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  • 201.
    Barac, Filip
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Yu, Kan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Towards Reliable and Lightweight Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we address the issues of timeliness and transmission reliability of existing industrial communication standards. We combine a Forward Error Correction coding schemeon the Medium Access Control layer with a lightweight routing protocol to form an IEEE 802.15.4-conformable solution, whichcan be implemented into already existing hardware without violating the standard. After laying the theoretical foundations,we conduct a performance evaluation of the proposed solution.The results show a substantial gain in reliability and reducedlatency, compared to the uncoded transmissions, as well ascommon Wireless Sensor Network routing protocols.

  • 202.
    Barkah, Dani
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Ermedahl, Andreas
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Sandberg, Christer
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Evaluation of Automatic Flow Analysis for WCET Calculation on Industrial Real-Time System Code2008Ingår i: Proceedings - Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, 2008, 2008, s. 331-340Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A static Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) analysis derives upper bounds for the execution times of programs. Such analysts requires information about the possible program flows. The current practice is to provide this information manually, which can be laborious and error-prone. An alternative is to derive this information through an automated flow analysis. In this article, we present a case study where an automatic flowanalysis method was tested on industrial real-time system code. The same code was the subject of an earlier WCET case study, where it was analysed using manual annotations for the flow information. The purpose of the current study was to see to which extent the same flow information could be found automatically. The results show that for the most part this is indeed possible, and we could derive comparable WCET estimates using the automatically generated flow information. In addition, valuable insights were gained on what is needed to make flow analysis methods work on real production code. 

  • 203.
    Barua, Shaibal
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahlström, Christer
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, SE, Sweden.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Automatic driver sleepiness detection using EEG, EOG and contextual information2019Ingår i: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 115, s. 121-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The many vehicle crashes that are caused by driver sleepiness each year advocates the development of automated driver sleepiness detection (ADSD) systems. This study proposes an automatic sleepiness classification scheme designed using data from 30 drivers who repeatedly drove in a high-fidelity driving simulator, both in alert and in sleep deprived conditions. Driver sleepiness classification was performed using four separate classifiers: k-nearest neighbours, support vector machines, case-based reasoning, and random forest, where physiological signals and contextual information were used as sleepiness indicators. The subjective Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS) was used as target value. An extensive evaluation on multiclass and binary classifications was carried out using 10-fold cross-validation and leave-one-out validation. With 10-fold cross-validation, the support vector machine showed better performance than the other classifiers (79% accuracy for multiclass and 93% accuracy for binary classification). The effect of individual differences was also investigated, showing a 10% increase in accuracy when data from the individual being evaluated was included in the training dataset. Overall, the support vector machine was found to be the most stable classifier. The effect of adding contextual information to the physiological features improved the classification accuracy by 4% in multiclass classification and by and 5% in binary classification.

  • 204.
    Barua, Shaibal
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahlström, Christer
    MFT, Linköping Sweden.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Automated EEG Artifact Handling with Application in Driver Monitoring2017Ingår i: IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics, ISSN 2168-2194, E-ISSN 2168-2208, Vol. 22, nr 5, s. 1350-1361Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated analyses of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals acquired in naturalistic environments is becoming increasingly important in areas such as brain computer interfaces and behaviour science. However, the recorded EEG in such environments is often heavily contaminated by motion artifacts and eye movements. This poses new requirements on artifact handling. The objective of this paper is to present an automated EEG artifacts handling algorithm which will be used as a pre-processing step in a driver monitoring application. The algorithm, named ARTE (Automated aRTifacts handling in EEG), is based on wavelets, independent component analysis and hierarchical clustering. The algorithm is tested on a dataset obtained from a driver sleepiness study including 30 drivers and 540 30-minute 30-channel EEG recordings. The algorithm is evaluated by a clinical neurophysiologist, by quantitative criteria (signal quality index, mean square error, relative error and mean absolute error), and by demonstrating its usefulness as a preprocessing step in driver monitoring, here exemplified with driver sleepiness classification. All results are compared with a state of the art algorithm called FORCe. The quantitative and expert evaluation results show that the two algorithms are comparable and that both algorithms significantly reduce the impact of artifacts in recorded EEG signals. When artifact handling is used as a pre-processing step in driver sleepiness classification, the classification accuracy increased by 5% when using ARTE and by 2% when using FORCe. The advantage with ARTE is that it is data driven and does not rely on additional reference signals or manually defined thresholds, making it well suited for use in dynamic settings where unforeseen and rare artifacts are commonly encountered.

  • 205.
    Barua, Shaibal
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Classifying drivers' cognitive load using EEG signals2017Ingår i: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365, Vol. 237, s. 99-106Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing traffic safety issue is the effect of cognitive loading activities on traffic safety and driving performance. To monitor drivers' mental state, understanding cognitive load is important since while driving, performing cognitively loading secondary tasks, for example talking on the phone, can affect the performance in the primary task, i.e. driving. Electroencephalography (EEG) is one of the reliable measures of cognitive load that can detect the changes in instantaneous load and effect of cognitively loading secondary task. In this driving simulator study, 1-back task is carried out while the driver performs three different simulated driving scenarios. This paper presents an EEG based approach to classify a drivers' level of cognitive load using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). The results show that for each individual scenario as well as using data combined from the different scenarios, CBR based system achieved approximately over 70% of classification accuracy. 

  • 206.
    Barua, Shaibal
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Drivers' Sleepiness Classification using Machine Learning with Physiological and Contextual dataIngår i: First International Conference on Advances in Signal Processing and Artificial Intelligence ASPAI' 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysing physiological parameters together with contextual information of car drivers to identify drivers’ sleepiness is a challenging issue. Machine learning algorithms show high potential in data analysis and classification tasks in many domains. This paper presents a use case of machine learning approach for drivers’ sleepiness classification. The classifications are conducted based on drivers’ physiological parameters and contextual information. The sleepiness classification shows receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for KNN, SVM and RF were 0.98 on 10-fold cross-validation and 0.93 for leave-one-out (LOO) for all classifiers.

