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  • 201.
    Johnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Melander, Bob
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    An Analysis of Active End-to-end Bandwidth Measurement Methods in Wireless Networks2006In: E2EMON 06: 4th IEEE/IFIP Workshop on End-to-End Monitoring Techniques and Services: REAL-TIME MONITORING OF INTERNET PATHS, 2006, p. 75-82Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For active, probing-based bandwidth measurements performed on top of the unifying IP layer, it may seem reasonable to expect the measurement problem in wireless networks to be no different than the one in wired networks. However, in networks with 802.11 wireless bottleneck links we show that this is not the case. The results from the experiments presented in this paper show that the measured available bandwidth is dependent on the probe packet size (contrary to what is observed in wired networks). Another equally important finding is that the measured link capacity, using the well known TOPP model, is dependent on the probe packet size and on the cross-traffic intensity. The underlying reasons for the observed differences are analyzed by incorporating the characteristics of 802.11 wireless networks into the TOPP model. The extended model is applicable to other end-to-end bandwidth measurement methods as well, such as BART, Pathload and PTR.

  • 202.
    Johnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Melander, Bob
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    On the Analysis of Packet-Train Probing Schemes2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With a better understanding of how probe packets and cross-traffic packets interact with each other, more accurate measurement methods based on active probing can be developed. Several existing measurement methods rely on packet-train probing schemes. In this article, we study and describe the interactions between probe packets and cross-traffic packets. When one packet within a packet train is delayed, the dispersion (i.e. packet separation) of at least two (and possibly more) probe packets will change. Furthermore, the dispersions are not independent, which may bias calculations based on statistical operations. Many methods use dispersion averages, such as the mean, in the calculation of bandwidth estimates and predictions. We describe cross traffic effects on packet trains. The interaction results in mirror, chain and quantifi- cation patterns. Experiments have been performed in a testbed to explore these patterns. In histograms of delay variations for adjacent probe packets, these patterns are manifested as different identifiable signatures. Finally, we also discuss the effect of these patterns on the mean and median operations.

  • 203.
    Johnsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Cederblad, Lars
    Level 21 Management AB Västerås, Sweden .
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corporate Research Västerås, Sweden .
    Productivity Framework for Innovative Product Development2007In: Managing Total Innovation and Open Innovation in the 21st Century: ISMOT07, PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIFTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY, 2007, p. 1655-1660Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative product development (IPD) give companies the competitive advantage required to be successful in the highly competitive market of today. The natural question is: how do you make your organization as effective as possible in the IPD process? This paper presents a framework to reason about the subject of productivity in the IPD process. The framework is deducted from the definitions of innovation and product development, an effective IPD process contains three parts; Planning (what to develop), Implementation (product realization) and Marketing, Sales and Delivery. Success comes from acknowledging the fact that there are different objectives within the three parts. The productivity of the IPD process can be expressed as a function of the efficiencies of Planning, Implementation and Marketing, Sales and Delivery. This paper is the first qualitative result of research together with seven high-tech industrial companies, with the goal to find what is required to be efficient in the Planning and the Implementation process. The key factors for success as well as some general conclusions are presented in this paper.

  • 204.
    Jonsson, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Bandwidth measurements in wired and wireless networks2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 205.
    Jonsson, Annika
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    New optical sensor design made to discriminate between tissue blood flow at different tissue depths at the sacral areaManuscript (Other academic)
  • 206.
    Jonsson, Annika
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    New sensor design made to discriminate between tissue blood flow at different tissue depths at the sacral area.2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of antidecubitus mattresses is to a large extent based on interface pressure and pressure distribution measurements. These measurements do not give an answer to the effect on the tissue microcirculation cause by the external loading. A better and more direct parameter on the properties' of the mattress would be to measure blood flow in the tissue under loading. This paper presents a new optical sensor probe for blood flow measurement that combines the two methods laser Doppler and photoplethysmography, PPG. With use of two methods, multiple light wavelengths and combinations of the distances between light sources and photodetector in the PPG, the blood flow at several different tissue depths can be assessed. However, interference problems between the two methods occurred with the present sensor design. The preliminary result presented in this paper, shows differences in blood flow response at the different measurement depths.

  • 207.
    Jonsson, Annika
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    New sensor made to discriminate between tissue blood flow at different tissue depths at the sacral area2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of antidecubitus mattresses is to a large extent based on interface pressure and pressure distribution measurements. These measurements do not give an answer to the effect on the tissue microcirculation cause by the external loading. A better and more direct parameter on the properties’ of the mattress would be to measure blood flow in the tissue under loading. This paper presents a new optical sensor probe for blood flow measurement that combines the two methods laser Doppler and photoplethysmography, PPG. With use of two methods, multiple light wavelengths and combinations of the distances between light sources and photodetector in the PPG, the blood flow at several different tissue depths can be assessed. However, interference problems between the two methods occurred with the present sensor design. The preliminary result presented in this paper, shows differences in blood flow response at the different measurement depths.

