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  • 201.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bringing MoVES Towards Consolidated Electrical/Electronic Automotive Architectures2019Ingår i: Work in Progress Session of the Euromicro DSD/SEAA 2019 conference WIP-SEAA, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 202.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Arcticus Systems AB, Jarfalla, Sweden.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Arcticus Systems AB, Jarfalla, Sweden.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Exploring Timing Model Extractions at EAST-ADL Design-level Using Model Transformations2015Ingår i: Proceedings - 12th International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations, ITNG 2015, 2015, Vol. Article number 7113538, s. 596-600Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss the problem of extracting control and data flows from vehicular distributed embedded systems at higher abstraction levels during their development. Unambiguous extraction of control and data flows is vital part of the end-to-end timing model which is used as input by the end-to end timinganalysis engines. The goal is to support end-to-end timing analysis at higher abstraction levels. In order to address the problem, we propose a two-phase methodology that exploits the principles of ModelDriven Engineering and Component Based Software Engineering. Using this methodology, the software architecture at a higher level is automatically transformed to all legal implementation-level models. The end-to-end timing analysis is performed on each generated implementation-level model and the analysis results are fed back to the design-level model. This activity supports design space exploration, modelrefinement and/or remodeling at higher abstraction levels for tuning the timing behavior of the system.

  • 203.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Comparative Evaluation of Timing Model Extraction Methodologies at EAST-ADL Design Level2015Ingår i: Proceedings - 2015 IEEE 17th International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications, 2015 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security and 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems, HPCC-CSS-ICESS 2015, 2015, s. 1110-1115Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are various methodologies that support the extraction of timing models from EAST-ADL design-level models during the development of vehicular embedded software systems. These timing models are used to predict timing behavior of the systems by performing end-to-end timing analysis. This paper presents, for the first time, a comparative evaluation of three methodologies. We present an evaluation framework that consists of several evaluation features. Using the framework, we compare and evaluate the methodologies against each feature. Eventually, the evaluation results can be used as guidelines for the selection of the most suitable methodology with respect to the end-to-end timing behavior of a given vehicular embedded application.

  • 204.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Technology-preserving transition from single-core to multi-core in modelling vehicular systems2017Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 10376, Springer Verlag , 2017, s. 285-299Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The vehicular industry has exploited model-based engineering for design, analysis, and development of single-core vehicular systems. Next generation of autonomous vehicles will require higher computational power, which can only be provided by parallel computing platforms such as multi-core electronic control units. Current model-based software development solutions and related modelling languages, originally conceived for single-core, cannot effectively deal with multi-core specific challenges, such as core-interdependency and allocation of software to hardware. In this paper, we propose an extension to the Rubus Component Model, central to the Rubus model-based approach, for the modelling, analysis, and development of vehicular systems on multi-core. Our goal is to provide a lightweight transition of a model-based software development approach from single-core to multi-core, without disrupting the current technological assets in the vehicular domain.

  • 205.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Gålnander, Mattias
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Demonstrating Model- and Component-based Development of Vehicular Real-time Systems2017Ingår i: Open Demo Session of Real-Time Systems located at Real Time Systems Symposium (RTSS) RTSS@Work'17, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 206.
    Bucchiarone, A.
    et al.
    Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Trento, Italy.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sanctis, M. D.
    Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Trento, Italy.
    Towards a domain specific language for engineering collective adaptive systems2017Ingår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 2nd International Workshops on Foundations and Applications of Self* Systems, FAS*W 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, s. 19-26Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterogeneous agents that cooperate to accomplish collective tasks constitute Collective Adaptive Systems (CAS). Engineering a CAS not only involves the definition of the individual agents, but also their roles in achieving a collective task and adaptation strategies to counteract to environmental changes. Current solutions for specifying CAS typically tackle the problem at a low level of abstraction (e.g., writing XML files), making this task time-consuming and error-prone. Moreover, such a low level of abstraction hinders the understandability of the specification. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) proposes to reduce the complexity of development by adopting models as first class artifacts in the process. In this respect, this work proposes a MDE approach to enhance CAS specification. In particular, we introduce a domain-specific language (DSL) made-up of three main views: one devoted to adaptive systems design; one addressing ensembles definition; and one tackling the collective adaptation. These three separate aspects are woven seamlessly by the DSL to constitute a complete CAS design. While the different views allow us to exploit separation-of-concerns to reduce complexity and focus on a specific aspect of the system, facing CAS specification at a higher-level of abstraction permits to use concepts closer to the experts of the involved domains. Moreover, the precise definition of modeling concepts through corresponding meta-models enables correctness-by-construction of the system specification. 

  • 207.
    Bucchiarone, Antonio
    et al.
    Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Trento, Italy.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    De Sanctis, Martina
    Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Trento, Italy.
    CAStlE: A Tool for Collective Adaptive Systems Engineering2017Ingår i: Poster FAS*W, 2017, s. 385-386Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose CAStlE, a MDE approach to enhance Collective Adaptive System (CAS) specification. In particular, we introduce a domain-specific language (DSL) made-up of three main views: one devoted to adaptive systems design; one addressing ensembles definition; and one tackling the collective adaptation. These three separate aspects are woven seamlessly by the DSL to constitute a complete CAS design. Moreover, each of the defined views conveys the creation of a corresponding model editor, which allows for the three aspects of a CAS to be independently designed by CAStlE.

  • 208.
    Burgueño, Loli
    et al.
    UOCBarcelonaSpain.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Famelis, Michalis
    Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada.
    Kappel, Gerti
    CDPTU Wien,Vienna, Austria.
    Lambers, Leen
    Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Potsdam, Germany.
    Mosser, Sebastien
    UQAM Montreal, Canada.
    Paige, Richard F.
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
    Pierantonio, Alfonso
    University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy.
    Rensink, Arend
    University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Salay, Rick
    University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Taentzer, Gabriele
    Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
    Vallecillo, Antonio
    Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, Spain.
    Wimmer, Manuel
    JKU Linz, Linz, Austria.
    Contents for a Model-Based Software Engineering Body of KnowledgeIngår i: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Model-Based Software Engineering (MBE) is a widely accepted Software Engineering (SE) discipline, no agreed upon core set of concepts and practices (i.e., a Body of Knowledge) has been defined for it yet. With the goals of characterizing the contents of the MBE discipline, promoting a global consistent view of it, clarifying its scope with regard to other SE disciplines, and defining a foundation for the development of educational curricula on MBE, this paper proposes the contents for a Body of Knowledge for MBE. We also describe the methodology that we have used to come up with the proposed list of contents, as well as the results of a survey study that we conducted to sound out the opinion of the community on the importance of the proposed topics and their level of coverage in existing SE curricula.