  • 207.
    Barua, Shaibal
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Clustering based Approach for Automated EEG Artifacts Handling2015Ingår i: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, vol. 278, 2015, s. 7-16Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electroencephalogram (EEG), measures the neural activity of the central nervous system, which is widely used in diagnosing brain activity and therefore plays a vital role in clinical and Brain-Computer Interface application. However, analysis of EEG signal is often complex since the signal recoding often contaminates with noises or artifacts such as ocular and muscle artifacts, which could mislead the diagnosis result. Therefore, to identify the artifacts from the EEG signal and handle it in a proper way is becoming an important and interesting research area. This paper presents an automated EEG artifacts handling approach, where it combines Independent Component Analysis (ICA) with a 2nd order clustering approach. Here, the 2nd order clustering approach combines the Hierarchical and Gaussian Picture Model clustering algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been examined and observed on real EEG recording. According to result, the artifacts in the EEG signals are identified and removed successfully where the clean EEG signal shows acceptable considering visual inspection.

  • 208.
    Barua, Shaibal
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Driver’s State Monitoring: A Case Study on Big Data Analytics2016Ingår i: The 3rd EAI International Conference on IoT Technologies for HealthCare HealthyIoT'16, 2016, Vol. 187, s. 145-147Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver's distraction, inattention, sleepiness, stress, etc. are identified as causal factors of vehicle crashes and accidents. Today, we know that physiological signals are convenient and reliable measures of driver’s impairments. Heterogeneous sensors are generating vast amount of signals, which need to be handled and analyzed in a big data scenario. Here, we propose a big data analytics approach for driver state monitoring using heterogeneous data that are coming from multiple sources, i.e., physiological signals along with vehicular data and contextual information. These data are processed and analyzed to aware impaired vehicle drivers.

  • 209.
    Barua, Shaibal
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Intelligent Automated EEG Artifacts Handling Using Wavelet Transform, Independent Component Analysis and Hierarchical clustering2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Billions of interconnected neurons are the building block of human brain. For each brain activity these neurons produce electrical signals or brain waves that can be obtained by the Electroencephalogram (EEG) recording. Due to the characteristics of EEG signal, recorded signal often contaminate with undesired physiological signals other than cerebral signal that refers to as EEG artifacts such as ocular or muscle artifacts. Therefore, identification of artifacts from the EEG signal and handle it in a proper way is becoming an important research area. This paper presents an automated EEG artifacts handling approach, where it combines Wavelet transform, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) with Hierarchical clustering method. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been examined and observed on real EEG recording. According to result, the artifacts in the EEG signals are identified and removed successfully where after handling artifacts EEG signals show acceptable considering visual inspection.

  • 210.
    Barua, Shaibal
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Scalable Framework for Distributed Case-based Reasoning for Big data analytics2018Ingår i: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, Volume 225, 2018, s. 111-114Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a scalable framework for distributed case-based reasoning methodology to provide actionable knowledge based on historical big amount of data. The framework addresses several challenges, i.e., promptly analyse big data, cross-domain, use-case specific data processing, multi-source case representation, dynamic case-management, uncertainty, check the plausibility of solution after adaptation etc. through its’ five modules architectures. The architecture allows the functionalities with distributed data analytics and intended to provide solutions under different conditions, i.e. data size, velocity, variety etc.

  • 211.
    Barua, Shaibal
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms to Diagnose Stress for Vehicle Drivers Based on Physiological Sensor Signals2015Ingår i: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, Volume 211: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wearable Micro and Nano Technologies for Personalized Health, 2–4 June 2015, Västerås, Sweden, 2015, Vol. 211, s. 241-248Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning algorithms play an important role in computer science research. Recent advancement in sensor data collection in clinical sciences lead to a complex, heterogeneous data processing and analysis for patient diagnosis and prognosis. Diagnosis and treatment of patients based on manual analysis of these sensor data is difficult and time consuming. Therefore, development of Knowledge-based systems to support clinicians in decision-making is important. However, it is necessary to perform experimental work to compare performances of different machine learning methods to help to select appropriate method for a specific characteristic of data sets. This paper compares classification performance of three popular machine learning methods i.e., case-based reasoning, neutral networks and support vector machine to diagnose stress of vehicle drivers using finger temperature and heart rate variability. The experimental results show that case-based reasoning outperforms other two methods in terms of classification accuracy. Case-based reasoning has achieved 80% and 86% accuracy to classify stress using finger temperature and heart rate variability. On contrary, both neural network and support vector machine have achieved less than 80% accuracy by using both physiological signals.

  • 212.
    Barua, Shaibal
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Towards Distributed k-NN similarity for Scalable Case Retrieval2018Ingår i: ICCBR 2018: The 26th International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning July, 09th-12th 2018 in Stockholm, Sweden, Workshop Proceedings, 2018, s. 151-160Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Big data era, the demand of processing large amount of data posing several challenges. One biggest challenge is that it is no longer possible to process the data in a single machine. Similar challenges can be assumed for case-based reasoning (CBR) approach, where the size of a case library is increasing and constructed using heterogenous data sources. To deal with the challenges of big data in CBR, a distributed CBR system can be developed, where case libraries or cases are distributed over clusters. MapReduce programming framework has the facilities of parallel processing massive amount of data through a distributed system. This paper proposes a scalable case-representation and retrieval approach using distributed k-NN similarity. The proposed approach is considered to be developed using MapReduce programming framework, where cases are distributed in many clusters.

  • 213.
    Barua, Shaibal
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahlström, Christer
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Sweden.
    AUTOMATED EEG ARTIFACTS HANDLING FOR DRIVER SLEEPINESS MONITORING2016Ingår i: 2nd International Symposium on Somnolence, Vigilance, and Safety SomnoSafe2016, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 214.
    Bashir, Shariq
    et al.
    Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Baig, Rauf
    Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Opinion-based entity ranking using learning to rank2016Ingår i: Applied Soft Computing, ISSN 1568-4946, E-ISSN 1872-9681, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 151-163Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As social media and e-commerce on the Internet continue to grow, opinions have become one of the most important sources of information for users to base their future decisions on. Unfortunately, the large quantities of opinions make it difficult for an individual to comprehend and evaluate them all in a reasonable amount of time. The users have to read a large number of opinions of different entities before making any decision. Recently a new retrieval task in information retrieval known as Opinion-Based Entity Ranking (OpER) has emerged. OpER directly ranks relevantentities based on how well opinions on them are matched with a user's preferences that are given in the form of queries. With such a capability, users do not need to read a large number of opinions available for the entities. Previous research on OpER does not take into account the importance and subjectivity of query keywords in individual opinions of an entity. Entity relevance scores are computed primarily on the basis of occurrences of query keywords match, by assuming all opinions of an entity as a single field of text. Intuitively, entities that have positive judgments and strong relevance with query keywords should be ranked higher than those entities that have poor relevance and negative judgments. This paper outlines several ranking features and develops an intuitive framework for OpER in which entities are ranked according to how well individual opinions of entities are matched with the user's query keywords. As a useful ranking model may be constructed from many rankingfeatures, we apply learning to rank approach based on genetic programming (GP) to combine features in order to develop an effective retrieval model for OpER task. The proposed approach is evaluated on two collections and is found to be significantly more effective than the standard OpER approach.

