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  • 201.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Lessons from applying experimentation in software engineering predictive modeling2008In: Proceedings of The 2nd International workshop on Software Productivity Analysis and Cost Estimation (SPACE'08), Collocated with 15th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, Beijing, China, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within software engineering prediction systems, experiments are undertaken primarily to investigate relationships and to measure/compare models’ accuracy. This paper discusses our experience and presents useful lessons/guidelines in experimenting with software engineering prediction systems. For this purpose, we use a typical software engineering experimentation process as a baseline. We found that the typical experimentation process in software engineering is supportive in developing prediction systems and have highlighted issues more central to the domain of software engineering prediction systems.

  • 202.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Blekinge Inst Technol.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Inst Technol.
    On the application of genetic programming for software engineering predictive modeling: A systematic review2011In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 38, no 9, p. 11984-11997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the evidence for symbolic regression using genetic programming (GP) being an effective method for prediction and estimation in software engineering, when compared with regression/machine learning models and other comparison groups (including comparisons 20 with different improvements over the standard GP algorithm). We performed a systematic review of literature that compared genetic programming models with comparative techniques based on different 22 independent project variables. A total of 23 primary studies were obtained after searching different information sources in the time span 1995–2008. The results of the review show that symbolic regression using genetic programming has been applied in three domains within software engineering predictive modeling: (i) Software quality classification (eight primary studies). (ii) Software cost/effort/size estimation (seven primary studies). (iii) Software fault prediction/software reliability growth modeling (eight primary studies). While there is evidence in support of using genetic programming for software quality classification, software fault prediction and software reliability growth modeling; the results are inconclusive for software cost/effort/size estimation.

  • 203.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Suitability of genetic programming for software reliability growth modelling2008In: Proceedings - International Symposium on Computer Science and Its Applications, CSA 2008, 2008, p. 114-117Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic programming (GP) has been found to be effective in finding a model that fits the given data points without making any assumptions about the model structure. This makes GP a reasonable choice for software reliability growth modeling. This paper discusses the suitability of using GP for software reliability growth modeling and highlights the mechanisms that enable GP to progressively search for fitter solutions.

  • 204.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan .
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Towards benchmarking feature subset selection methods for software fault prediction2016In: Computational Intelligence and Quantitative Software Engineering / [ed] Witold Pedrycz, Giancarlo Succi and Alberto Sillitti, Springer-Verlag , 2016, p. 33-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the general acceptance that software engineering datasets often contain noisy, irrele- vant or redundant variables, very few benchmark studies of feature subset selection (FSS) methods on real-life data from software projects have been conducted. This paper provides an empirical comparison of state-of-the-art FSS methods: information gain attribute ranking (IG); Relief (RLF); principal com- ponent analysis (PCA); correlation-based feature selection (CFS); consistency-based subset evaluation (CNS); wrapper subset evaluation (WRP); and an evolutionary computation method, genetic program- ming (GP), on five fault prediction datasets from the PROMISE data repository. For all the datasets, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve—the AUC value averaged over 10-fold cross- validation runs—was calculated for each FSS method-dataset combination before and after FSS. Two diverse learning algorithms, C4.5 and na ??ve Bayes (NB) are used to test the attribute sets given by each FSS method. The results show that although there are no statistically significant differences between the AUC values for the different FSS methods for both C4.5 and NB, a smaller set of FSS methods (IG, RLF, GP) consistently select fewer attributes without degrading classification accuracy. We conclude that in general, FSS is beneficial as it helps improve classification accuracy of NB and C4.5. There is no single best FSS method for all datasets but IG, RLF and GP consistently select fewer attributes without degrading classification accuracy within statistically significant boundaries.

  • 205.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    A systematic mapping study on non-functional search-based software testing2008In: 20th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated software test generation has been applied across the spectrum of test case design methods; this includes white-box (structural), black-box (functional), greybox (combination of structural and functional) and nonfunctional testing. In this paper, we undertake a systematic mapping study to present a broad review of primary studies on the application of search-based optimization techniques to non-functional testing. The motivation is to identify the evidence available on the topic and to identify gaps in the application of search-based optimization techniques to different types of non-functional testing. The study is based on a comprehensive set of 35 papers obtained after using a multi-stage selection criteria and are published in workshops, conferences and journals in the time span 1996–2007. We conclude that the search-based software testing community needs to do more and broader studies on nonfunctional search-based software testing (NFSBST) and the results from our systematic map can help direct such efforts.