  • 209.
    Bygde, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Analysis of Arithmetical Congruences on Low-Level Code2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Interpretation is a well known formal framework for abstracting programming language semantics. It provides a systematic way of building static analyses which can be used for optimisation and debugging purposes. Different semantic properties can be captured by so-called abstract domains which then easily can be combined in various ways to yield more precise analyses. The most known abstract domain is probably the one of intervals. An analysis using the interval domain yields bindings of each integer-valued program variable to an interval at each program point. The interval is the smallest interval that contains the set of integers possible for that particular variable to assume at that program point during execution. Abstract interpretation can be used in many contexts, such as in debugging, program transformation, correctness proving, Worst Case Execution Time analysis etc.

    In 1989 Philippe Granger introduced a static analysis of arithmetical congruences. The analysis is formulated as an abstract interpretation computing the smallest (wrt. inclusion) congruence (residue) class that includes the set of possible values that that variable may assume during execution. The result of the analysis is a binding of each integer-valued variable at each program point to a congruence class. Applications for this analysis include automatic vectorisation, pointer analysis (for determining pointer strides) and loop-bound analysis (for detecting loops with non-unit strides). However, in the original presentation, the analysis is not well suited to use on realistic low-level code. By low-level code we mean either compiled and linked object code where high-level constructions has been replaced with target-specific assembly code, or code in a higher-level language written in a fashion close to the hardware. A good example of low-level code is code written for embedded systems which often is using advantages of the target hardware and/or using a lot of bit-level operations. Code for embedded systems is an increasingly important target for analysis, since it is often safety-critical. The reason that the congruence domain in its original presentation is not suitable for low-level code is mainly due to the three following properties of low-level code: A) Bit-level operations are commonly used in low-level code. Programs that contain bit-operations are not supported in the original presentation. For any computation of an expression which contain operations that has not been defined in the analysis, it has to assume that nothing is known about the result and assign the result to the largest congruence class (equal to Z). This can potentially lead to very imprecise analysis results.

    B) The interpretation of the values of integer-valued variables is not obvious (e.g. they can be signed or unsigned), the original presentation assumes that values has unambiguous representations. C) The value-domain is limited by its representation (integers are often represented by a fixed number of bits). In Grangers presentation integer-valued variables are assumed to take values in the infinite set of integers. Our contribution is to extend the theory of the analysis of arithmetical congruences to be able to handle low-level or assembly code, still in the framework of abstract interpretation.

    This paper provides accurate definitions to the abstract bit-operations AND,NOT,XOR, left- and right shifting and truncation for the congruence domain in order to make the domain support these operations. We provide definitions for the operations together with proofs of their correctness. In these definitions care has been taken to the finite, fixed representation of integers as well as their sometimes ambiguous interpretations as signed or unsigned. With these definitions, congruence analysis can efficiently be performed on low-level code. The paper illustrates the usefulness of the new analysis by an example which shows that variables keep important parity information after executing a XOR-swap.

  • 210.
    Bygde, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Holsti, Niklas
    Tidorum Ltd, Helsinki, Finland.
    Fully Bounded Polyhedral Analysis of Integers with Wrapping2011Ingår i: Electronical Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, ISSN 1571-0661, E-ISSN 1571-0661, Vol. 288, s. 3-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    analysis technique to discover linear relationships among variables in a program. However, the classical way of performing polyhedral analysis does not model the fact that values typically are stored as fixed-size binary strings and usually have a wrap-around semantics in the case of overflows. In embedded systems where 16-bit or even 8-bit processors are used, wrapping behaviour may even be used intentionally. Thus, to accurately and correctly analyse such systems, the wrapping has to be modelled. We present an approach to polyhedral analysis which derives polyhedra that are bounded in all dimensions and thus provides polyhedra that contain a finite number of integer points. Our approach uses a previously suggested wrapping technique for polyhedra but combines it in a novel way with limited widening, a suitable placement of widening points and restrictions on unbounded variables. We show how our method has the potential to significantly increase the precision compared to the previously suggested wrapping method.

  • 211.
    Bygde, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Holsti, Niklas
    Tidorum Ltd, Helsinki, Finland.
    Improved Precision in Polyhedral Analysis with Wrapping2017Ingår i: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 133, s. 74-87Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract interpretation using convex polyhedra is a common and powerful program analysis technique to discover linear relationships among variables in a program. However, the classical way of performing polyhedral analysis does not model the fact that values typically are stored as xed-size binary strings and usually have wrap-around semantics in the case of over ows. In resource-constrained embedded systems, where 8- or 16-bit processors are used, wrapping behaviour may even be used intentionally to save instructions and execution time. Thus, to analyse such systems accurately and correctly, the wrapping has to be modelled. We present an approach to polyhedral analysis which derives polyhedra that are bounded in all dimensions. Our approach is based on a previously suggested wrapping technique by Simon and King, combined with limited widening, a suitable placement of widening points and size-induced restrictions on unbounded variables. With this method, we can derive fully bounded polyhedra in every step of the analysis. We have implemented our method and Simon and King's method compared them. Our experiments show that for a suite of benchmark programs it gives at least as precise result as Simon and King's method. In some cases we obtain a significantly improved result.

  • 212.
    Bygde, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Holsti, Niklas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Static Analysis of Bounded Polyhedra2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method for polyhedral abstract interpretation which derives fully bounded polyhedra for every step in the analysis. Contrary to classical polyhedral analysis, this method is sound for integer-valued variables stored as fixed-size binary strings; wrap-arounds are correctly modelled. Our work is based on earlier work by Axel Simon and Andy King but aims to significantly reduce the precision loss introduced in their method.

  • 213.
    Cai, Simin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Systematic Design of Data Management for Real-Time Data-Intensive Applications2017Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern real-time data-intensive systems generate large amounts of data that are processed using complex data-related computations such as data aggregation. In order to maintain the consistency of data, such computations must be both logically correct (producing correct and consistent results) and temporally correct (completing before specified deadlines). One solution to ensure logical and temporal correctness is to model these computations as transactions and manage them using a Real-Time Database Management System (RTDBMS). Ideally, depending on the particular system, the transactions are customized with the desired logical and temporal correctness properties, which are achieved by the customized RTDBMS with appropriate run-time mechanisms. However, developing such a data management solution with provided guarantees is not easy, partly due to inadequate support for systematic analysis during the design. Firstly, designers do not have means to identify the characteristics of the computations, especially data aggregation, and to reason about their implications. Design flaws might not be discovered, and thus they may be propagated to the implementation. Secondly, trade-off analysis of conflicting properties, such as conflicts between transaction isolation and temporal correctness, is mainly performed ad-hoc, which increases the risk of unpredictable behavior.