  • 208.
    Jonsson, Annika
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Pressure sore etiology - highlighted with optical measurements of the blood flow2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In line with the quality awareness of good prevention of pressure sores and in treatment of those sores already developed, evaluation of antidecubitus mattresses plays an important role. However, there are shortages in the evaluations performed today, since often interface pressure is the only parameter regarded. Since ischaemia in the tissue is the primary cause of pressure sore, the focus in this thesis is on blood flow measurements in tissue exposed external loading. To study the tissue blood flow would give a better and more direct indication on the mattress effectiveness in minimizing the negative effects on the tissue viability.

    The results presented in this thesis reveal that the superficial blood flow in areas prone to pressure sore development, is affected by increased skin temperature and external loading of the tissue. Both the effects from pressure and shear stress have been studied.

    Measurements of the tissue blood flow is interesting to relate to the two theories about at which tissue layer the pressure sores start to develop. To achieved more knowledge about the pressure sore etiology and also be able to non-invasively measure the tissue blood flow for evaluations of antidecubitus mattresses an optical sensor has been developed. The sensor combines the two optical methods, laser Doppler flowmetry and photoplethysmography. With the design of the sensor, measurements of the superficial skin blood flow and the deeper blood flow, even the muscle blood flow, can be performed. Measurement depths of 2 mm, 8 mm, and 20 mm into the tissue is assumed.

    Preliminary result from measurements performed with the optical sensor in four test subjects, revealed great individual differences in blood flow, but also different response to the same external loading at different measurement depths, in the same individual. This new optical sensor is likely to be of great value in future studies of pressure sore etiology and in future evaluations of antidecubitus mattresses.

  • 209.
    Jonsson, Annika
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Bergstrand, Sara
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Lindgren, Margareta
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Blodflödesmätningar for att studera uppkomst uppkomst och förebyggande av trycksår2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bakgrund: Trycksar ar ett alltjamt vanligt forekommande problem inom dagens sjukvard. Antalet personer i riskzonen att utveckla trycksar okar i takt med att vi blir allt aldre och sjukare samtidigt som allt mer allvarligt skadade personer idag kan raddas till livet. Den primara orsaken till trycksar ar ischemi men antalet sekundara faktorer ar stort. Den yttre belastningen av vavnaden som orsakar ischemi innefattar bade normal- och skjuvkrafter. Skjuvkrafter ar krafter som appliceras tangentiellt mot vavnaden och som leder till att kapillarernas diameter minskar och att blodflodet genom dem darmed minskar eller upphor.

    Idag ar det framforallt tryckmatningar av olika slag som anvands i forskning rorande trycksaretiologi. Tryckmatningar gors ocksa vid utvardering av de specialmadrasser som anvands for att forebygga och underlatta lakningen av redan uppkomna trycksar. Eftersom ar ischemi ar den primara orsaken till trycksar anser vi att blodflodet en mer direkt parameter att studera.

    Metod: Forandringar av blodflodet i sakrum vid yttre belastning har studerats i tva separata studier. I den forsta studien anvandes de tva vedertagna metoderna laser Doppler och fotopletysmografi. Genom olika kombinationer av vaglangd pa ljuset och avstand mellan ljuskalla och detektor kunde ett flertal olika matdjup erhallas. I den andra studien anvandes en Laser Doppler Flowmeter med tva kanaler for att studera forandringar av blodflodet vid anlaggande av skjuvkraft.

    Resultat: Vara studier har visat att bade normalkrafter och skjuvkrafter kan minska blodflodet i vavnaden. Det som visade sig speciellt intressant efter de forsta preliminara analyserna av resultaten fran studien med flera matdjup ar att blodflodet pa olika djup, det vill saga i de olika vavnadslagren, paverkas olika. Resultatet fran den andra studien visar att belastning av skjuvkrafter paverkar framfor allt det ytliga blodflodet negativt.

    Sammanfattning: Det ar viktigt att observera att det vid belastning av huden i princip ar omojligt att separera paverkan fran tryck respektive skjuvkrafter. Dock visar vara resultat att bade tryck och skjuvkrafter kan paverka blodflodet negativt. Vidareutveckling av metoden for blodflodesmatning mojliggor studier av hur blodflodet i ett storre vavnadsomrade paverkas av yttre belastning. Matningar i ett storre omrade bor kunna ge nya ron om etiologin bakom trycksar samt vara anvandbara vid utvardering av trycksarmadrasser.