  • 206.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    A systematic review of search-based testing for non-functional system properties2009In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 957-976Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Search-based software testing is the application of metaheuristic search techniques to generate software tests. The test adequacy criterion is transformed into a fitness function and a set of solutions in the search space are evaluated with respect to the fitness function using a metaheuristic search technique. The application of metaheuristic search techniques for testing is promising due to the fact that exhaustive testing is infeasible considering the size and complexity of software under test. Search-based software testing has been applied across the spectrum of test case design methods; this includes white-box (structural), black-box (functional) and grey-box (combination of structural and functional) testing. In addition, metaheuristic search techniques have also been applied to test non-functional properties. The overall objective of undertaking this systematic review is to examine existing work into non-functional search-based software testing (NFSBST). We are interested in types of non-functional testing targeted using metaheuristic search techniques, different fitness functions used in different types of search-based non-functional testing and challenges in the application of these techniques. The systematic review is based on a comprehensive set of 35 articles obtained after a multi-stage selection process and have been published in the time span 1996–2007. The results of the review show that metaheuristic search techniques have been applied for non-functional testing of execution time, quality of service, security, usability and safety. A variety of metaheuristic search techniques are found to be applicable for non-functional testing including simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithms, ant colony methods, grammatical evolution, genetic programming (and its variants including linear genetic programming) and swarm intelligence methods. The review reports on different fitness functions used to guide the search for each of the categories of execution time, safety, usability, quality of service and security; along with a discussion of possible challenges in the application of metaheuristic search techniques.

  • 207.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technolog.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technolog.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Prediction of fault count data using genetic programming2008In: IEEE INMIC 2008: 12th IEEE International Multitopic Conference - Conference Proceedings, 2008, p. 349-356Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software reliability growth modeling helps in deciding project release time and managing project resources. A large number of such models have been presented in the past. Due to the existence of many models, the models’ inherent complexity, and their accompanying assumptions; the selection of suitable models becomes a challenging task. This paper presents empirical results of using genetic programming (GP) for modeling software reliability growth based on weekly fault count data of three different industrial projects. The goodness of ?t (adaptability) and predictive accuracy of the evolved model is measured using ?ve different measures in an attempt to present a fair evaluation. The results show that the GP evolved model has statistically signi?cant goodness of ?t and predictive accuracy

  • 208.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Bahria Univ, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Torkar, Richard
    Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Resampling methods in software quality classification2012In: International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 203-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the presence of a number of algorithms for classification and prediction in software engineering, there is a need to have a systematic way of assessing their performances. The performance assessment is typically done by some form of partitioning or resampling of the original data to alleviate biased estimation. For predictive and classification studies in software engineering, there is a lack of a definitive advice on the most appropriate resampling method to use. This is seen as one of the contributing factors for not being able to draw general conclusions on what modeling technique or set of predictor variables are the most appropriate. Furthermore, the use of a variety of resampling methods make it impossible to perform any formal meta analysis of the primary study results. Therefore, it is desirable to examine the influence of various resampling methods and to quantify possible differences. Objective and method: This study empirically compares five common resampling methods (hold-out validation, repeated random sub-sampling, 10-fold cross-validation, leave-one-out cross-validation and nonparametric bootstrapping) using 8 publicly available data sets with genetic programming (GP) and multiple linear regression (MLR) as software quality classification approaches. Location of (PF, PD) pairs in the ROC (receiver operating characteristics) space and area under an ROC curve (AUC) are used as accuracy indicators. Results: The results show that in terms of the location of (PF, PD) pairs in the ROC space, bootstrapping results are in the preferred region for 3 of the 8 data sets for GP and for 4 of the 8 data sets for MLR. Based on the AUC measure, there are no significant differences between the different resampling methods using GP and MLR. Conclusion: There can be certain data set properties responsible for insignificant differences between the resampling methods based on AUC. These include imbalanced data sets, insignificant predictor variables and high-dimensional data sets. With the current selection of data sets and classification techniques, bootstrapping is a preferred method based on the location of (PF, PD) pair data in the ROC space. Hold-out validation is not a good choice for comparatively smaller data sets, where leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) performs better. For comparatively larger data sets, 10-fold cross-validation performs better than LOOCV.

  • 209.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Search-based prediction of fault count data2009In: Proceedings - 1st International Symposium on Search Based Software Engineering, SSBSE 2009, 2009, p. 35-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Symbolic regression, an application domain of genetic programming (GP), aims to find a function whose output has some desired property, like matching target values of a particular data set. While typical regression involves finding the coefficients of a pre-defined function,symbolic regression finds a general function, with coefficients,fitting the given set of data points. The conceptsof symbolic regression using genetic programming can be used to evolve a model for fault countpredictions.Such a model has the advantages that the evolution is not dependent on a particular structure of the model and is also independent of any assumptions, which are common in traditional time-domain parametric software reliability growth models. This research aims at applying experiments targeting fault predictionsusing genetic programming and comparing the results with traditional approaches to compare efficiency gains