    In this thesis, we propose a systematic approach to develop transaction-based data management with data aggregation support for real-time systems. Our approach includes the following contributions: (i) a taxonomy of data aggregation, (ii) a process for customizing transaction models and RTDBMS, and (iii) a pattern-based method of modeling transactions in the timed automata framework, which we show how to verify with respect to transaction isolation and temporal correctness. Our proposed taxonomy of data aggregation processes helps in identifying their common and variable characteristics, based on which their implications can be reasoned about. Our proposed process allows designers to derive transaction models with desired properties for the data-related computations from system requirements, and decide the appropriate run-time mechanisms for the customized RTDBMS to achieve the desired properties. To perform systematic trade-off analysis between transaction isolation and temporal correctness specifically, we propose a method to create formal models of transactions with concurrency control, based on which the isolation and temporal correctness properties can be verified by model checking, using the UPPAAL tool. By applying the proposed approach to the development of an industrial demonstrator, we validate the applicability of our approach.

  • 214.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Customized Real-Time Data Management for Automotive Systems: A Case Study2017Ingår i: IECON 2017 - 43RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY, 2017, s. 8397-8404Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time DataBase Management Systems (RTDBMS) have been considered as a promising means to manage data for data-centric automotive systems. During the design of an RTDBMS, one must carefully trade off data consistency and timeliness, in order to achieve an acceptable level of both properties. Previously, we have proposed a design process called DAGGERS to facilitate a systematic customization of transaction models and decision on the run-time mechanisms. In this paper, we evaluate the applicability of DAGGERS via an industrially relevant case study that aims to design the transaction management for an on-board diagnostic system, which should guarantee both timeliness and data consistency under concurrent access. To achieve this, we apply the pattern-based approach of DAGGERS to formalize the transactions, and derive the appropriate isolation level and concurrency control algorithm guided by model checking. We show by simulation that the implementation of our designed system satisfies the desired timeliness and derived isolation, and demonstrate that DAGGERS helps to customize desired real-time transaction management prior to implementation.

  • 215.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    DAGGTAX: A Taxonomy of Data Aggregation Processes2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Data aggregation processes are essential constituents in many data management applications. Due to their complexity, designing data aggregation processes often demands considerable efforts. A study on the features of data aggregation processes will provide a comprehensive view for the designers and ease the design process. Existing works either propose application-specific aggregation solutions, or focus on particular aspects of aggregation processes such as aggregate functions, hence they do not offer a high-level, generic description. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy of data aggregation processes called DAGGTAX, which builds on the results of an extensive survey within various application domains. Our work focuses on the features of aggregation processes and their implications, especially on the temporal data consistency and the process timeliness. We present our taxonomy as a feature diagram, which is a visual notation with formal semantics. The taxonomy can then serve as the foundation of a design tool that enables designers to build an aggregation process by selecting and composing desired features. Based on the implications of the features, we formulate three design rules that eliminate infeasible feature combinations. We also provide a set of design heuristics that could help designers to decide the appropriate mechanisms for achieving the selected features. 

  • 216.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Data Aggregation Processes: A Survey, A Taxonomy, and Design Guidelines2019Ingår i: Computing, ISSN 0010-485X, E-ISSN 1436-5057, Vol. 101, nr 10, s. 1397-1429Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Data aggregation processes are essential constituents for data management in modern computer systems, such as decision support systems and Internet of Things (IoT) systems, many with timing constraints. Understanding the common and variable features of data aggregation processes, especially their implications to the timerelated properties, is key to improving the quality of the designed system and reduce design effort. In this paper, we present a survey of data aggregation processes in a variety of application domains from literature.We investigate their common and variable features, which serves as the basis of our previously proposed taxonomy called DAGGTAX. By studying the implications of the DAGGTAX features, we formulate a set of constraints to be satisfied during design, which helps to check the correctness of the specifications and reduce the design space. We also provide a set of design heuristics that could help designers to decide the appropriate mechanisms for achieving the selected features. We apply DAGGTAX on industrial case studies, showing that DAGGTAX not only strengthens the understanding, but also serves as the foundation of a design tool which facilitates the model-driven design of data aggregation processes.

  • 217.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Effective Test Suite Design for Detecting Concurrency Control Faults in Distributed Transaction Systems2018Ingår i: 8th International Symposium On Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation ISoLA 2018, 2018, s. 355-374Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Concurrency control faults may lead to unwanted interleavings, and breach data consistency in distributed transaction systems. However, due to the unpredictable delays between sites, detecting concurrency control faults in distributed transaction systems is difficult. In this paper, we propose a methodology, relying on model-based testing and mutation testing, for designing test cases in order to detect such faults. The generated test inputs are designated delays between distributed operations, while the outputs are the occurrence of unwanted interleavings that are consequences of the concurrency control faults. We mutate the distributed transaction specification with common concurrency control faults, and model them as UPPAAL timed automata, in which designated delays are encoded as stopwatches. Test cases are generated via reachability analysis using UPPAAL Model Checker, and are selected to form an effective test suite. Our methodology can reduce redundant test cases, and find the appropriate delays to detect concurrency control faults effectively.

  • 218.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Specification and Formal Verification of Atomic Concurrent Real-Time Transactions2018Ingår i: 23rd IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing PRDC 2018, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although atomicity, isolation and temporal correctness are crucial to the dependability of many real-time database-centric systems, the selected assurance mechanism for one property may breach another. Trading off these properties requires to specify and analyze their dependencies, together with the selected supporting mechanisms (abort recovery, concurrency control, and scheduling), which is still insufficiently supported. In this paper, we propose a UML profile, called UTRAN, for specifying atomic concurrent real-time transactions, with explicit support for all three properties and their supporting mechanisms. We also propose a pattern-based modeling framework, called UPPCART, to formalize the transactions and the mechanisms specified in UTRAN, as UPPAAL timed automata. Various mechanisms can be modeled flexibly using our reusable patterns, after which the desired properties can be verified by the UPPAAL model checker. Our techniques facilitate systematic analysis of atomicity, isolation and temporal correctness trade-offs with guarantee, thus contributing to a dependable real-time database system.