  • 210.
    Jonsson, Annika
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Lindgren, Margareta
    Lindén, Maria
    Skin temperature effects on the skin blood flow at areas prone to pressure sore development2005In: IFMBE Proceedings: NBC'05 Umeå 13th Nordic Baltic Conference Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics, 2005, p. 140-141Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 211.
    Jonsson, Annika
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Lindén, Maria
    Lindgren, Margareta
    Malmqvist, Lars-Åke
    Bäcklund, Ylva
    Evaluation of antidecubitus mattresses2005In: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, ISSN 0140-0118, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 541-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressure sores are a current problem in hospitals and care of the elderly, leading to protracted hospital stays and a high care burden. The trauma for the patients is severe, and the cost of pressure sore prevention and treatment, is considerable. Antidecubitus mattresses are used for prevention and in treatment, but they also contribute to the cost of treating pressure sores. The problem highlighted in the review is that the mattresses' effectiveness in preventing and treating pressure sores has not been sufficiently evaluated. When antidecubitus mattresses are evaluated, it is often only with regard to aspects of the interface pressure and the mattresses' ability to redistribute the pressure. The review points out the important observation that, to be able to evaluate the efficacy of the antidecubitus mattress, the mattress's effect on tissue viability needs to be studied. The parameters that ought to be considered when evaluating a support surface are: interface pressure, pressure and blood flow distribution, temperature and humidity in the skin-support surface interface. The authors propose that the effect on tissue viability of external loading can be assessed by simultaneous measurement of the interface pressure and tissue perfusion.

  • 212.
    Kaczynski, Giordano A.
    et al.
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy .
    Lo Bello, Lucia
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy .
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Deriving Exact Stochastic Response Times of Periodic Tasks in Hybrid Priority-driven Soft Real-time Systems2007In: Proceedings of 12th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA'07), Patras, Greece, 2007, p. 101-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to allow for hybrid task sets in the context of stochastic real-time analysis. The paper goes beyond previous work by allowing for the presence of aperiodic tasks in the system. Instead of representing a task with a fixed activation period and a Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET), here a task is characterized by an Arrival Profile (AP) and an Execution Time Profile (ETP), both given by random variables with known distributions. Any number of aperiodic tasks, with arbitrary arrival and execution time profiles, can be dealt with. To cope with the unbounded interference introduced by aperiodic tasks in the system, sporadic and aperiodic tasks are encapsulated within servers. The paper presents the calculus for obtaining the exact ETP of servers, which allows us to derive exact response time distributions of periodic tasks. Also, an example is used to show the potential and validity of the proposed approach. 

  • 213.
    Kaczynski, Giordano A.
    et al.
    University of Catania.
    Lo Bello, Lucia
    University of Catania.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Towards stochastic response-time of hierarchically scheduled real-time tasks2006In: IEEE Symposium on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, 2006, p. 453-456Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing need for providing real-time system designers with less pessimistic results than the ones given by traditional worst-case analysis motivates several recent works on stochastic analysis methods. This paper deals with the calculation of stochastic Response Time Profiles of tasks that are hierarchically scheduled using server-based techniques in a stochastic analysis framework. Depending on how tasks are scheduled within the server, differences in temporal performance are expected. In the paper, initial results on calculating the Response Time Profiles for these server-scheduled tasks are outlined.

  • 214.
    Kawnine, Tanzim
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    A Radial-Ulnar Deviation and Wrist-Finger Flexion Analysis Based on Electromyography2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is aimed to determine the electromyographic signals of the forearm, using Ag/AgCl electrodes. The four major muscles of forearm, which are providing the bioelectrical currents, have been displayed and analysed to determine the different activities. In order to record the signals, an EMG device has been developed and installed and a schematic has also been presented in this paper.

  • 215.
    Khalil, Aayazuddin
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    How can Lean Philosophy Improve the Traditional Philosophy of Project Management2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is suffering with many problems nowadays. Many projects are

    getting failed and getting over budget. It has been generally noticed that chaos in

    construction industry is only because of the absence of explicit theory of project

    management. The paradigm of project management in construction is still following mass

    production, which means considering only conversion activities. The present style of

    conventional project management is based on two fundamental theories i.e. management-

    as-planning (for planning and execution) and thermostat model (for control).

    The new philosophy (lean production) considers production both conversion and flow

    processes. The focus of lean production is to reduce flow processes, to improve the

    conversion processes, and to reduce the wastes during production.

    Among all other lean tools, this document is focusing on Last Planner System (LPS) for

    the production control system. In the end of the document, two case studies have been

    mentioned in which it is clearly demonstrated that, when project managers used the LPS

    the value of PPC (percent planned completed) and PF (performance factor) have been

    more salubrious as compared to the absence of LPS during the execution of the project.

  • 216. Klevbo, Louise
    et al.
    Jonsson, Annika
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Ford, Nerrolyn
    Peripheral circulatory response to shear stress applied to the sacral regionManuscript (Other academic)
  • 217.
    Kocjan, Waldemar
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Symmetric cardinality constraints2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 218.
    Kraft, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Huselius, Joel
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Legacy Issues in Industrial Software Development2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of the graduate course ”Legacy Issues in Industrial Software

    Development”, which was organized at Malardalen Real-Time Research Centre (MRTC) at

    Malardalen University during winter 2006-2007.

