education.

  • 20747.
    Öberg, Helena
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Döden i bilderboken: En studie av ikonotexten hos Kitty Crowther2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The picture book is a literary form in which verbal and visual elements are inextricably

    linked, how can this special aesthetics express death? Out of my readings of Kitty Crowthers

    three picture books on the topic of death; Moi et Rien (2000), La visite de petite mort (2004)

    and Annie du lac (2009) I have examined how visual representation and text combined create

    an aesthetic experience which mediate complicated psychological context, cultural behaving

    and human experience. In her picture books Crowther in various representations shows the

    unseen, immaterial and abstract phenomenon of death – depictions which can teach us how to

    live.

  • 20748.
    Öberg, Joachim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Zammit, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Att utveckla en säljstyrka: En undersökning angående Securitas Aroundios säljutbildning och coachning2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate Securitas Aroundio’s sales training and coaching

    from the view of the firm’s employees. It is of great importance for Securitas Aroundio to

    receive an honest opinion about their sales training and coaching. No previous evaluation has

    been made by external researchers. By continuous evaluation of a firms sales training and

    coaching, the firm can get an awareness of matters that need to be changed or fixed.

    This thesis is based on a qualitative approach where the employees at Securitas Aroundio in

    Linköping were interviewed. All interviews took place at Aroundio’s headquarters in

    Linköping on the 5th of May 2008. All of the respondents gave consent for the recording of

    the interviews. Also notes were taken during the interviews. The questions asked during the

    interviews were based on a semi structured interview format, dealing with the two areas of the

    investigation, Aroundio’s sales training and coaching.

    The result indicates the sales training and coaching provided by Securitas Aroundio is

    adequate. This statement is based on the overall satisfaction of the employees concerning the

    sales training and coaching provided by the firm. The overall indication is that the salespeople

    are provided with the tools and support they need to work autonomously. In conclusion,

    Securitas Aroundio’s goals with the sales training and coaching are being met.

  • 20749.
    Öberg, Maja
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Kåbring, Lotta
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Yrkesverksamma inom rättsväsendet och civilas bedömningar av straff beroende på gärningsmannens bakgrund2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stereotyper inom psykologin handlar om att tillskriva individer egenskaper som generaliseras över grupper. Detta leder till att negativa fördomar skapas och människor felaktigt döms på förhand. Studien undersökte om skillnader fanns i bedömningen gällande en gärningsmans bakgrund. Syftet med studien var att undersöka om en gärningsman med brottsligt förflutet döms till grövre påföljd vid brott, än en gärningsman utan brottsligt förflutet, samt att rättsväsendet bedömer brottet allvarligare än kontrollgruppen. Deltagare var 99 individer, varav 56 från rättsväsendet som besvarade en enkät gällande ett misshandelsfall. Enkäten fanns i tre olika utföranden där en gärningsmans bakgrund manipulerades. Resultaten indikerade att rättsväsendet tilldelar hårdare straff mot gärningsmannen, samt bedömer brottet allvarligare i fallet där gärningsmannen ej var känd tidigare. Detta kan bero på att rättsväsendet är professionella i sina bedömningar oavsett gärningsmäns bakgrund. Kontrollgruppen däremot kan anse att gärningsmannen förtjänar en andra chans och därmed inte dömer lika hårt.

  • 20750.
    Öberg, Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Integration genom etniska föreningar: En kvalitativ studie om integrering och ökad politisk aktivitet via ideella föreningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether non-profit organizations in the form of ethnic associations could contribute to greater political integration of ethnic minorities.

    tree questions sought to answer the aim of this study: “To see if memberships in ethnical contributed greater political integration and participation in society and politics?” “Have association membership contributed to increased political participation, as well as an increased interest in political issues? “And what measures for increased political participation and greater political integration has been made by the parish of Västerås in recent years?

    The essay was performed by means of interviews. The results show that a commitment to an ethnic association improves the possibility of integration and increased political interest.

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