  • 210.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Genetic programming for cross-release fault count predictions in large and complex software projects2009In: Evolutionary Computation and Optimization Algorithms in Software Engineering / [ed] Monica Chis, IGI Global, 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software fault prediction can play an important role in ensuring software quality through efficient resource allocation. This could, in turn, reduce the potentially high consequential costs due to faults. Predicting faults might be even more important with the emergence of short-timed and multiple software releases aimed at quick delivery of functionality. Previous research in software fault prediction has indicated that there is a need i) to improve the validity of results by having comparisons among number of data sets from a variety of software, ii) to use appropriate model evaluation measures and iii) to use statistical testing procedures. Moreover, cross-release prediction of faults has not yet achieved sufficient attention in the literature. In an attempt to address these concerns, this paper compares the quantitative and qualitative attributes of 7 traditional and machine-learning techniques for modeling the cross-release prediction of fault count data. The comparison is done using extensive data sets gathered from a total of 7 multi release open-source and industrial software projects. These software projects together have several years of development and are from diverse application areas, ranging from a web browser to a robotic controller software. Our quantitative analysis suggests that genetic programming (GP) tends to have better consistency in terms of goodness of fit and accuracy across majority of data sets. It also has comparatively less model bias. Qualitatively, ease of configuration and complexity are less strong points for GP even though it shows generality and gives transparent models. Artificial neural networks did not perform as well as expected while linear regression gave average predictions in terms of goodness of fit and accuracy. Support vector machine regression and traditional software reliability growth models performed below average on most of the quantitative evaluation criteria while remained on average for most of the qualitative measures.

  • 211.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Bahria Univ, Pakistan.
    Torkar, Richard
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Prediction of faults-slip-through in large software projects: An empirical evaluation2013In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 51-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large percentage of the cost of rework can be avoided by finding more faults earlier in a software test process. Therefore, determination of which software test phases to focus improvement work on has considerable industrial interest. We evaluate a number of prediction techniques for predicting the number of faults slipping through to unit, function, integration, and system test phases of a large industrial project. The objective is to quantify improvement potential in different test phases by striving toward finding the faults in the right phase. The results show that a range of techniques are found to be useful in predicting the number of faults slipping through to the four test phases; however, the group of search-based techniques (genetic programming, gene expression programming, artificial immune recognition system, and particle swarm optimization-based artificial neural network) consistently give better predictions, having a representation at all of the test phases. Human predictions are consistently better at two of the four test phases. We conclude that the human predictions regarding the number of faults slipping through to various test phases can be well supported by the use of search-based techniques. A combination of human and an automated search mechanism (such as any of the search-based techniques) has the potential to provide improved prediction results.

  • 212.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Wikstrand, Greger
    KnowIT YAHM Sweden AB.
    Search-based prediction of fault-slip-through in large software projects2010In: Proceedings - 2nd International Symposium on Search Based Software Engineering, SSBSE 2010, 2010, p. 79-88Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large percentage of the cost of rework can be avoided by ?nding more faults earlier in a software testing process. Therefore, determination of which software testing phases to focus improvements work on, has considerable industrial interest. This paper evaluates the use of ?ve different techniques, namely particle swarm optimization based arti?cial neural networks (PSO-ANN), arti?cial immune recognition systems (AIRS), gene expression programming (GEP), genetic programming (GP) and multiple regression (MR), for predicting the number of faults slipping through unit, function, integration and system testing phases. The objective is to quantify improvement potential in different testing phases by striving towards ?nding the right faults in the right phase. We have conducted an empirical study of two large projects from a telecommunication company developing mobile platforms and wireless semiconductors. The results are compared using simple residuals, goodness of ?t and absolute relative error measures. They indicate that the four search-based techniques (PSOANN, AIRS, GEP, GP) perform better than multiple regression for predicting the fault-slip-through for each of the four testing phases. At the unit and function testing phases, AIRS and PSO-ANN performed better while GP performed better at integration and system testing phases. The study concludes that a variety of search-based techniques are applicable for predicting the improvement potential in different testing phases with GP showing more consistent performance across two of the four test phases.

  • 213.
    Agasisti, Tommaso
    et al.
    Politecn Milan.
    Catalano, Giuseppe
    Landoni, Paolo
    Politecn Milan.
    Verganti, Roberto
    Politecn Milan.
    Evaluating the performance of academic departments: an analysis of research-related output efficiency2012In: Research Evaluation, ISSN 0958-2029, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 2-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we investigated whether academic departments do experience a trade-off among different research outputs. More specifically, we define four types of academic research outputs: quantity (publications); quality (citation indexes); research funds obtained through research grants; and applied research funds obtained through external orders. Subsequently, we define a department's performance through the concept of efficiency, namely the ability to maximize academic research output given an amount of inputs (facilities and human resources). Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), we measure efficiency for 69 academic departments (focused on scientific subjects) located in the Lombardy Region (Italy), benefiting from a unique data set containing detailed information on research inputs and outputs. The empirical analysis shows that efficiency rankings change significantly when considering different research-related outputs and thus it highlights different research strategies among the academic departments. These different strategies emerge also considering jointly all four types of outputs: the academic departments focus on different outputs in order to obtain the highest overall efficiency scores. In the last section, policy and managerial implications have been discussed. 