  • 219.
    Krasteva, Iva
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Branger, Per
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    A Systematic Comparison of Agile Principles and the Fundaments of Component-Based Software Development2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a systematic comparison of the principles of agile software development and the fundaments of component-based software development with COTS (Commercial Off-the-Shelf) components. The fundamental assumptions and inherent characteristics of the two fields are compared, and any theoretical incompatibilities are reported. The study is limited to include only development activities, which are [31]: requirements, design, development, verification and validation, and integration. We do not consider activities such as project management, configuration management, maintenance and evolution, and documentation. Furthermore, the study concerns development with COTS components, not other types of component-based development, such as [15]: product-line development (where components are built in-house) or architecture-driven development (i.e. top-down design decomposition resulting in components to be developed in-house).

    This theoretical study should be seen as a first phase, laying the foundation for further empirical studies in an industrial setting. These two steps are well-defined parts of the research agenda of the established PROGRESS Centre for Predictable Embedded Software Systems and also the ITEA2 FLEXI project of which we are part.

  • 220.
    Krikhaar, René
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Software Configuration Management2007In: Science of Computer Programming, Vol. 65, p. 215-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software Configuration Management (SCM) concerns the control of the evolution of complex software systems.

    CM is one of the most successful Software Engineering research fields with respect to acceptance in the industry.

    Almost any development organization that releases software applications and/or supplies complete software intensive

    systems, can only survive with the right attention to Configuration Management. The importance of SCM is also

    addressed by software process improvement models, such as CMM, CMMI and SPICE, in which SCM processes play

    a major role in achieving an initial level of maturity.

    During the last three decades, SCM has emerged towards a mature Software Engineering discipline. During these

    years, several topics in SCM have been researched and their results are currently common in the available SCM tools.

    Software development is changing, which implies that aspects of SCM should correspondingly change over time to

    serve new software development needs. For example, model driven engineering is a growing field that also requires

    different SCM support. Another example of concern is the growth of software code bases that require extra tool

    support during maintenance (in order to find the correct information). In this special issue of the Science of Computer

    Programming we present two excellent papers that are related to given examples in new areas of research.

    In this introduction, we provide a short overview of SCM. Furthermore, we present SCM in the perspective of the

    changing world of Software Engineering. Challenges in SCM are discussed to trigger new research in the SCM field.

    The SCM workshop is the main workshop in this field, so we provide a short historical overview of this also.

  • 221.
    Lago, Patricia
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit, Netherlands .
    Muccini, Henry
    University of L'Aquila, Italy .
    Beus-Dukic, Ljerka
    University of Westminster, United Kingdom .
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Van Vliet, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. Vrije Universiteit, Netherlands .
    Towards a European Master Programme on Global Software Engineering2007In: Software Engineering Education Conference, Proceedings2007, 2007, p. 184-191Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a European Master programme on Global Software Engineering (SE), being put forward by four leading institutions from Sweden, UK, Netherlands and Italy. The Global SE European Master (GSEEM) programme aims to provide students with an excellence in SE based on sound theoretical foundations and practical experience, as well as prepare them to participate in global development of complex and large software systems. GSEEM has been designed with three noteworthy aspects: 1) Three specialization profiles in which the consortium excels: Software Architecting, Real-time Embedded Systems Engineering, and Web Systems and Services Engineering. 2) Two market-driven routes: "professional" to work as professionals, and "scientific" to continue the education towards research degrees. 3) An innovative concept of "shared modules", delivered together by multiple institutions. Four types of shared modules are foreseen: "parallel" twin modules which run remotely between universities, "shifted" modules which teach SE concepts incrementally with shifts in study locations and timeline ,"complementary" modules in which complementary SE concepts are taught in parallel through shared projects, and "common" modules which share the presentations and the project. The profiles realize "integrated knowledge" by complementing partial knowledge available at partner institutions. The paper explains how GSEEM achieves the objectives of educating global software engineers.

  • 222.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    An architectural approach to software evolution and integration2003Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 223.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Interviews on Software Systems Merge2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a follow-up to previous research on software in-house integration, we have studied a case where integration has been achieved by means of developing and reusing components of the system from previously two separate systems. As an important part of this research, a number of interviews with people from an industrial project have been carried out. The present report describes the methodology used to set up these interviews and contains the full notes made during the interviews. No analysis of the results is made.

  • 224.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Software Systems In-House Integration: Observations and Guidelines Concerning Architecture and Process2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Software evolution is a crucial activity for software organizations. A specifc type of software evolution is the integration of previously isolated systems. The need for integration is often a consequence of different organizational changes, including merging of previously separate organizations. One goal of software integration is to increase the value to users of several systems by combining their functionality, another is to reduce functionality overlap. If the systems are completely owned and controlled in-house, there is an additional advantage in rationalizing the use of internal resources by decreasing the amount of software with essentially the same purpose. Despite in-house integration being common, this topic has received little attention from researchers. This thesis contributes to an increasing understanding of the problems associated with in-house integration and provides guidelines to the more efficient utilization of the existing systems and the personnel.