  • 219.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Statistical Model Checking for Real-Time Database Management Systems: A Case Study2019Ingår i: The 24th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA2019, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industrial control systems manage critical data using Database Management Systems (DBMS). The correctness of transactions, especially their atomicity, isolation and temporal correctness, is essential for the dependability of the entire system. Existing methods and techniques, however, either lack the ability to analyze the interplay of these properties, or do not scale well for systems with large amounts of transactions and data, and complex transaction management mechanisms. In this paper, we propose to analyze large scale real-time database systems using statistical model checking. We propose a pattern-based framework, by extending our previous work, to model the real-time DBMS as a network of stochastic timed automata, which can be analyzed by UPPAAL Statistical Model Checker. We present an industrial case study, in which we design a collision avoidance system for multiple autonomous construction vehicles, via concurrency control of a real-time DBMS. The desired properties of the designed system are analyzed using our proposed framework.

  • 220.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Trading-off Data Consistency for Timeliness in Real-Time Database Systems2015Ingår i: 27th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems ECRTS'15, 2015, s. 13-16Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to guarantee transaction timeliness, Realtime Database Management Systems (RTDBMSs) often relax data consistency by relaxing the ACID transaction properties. Such relaxation varies depending on the application and thus different transaction management mechanisms have to be decided for developing a tailored RTDBMS. However, current RTDBMSs development does not include systematic verification of timeliness and desired ACID properties. Consequently, the implemented transaction management mechanisms may breach timeliness of transactions. In this paper, we propose a process called DAGGERS for developing a tailored RTDBMS that guarantees timeliness and desired data consistency for real-time systems by employing model-checking techniques during the process. Based on the characteristics of the desired data manipulations, transaction models are designed and then formally verified iteratively together with selected run-time mechanisms, in order to achieve the desired/necessary trade-offs between timeliness and data consistency. The outcome of DAGGERS is thus a tailored transaction management with guaranteed appropriate trade-offs, as well as the model-checking based worst-case execution times and blocking times of transactions under these mechanisms and assumptions of the hardware architecture.

  • 221.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Larsson, Alf
    Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Design of Cloud Monitoring Systems via DAGGTAX: A Case Study2017Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 109, s. 424-431Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient auto-scaling of cloud resources relies on the monitoring of the cloud, which involves multiple aggregation processes and large amounts of data with various and interdependent requirements. A systematic way of describing the data together with the possible aggregations is beneficial for designers to reason about the properties of these aspects as well as their implications on the design, thus improving quality and lowering development costs. In this paper, we propose to apply DAGGTAX, a feature-oriented taxonomy for organizing common and variable data and aggregation process properties, to the design of cloud monitoring systems. We demonstrate the effectiveness of DAGGTAX via a case study provided by industry, which aims to design a cloud monitoring system that serves auto-scaling for a video streaming system. We design the cloud monitoring system by selecting and composing DAGGTAX features, and reason about the feasibility of the selected features. The case study shows that the application of DAGGTAX can help designers to identify reusable features, analyze trade-offs between selected features, and derive crucial system parameters.

  • 222.
    Campaña, Erik Martín
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Müllner, Nils
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Interfacing a brake-by-wire simulink model with SUMO2019Ingår i: 2018 International Conference on Intelligent and Innovative Computing Applications, ICONIC 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, artikel-id 8601239Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an adapter to link the Matlab/Simulink model of a custom braking system into an open-source road traffic simulator, namely SUMO. The traditional braking models in SUMO work on a coarser level, generally modeling the deceleration of the vehicle based on a single equation. Substituting this model with a detailed system allows adjustments on a very low level, including delays between components, the traction of individual tires, and controllers for the anti-locking system by simulating those in Simulink. Besides introducing the novel adapter linked into SUMO and discussing parameter fitting to mimic the behavior of the traditional braking system, this paper discusses the amount of performance deterioration as the price for simulating a more sophisticated braking system.

  • 223.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    A Mapping Study on Microservice Architectures of Internet of Things and Cloud Computing Solutions2018Ingår i: The 7th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing MECO'2018, 2018, s. 1-4Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things is a fairly new paradigm adopted by the industry, and offers the connectivity of all the devices that surround us, via wireless systems. One of the challenges of IoT relates to the required resources to store and compute the huge amount of data resulted from devices’ connections. Cloud computing is a solution to the IoT challenges; it provides on-demand resources in an easy-to-access manner. Another trend in the enterprise world is the usage of microservice architectures. Being a newly developed paradigm, and although its principles are defined, it is difficult to have a vision of the existing microservice-based research solutions. This paper, through the mapping study methodology, provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art regarding the usage of microservice architectures by IoT and cloud computing solutions. More specifically, we synthesize the data from 364 selected studies and describe the research types, number of publications and their main venues.

  • 224.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Facilitating Component Reusability in Embedded Systems with GPUs2018Ingår i: The 16th International Conference on Software Engineering and Formal Methods SEFM 2018, 2018, s. 287-301Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to fulfill the increased requirements (e.g., performance) of modern embedded systems is through the usage of GPUs. The existing embedded platforms that contain GPUs bring several challenges when developing applications using the component-based development methodology. With no specific GPU support, the component developer needs to encapsulate inside the component, all the information related to the GPU, including the settings regarding the GPU resources (e.g., number of used GPU threads). This way of developing components with GPU capability makes them specific to particular contexts, which negatively impacts the reusability aspect. For example, a component that is constructed to filter 640x480 pixel frames may produce erroneous results when reused in a context that deals with higher resolution frames. We propose a solution that facilitates the reusability of components with GPU capabilities. The solution, based on the application design, automatically constructs several (functional-) equivalent component instances that are all-together used to process the same data. The solution is implemented as an extension of an existing component model (i.e., Rubus) and the evaluation of the realized extension is done through the vision system of an existing underwater robot.

  • 225.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    GPU Support for Component-based Development of Embedded Systems2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    One pressing challenge of many modern embedded systems is to successfully deal with the considerable amount of data that originates from the interaction with the environment. A recent solution comes from the use of GPUs. Equipped with a parallel execution model, the GPU excels in parallel processing applications, providing an improved performance compared to the CPU.