  • 215.
    Baumgart, S.
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Zhang, X.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Variability management in product lines of safety critical embedded systems2014Ingår i: International Conference on Embedded Systems, ICES 2014, 2014, s. 98-103Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The product line engineering approach is a promising concept to identify and manage reuse in a structured and efficient way and is even applied for the development of safety critical embedded systems. Managing the complexity of variability and addressing functional safety at the same time is challenging and is not yet solved. Variability management is an enabler to both establish traceability and making necessary information visible for safety engineers. We identify a set of requirements for such a method and evaluate existing variability management methods. We apply the most promising method to an industrial case and study its suitability for developing safety critical product family members. This study provides positive feedback on the potential of the model-based method PLUS in supporting the development of functional safety critical embedded systems in product lines. As a result of our analysis we suggest potential improvements for it.

  • 216.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Incorporating Functional Safety in Model-based Development of Product Lines2016Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Produktlinjer inom industrin är oftast baserade på ingenjörernas vilja att snabbt och enkelt utveckla nya varianter, snarare än på någon precis utvecklingsmodell för produktlinjer beskriven i litteraturen. För att visa på funktionssäkerhet krävs en precis modell som innehåller argumenten för att påvisa säkerheten hos alla varianter av produkten. Funktionssäkerhetsstandarder ger en vägledning för att utveckla säkerhetskritiska produkter och kräver att belägg samlas för att bevisa produktens säkerhet. Men dagens funktionssäkerhetsstandarder beskriver inte hur man uppnå funktionssäkerhet i produkt linjer. Argument behöver samlas under utveckling som bevisar att varje produktkonfiguration är säker och uppfyller kraven i standarden. Detta kräver i sin tur att spåra beroenden till säkerhetsrelaterade krav genom utvecklingsprocessen och visa hur de påverkas av variabilitet. I denna avhandling studerar vi utmaningarna med att utveckla säkerhetskritiska produkter i produktlinjer. Vi undersöker industrins metoder för att uppnå funktionssäkerhet genom att intervjua experter från olika företag och sammanställa utmaningar och praxis. Denna information hjälper oss att identifiera förbättringsområden och vi beskriver de krav som en tilltänkt produktlinjeteknik måste uppfylla. Baserat på dessa resultat vi analyserar varianthanteringsmetoder som beskrivs inom området produktlinjemetoder (eng: product line engineering), för att identifiera potentiella kandidatlösningar vilka kunde anpassas för att stödja säkerhetskritiska produkter. Vi presenterar en metod för att hantera funktionssäkerhetsrelaterade egenskaper i en modellbaserad metod för att hantera produktlinjer. Vi tillämpar vår metod i ett industriellt fall för att demonstrera tillämpligheten.

  • 217.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. RISE ICT/SICS Västerås, Sweden.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Can STPA be used for a System-of-Systems? Experiences from an Automated Quarry Site2018Ingår i: 4th IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, ISSE 2018 - Proceedings, 2018, nr 4, artikel-id 8544433Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation is becoming prevalent in more and more industrial domains due to the potential benefits in cost reduction as well as the new approaches/solutions they enable. When machines are automated and utilized in system-of-systems, a thorough analysis of potential critical scenarios is necessary to derive appropriate design solutions that are safe as well. Hazard analysis methods like PHA, FTA or FMEA help to identify and follow up potential risks for the machine operators or bystanders and are well-established in the development process for safety critical machinery. However, safety certified individual machines can no way guarantee safety in the context of system-of-systems since their integration and interactions could bring forth newer hazards. Hence it is paramount to understand the application sce- narios of the system-of-systems and to apply a structured method to identify all potential hazards. In this paper, we 1) provide an overview of proposed hazard analysis methods for system-of- systems, 2) describe a case from construction equipment domain, and 3) apply the well-known System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA)f to our case. Our experiences during the case study and the analysis of results clearly point out certain inadequacies of STPA in the context of system-of-systems and underlines the need for the development of improved techniques for safety analysis of system-of-systems.

  • 218.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Defining a Method to Perform Effective Hazard Analysis for a Directed SoS Based on STPA2018Ingår i: Third Swedish Workshop on the Engineering of Systems-of-Systems 2018 SWESoS 2018, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    —Automating a quarry site as developed within the electric site research project at Volvo Construction Equipment is an example of a directed system-of-systems (SoS). In our case automated machines and connected smart systems are utilized to improve the work-flow at the site. We currently work on conducting hazard and safety analyses on the SoS level. Performing a hazard analysis on a SoS has been a challenge in terms of complexity and work effort. We elaborate on the suitability of methods, discuss requirements on a feasible method, and propose a tailoring of the STPA method to leverage complexity.

  • 219.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. BIT-Pilani KK Birla Goa Campus, India.
    Enhancing Model-Based Engineering of Product Lines by Adding Functional Safety2015Ingår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 1487, 2015, s. 53-62Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's industrial product lines in the automotive and construction equipment domain face the challenge to show functional safety standard compliance and argue for the absence of failures for all derived product variants. The product line approaches are not su cient to support practitioners to trace safety-related characteristics through development. We aim to provide aid in creating a safety case for a certain con guration in a product line such that overall less e ort is necessary for each con guration. In this paper we 1) discuss the impact of functional safety on product line development, 2) propose a model-based approach to capture safety-related characteristics during concept phase for product lines and 3) analyze the usefulness of our proposal.

  • 220.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Punnekkat, Susikumar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Analyzing Hazards in System-of-Systems: Described in a Quarry Site Automation Context2017Ingår i: 11th Annual IEEE International Systems conference SysCon, 2017, s. 544-551Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods for analyzing hazards related to individual systems are well studied and established in industry today. When system-of-systems are set up to achieve new emergent behavior, hazards specifically caused by malfunctioning behavior of the complex interactions between the involved systems may not be revealed by just analyzing single system hazards. A structured process is required to reduce the complexity to enable identification of hazards when designing system-of-systems. In this paper we first present how hazards are identified and analyzed using hazard and risk assessment (HARA) methodology by the industry in the context of single systems. We describe systems-of-systems and provide a quarry site automation example from the construction equipment domain. We propose a new structured process for identifying potential hazards in systems-of-systems (HISoS), exemplified in the context of the provided example. Our approach helps to streamline the hazard analysis process in an efficient manner thus helping faster certification of system-of-systems.