    In the thesis, we combine two perspectives: software architecture and processes. The perspective of software architecture is used to show how compatibility analysis and development of integration alternatives can be performed rapidly at a high level of abstraction. The software process perspective has led to the identification of important characteristics and practices of the integration process. The guidelines provided in the thesis will help those performing future in-house integration to make well-founded decisions timely and efficiently.

    The contributions are based on several integration projects in industry, which have been studied systematically in order to collect, evaluate and generalize their experiences.

  • 225.
    Land, Rikard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Blankers, Laurens
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Classifying and Consolidating Software Component Selection Methods2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtually all software systems built today include pre-existing components developed by others (OTS, Off-the-Shelf or COTS, Commercial ditto). This trend has been accompanied by research into, among others, methods for evaluating and selecting components to use in a system. This paper presents a literature survey of the software component selection methods published to date. Based on this survey, a meta-model is presented, which allows for easy comparison of the methods. For each part of the meta-model, we present the best practices collected from all the existing models, thus presenting the collected experience of many research efforts in a checklist-like way. The model and practices presented are useful when choosing a method for a particular project.

  • 226.
    Land, Rikard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Carlson, Jan
    Larsson, Stig
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Merging In-House Developed Software Systems: A Method for Exploring Alternatives2006In: Perspectives in Software Architecture Quality: Short papers of the 2nd International Conference on the Quality of Software Architectures (QoSA 2006), June 27-29, 2006, Västeras, Sweden, Universität Karlsruhe , 2006, p. 13-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 227.
    Land, Rikard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Software Systems In-House Integration: Architecture, Process Practices and Strategy Selection2007In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 419-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As organizations merge or collaborate closely, an important question is how their existing software assets should be handled. If these previously separate organizations are in the same business domain - they might even have been competitors - it is likely that they have developed similarsoftware systems. To rationalize, these existing software assets should be integrated, in the sense that similar features should be implemented only once. The integration can be achieved in different ways. Success of it involves properly managing challenges such as making as well founded decisions as early as possible, maintaining commitment within the organization, managing the complexities of distributed teams, and synchronizing theintegration efforts with concurrent evolution of the existing systems. This paper presents a multiple case study involving nine cases of such in-houseintegration processes. Based both on positive and negative experiences of the cases, we pinpoint crucial issues to consider early in the process, and suggest a number of process practices.

  • 228.
    Land, Rikard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Software Systems Integration and Architectural Analysis: A Case Study2003In: IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance, ICSM2003, 2003, p. 338-347Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software systems no longer evolve as separate entities but are also integrated with each other. The purpose of integrating software systems can be to increase user-value or to decrease maintenance costs. Different approaches, one of which is software architectural analysis, can be used in the process of integration planning and design. This paper presents a case study in which three software systems were to be integrated. We show how architectural reasoning was used to design and compare integration alternatives. In particular, four different levels of the integration were discussed (interoperation, a so-called Enterprise Application Integration, an integration based on a common data model, and a full integration). We also show how cost, time to delivery and maintainability of the integrated solution were estimated. On the basis of the case study, we analyze the advantages and limits of the architectural approach as such and conclude by outlining directions for future research: how to incorporate analysis of cost, time to delivery, and risk in architectural analysis, and how to make architectural analysis more suitable for comparing many aspects of many alternatives during development. Finally we outline the limitations of architectural analysis.

  • 229.
    Land, Rikard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Wallin, Christina
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Integration of Software Systems: Process Challenges2003In: Conference Proceedings of the EUROMICRO2003, 2003, p. 413-416Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The assumptions, requirements, and goals of integrating existing software systems are different compared to other software activities such as maintenance and development, implying that the integration processes should be different. But where there are similarities, proven processes should be used. We analyze the process used by a recently merged company, with the goal of deciding on an integration approach for three systems. We point out observations that illustrate key elements of such a process, as well as challenges for the future.

  • 230.
    Land, Rikard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Lakotic, Miroslav
    A Tool for Exploring Software Systems Merge Alternatives2006In: International ERCIM Workshop on Software Evolution, 2006, p. 113-118Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 231.
    Land, Rikard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    A Quantitative Survey on Software In-house Integration2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As organizations merge or collaborate closely, an important question is how their existing software assets should be handled. If these previously separate organizations are in the same business domain - they might even have been competitors - it is likely that they have developed similar software systems. To rationalize, these existing software assets should be integrated, in the sense that similar features should be implemented only once.

    We have previously made qualitative observations on this topic. This report describes the follow-up study, which was performed in the form of a questionnaire aimed at validating and quantifying the previous observations. This report describes the research design, present the questionnaire together with all responses, and make some statistical analyses. This will form a basis for further publications with deeper analyses.