    Another trend in the embedded systems domain is the use of component-based development. This software engineering paradigm that promotes construction of applications through the composition of software components, has been successfully used in the development of embedded systems. However, the existing approaches provide no specific support to develop embedded systems with GPUs. As a result, components with GPU capability need to encapsulate all the required GPU information in order to be successfully executed by the GPU. This leads to component specialization to specific platforms, hence drastically impeding component reusability.

    Our main goal is to facilitate component-based development of embedded systems with GPUs. We introduce the concept of flexible component which increases the flexibility to design embedded systems with GPUs, by allowing the system developer to decided where to place the component, i.e., either on the CPU or GPU. Furthermore, we provide means to automatically generate the required information for flexible components corresponding to their hardware placement, and to improve component communication. Through the introduced support, components with GPU capability are platform-independent, being capable to be executed on a large variety of hardware (i.e., platforms with different GPU characteristics). Furthermore, an optimization step is introduced, which groups connected flexible components into single entities that behave as regular components. Dealing with components that can be executed either by the CPU or GPU, we also introduce an allocation optimization method. The proposed solution, implemented using a mathematical solver, offers alternative options in optimizing particular system goals (e.g., memory and energy usage).

  • 226.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    GPU-aware Component-based Development for Embedded Systems2016Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, more and more embedded systems are equipped with e.g., various sensors that produce large amount of data. One of the challenges of traditional (CPU-based) embedded systems is to process this considerable amount of data such that it produces the appropriate performance level demanded by embedded applications. A solution comes from the usage of a specialized processing unit such as Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). A GPU can process large amount of data thanks to its parallel processing architecture, delivering an im- proved performance outcome compared to CPU. A characteristic of the GPU is that it cannot work alone; the CPU must trigger all its activities. Today, taking advantage of the latest technology breakthrough, we can benefit of the GPU technology in the context of embedded systems by using heterogeneous CPU-GPU embedded systems.

    Component-based development has demonstrated to be a promising methology in handling software complexity. Through component models, which describe the component specification and their interaction, the methodology has been successfully used in embedded system domain. The existing component models, designed to handle CPU-based embedded systems, face challenges in developing embedded systems with GPU capabilities. For example, current so- lutions realize the communication between components with GPU capabilities via the RAM system. This introduces an undesired overhead that negatively affects the system performance.

    This Licentiate presents methods and techniques that address the component- based development of embedded systems with GPU capabilities. More concretely, we provide means for component models to explicitly address the GPU-aware component-based development by using specific artifacts. For example, the overhead introduced by the traditional way of communicating via RAM is reduced by inserting automatically generated adapters that facilitate a direct component communication over the GPU memory.

    Another contribution of the thesis is a component allocation method over the system hardware. The proposed solution offers alternative options in opti- mizing the total system performance and balancing various system properties (e.g., memory usage, GPU load). For the validation part of our proposed solutions, we use an underwater robot demonstrator equipped with GPU hardware. 

  • 227.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Parallel Execution Optimization of GPU-aware Components in Embedded Systems2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, SEKE2017, 2017, s. 135-141Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many embedded systems process huge amount of data that comes from the interaction with the environment. The Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is a modern embedded solution that tackles the efficiency challenge when processing a lot of data. GPU may improve even more the system performance by allowing multiple activities to be executed in a parallel manner. In a complex component-based application, the challenge is to decide the components to be parallel executed (onto GPU) when considering different system factors (e.g., GPU memory, GPU computation power). In the context of component-based CPU-GPU embedded systems, we propose an automatic method that provides parallel execution schemes of components with GPU capabilities. The introduced method considers hardware (e.g., available GPU memory) and software properties (e.g., required GPU memory) and communication pattern. Moreover, the method optimizes the overall system performance based on component execution times and system architecture (i.e., communication pattern). The validation uses an underwater robot example to describe the feasibility of our proposed method.

  • 228.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A GPU-aware Component Model Extension for Heterogeneous Embedded Systems2015Ingår i: The Tenth International Conference on Software Engineering Advances ICSEA 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One way for modern embedded systems to tackle the demand for more complex functionality requiring more computational power is to take advantage of heterogeneous hardware. These hardware platforms are constructed from the combination of different processing units including both traditional CPUs and for example Graphical Processing Units (GPUs). However, there is a lack of efficient approaches supporting software development for such systems. In particular, modern software development approaches, such as component-based development, do not provide sufficient support for heterogeneous hardware platforms. This paper presents a component model extension, which defines specific features for components with GPU capabilities. The benefits of the proposed solution include an increased system performance by accelerating the communication between GPU-aware components and the possibility to control the distribution of GPU computation resources at system level.

  • 229.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Allocation Optimization for Component-based Embedded Systems with GPUs2018Ingår i: 44th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2018, 2018, s. 101-110Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Platforms equipped with GPU processors help mitigating the ever-increasing computational demands of modern embedded systems. Such systems can be specifically developed by using component-based development thanks to the concept of flexible components. Through this concept, a component can be transparently executed either on a CPU or a GPU. However, this flexibility complicates the allocation process because it adds additional complexity (i.e., due to the undecided CPU or GPU execution) and constraints to consider (i.e., CPUs and GPUs properties). In this work, we address this problem by providing an optimization model for component-based embedded systems executing on both CPU and GPU. The model addresses important optimization goals, characteristic to the embedded system domain, such as memory usage, energy usage and execution time. A novelty of this work is the formal description of the optimization model, which supports the usage of mixed integer nonlinear programming to compute optimal allocation schemes. To examine the feasibility of the proposed method, we apply the optimization model on a vision system constructed using the industrial Rubus component model.

  • 230.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Developing CPU-GPU Embedded Systems using Platform-Agnostic Components2017Ingår i: Proceedings - 43rd Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2017, 2017, s. 176-180, artikel-id 8051345Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, there are many embedded systems with different architectures that have incorporated GPUs. However, it is difficult to develop CPU-GPU embedded systems using component-based development (CBD), since existing CBD ap- proaches have no support for GPU development. In this context, when targeting a particular CPU-GPU platform, the component developer is forced to construct hardware-specific components, which are problematic to (re-)use in different contexts. More- over, hard-coding specific GPU-usage characteristics (e.g., the number of utilized GPU threads) inside the component is not possible without making detailed assumptions about the system in which the component is used, which conflicts with separation- of-concerns CBD principle. The paper presents a solution to allow component-based development of platform-agnostic CPU-GPU embedded systems through: i) high-level API, ii) adapters, and iii) code template. The API abstracts the specifics of the different platforms, while the adapters externalize hardware-specific activities outside components. We also raise the decision regarding the GPU- usage specifications, from the component to the system level. Furthermore, to minimize the development effort, we provide a code template that contains ready-made code fragments required for GPU development. As a case study, we examine the feasibility of our solution applied on a component-based vision system of an underwater robot.