  • 214.
    Agbamuche, Joy
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    How does the alignment of IT to business strategy affect the organisation of the IT function?2008Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Date: 2008-06-04

    Purpose: The primary goal of this research is to describe the IT function and examine how its alignment to an organisations strategy affects the way it is organised.

    Method: The chosen method was a purely theoretical examination with the use of the case study of Windham International as primary resource and secondary resources such as book and literature review used for the thesis.

    Research Questions: How does the alignment of IT to business strategy affect the organisation of the IT function?

    Conclusion: One of the findings was that a few researchers seem to suggest that the centralized mode of organising IT was symbolic of the past, while outsourcing and decentralization are the modern approach to organising IT. Wyndham International shows the opposite, after the introduction of the CIO in 2002, centralization was the chosen mode of organisation because that was what would best fit the new strategic approach of the organisation. Insourcing rather than outsourcing proved to be a winning formula.

  • 215.
    Agemalm, Stina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Thuvander, Frida
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att vårda palliativt: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients who receive palliative care experience that they lose their independence through the disease and are frustrated that their body is not functioning as before. They also experience that their situation make them change their attitudes towards life. Several patients appreciate when healthcare professionals show genuine interest and the same patients have confidence in the healthcare system. Some patients experience that the healthcare professionals have no time and that their knowledge regarding their psychosocial problems is inadequate. Aim: The purpose is to describe nurses experience of nursing in palliative care. Method: Qualitative literature study with descriptive synthesis. Ten qualitative articles have been analyzed and is presented in the result. Results: After analysis, two themes were disclosed; Becoming enriched and Being challenged who described nurse’s experiences presented under five subthemes. Conclusion: Nurses perceived, among other things, that they were strengthened as a person and that they learned to re-prioritize and appreciate life. They also experienced grief over the fate of patients and it was common to take work home. Several of the nurses perceived that doctors did not give them support, others felt that their lack of experience contributed to the care worsening.

  • 216.
    Agerskans, Natalie
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ergonomisk kartläggning av internt logistikflöde - Med förbättringsförslag: En fallstudie genomförd på ett företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is firstly to identify risks of ergonomic strain in a future internal logistics flow and secondly propose how to avoid these risks by applying LEAN methodology and a new logistics solution. In order to identify causes for problems and to find improvement opportunities the following issues have been addressed:

    1)    What tasks in the studied logistics flow lead to risks of ergonomic strain?

    2)    How can the studied company implement the LEAN methodology to improve ergonomics in the material handling?

    3)    How can a new general and more ergonomic logistic solution for material handling look like for the studied company?

    Method: The study has been conducted based on a case at an industrial company. Data has been collected through interviews and observations at the company, visits at two other industries and through a literature survey. To identify and assess various ergonomic risks, the RAMP tool has been applied.

    Study result: The study resulted in an ergonomic survey for a selected internal logistics flow with suggestions on how to improve ergonomics in the studied company´s material handling. The ergonomic survey showed that several work tasks cause an increased risk for the operators to develop strain injuries and therefore improvements are required. Heavy lifting, pulling and sliding work pieces and incorrect working positions were shown to have the most adverse impact on good ergonomics. To reduce these risks - without major changes to the current factory layout and existing workflow - work rotation, various tools/aids and modifications of technical equip-ment can be implemented. Proposals are presented on how a new and more ergonomic material handling solution can be achieved at the studied company through the introduction of a pickup station and a “supermarket”. A suggested framework is also presented for how the company can use LEAN methodology in order to achieve better ergonomics in the material handling process.

    Conclusion: The ergonomic survey indicated that improvements are required in order not to risk strain injuries for the operators. Suggestions have been made for how the ergonomic situation can be improved.

    Recommendations: The studied company is recommended to take measures with respect to the ergonomic risks identified. Before the proposed improvements can be introduced, studies are required to evaluate the improvement proposals from other than ergonomic aspects as well as performing a RAMP analysis. The studied company is also recommended to investigate the possibility of introducing the proposed LEAN framework.