  • 232.
    Land, Rikard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Software In-House Integration: Quantified Experiences from Industry2006In: Proceedings 32nd Euromicro Conference onSoftware Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), 2006, p. 198-205Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When an organization faces new types of collaboration, for example after a company merger, there is a need to consolidate the existing in-house developed software. There are many high-level strategic decisions to be made, which should be based on as good foundation as possible, while these decisions must be made rapidly. Also, one must employ feasible processes and practices in order to get the two previously separate organizations to work towards a common goal. In order to study this topic, we previously performed an explorative and qualitative multiple case study, where we identified a number of suggested practices as well as other concerns to take into account. This paper presents a follow-up study, which aims at validating and quantifying these previous findings. This study includes a questionnaire distributed to in-house integration projects, aiming at validation of earlier findings. We compare the data to our previous conclusions, present observations on retirement of the existing systems and on the technical similarities of the existing systems. We also present some practices considered important but often neglected.

  • 233.
    Landernäs, K.
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Holmberg, J.
    Glitch reduction in digit-serial recursive filters using retiming2005In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits, and Systems, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we study how retiming can be used to reduce glitches in digit-serial recursive filters. It is a well known fact that glitches can make up a large portion of the dynamic power consumption in digital systems. Digit-serial recursive systems contain registers that can be retimed to reduce the amount of glitches. A second-order digit-serial LDI allpass filter has been implemented to verify this statement. It is shown that retiming can reduce the power consumption with about 20% for small digit-sizes without affecting the throughput of the filter. We also show that introducing a large number of registers in the filter structure will increase the current consumption. This trade-off, between reducing the amount of glitches and the increase in the number of registers, is also considered in this work.

  • 234.
    Landernäs, K.
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Holmberg, J.
    Implementation of digit-serial LDI allpass filters using cyclic schedulingManuscript (Other academic)
  • 235.
    Landernäs, Krister
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Implementation of digital-serial LDI/LDD allpass filters2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, digit-serial implementation of recursive digital filters is considered. The theories presented can be applied to any recursive digital filter, and in this thesis we study the lossless discrete integrator (LDI) allpass filter. A brief introduction regarding suppression of limit cycles at finite wordlength conditions is given, and an extended stability region, where the second-order LDI allpass filter is free from quantization limit cycles, is presented.

    The realization of digit-serial processing elements, i.e., digit-serial adders and multipliers, is studied. A new digit-serial hybrid adder (DSHA) is presented. The adder can be pipelined to the bit level with a short arithmetic critical path, which makes it well suited when implementing high-throughput recursive digital filters.

    Two digit-serial multipliers which can be pipelined to the bit level are considered. It is concluded that a digit-serial/parallelmultiplier based on shift-accumulation(DSAAM) is a good candidate when implementing recursive digital systems, mainly due to low latency. Furthermore, our study shows that low latency will lead to higher throughput and lower power consumption.

    Scheduling of recursive digit-serial algorithms is studied. It is concluded that implementation issues such as latency and arithmetic critical path are usually required before scheduling considerations can be made. Cyclic scheduling using digit-serial arithmetics is also considered. It is shown that digit-serial cyclic scheduling is very attractive for high-throughput implementations.

  • 236.
    Landernäs, Krister
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Holmberg, Johnny
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Implementation of high-speed digit-serial LDI allpass filters2005In: Proceedings of the 2005 European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design, 2005, p. 249-252Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 237.
    Landernäs, Krister
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Holmberg, Johnny
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Gustafsson, O.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Implementation of bit-level pipelined digit-serial multipliers2004In: Report - Helsinki University of Technology, Signal Processing Laboratory, vol. 46, 2004, 2004, p. 125-128Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 238.
    Landernäs, Krister
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Holmberg, Johnny
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Vesterbacka, M.
    Linköping University.
    Digit-serial implementation of LDI/LDD allpass filters2002Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study digit-serial implementation of the general-order lossless discrete integrator/differentiator (LDI/LDD) allpass filter structure. In low-power filter implementation, digit-serialcomputation has been shown to be advantageous compared to bit-serial and parallel arithmetics. Thedigit-serial processing elements are obtained using unfolding techniques. The implementation is compared to a corresponding wave digital (WD) implementation. It is shown in an example that a WD realization requires about 60% and 30% more D flip-flops for pipelining and shimming delays, respectively, than the corresponding LDI/LDD implementation. We also study the sample period of the second-order LDI/LDD allpass filter using different digit sizes and conclude that when the filter is scheduled over a number of sample periods we achieve the shortest sample period

  • 239.
    Landernäs, Krister
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Holmberg, Johnny
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Vesterbacka, M.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    A high-speed low-latency digit-serial hybrid adder2004In: Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, vol. 3 2004, 2004, p. 217-220Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a new digit-serial hybrid adder. The adder can be pipelined to the bit-level and is, therefore, well suited for high-speed applications. The main advantage of the proposed adder is that it can be implemented with few pipelining stages. We compare speed, area and power consumption for the proposed adder with a digit-serial carry-look-ahead adder and a digit-serial Ladner-Fisher adder. The results show that the delay of the digit-serial hybrid adder is lower than the other adders studied in this paper for digit-sizes up to d = 12. For these digit-sizes the digit-serial hybrid adder has on average 17% smaller critical path than the digit-serial carry-look-ahead adder and 21% smaller critical path than the digit-serial Ladner-Fisher adder.