  • 231.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Flexible Components for Development of Embedded Systems with GPUs2017Ingår i: 24th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference APSEC 2017, 2017, s. 219-228Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, embedded systems incorporate GPUs through a multitude of different architectures. When it comes to the development of these systems with GPUs, component-based development is ill-equipped as it does not provide support for GPUs. Instead, the component developer needs to encapsulate inside the component, besides functionality, settings and environment information that are specific to a particular GPU architecture. This binds the component this GPU architecture. Using these hardware-specific components characterized by restricted reusability, the system developer is confined to a limited design space which may negatively impact the overall system feasibility. 

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of flexible components, which are components that can be executed indifferently on CPU or GPU, regardless of the architecture. Using flexible components, component developers are relieved from the side development activities (e.g., environment information) which are automatically handled by component-level mechanisms. To enhance component communications, connection elements (i.e., adapters) are generated to handle component data transmission, taking in consideration the platform characteristics. Finally, our proposed solution is evaluated by using flexible components to implement the vision system of an underwater robot, and execute it on three platforms with different GPU architectures.

  • 232.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Optimized Realization of Software Components with Flexible OpenCL Functionality2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, ENASE 2018, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, March 23-24, 2018, 2018, s. 77-88Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the newly available embedded boards with GPUs provide a solution to satisfy the ever-increasing requirements of modern embedded systems. Component-based development is a well-known paradigm used to develop embedded systems. However, this paradigm lacks GPU support to address the specifics of these new boards. This leads to components that typically have reduced reusability, poor maintainability and portability. One way to tackle the existing shortcomings is through flexible components, i.e., platform-agnostic components that, at design time, offer the possibility to be executed either on CPU or GPU. The current realization of flexible components, i.e., as regular components with functionality tailored for the selected hardware, introduces additional overheads such as component communication overhead. In order to tackle the introduced overheads, our solution groups connected flexible components under a flexible group that conceptually behaves as a component. We introduce an algorithm to identify the existing groups in a given component-based system and the generation rules that automatically realizes groups as regular components. To evaluate the feasibility of the new concept, the flexible group is implemented using a state-of-the-practice component model (i.e., Rubus) and examined through the vision system of an underwater robot.

  • 233.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Scavenging Run-time Resources to Boost Utilization in Component-based Embedded Systems with GPUs2018Ingår i: International Journal On Advances in Software, ISSN 1942-2628, E-ISSN 1942-2628, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 159-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many modern embedded systems with GPUs are required to process huge amount of data that is sensed from their environment. However, due to some inherent properties of these systems such as limited energy, computation and storage resources, it is important that the resources should be used in an efficient way. For example, camera sensors of a robot may provide low-resolution frames for positioning itself in an open environment and high-resolution frames to analyze detected objects. In this paper, we introduce a method that, when possible, scavenges the unused resources (i.e., memory and number of GPU computation threads) from the critical functionality and distributes them to the non-critical functionality. As a result, the overall system performance is improved without compromising the critical functionality. The method uses a monitoring solution that checks the utilization of the system resources and triggers their distribution to the non-critical functionality whenever possible. As a proof of concept, we realize the proposed method in a state-of-the-practice component model for embedded systems. As an evaluation, we use an underwater robot case study to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed solution.

  • 234.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Bombardier Transportation, Västerås, Sweden.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    RISE SICS Västerås, Sweden.
    A 2-layer Component-based Allocation for Embedded Systems with GPUs2019Ingår i: Designs, ISSN 2411-9660, Vol. 3, s. 1-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based development is a software engineering paradigm that can facilitate the construction of embedded systems and tackle its complexities. The modern embedded systems have more and more demanding requirements. One way to cope with such versatile and growing set of requirements is to employ heterogeneous processing power, i.e., CPU-GPU architectures. The new CPU-GPU embedded boards deliver an increased performance but also introduce additional complexity and challenges. In this work, we address the component-to-hardware allocation for CPU-GPU embedded systems. The allocation for such systems is much complex due to the increased amount of GPU-related information. For example, while in traditional embedded systems the allocation mechanism may consider only the CPU memory usage of components to find an appropriate allocation scheme, in heterogeneous systems, the GPU memory usage needs also to be taken into account in the allocation process. This paper aims at decreasing the component-to-hardware allocation complexity by introducing a 2-layer component-based architecture for heterogeneous embedded systems. The detailed CPU-GPU information of the system is abstracted at a high-layer by compacting connected components into single units that behave as regular components. The allocator, based on the compacted information received from the high-level layer, computes, with a decreased complexity, feasible allocation schemes. In the last part of the paper, the 2-layer allocation method is evaluated using an existing embedded system demonstrator; namely, an underwater robot.

  • 235.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Sweden.
    Run-Time Component Allocation in CPU-GPU Embedded Systems2017Ingår i: 32nd ACM SIGAPP Symposium On Applied Computing SAC2017, 2017, s. 1259-1265Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, many of the modern embedded applications such as vehicles and robots, interact with the environment and receive huge amount of data through various sensors such as cameras and radars. The challenge of processing large amount of data, within an acceptable performance, is solvedby employing embedded systems that incorporate complementary attributes of CPUs and Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), i.e., sequential and parallel execution models. Component-based development (CBD) is a software engineering methodology that augments the applications development through reuse of software blocks known as components. In developing a CPU-GPU embedded application using CBD, allocation of components to different processing units of the platform is an important activity which can affect the overall performance of the system. In this context, there is also often the need to support and achieve run-time component allocation due to various factors and situations that can happen during system execution, such as switching off parts of the system for energy saving. In this paper, we provide a solution that dynamically allocates components using various system information such as the available resources (e.g., available GPU memory) and the software behavior (e.g., in terms of GPU memory usage). The novelty of our work is a formal allocation model that considers GPU system characteristics computed on-the-fly through software monitoring solutions. For the presentation and validation of our solution, we utilize an existing underwater robot demonstrator.