    Keywords: Strain ergonomics, RAMP, Picking station, Work environment, Internal logistics, Material handling

  • 217. Agervi, Pia
    et al.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Martin, Lene
    Foveal function in children treated for amblyopia.2010In: Acta ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 222-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate foveal function, using three different methods, in children treated for monocular amblyopia. METHODS: A sample of 24 otherwise healthy children with treated amblyopia and an age-matched control group of 25 healthy children were examined for best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) using a standard decimal (KM) chart and the computerized TriVA method at 50% and 10% contrasts. Foveal function was also measured with the rarebit fovea test (RFT), which is included in the rarebit perimetry program package. This test uses very small and bright dots against a dark background. The result is expressed as mean hit rate (MHR). RESULTS: Amblyopic eyes showed significantly lower BCVA when evaluated with the KM chart and with the TriVA test at different contrast levels, compared with both fellow eyes and control eyes. No statistically significant difference between amblyopic and fellow eyes was found when foveal function was evaluated with the RFT (median MHRs 91.5% and 94.5%, respectively), although results for both amblyopic and fellow eyes were statistically lower than those of the control group (median MHR 97%) (p = 0.001 and p = 0.046, respectively). This might indicate that the RFT provides different information about foveal function than conventional VA tests. CONCLUSIONS: The findings in the current study accord with those of other studies reporting abnormalities in the fellow eyes of previously treated amblyopic patients. These findings may reflect a general disturbance in the visual system rather than a monocular adaptation to refractive error or ocular motor disturbance.

  • 218.
    Agestav, Amanda
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nilsson, Camilla
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Så styrs Mälarenergi med hjälp av Balanserat Styrkort2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title:   Controlling Mälarenergi by Balanced Scorecard 

    Seminar date:  2009-01-16 

    Institution:   School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology 

    Course:   Bachelor thesis 15hp 

    Authors:   Camilla Nilsson, Amanda Agestav 

    Advisor:   Ulla Pettersson 

    The main issues:                What does Mälarenergi's Balanced Scorecard look like? Which Balanced Scorecard perspectives are important to Mälarenergi? Is Balanced Scorecard a purposeful control model in order for the group management to fulfil the aims of the owners' directives? 

    Purpose:                            The purpose is to find out how the group management at Mälarenergi works with Balanced Scorecard. Is Balanced Scorecard a purposeful tool for the group management to fulfill the aims of the owners' directives? 

    Method:                             This study is based on a qualitative research method in the form of interviews. We have interviewed one respondent. Secondary data have been produced by literature search. 

    Conclusion:                       Mälarenergi uses Balanced Scorecard exclusively at a group management level. The strategic work at the business areas' different division levels takes place aided by a business development model. We believe that Balanced Scorecard is a purposeful tool to use in order to clarify a company's strategy work and reach the goals in the owners' directives. However, Mälarenergi needs to complement the Balanced Scorecard with another model, since the business areas are so different from each other. In doing so, however, there is a risk that not all employees will be involved in the Balanced Scorecard, but that this will become an exclusive tool to the group management. We believe that there is no clear connection between the Balanced Scorecard work done in the group management and the work within the different business areas with their various focus areas.

     

  • 219.
    Agha Jafari Wolde, Bahareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A systematic Mapping study of ADAS and Autonomous Driving2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, autonomous driving revolution is getting closer to reality. To achieve the Autonomous driving the first step is to develop the Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS). Driver-assistance systems are one of the fastest-growing segments in automotive electronics since already there are many forms of ADAS available. To investigate state of art of development of ADAS towards Autonomous Driving, we develop Systematic Mapping Study (SMS). SMS methodology is used to collect, classify, and analyze the relevant publications. A classification is introduced based on the developments carried out in ADAS towards Autonomous driving. According to SMS methodology, we identified 894 relevant publications about ADAS and its developmental journey toward Autonomous Driving completed from 2012 to 2016. We classify the area of our research under three classifications: technical classifications, research types and research contributions. The related publications are classified under thirty-three technical classifications. This thesis sheds light on a better understanding of the achievements and shortcomings in this area. By evaluating collected results, we answer our seven research questions. The result specifies that most of the publications belong to the Models and Solution Proposal from the research type and contribution. The least number of the publications belong to the Automated…Autonomous driving from the technical classification which indicated the lack of publications in this area. 

  • 220.
    Agha Seyed Ali, Sam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Arif Dawody, Zhilvan
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Åkerström, Niklas
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    E-budgivning: Vägen in på marknaden2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågeställning: Finns utrymmet för en ny verksamhet som E-budgivning på den svenska bostadsmarknaden? Fungerar företagets affärsidé eller är marknaden mättad?                    Kan E-budgivning eventuellt utmana andra aktörer och få en etablerad plats på svenska bostadsmarknaden?

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka och analysera E-budgivnings chanser på marknaden för en eventuell framgång.

    Metod: En kvalitativ intervju med en representant från E-budgivning samt en kvantitativ enkätundersökning bidrog till primärdata. De sekundärdata som samlats är litteratur från böcker, tidsskrifter samt Internet.