  • 240.
    LARS, CERNERUD
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Folke, Mia
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Så kan idrottsämnet i skolan bidra till ökad fysisk aktivitet2007In: LÄKARTIDNINGEN, Vol. 104, no 42, p. 3125-3126Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 241.
    Larsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Applying Configuration Management Techniques to Component-based Systems2000Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Building software from components, rather than writing the code from scratch has several advantages, including reduced time to market and more efficient resource usage. However, component based development without consideration of all the risks and limitations involved may give unpredictable results, such as the failure of a system when a component is used in an environment for which it was not originally designed. One of the basic problems when developing component-based systems is that it is difficult to keep track of components and their interrelationships. This is particularly problematic when upgrading components. One way to maintain control over upgrades is to use component identification and dependency analysis. These are well known techniques for managing system configurations during development, but are rarely applied in managing run-time dependencies. The main contribution of this thesis is to show how Configuration Management (CM) principles and methods can be applied to component-based systems. This thesis presents a method for analysing dependencies between components. The method predicts the influence of a component update by identifying the components in a system and constructing a graph describing their dependencies. Knowledge of the possible influences of an update is important, since it can be used to limit the scope of testing and be a basis for evaluating the potential damage of the update. The dependency graphs can also be used to facilitate maintenance by identifying differences between configurations, e.g., making it possible to recognise any deviations from a functioning reference configuration. For evaluation of the method, a prototype tool which explores dependencies and stores them under version control has been developed. The prototype has been used for partial analysis of the Windows 2000 platform. Preliminary experiments indicate that most components have only a few dependencies. The method has thus given an indication that the analysis of the effects of component updates may not be as difficult as might be expected.

  • 242.
    Larsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Predicting Quality Attributes in Component-based Software Systems2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 243.
    Larsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Technology Transfer: Why some Succeed and some don't2006In: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, 2006, 2006, p. 23-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present several technology transfer cases both successes and failures. These cases describe transfers from research department within a large corporation to a product company, university to a large product company and university to a small product company. Based on the analysis of these cases we outline several strategies that can be used, in isolation or combined, in order to increase the probability for success

  • 244.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Expected influence of ethics on product development process2006In: tripleC: Communication, Capitalism & Critique, ISSN 1726-670X, Vol. 4, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Product development efficiency and effectiveness is depending on a process being well executed. The actions of individuals included in the processes are influenced by the ethical and moral orientations that have been selected by each individual, whether this selection is conscious or not. This paper describes different ethical choices and the expected effects they may have on the development process exemplified by the product integration process for software products. The different frameworks analyzed are utilitarianism, rights ethics, duty ethics, virtue ethics and ethical egoism. The expected effects on the goals for product integration may be debated. This is a result in it self as it triggers discussions about ethical considerations and increase the awareness of the influence of moral decisions. Our conclusion is that the adherence to specific moral frameworks simplifies the alignment of actions to the practices described in product development models and standards and through this supports a more successful execution of product development projects. This conclusion is also confirmed through a comparison between the different directions and several codes of ethics for engineers issued by organizations such as IEEE as these combine features from several of the discussed ethical directions.

  • 245.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Improving software product integration2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea with product integration is that separate components are combined into a working system. However, this process of assembling parts into bigger units, products and systems is not well performed in industry, especially not when a substantial part of the product functionality is implemented in software. Many faults that are introduced in early phases are found as late as in the product integration phase, or even worse, in the verification or validation of the final delivery, or after delivery of the product or system. This leads to high costs for error correction and additional efforts for re-testing. There is consequently a need to further investigate the area of product integration to understand how the performance can be improved. Different practices have been described in standards and models, but the area is still under development. No widely agreed upon body-of-knowledge has so far been defined for product integration. A large part of the development of products containing software for industrial use is conducted in small or medium sized teams. This requires that any data collection methods used to acquire reliable information regarding performance in a project or organization minimize the intrusion. A facilitating approach was needed to understand how units with distinct characteristics should be approached. Based on several years of interaction with different types of organization, the presented research includes an analysis of various methods for data collection. The result is a proposed method for selecting different sizes of investigations based on the openness and maturity of the organization. The main purpose of this research is to understand which factors influence the integration process and what can be done to improve the execution of it. It includes investigations to understand if the described best practices are appropriate, and if there are other means to achieve successful product integration. The research combines investigations of existing compilations of best practices with case studies in industry. Our conclusion is that the type of organization that we have investigated can reduce problems in the product integration process by following the basic practices described in standards and reference models. Problems found in product integration can in most cases be related to the fact that the organization does not follow the proposed practices. The investigations have revealed that the practices are not used in a sufficient way, that additional efforts must be put into fulfilling the requirements in standards and models, and that it is difficult to implement the practices. We have also found indications that specific technology, component based software, may assist in executing the practices. Finally, we conclude that not all standards and models include support to avoid all types of problems in product integration. This is an indication that the on-going development of the area is necessary and that an increased agreement on what can be considered to be best practices is needed.