  • 221.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Parmeza, Ditmar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Predicting the Effort for Functional Safety in Product Lines2015Ingår i: The 41st Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA'15, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 222.
    Becker, Matthias
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Consolidating Automotive Applications on Clustered Many-Core Platforms2017Ingår i: SIGDA Student Research Forum at ASP-DAC ASP-DAC SRF'17, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased proliferation of automotive systems is leading to a paradigm shift in the automotive system architecture. Several, now distributed, applications will be consolidated on fewer, more powerful platforms, containing tens or hundreds of compute cores. Clustered many-core processors are a promising candidate for such systems, since each cluster provides enough computational power to host complex applications, while their intrinsic hardware architecture isolates different cluster from each other. The described PhD project works towards methods that allow the consolidation of automotive applications on clustered many-core architectures, while all their timing requirements are maintained. A contention-free execution framework is proposed that successfully diminishes the access-delays due to contention on shared resources within a cluster. In order to integrate complex end-to-end constraints on multi-rate chains, a method is proposed that allows the analysis of such chains and generates job-level dependencies. Such job-level dependencies can then be used to integrate the end-to-end constraints into the proposed execution framework. The applicability of the proposed methods to industrial problems is demonstrated via industrial case studies.

  • 223.
    Becker, Matthias
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Consolidating Automotive Real-Time Applications on Many-Core Platforms2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Automotive systems have transitioned from basic transportation utilities to sophisticated systems. The rapid increase in functionality comes along with a steep increase in software complexity. This manifests itself in a surge of the number of functionalities as well as the complexity of existing functions. To cope with this transition, current trends shift away from today’s distributed architectures towards integrated architectures, where previously distributed functionality is consolidated on fewer, more powerful, computers. This can ease the integration process, reduce the hardware complexity, and ultimately save costs.

    One promising hardware platform for these powerful embedded computers is the many-core processor. A many-core processor hosts a vast number of compute cores, that are partitioned on tiles which are connected by a Network-on-Chip. These natural partitions can provide exclusive execution spaces for different applications, since most resources are not shared among them. Hence, natural building blocks towards temporally and spatially separated execution spaces exist as a result of the hardware architecture.

    Additionally to the traditional task local deadlines, automotive applications are often subject to timing constraints on the data propagation through a chain of semantically related tasks. Such requirements pose challenges to the system designer as they are only able to verify them after the system synthesis (i.e. very late in the design process).

    In this thesis, we present methods that transform complex timing constraints on the data propagation delay to precedence constraints between individual jobs. An execution framework for the cluster of the many-core is proposed that allows access to cluster external memory while it avoids contention on shared resources by design. A partitioning and configuration of the Network-on-Chip provides isolation between the different applications and reduces the access time from the clusters to external memory. Moreover, methods that facilitate the verification of data propagation delays in each development step are provided. 

  • 224.
    Becker, Matthias
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Efficient Resource Management for Many-Core based Industrial Real-Time Systems2015Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased complexity of today’s industrial embedded systems stands inneed for more computational power while most systems must adhere to a restrictedenergy consumption, either to prolong the battery lifetime or to reduceoperational costs. The many-core processor is therefore a natural fit. Due tothe simple architecture of the compute cores, and therefore their good analyzability,such processors are additionally well suited for real-time applications.In our research, we focus on two particular problems which need to be addressedin order to pave the way into the many-core era. The first area is powerand thermal aware execution frameworks, where we present different energyaware extensions to well known load balancing algorithms, allowing them todynamically scale the number of active cores depending on their workload.In contrast, an additional framework is presented which balances workloadsto minimize temperature gradients on the die. The second line of works focuseson industrial standards in the face of massively parallel platforms, wherewe address the automotive and automation domain. We present an executionframework for IEC 61131-3 applications, allowing the consolidation of severalIEC 61131-3 applications on the same platform. Additionally, we discussseveral architectural options for the AUTOSAR software architecture on suchmassively parallel platforms.

  • 225.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dasari, D.
    Research and Technology Centre, Robert Bosch, India.
    Nelis, V.
    CISTER/INESC-TEC, ISEP, Portugal.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pinho, L. M.
    CISTER/INESC-TEC, ISEP, Portugal.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Investigation on AUTOSAR-Compliant solutions for many-core architectures2015Ingår i: Proceedings - 18th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design, DSD 2015, 2015, s. 95-103Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As of today, AUTOSAR is the de facto standard in the automotive industry, providing a common software architecture and development process for automotive applications. While this standard is originally written for singlecore operated Electronic Control Units (ECU), new guidelines and recommendations have been added recently to provide support for multicore architectures. This update came as a response to the steady increase of the number and complexity of the software functions embedded in modern vehicles, which call for the computing power of multicore execution environments. In this paper, we enumerate and analyze the design options and the challenges of porting AUTOSAR-based automotive applications onto multicore platforms. In particular, we investigate those options when considering the emerging many-core architectures that provide a more 'scalable' environment than the traditional multicore systems. Such platforms are suitable to enable massive parallel execution, and their design is more suitable for partitioning and isolating the software components.

  • 226.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Research and Technology Centre, Robert Bosch, India.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Analyzing End-to-End Delays in Automotive Systems at Various Levels of Timing Information2016Ingår i: IEEE 4th International Workshop on Real-Time Computing and Distributed systems in Emerging Applications REACTION'16, Porto, Portugal, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software design for automotive systems is highly complex due to the presence of strict data age constraints for event chains in addition to task specific requirements. These age constraints define the maximum time for the propagation of data through an event chain consisting of independently triggered tasks. Tasks in event chains can have different periods, introducing over- and under-sampling effects, which additionally aggravates their timing analysis. Furthermore, different functionality in these systems, is developed by different suppliers before the final system integration on the ECU. The software itself is developed in a hardware agnostic manner and this uncertainty and limited information at the early design phases may not allow effective analysis of end-to-end delays during that phase. In this paper, we present a method to compute end-to-end delays given the information available in the design phases, thereby enabling timing analysis throughout the development process. The presented methods are evaluated with extensive experiments where the decreasing pessimism with increasing system information is shown.