    Allt fler företag väljer att satsa på Internetbaserade marknaden. Företag bemöter en hård konkurrens på bostadsmarknaden och slåss om konsumenterna som blivit allt mer prismedvetna mycket på grund av Internets framfart.

    Studien riktar sig till ett nystartat företag vid namn E-budgivning som är intresserade av att etablera sig på svenska bostadsmarknaden. Under tidigare år har valet av mäklare varit en självklarhet vid försäljning och köp av en bostad. Idag är inte valet lika självklart eftersom flera aktörer trätt in på marknaden och där urvalet av en rad olika alternativ finns att tillgå.

    Ett intresse samt funderingar uppkom om hur marknaden kommer se ut i framtiden och vilka chanser och möjligheter E-budgivning har. Genom teorier och empirisk data från undersökningar genom arbetets gång har konstanterandet gjorts att E-budgivnings etableringsmöjligheter ligger rätt i tiden. En stor faktor till resultatet är mycket på grund av teknologiska utvecklingen i kombination med företagets nischade affärsidé.

    Däremot passar den långt ifrån alla konsumenter då alla har skilda åsikter och behov vilket även historien bevisar. Studien visar att E-budgivning inte har en chans att hota stora aktörer på allvar, däremot har företaget goda möjligheter att få marknadsandelar med rätt marknadsföring.

  • 221.
    Aghaeinezhadfirouzja, S.
    et al.
    Department of Electronics Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Liu, H.
    Department of Electronics Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Balador, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE SICS Västerås, Sweden.
    Practical 3-D beam pattern based channel modeling for multi-polarized massive MIMO systems2018In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 4, article id 1186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a practical non-stationary three-dimensional (3-D) channel models for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, considering beam patterns for different antenna elements, is proposed. The beam patterns using dipole antenna elements with different phase excitation toward the different direction of travels (DoTs) contributes various correlation weights for rays related towards/from the cluster, thus providing different elevation angle of arrivals (EAoAs) and elevation angle of departures (EAoDs) for each antenna element. These include the movements of the user that makes our channel to be a non-stationary model of clusters at the receiver (RX) on both the time and array axes. In addition, their impacts on 3-D massive MIMO channels are investigated via statistical properties including received spatial correlation. Additionally, the impact of elevation/azimuth angles of arrival on received spatial correlation is discussed. Furthermore, experimental validation of the proposed 3-D channel models on azimuth and elevation angles of the polarized antenna are specifically evaluated and compared through simulations. The proposed 3-D generic models are verified using relevant measurement data.

  • 222.
    Aghajani Rahim, Hanna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Gallo, Alexandra
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Hur hamnade jag där?: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med tidigare kriminella2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning har påvisat orsaker till att en individ kan hamna i kriminalitet men inte vilka huvudorsakerna är, därför valde författarna att undersöka detta närmare. Syftet med denna studie var att belysa tidigare kriminellas perspektiv på vad som påverkat dem under deras ungdom vilket resulterat i ett kriminellt beteende. Författarna intervjuade 15 deltagare i syfte att analysera deras livsberättelser och vilka faktorer som lett dem in i kriminalitet. Intervjudeltagarna var 10 män och fem kvinnor mellan 20–50 år som suttit i fängelse minst tre år. Studien utgick narrativ analys med tematiska frågor. Samtliga förklarade att de blivit kriminella på grund av: (1) bristen på tillhörighet, (2) orättvis behandling i skolan, (3) familjeförhållanden, (4) kriminella i familjen och umgängeskretsen samt (5) bristen på sysselsättning och missbruk. Denna studie visar att det sällan finns en ensam nämnare till varför en individ hamnar i kriminalitet, utan att kriminalitet som fenomen är mycket komplext.

  • 223.
    Aghasyan, Marina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Oganova, Elina
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    En studie om hur invandrarkvinnor upplever integrationsprocessen i Sverige2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning är att fördjupa förståelse för invandrarkvinnors upplevelser av integrationen i Sverige. Undersökningen syftar på enbart invandrarkvinnor som kommer till Sverige genom äktenskapsmigration. Detta är en kvalitativ undersökning som har genomförts med hjälp av nio intervjuer med invandrarkvinnor som har gift sig med svenskfödda män och flyttat till Sverige. Vi har valt att använda Grundad teori och har kommit fram till olika faser som innefattar faktorer som kvinnorna upplever vara viktiga för integrationen. Genom att analysera de olika faserna kom vi fram till vår kärnkategori som är arbete. Resultatet visade att arbete är kärnan i integrationen och en viktig och avgörande faktor för en lyckad integration. Teoretiska paralleller dras till Antonovskys teori om Känsla av sammanhang (KASAM) för att klargöra upplevelsen av integrationsprocessen.