  • 236.
    Cano, Julio
    et al.
    University of Porto Porto, Portugal.
    Almeida, Luis
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Feedback Management for Scaling Clients in Streaming Multicast2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 30th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, 2015, s. 669-671Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in the number of mobile devices accessing the Internet creates new problems. A specific case is when a large number of wirelessclients try to access the same video stream in the same hot spot, which requires multicast transmission. However, multicast packets are unconfirmed and to compensate their higher loss rate we propose using a feedback repeat request mechanism per client. Then, the number ofclients is scaled up by adequately scheduling their feedback in the streaming server. This mechanism also allows managing the QoS provided to the clients controlling their feedback rate independently. Our preliminary results confirm the desired scalability with reliable streaming.

  • 237.
    Cao, Jingyue
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cuijpers, Pieter J.L.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    J. Bril, Reinder
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lukkien, Johan
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    An Independent yet Efficient Analysis of Bandwidth Reservation for Credit-based Shaping in Ethernet TSN2018Ingår i: International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems WFCS'18, Imperia, Italy, 2018, s. 1-10Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethernet TSN is an upcoming communication standard for industrial distributed embedded systems with high demands on bandwidth and traffic delay. In this paper, we present and prove an improved analysis to determine bandwidth reservations for credit based shapers in a single Ethernet TSN switch. We compare this new analysis, which is based on eligible intervals, to the state-of-the-art bandwidth reservation analysis based on busy periods through experiments. Despite its low complexity and the independence of the knowledge of the interfering traffic, the results show an improvement of efficiency, i.e., a decrease of the required bandwidth, for the new analysis.

  • 238.
    Capannini, Gabriele
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Larsson, Thomas B
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Adaptive Collision Culling for Massive Simulations by a Parallel and Context-Aware Sweep and Prune Algorithm2018Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, ISSN 1077-2626, E-ISSN 1941-0506, Vol. 4, nr 7, s. 2064-2077Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an improved parallel Sweep and Prune algorithm that solves the dynamic box intersection problem in three dimensions. It scales up to very large datasets, which makes it suitable for broad phase collision detection in complex moving body simulations. Our algorithm gracefully handles high-density scenarios, including challenging clustering behavior, by using a double-axis sweeping approach and a cache-friendly succinct data structure. The algorithm is realized by three parallel stages for sorting, candidate generation, and object pairing. By the use of temporal coherence, our sorting stage runs with close to optimal load balancing. Furthermore, our approach is characterized by a work-division strategy that relies on adaptive partitioning, which leads to almost ideal scalability. In addition, for scenarios that involves intense clustering along several axes simultaneously, we propose an enhancement that increases the context-awareness of the algorithm. By exploiting information gathered along three orthogonal axes, an efficient choice of what range query to perform can be made per object during run-time. Experimental results show high performance for up to millions of objects on modern multi-core CPUs.

  • 239.
    Capannini, Gabriele
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Larsson, Thomas B
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Efficient Collision Culling by a Succinct Bi-dimensional Sweep and Prune Algorithm2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 32nd Spring Conference on Computer Graphics, 2016, s. 25-32Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 240.
    Capilla, Rafael
    et al.
    King Juan Carlos University (URJC), Spain.
    Gallina, BarbaraMälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.Cetina, CarlosSan Jorge University (USJ), Spain.
    New Opportunities for Software Reuse2018Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume contains the proceedings of the International Conference on Software Reuse (ICSR 18) held during May 21–23, 2018, in Madrid, Spain. The International Conference on Software Reuse is the premier international event in the software reuse community. The main goal of ICSR is to present the most recent advances and breakthroughs in the area of software reuse and to promote an intensive and continuous exchange among researchers and practitioners. The conference featured two keynotes by John Favaro, Intecs SpA (Italy) and Alberto Abella from MELODA (Spain). We received 29 submissions (excluding withdrawn submissions). Each submission was reviewed by three Program Committee members. The Program Committee decided to accept 11 papers (nine full papers and two short ones), resulting in an acceptance rate of 37.9%. The program also included one full-day tutorial, one invited talk, and a panel about the future of software reuse. This conference was a collaborative work that could only be realized through many dedicated efforts. We would like to thank all the colleagues who made possible the success of ICSR 2018: Barbara Gallina, Carlos Cetina, Mathieu Acher, Tewfik Ziadi, Roberto E. López Herrejón, Gregorio Robles, Jens Knodel, Carlos Carrillo, and Alejandro Valdezate. We also thank the ICSR Steering Committee for the approval to organize this edition in Madrid. Last but not least, we would like to sincerely thank all authors who submitted papers to the conference for their contributions and interest in ICSR 2018. We also thank the members of the Program Committee and the additional reviewers for their accurate reviews as well as their participation in the discussions of the submissions. Finally, we thank Danilo Beuche for his tutorial and the members that participated as panelists including the support from people of The Reuse Company (Spain).

  • 241.
    Capilla, Rafael
    et al.
    Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Mostoles, Spain.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cetina, Carlos
    Universidad San Jorge, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Favaro, John
    Intecs Solutions, Pisa, Italy.
    Opportunities for Software Reuse in an Uncertain World: From Past to Emerging Trends2019Ingår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 31, nr 8, artikel-id e2217Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Much has been investigated about software reuse since the software crisis. The development of software reuse methods, implementation techniques, and cost models has resulted in a significant amount of research over years. Nevertheless, the increasing adoption of reuse techniques, many of them subsumed under higher level software engineering processes, and advanced programming techniques that ease the way to reuse software assets, have hidden somehow in the recent years new research trends on the practice of reuse and caused the disappearance of several reuse conferences. Also, new forms of reuse like open data and feature models have brought new opportunities for reuse beyond the traditional software components. From past to present, we summarize in this research the recent history of software reuse, and we report new research areas and forms of reuse according to current needs in industry and application domains, as well as promising research trends for the upcoming years.

  • 242.
    Carlson, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Håkansson, J.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, P.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    SaveCCM: An Analysable Component Model for Real-Time Systems2006Ingår i: Electronical Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, ISSN 1571-0661, E-ISSN 1571-0661, Vol. 160, nr 1, s. 127-140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Component based development is a promising approach for embedded systems. Typical for embedded software is the presence of resource constraints in multiple dimensions. An essential dimension is time, since many embedded systems have real-time requirements. We define a formal semantics of a component language for embedded systems, SaveCCM, a language designed with vehicle applications and safety concerns in focus. The semantics is defined by a transformation into timed automata with tasks, a formalism that explicitly models timing and real-time task scheduling. A simple SaveCCM system with a PI controller is used as a case study. Temporal properties of the PI controller have been successfully verified using the timed automata model checker Uppaal.