  • 227.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Robert Bosch GmbH, Renningen, Germany.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Analyzing end-to-end delays in automotive systems at various levels of timing information2017Ingår i: ACM SIGBED Review, E-ISSN 1551-3688, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 8-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software design for automotive systems is highly complex due to the presence of strict data age constraints for event chains in addition to task specific requirements. These age constraints define the maximum time for the propagation of data through an event chain consisting of independently triggered tasks. Tasks in event chains can have different periods, introducing over- and under-sampling effects, which additionally aggravates their timing analysis. Furthermore, different functionality in these systems, is developed by different suppliers before the final system integration on the ECU. The software itself is developed in a hardware agnostic manner and this uncertainty and limited information at the early design phases may not allow effective analysis of end-to-end delays during that phase. In this paper, we present a method to compute end-to-end delays given the information available in the design phases, thereby enabling timing analysis throughout the development process. The presented methods are evaluated with extensive experiments where the decreasing pessimism with increasing system information is shown.

  • 228.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Robert Bosch GmbH, Renningen, Germany.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    End-to-End Timing Analysis of Cause-Effect Chains in Automotive Embedded Systems2017Ingår i: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 80, nr Supplement C, s. 104-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Automotive embedded systems are subjected to stringent timing requirements that need to be verified. One of the most complex timing requirement in these systems is the data age constraint. This constraint is specified on cause- effect chains and restricts the maximum time for the propagation of data through the chain. Tasks in a cause-effect chain can have different activation patterns and different periods, that introduce over- and under-sampling effects, which additionally aggravate the end-to-end timing analysis of the chain. Furthermore, the level of timing information available at various development stages (from modeling of the software architecture to the software implementation) varies a lot, the complete timing information is available only at the implementation stage. This uncertainty and limited timing information can restrict the end-to-end timing analysis of these chains. In this paper, we present methods to compute end-to-end delays based on different levels of system information. The characteristics of different communication semantics are further taken into account, thereby enabling timing analysis throughout the development process of such heterogeneous software systems. The presented methods are evaluated with extensive experiments. As a proof of concept, an industrial case study demonstrates the applicability of the proposed methods following a state-of-the-practice development process.

  • 229.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Research and Technology Centre, Robert Bosch, India.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    MECHAniSer - A Timing Analysis and Synthesis Tool for Multi-Rate Effect Chains with Job-Level Dependencies2016Ingår i: 7th International Workshop on Analysis Tools and Methodologies for Embedded and Real-time Systems WATERS'16, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industrial embedded systems have timing con- straints on the data propagation through a chain of independent tasks. These tasks can execute at different periods which leads to under and oversampling of data. In such situations, understand- ing and validating the temporal correctness of end-to-end delays is not trivial. Many industrial areas further face distributed development where different functionalities are integrated on the same platform after the development process. The large effect of scheduling decisions on the end-to-end delays can lead to expensive redesigns of software parts due to the lack of analysis at early design stages. Job-level dependencies is one solution for this challenge and means of scheduling such systems are available. In this paper we present MECHAniSer, a tool targeting the early analysis of end-to-end delays in multi-rate cause effect chains with specified job-level dependencies. The tool further provides the possibility to synthesize job-level dependencies for a set of cause-effect chains in a way such that all end-to-end requirements are met. The usability and applicability of the tool to industrial problems is demonstrated via a case study.

  • 230.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Research and Technology Centre, Robert Bosch, India.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Synthesizing Job-Level Dependencies for Automotive Multi-Rate Effect Chains2016Ingår i: The 22th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications RTCSA'16, 2016, Vol. sept, s. 159-169, artikel-id 579951Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s automotive embedded systems comprise a multitude of functionalities, many with complex timing re- quirements. Besides task specific timing requirements, such ap- plications often have timing requirements for the propagation of data through a chain of tasks. An important metric for control applications is the data age, which is addressed in this work. The analysis of such systems is non-trivial because tasks involved in the data propagation may execute at different periods, which leads to over and undersampling within one chain. This work presents a novel method to compute worst- and best-case end-to-end latencies for such systems. A second contribution synthesizes job-level dependencies for such task sets in a way that data paths which exceed the age constraint are eliminated. An extensive evaluation is performed on synthetic task sets and the applicability to industrial applications is demonstrated in a case study.

  • 231.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Robert Bosch GmbH, Renningen, Germany.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Timing Analysis and Synthesis of Mixed Multi-Rate Effect Chains in MECHAniSer2016Ingår i: Open Demo Session of Real-Time Systems located at Real Time Systems Symposium (RTSS) RTSS@Work 2016, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of embedded control systems are modeled with several chains of independently triggered tasks, also known as multi-rate effect chains. These chains have often stringent end-to-end timing requirements that should be satisfied before running the system. MECHAniSer is one of the tools that supports end-to-end timing analysis of such chains. In addition, the tool provides the possibility to synthesize job-level dependencies for these chains such that all end-to-end timing requirements are satisfied. In this paper we showcase an extension of MECHAniSer that supports the analysis of mixed chains that contain a mix of independent and dependent tasks.

  • 232.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Research and Technology Centre, Robert Bosch, India.
    Nelis, Vincent
    CISTER/INESC-TEC, ISEP, Portugal.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pinho, Luis Miguel
    CISTER/INESC-TEC, ISEP, Portugal.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Investigation on AUTOSAR-Compliant Solutionsfor Many-Core Architectures2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 18th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD 2015), 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As of today, AUTOSAR is the de facto standard inthe automotive industry, providing a common software architectureand development process for automotive applications. Whilethis standard is originally written for singlecore operated ElectronicControl Units (ECU), new guidelines and recommendationshave been added recently to provide support for multicore architectures.This update came as a response to the steady increase ofthe number and complexity of the software functions embedded inmodern vehicles, which call for the computing power of multicoreexecution environments. In this paper, we enumerate and analyzethe design options and the challenges of porting AUTOSAR-basedautomotive applications onto multicore platforms. In particular,we investigate those options when considering the emerging manycorearchitectures that provide a more scalable environment thanthe traditional multicore systems. Such platforms are suitableto enable massive parallel execution, and their design is moresuitable for partitioning and isolating the software components.