  • 224.
    Agic, Admir
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Piratkopiering i Sverige: Hur fildelare själva reflekterar över sina handlingar2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen behandlar ämnet olaglig fildelning på internet. Intervjuer med fem svenska fildelare ligger till grund för en kvalitativ analys av deras egna handlingar. Analysen kretsar kring fem grundläggande teman som syftar till att förmedla en bild av individernas egen bild av fildelning och moraliska dilemman som kan uppstå vid denna handling. Teorin som har används beskriver främst handlingsramarna och samhället som fildelarna kan tänkas befinna sig i. Kopplingar görs mellan individernas handlingar och den övergripande samhällsteorin för att påvisa om de stämmer överränns. Olaglig fildelning är ett utbrett fenomen i Sverige. De fem fildelare som ingick i analysen verkar både ha förståelse för att fildelning är ett så utbrett fenomen, samtidigt som de i stor utsträckning känner att det behövs en lag som reglerar fenomenet. Skivbolagen målas upp som de stora och rika bovarna i frågan.

  • 225.
    Aglianò, Simone
    et al.
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lo Bello, Lucia
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Resource Management and Control in Virtualized SDN Networks2018In: CSI International Symposium on Real-Time and Embedded Systems and Technologies REST'18, 2018, p. 47-53Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software defined networking and network virtual-ization are widely considered promising techniques for reducing the complexity of network management in many contexts that require high Quality of Service (QoS) and the support for heterogeneous architectures. In this paper we address a network architecture, here called a virtualized SDN network, that combines the benefits of SDN and virtualization. To cope with the demand for efficiently sharing a platform among several services, here a resource management mechanism to reserve and control network resources among various services in the virtualized SDN networks is proposed. The mechanism is implemented on an SDN controller and a set of experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  • 226.
    Agneflo Gråberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    wassberg, Mathilda
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Bemötande i förskolan: möten som formar2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka hur pojkar och flickor bemöts av pedagoger på en förskola. Datainsamlingen har gjorts genom observationer av hur bemötandet sker vid olika situationer på tre stora avdelningar. Forskningsansatsen är kvalitativ. Datainsamlingen har även genomförts med hjälp av intervjuer med förskollärare. Undersökningen visar på en viss skillnad i hur förskollärarna bemöter barnet olika beroende på vilket kön barnet har. Förskollärarna var ofta inte medvetna om att de gör en skillnad i hur de bemöter barnen. Vidare är de översens om att jämställdhet är ett viktigt perspektiv i det pedagogiska arbetet. De anser att de måste bli medvetna om sina förutfattade meningar och sitt aggerande utifrån dessa. Det är först när man får kunskap och förståelse för genusbegreppet som det går att förändra de stereotypa könsrollerna. 

  • 227.
    Agnes, Thorén Modin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Jennie, Carlberg
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Gruppkonstellationer i förskolan: En undersökning om förskollärares uppfattningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning är att ta reda på förskollärares uppfattningar om hur de formar gruppkonstellationer i förskolan. Utifrån forskningsfrågorna syftar undersökningen på att få svar på vilka varierade uppfattningar förskollärare har om didaktiska val som tillämpas och vilket perspektiv som beaktas i formandet av gruppkonstellationer. Utifrån en kvalitativ metod med en fenomenografisk ansats har åtta förskollärare från olika förskolor intervjuats. Resultatet visar att förskollärarna kunde koppla flera aspekter i förhållandet till att forma gruppkonstellationer i förskolan. Aspekter förskollärarna har uppfattningar om och som är av betydelse för att skapa främjande gruppkonstellationer har dels att göra med vilka didaktiska val som tillämpas, förutsättningar och förhållningssätt. Uppfattningar visar på vikten av ett flexibelt förhållningssätt utifrån ett barn- och vuxenperspektiv och att forma gruppkonstellationer utifrån barns behov och förutsättningar.

  • 228.
    Agnesten, Viktoria
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    "Bloody hög turkmusik kl 4 på morgonen runt malmvägen inte OK fy inget annat område skulle acceptera detta!": Om innehåll, språk och funktion i statusuppdateringar på Facebook2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet är en kvalitativ studie av det sociala internetnätverket Facebooks statusuppdateringar – de textstycken där en facebookanvändare skriftledes kan meddela sig till sina kontakter i det gemensamma nyhetsflödet. Studien undersöker huruvida det finns återkommande kategorier av statusuppdateringar och vilka dessa i så fall är, vilket språk som används i uppdateringarna samt hur användarens syfte med statusuppdateringen synliggörs. Materialet utgörs av fyra informanters statusuppdateringar under en sammanhängande begränsad tidsperiod. Studien visar att det finns återkommande kategorier av innehållsteman samt återkommande språkliga drag i statusuppdateringarna. Språket som används i statusuppdateringar på Facebook är mångfacetterat – stundom stavningsmässigt och grammatiskt korrekt, stundom talspråkligt och normutmanande och varierar givetvis informanterna emellan. Vissa informanter uttrycker sig mycket kommunikationsmedvetet medan andra har ett mer prosaiskt betonat språk. De olika kategorierna och kombinationer av dessa nyttjas för att nå olika syften. Varje kategori kan ses som ett redskap för att försätta läsaren i en viss sinnesstämning alternativt dela med sig av sin egen. Kreativitet och lekfullhet med normer används exempelvis som ett verktyg för att skapa en utstickande statusuppdatering då detta är syftet.