  • 246.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Key Elements of Software Product Integration Processes2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The product integration is a particularly critical phase of the software product development process as many problems originating from earlier phases become visible in this phase. Problems in product integration result in delays and rework. One of the measures to decrease the late discovery of problems is the use of development standards and guidelines that define practices to ensure correctness of the product integration. However, even if such standards and reference models exist, they are in not used consistently. One of the reasons is a lack of a proof that they indeed improve the integration process, and even more important, that they are sufficient for performing efficient and correct product integration.

    The conclusion of the presented research is that the available descriptions in standards and reference models taken one by one are insufficient and must be consolidated to help development organizations improve the product integration process. The research has resulted in a proposed combination of the activities included in the different reference models. This combination has been based on a number of case studies. Through the case studies performed in seven different product development organizations, a relationship between problems that are observed and the failure to follow the recommendations in reference models is identified. The analysis has indicated which practices are necessary, and how other practices support these. The goal with the research is to provide product development organizations with guidelines for how to perform software product integration.

    One additional finding of the research is the existence of relation between software architecture and the development process. A method for identifying dependencies between evolvement of software architectures and adaptation of integration practices has been demonstrated.

  • 247.
    Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    ABB.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Case study: Software product integration practices2005In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3457, Springer, 2005, p. 272-285Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations often encounter problems in the Product Integration process. The difficulties include finding errors at integration related to mismatch between the different components and problems in other parts of the system than the one that was changed. The question is if these problems can be decreased if the awareness of the integration process is increased in other activities. To get better understanding of this problem we have analyzed the integration process in two product development organizations. One of the organizations has two different groups with slightly different integration routines while the other is basing the development on well defined components. The obstacles found in product integration are highlighted and related to best practices as described in the interim standard EIA-731.1. Our conclusion from this study is that the current descriptions for best practices in product integration are available in standards and models, but are insufficiently used and can be supported by technology to be accepted and utilized by the product developers

  • 248. Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Ekdahl, Fredrik
    On the expected synergies between component-based software engineering and best practices in production integration2004In: Proceeding EUROMICRO '04 Proceedings of the 30th EUROMICRO Conference, 2004, p. 430-436Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expectations for a well working integration process are described in the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). Often during the integration process, weaknesses of the entire development process become visible. This is usually too late and too costly. Particular development processes and use of particular technologies may help to improve the performance of the integration process by providing proper input to it. For example, by the use of a component-based approach, the development process changes. Some of these changes may help in performing according to the process expectations. In this paper, examples of problems that have been observed in the integration process are described. Through a case study we describe a number of practical problems in current development projects. Based on this case study, we analyze how a component-based approach could help and lead to a more effective integration process.

  • 249.
    Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Ekdahl, Fredrik
    Are limited non-intrusive CMMI-based appraisals enough?2003In: Proceedings of the ESEIW 2003 Workshop on Empirical Studies in Software Engineering WSESE 2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An integral part of the strategy for performance improvement within the product development at ABB is the use of CMMI-based appraisals. Each appraisal represents an investment by the organization to lay the best possible foundation for improvements. The challenge is to balance the investment, the intrusiveness and the benefits. Depending on different organizational characteristics, different kinds of appraisals should be used. All appraisals are driven by data collection and consequently the quality of an appraisal depends on the data collection methods used. In this paper we outline strategies used in ABB for selection of appropriate CMMI appraisals and data collection methods. Early results indicate that the use of a series of appraisals can be a way to overcome the resistance in an organization. We also claim that a discussion is needed on the reliability and validity of the appraisal methodologies and on the feasibility to base decisions regarding process improvement strategies on appraisal results.

  • 250.
    Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Ekdahl, Fredrik
    ABB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden .
    Selecting CMMI appraisal classes based on maturity and openness2004In: Product Focused Software Process Improvement: Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume, 3009, Springer, 2004, p. 457-470Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last eight years, different approaches have been used to diagnose the performance in ABB organizations developing software. The efforts build to a large degree on methods from the Software Engineering Institute (SEI). In this paper we examine the experiences from five organizations through a description of the pathways that we have observed in the maturity development. We also propose a way to classify organizations based on two organizational characteristics, maturity and openness. Based on this classification, a simple method for the selection of how to collect performance data from the organizations is described.

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