  • 233.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Research and Technology Centre, Robert Bosch, India.
    Nicolic, Borislav
    CISTER, INESC-TEC, ISEP, Portugal .
    Åkesson, Benny
    CISTER, INESC-TEC, ISEP, Portugal .
    Nélis, Vincent
    CISTER/INESC-TEC, ISEP, Portugal.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Contention-Free Execution of Automotive Applications on a Clustered Many-Core Platform2016Ingår i: 28th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems ECRTS'16, Toulouse, France, 2016, s. 14-24Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Next generations of compute-intensive real-time applications in automotive systems will require more powerful computing platforms. One promising power-efficient solution for such applications is to use clustered many-core architectures. However, ensuring that real-time requirements are satisfied in the presence of contention in shared resources, such as memories, remains an open issue. This work presents a novel contention-free execution framework to execute automotive applications on such platforms. Privatization of memory banks together with defined access phases to shared memory resources is the backbone of the framework. An Integer Linear Programming (ILP) formulation is presented to find the optimal time-triggered schedule for the on-core execution as well as for the access to shared memory. Additionally a heuristic solution is presented that generates the schedule in a fraction of the time required by the ILP. Extensive evaluations show that the proposed heuristic performs only 0.5% away from the optimal solution while it outperforms a baseline heuristic by 67%. The applicability of the approach to industrially sized problems is demonstrated in a case study of a software for Engine Management Systems.

  • 234.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Liu, Meng
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Adaptive Routing of Real-Time Traffic on a 2D-Mesh Based NoC2015Ingår i: The 21st IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, WiP RTCSA-wip'15, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 235.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. KTH, Sweden.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Timing Analysis Driven Design-Space Exploration of Cause-Effect Chains in Automotive Systems2018Ingår i: 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society IECON'18, Washington DC, United States, 2018, s. 4090-4095, artikel-id 8592842Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based development and component-based software engineering have emerged as a promising approach to deal with enormous software complexity in automotive systems. This approach supports the development of software architectures by interconnecting (and reusing) software components (SWCs) at various abstraction levels. Automotive software architectures are often modeled with chains of SWCs, also called cause-effect chains that are constrained by timing requirements. Based on the variations in activation patterns of SWCs, a single model of a cause-effect chain at a higher abstraction level can conform to several valid refined models of the chain at a lower abstraction level, which is closer to the system implementation. As a consequence, the total number of valid implementation-level models generated by the existing techniques increases exponentially, thereby significantly increasing the runtime of the timing analysis engines and liming the scalability of the existing techniques. This paper computes an upper bound on the activation pattern combinations that may result from a system of cause-effect chains in a given high-level model of the software architecture. An efficient algorithm is presented that traverses only a reduced number of possible combinations of the cause-effect chains, resulting in the timing analysis of significantly lower number of implementation-level models of the software architecture. A proof of concept is provided by conducting a case study that shows significant reduction in the runtime of timing analysis engines, i.e., the timing behavior of the considered system is verified by performing the timing analysis of only 27% of all possible combinations of the cause-effect chains.

  • 236.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Extending Automotive Legacy Systems with Existing End-to-End Timing Constraints2018Ingår i: 14th International Conference on Information Technology : New Generations ITNG'17, 2018, Vol. 558, s. 597-605Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing automotive software is becoming in- creasingly challenging due to continuous increase in its size and complexity. The development challenge is amplified when the industrial requirements dictate extensions to the legacy (previously developed) automotive software while requiring to meet the existing timing requirements. To cope with these challenges, sufficient techniques and tooling to support the modeling and timing analysis of such systems at earlier development phases is needed. Within this context, we focus on the extension of software component chains in the software architectures of automotive legacy systems. Selecting the sampling frequency, i.e. period, for newly added software components is crucial to meet the timing requirements of the chains. The challenges in selecting periods are identified. It is further shown how to automatically assign periods to software components, such that the end-to-end timing requirements are met while the runtime overhead is minimized. An industrial case study is presented that demonstrates the applicability of the proposed solution to industrial problems.

  • 237.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Research and Technology Centre, Robert Bosch, India.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Generic Framework Facilitating Early Analysis of Data Propagation Delays in Multi-Rate Systems2017Ingår i: The 23th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications RTCSA'17, 2017, artikel-id 8046323Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of multi-rate real-time systems are constrained by a multitude of timing requirements, in addition to the traditional deadlines on well-studied response times. This means, the timing predictability of these systems not only depends on the schedulability of certain task sets but also on the timely propagation of data through the chains of tasks from sensors to actuators. In the automotive industry, four different timing constraints corresponding to various data propagation delays are commonly specified on the systems. This paper identifies and addresses the source of pessimism as well as optimism in the calculations for one such delay, namely the reaction delay, in the state-of-the-art analysis that is already implemented in several industrial tools. Furthermore, a generic framework is proposed to compute all the four end-to-end data propagation delays, complying with the established delay semantics, in a scheduler and hardware-agnostic manner. This allows analysis of the system models already at early development phases, where limited system information is present. The paper further introduces mechanisms to generate job-level dependencies, a partial ordering of jobs, which need to be satisfied by any execution platform in order to meet the data propagation timing requirements. The job-level dependencies are first added to all task chains of the system and then reduced to its minimum required set such that the job order is not affected. Moreover, a necessary schedulability test is provided, allowing for varying the number of CPUs. The experimental evaluations demonstrate the tightness in the reaction delay with the proposed framework as compared to the existing state-of-the-art and practice solutions.

  • 238.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Research and Technology Centre, Robert Bosch, India.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Scheduling Multi-Rate Real-Time Applications on Clustered Many-Core Architectures with Memory Constraints2018Ingår i: 2018 23RD ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE (ASP-DAC), 2018, s. 560-567Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to shared memory is one of the main chal- lenges for many-core processors. One group of scheduling strategies for such platforms focuses on the division of tasks’ access to shared memory and code execution. This allows to orchestrate the access to shared local and off-chip memory in a way such that access contention between different compute cores is avoided by design. In this work, an execution framework is introduced that leverages local memory by statically allocating a subset of tasks to cores. This reduces the access times to shared memory, as off-chip memory access is avoided, and in turn improves the schedulability of such systems. A Constrained Programming (CP) formulation is presented to selects the statically allocated tasks and generates the complete system schedule. Evaluations show that the pro- posed approach yields an up to 21% higher schedulability ratio than related work, and a case study demonstrates its applicability to industrial problems.