  • 243.
    Carlson, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Event-Pattern Triggered Real-Time Tasks2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the concept of pattern-triggered tasks which are released when a particular pattern of events occur. A formal event algebra is used to define complex triggering conditions for these tasks, and the detection of triggering conditions is performed within the system by code generated automatically from these definitions. The implementation of the algebra has many desirable features for resource constrained real-time systems, including bounded and low execution time and memory consumption. Furthermore, we present novel schedulability analysis for our pattern-triggered tasks that leverage on existing analysis for fixed-priority and dynamic-priority scheduling policies.

  • 244.
    Carlson, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    Mälardalens högskola. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Petersen, K.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Context Model for Architectural Decision Support2016Ingår i: Proceedings - 2016 1st International Workshop on Decision Making in Software ARCHitecture, MARCH 2016, 2016, s. 9-15Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing efficient and effective decision making support includes identifying means to reduce repeated manual work and providing possibilities to take advantage of the experience gained in previous decision situations. For this to be possible, there is a need to explicitly model the context of a decision case, for example to determine how much the evidence from one decision case can be trusted in another, similar context. In earlier work, context has been recognized as important when transferring and understanding outcomes between cases. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, we describe different ways of utilizing context in an envisioned decision support system. Thereby, we distinguish between internal and external context usage, possibilities of context representation, and context inheritance. Second, we present a systematically developed context model comprised of five types of context information, namely organization, product, stakeholder, development method & technology, and market & business. Third, we exemplary illustrate the relation of the context information to architectural decision making using existing literature. 

  • 245.
    Caro-Romero, J. R.
    et al.
    University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain.
    Ballesteros, Joaquin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Garcia-Lagos, F.
    University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain.
    Urdiales, C.
    University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain.
    Sandoval, F.
    University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain.
    A Neural Network for Stance Phase Detection in Smart Cane Users2019Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 11506, Springer Verlag , 2019, s. 310-321Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Persons with disabilities often rely on assistive devices to carry on their Activities of Daily Living. Deploying sensors on these devices may provide continuous valuable knowledge on their state and condition. Canes are among the most frequently used assistive devices, regularly employed for ambulation by persons with pain on lower limbs and also for balance. Load on canes is reportedly a meaningful condition indicator. Ideally, it corresponds to the time cane users support weight on their lower limb (stance phase). However, in reality, this relationship is not straightforward. We present a Multilayer Perceptron to reliably predict the Stance Phase in cane users using a simple support detection module on commercial canes. The system has been successfully tested on five cane users in care facilities in Spain. It has been optimized to run on a low cost microcontroller. 

  • 246.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Facilitating Automated Compliance Checking of Processes against Safety Standards2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 247.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Formal Contract Logic Based Patterns for Facilitating Compliance Checking against ISO 262622018Ingår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Volume 2049, 2018, s. 65-72Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ISO 26262 demands a confirmation review of the safety plan, which includes the compliance checking of planned processes against safety requirements. Formal Contract Logic (FCL), a logic-based language stemming from business compliance, provides means to formalize normative requirements enabling automatic compliance checking. However, formalizing safety requirements in FCL requires skills, which cannot be taken for granted. In this paper, we provide a set of ISO 26262-specific FCL compliance patterns to facilitate rules formalization. First, we identify and define the patterns, based on Dwyer' et al.'s specification patterns style. Then, we instantiate the patterns to illustrate their applicability. Finally, we sketch conclusions and future work.

  • 248.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Towards Increased Efficiency and Confidence in Process Compliance2017Ingår i: 24th European & Asian Systems, Software & Service Process Improvement & Innovation EuroAsiaSPI2 '17, 2017, s. 162-174Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the engineering of (software) systems has to comply with di erent standards, which often exhibit common requirements or at least a signi cant potential for synergy. Compliance management is a delicate, time-consuming, and costly activity, which would bene- t from increased con dence, automation, and systematic reuse. In this paper, we introduce a new approach, called SoPLE&Logic-basedCM. SoPLE&Logic-basedCM combines (safety-oriented) process line engineering with defeasible logic-based approaches for formal compliance checking. As a result of this combination, SoPLE&Logic-basedCM enables automation of compliance checking and systematic reuse of process elements as well as compliance proofs. To illustrate SoPLE&Logic-basedCM, we apply it to the automotive domain and we draw our lessons learnt.

  • 249.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    UL Muram, Faiz
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Enabling Compliance Checking against Safety Standards from SPEM 2.0 Process Models2018Ingår i: The Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2018, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Compliance with process-based safety standards may imply the provision of a safety plan and its corresponding compliance justification. The provision of this justification is time-consuming since it requires that the process engineer checks the fulfillment of hundred of requirements by taking into account the evidence provided by the process entities. Available methodologies and their implemented tools can be used to automate this checking and provide a compliance report that can be part of the justification to be scrutinized by the safety auditor. In this paper, we explain our compliance checking vision for supporting the process engineer, in which the interaction between SPEM 2.0 (Software & Systems Process Engineering Metamodel) and Regorous (a tool-supported methodology for compliance checking) is established. Then, we focus on SPEM 2.0 to identify mechanisms to provide the minimal set of elements required to be processed by Regorous and describe how to implement them in EPF Composer. We also illustrate these mechanisms by modeling a simple example from ISO 26262 and show how a compliance report can be used to trace unfulfilled requirements.

  • 250.
    Causevic, Aida
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Risk and Threat Assessment Approaches Overview in Autonomous Systems of Systems2017Ingår i: The 26th International Conference on Information, Communication and Automation Technologies ICAT2017, 2017, s. 1-6Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems of systems (SoS) have been introduced in early 1990s in air traffic control domain, defense and information technologies. Systems like this contain a set of components, being systems itself, with constituent components retaining operational independence. The definition and configuration of SoS have evolutionary nature and emergent behavior is one of the many important characteristics to be mentioned. Over the past ten years fast technological and industrial advances in the domain of autonomous and cooperating systems started to occur, which created new opportunities to use the benefits of SoS. In the near future, fully autonomous and cooperating systems are expected to become our reality and increase the production efficiency, while decreasing the human effort in harmful environments. There exist the need to make sure that critical properties of SoS, such as safety and security are guaranteed as a joint effort, since it is not sufficient anymore to address these properties independently in the development process. In this paper an overview of the most common approaches and methods used to provide reasoning about joint safety and security is provided, as well as a check of the latest updates in standards related to these properties

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