  • 239.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nicolic, Borislav
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Robert Bosch GmbH, Renningen, Germany.
    Åkesson, Benny
    CISTER/INESC-TEC, ISEP, Portugal.
    Nélis, Vincent
    CISTER/INESC-TEC, ISEP, Portugal.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Partitioning and Analysis of the Network-on-Chip on a COTS Many-Core Platform2017Ingår i: 23rd IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium RTAS'17, 2017, s. 101-112Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many-core processors can provide the computational power required by future complex embedded systems. However, their adoption is not trivial, since several sources of interference on COTS many-core platforms have adverse effects on the resulting performance. One main source of performance degradation is the contention on the Network-on-Chip, which is used for communication among the compute cores via the off- chip memory. Available analysis techniques for the traversal time of messages on the NoC do not consider many of the architectural features found on COTS platforms. In this work, we target a state-of-the-art many-core processor, the Kalray MPPA R . A novel partitioning strategy for reducing the contention on the NoC is proposed. Further, we present an analysis technique dedicated to the proposed partitioning strategy, which considers all architectural features of the COTS NoC. Additionally, it is shown how to configure the parameters for flow-regulation on the NoC, such that the Worst-Case Traversal Time (WCTT) is minimal and buffers never overflow. The benefits of our approach are evaluated based on extensive experiments that show that contention is significantly reduced compared to the unconstrained case, while the proposed analysis outperforms a state-of-the-art analysis for the same platform. An industrial case study shows the tightness of the proposed analysis.

  • 240.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sandström, K.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden .
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Limiting temperature gradients on many-cores by adaptive reallocation of real-time workloads2014Ingår i: 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2014, 2014, s. Article number 7005241-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of many-core processors came with the increase in computational power needed for future applications. However new challenges arrived at the same time, especially for the real-time community. Each core on such a processor is a heat source and uneven usage can lead to hot spots on the processor, affecting its lifetime and reliability. For real-time systems, it is therefore of paramount importance to keep the temperature differences between the individual cores below critical values, in order to prevent premature failure of the system. We argue that this problem can not be solved by traditional approaches, since the growing number of cores makes them intractable. We rather argue to split the problem in the spacial domain and control the temperature on core level. The cores control their temperature by rearranging the load in a predictable manner during runtime. To achieve this, a feedback controller is implemented on each core. We conclude our work with a simulation based evaluation of the proposed approach comparing its performance against a previously presented algorithm. 

  • 241.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Many-Core based Execution Framework for IEC 61131-32015Ingår i: IECON 2015 - 41st Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2015, s. 4525-4530, artikel-id 7392805Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Programmable logic controllers are widely used for the control of automationsystems. The standard IEC 61131-3 defines the execution model as well as theprogramming languages for such systems. Nowadays, actuators and sensorsconnect to the programmable logic controller via automation buses. While suchbuses, as well as the sensors and actuators, become more and more powerful, ashift away from the current distributed operation of automation systems, closeto the field level, becomes possible. Instead, execution of complex controlfunctions can be relocated to more powerful hardware, and technologies. Thispaper presents an execution framework for IEC 61131-3, based on a many-coreprocessors. The presented execution model exploits the characteristics of theIEC 61131-3 applications as well as the characteristics of the many-core processor,yielding a predictable execution. We present the platform architectureand an algorithm to allocate a number of IEC 61131-3 conform applications.Experimental as well as simulation based evaluation is provided.

  • 242.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sandström, Kristian
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dynamic Power Management for Thermal Control of Many-Core Real-Time Systems2014Ingår i: Sigbed Review, ISSN 1551-3688, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 26-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many-Core systems, processors incorporating numerous cores interconnected by a Network on Chip (NoC), provide the computing power needed by future applications. High power density caused by the steadily shrinking transistor size, which is still following Moore's law, leads to a number of problems such as overheating cores, affecting processor reliability and lifetime. Embedded real-time systems are exposed to a changing ambient temperature and thus need to adapt their configuration in order to keep the individual core temperature below critical values. %Targeting embedded real-time systems, systems need to adapt to changing environments. In our approach a hysteresis controller is implemented on each core, triggering a redistribution of the cores and the transition into idle state allowing the core to cool down. We propose two approaches, one global and one local approach, to redistribute the tasks and relive overheating cores during runtime. We evaluate the two proposed approaches by comparing them against each other based on simulations.

  • 243.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Schmidt, Adriaan
    Fraunhofer Institute for Embedded Systems and Communication Technologies ESK, Germany.
    Orehek, Martin
    University of Applied Sciences Munich, Germany.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Saving Energy by Means of Dynamic Load Management in Embedded Multicore Systems2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2014, 2014, s. 11-20Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Load balancing is widely used to optimize response times and throughput of software systems. When considering embedded systems, however, additional optimization goals like energy consumption become relevant. In this paper, we explore the use of load balancing in embedded multicore applications. We present extensions to three prominent load balancing schemes, enabling them to dynamically scale the number of active cores. We integrated the algorithms in a proprietary operating system targeting multicore embedded systems. Our evaluation, which is based on a telecommunication (VoIP) scenario, shows that a significant reduction in energy consumption is possible.

  • 244.
    Begum, Shahina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    An Overview on Recent Case-Based Reasoning Systems in the Medicine2009Ingår i: 25th annual workshop of the Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Case-based reasoning systems for medical application are increasingly applied to meet the challenges from the medical domain. This paper looks at the state of the art in case-based reasoning and some systems are classified in this respect. A survey is performed based on the recent publications and research projects in CBR in medicine. Also, the survey is based on e-mail questionnaire to the authors’ to complete the missing property information. Some clear trends in recent projects/systems have been identified such as most of the systems are multi-modal, using a variety of different methods and techniques to serve multipurpose i.e. address more than one task.

  • 245.
    Begum, Shahina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Folke, Mia
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    von Schéele, Bo
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    A computer-based system for the assessment and diagnosis of individual sensitivity to stress in Psychophysiology2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased exposure to stress may cause serious health problems leading to long term sick leave if undiagnosed and untreated. The practice amongst clinicians' to use a standardized procedure measuring blood pressure, ECG, finger temperature, breathing speed etc. to make a reliable diagnosis of stress and stress sensitivity is increasing. But even with these measurements it is still difficult to diagnose due to large individual variations. A computer-based system as a second option for the assessment and diagnosis of individual stress level is valuable in this domain.

    A combined approach based on a calibration phase and case-based reasoning is proposed exploiting data from finger temperature sensor readings from 24 individuals. In calibration phase, a standard clinical procedure with six different steps helps to establish a person's stress profile and set up a number of individual parameters. When acquiring a new case, patients are also asked to provide a fuzzy evaluation on how reliable was the procedure to define the case itself. Such a reliability "level" could be used to further discriminate among similar cases. The system extracts key features from the signal and classifies individual sensitivity to stress. These features are stored into a case library and similarity measurements are taken to assess the degrees of matching and create a ranked list containing the most similar cases retrieved by using the nearest-neighbor algorithm.

    A current case (CC) is compared with two other stored cases (C_92 and C_115) in the case library. The global similarity between the case CC and case C_92 is 67% and case CC and case C_115 is 80% shown by the system. So the case C_115 has ranked higher than the case C_92 and is more similar to current case CC. If necessary, the solution for the best matching case can be revised by the clinician to fit the new patient. The current problem with confirmed solution is then retained as a new case and added to the case library for future use.

    The system allows us to utilize previous experience and at the same time diagnose stress along with a stress sensitivity profile. This information enables the clinician to make a more informed decision of treatment plan for the patients. Such a system may also be used to actively notify a person's stress levels even in the home environment.

  • 246.
    Begum, Shahina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    von Schéele, Bo
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Individualized Stress Diagnosis Using Calibration and Case-Based Reasoning2007Ingår i: Proceedings of the 24th annual workshop of the Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society, Borås, Sweden, 2007, s. 59-69Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Diagnosing stress is difficult even for experts due to large individual variations. Clinician's use today manual test procedures where they measure blood pressure, ECG, finger temperature and breathing speed during a number of exercises. An experienced clinician makes diagnosis on different readings shown in a computer screen. There are only very few experts who are able to diagnose and predict stress-related problems. In this paper we have proposed a combined approach based on a calibration phase and case-based reasoning to provide assistance in diagnosing stress, using data from the finger temperature sensor readings. The calibration phase helps to establish a number of individual parameters. The system uses a case-based reasoning approach and also feedback on how well the patient succeeded with the different test, used for giving similar cases reliability estimates.

  • 247.
    Begum, Shahina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    von Schéele, Bo
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Similarity of Medical Cases in Health Care Using Cosine Similarity and Ontology2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of digital patient records in hospital saves both time and reduces risks wrong treatments caused by lack of information. Digital patient records also enable efficient spread and transfer of experience gained from diagnosis and treatment of individual patient. This is today mostly manual (speaking with col-leagues) and rarely aided by computerized system. Most of the content in patient re-cords is semi-structured textual information. In this paper we propose a hybrid tex-tual case-based reasoning system promoting experience reuse based on structured or unstructured patient records, case-based reasoning and similarity measurement based on cosine similarity metric improved by a domain specific ontology and the nearest neighbor method. Not only new cases are learned, hospital staff can also add comments to existing cases and the approach enables prototypical cases.

  • 248.
    Begum, Shahina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    von Schéele, Bo
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Using Calibration and Fuzzification of Cases for Improved Diagnosis and Treatment of Stress2006Ingår i: 8th European Workshop on Case-based Reasoning in the Health Sciences, workshop proceedings, 2006, s. 113-122Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the medical literature there are a number of physiological reactions related to cognitive activities. Psychosocial and psychophysiological stress is such activities reflected in physiological reactions. Stress related symptoms are highly individual, but decreased hands temperature is the common for most individuals. A clinician learns with experience how to interpret the different symptoms but there is no adaptive diagnostic system for diagnosing stress. Decision support systems (DSS) diagnosing stress would be valuable both for junior clinicians and as second opinion for experts. Due to the large individual variations and no general set of rules, DSS are difficult to build for this task. The proposed solution combines a calibration phase with case-based reason¬ing approach and fuzzification of cases. During the calibration phase a number of individual parameters and case specific fuzzy membership functions are es-tablishes. This case-based approach may help the clinician to make a diagnosis, classification and treatment plan. The case may also be used to follow the treat-ment progress. This may be done using the proposed system. Initial tests show promising results. The individual cases including calibration and fuzzy mem-bership functions may also be used in an autonomous system in home environ-ment for treatment programs for individuals often under high stress.

  • 249.
    Begum, Shahina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Barua, Shaibal
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    In-Vehicle Stress Monitoring Based on EEG Signal2017Ingår i: International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, ISSN 2248-9622, E-ISSN 2248-9622, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. 55-71Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, improved road safety by monitoring human factors i.e., stress, mental load, sleepiness, fatigue etc. of vehicle drivers has been addressed in a number of studies. Due to the individual variations and complex dynamic in-vehicle environment systems that can monitor such factors of a driver while driving is challenging. This paper presents a drivers’ stress monitoring system based on electroencephalography (EEG) signals enabling individual-focused computational approach that can generate automatic decision. Here, a combination of different signal processing i.e., discrete wavelet transform, largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and modified covariance have been applied to extract key features from the EEG signals. Hybrid classification approach Fuzzy-CBR (case-based reasoning) is used for decision support. The study has focused on both long and short-term temporal assessment of EEG signals enabling monitoring in different time intervals. In short time interval, which requires complex computations, the classification accuracy using the proposed approach is 79% compare to a human expert. Accuracy of EEG in developing such system is also compared with other reference signals e.g., Electrocardiography (ECG), Finger temperature, Skin conductance, and Respiration. The results show that in decision making the system can handle individual variations and provides decision in each minute time interval.

  • 250.
    Begum, Shahina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Barua, Shaibal
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Fusion Based System for Physiological Sensor Signal Classification2014Ingår i: Medicinteknikdagarna 2014 MTD10, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, usage of physiological sensor signals is essential in medical applications for diagnoses and classification of diseases. Clinicians often rely on information collected from several physiological sensor signals to diagnose a patient. However, sensor signals are mostly non-stationary and noisy, and single sensor signal could easily be contaminated by uncertain noises and interferences that could cause miscalculation of measurements and reduce clinical usefulness. Therefore, an apparent choice is to use multiple sensor signals that could provide more robust and reliable decision. Therefore, a physiological signal classification approach is presented based on sensor signal fusion and case-based reasoning. To classify Stressed and Relaxed individuals from physiological signals, data level and decision level fusion are performed and case-based reasoning is applied as classification algorithm. Five physiological sensor signals i.e., Heart Rate (HR), Finger Temperature (FT), Respiration Rate (RR), Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) are collected during the data collection phase. Here, data level fusion is performed using Multivariate Multiscale Entropy (MMSE) and extracted features are then used to build a case- library. Decision level fusion is performed on the features extracted using traditional time and frequency domain analysis. Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is applied for the classification of the signals. The experimental result shows that the proposed system could classify Stressed or Relaxed individual 87.5% accurately compare to an expert in the domain. So, it shows promising result in the psychophysiological domain and could be possible to adapt this approach to other relevant healthcare systems.

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