  • 229.
    Agnesten, Viktoria
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Författare ur livets egen skola: En litteraturstudie i hur den klassiska svenska arbetarlitteraturen behandlas i gymnasieskolans läroböcker2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet är en kvalitativ litteraturstudie som undersöker hur den klassiska svenska arbetarlitteraturen behandlas i gymnasieskolans läroböcker. Materialet utgörs av textavsnitten om arbetarförfattare i två olika läroböcker som används i litteraturundervisningen på gymnasiet varav den ena textnivå- och stilmässigt verkar rikta sig till elever som befinner sig på en något högre kunskapsmässig nivå. Studien visar  att de båda läroböckerna har varierande sätt att framställa genren arbetarlitteratur och särskilt särskiljande är det språk och den pedagogiska stil läroboksförfattarna använder. Flera gemensamma beröringspunkter förekommer, såsom exempelvis den rika användningen av citat vilket verkar vara ett pedagogiskt grepp som syftar till att fånga kontentan av ett visst arbetarverk eller författarskap. Författarurvalet är likartat i de båda läroböckerna, och högst sannolikt inspirerat av den rådande kanon som presenteras i vedertagna litteraturhistorieskrivningar vilka utgörs av bl a läroböcker för högre eftergymnasiala studier. Läroboksförfattarna har, vad gäller författarurvalet, gett tydligt företräde åt genrens giganter. Fokus på det enskilda verket respektive arbetarförfattaren själv varierar mellan de två läroböckerna. Varken den enskilde arbetarförfattarens stil eller litteraturhistoriska sammanhang diskuteras i någon stor utsträckning i någon av läroböckerna. Som nämnt är det språkliga och stilistiska vad som främst skiljer de två analyserade läroböckerna åt. Den lärobok vars målgrupp verkar vara elever på ett högre kunskapsplan ger eleven åtskilliga nivåer att läsa sig igenom; fler detaljer och fler till reflektion uppmanande resonemang medan den andra läroboken förblir vid textens översta ytskikt. Denna visar främst i sitt enkla, rättframma språk, vilket inte tycks utmana en genomsnittligt läsbegåvad elev nämnvärt; syftet med lärobokstexten är att under okomplicerade förhållanden förse eleven med fakta.  Den mer teoretiska läroboken uppmanar genom den fyllighet som karaktäriserar texten, dess kunskapsutmanande vokabulär samt genom sin diskuterande, analyserande ton eleven till fördjupat tillägnande av arbetarlitteratur

  • 230. Agneta, Breitholtz
    et al.
    Snellman, Ingrid
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Ingegerd, Fagerberg
    Ersta Skondal Univ Coll, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Older persons self determination within municipal home care services2010In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 19, p. 142-142Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 231.
    Agnew, L.
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia .
    Johnston, V.
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia .
    Ludvigsson, M. L.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Rehab Väst, County Council of Östergötland, Sweden.
    Peterson, G.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Overmeer, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Johansson, G.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Peolsson, A.
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Factors associated with work ability in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder grade II-III: A cross-sectional analysis2015In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 546-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the factors related to self-perceived work ability in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder grades II-III. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Patients: A total of 166 working age patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder. Methods: A comprehensive survey collected data on work ability (using the Work Ability Index); demographic, psychosocial, personal, work- and condition-related factors. Forward, stepwise regression modelling was used to assess the factors related to work ability. Results: The proportion of patients in each work ability category were as follows: poor (12.7%); moderate (39.8%); good (38.5%); excellent (9%). Seven factors explained 65% (adjusted R2= 0.65, p < 0.01) of the variance in work ability. In descending order of strength of association, these factors are: greater neck disability due to pain; reduced self-rated health status and health-related quality of life; increased frequency of concentration problems; poor workplace satisfaction; lower self-efficacy for performing daily tasks; and greater work-related stress. Conclusion: Condition-specific and psychosocial factors are associated with self-perceived work ability of individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorder.

  • 232.
    Agnsjö, Elin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Ivanov, My
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Anorexia Nervosa: Kvinnors upplevelse av sjukdomsförloppet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    AN är en sjukdom som drabbar många unga kvinnor idag. Sjukdomen innebär ett långt förlopp och karakteriseras av biologiska, psykiska och sociala besvär. Syftet med studien är att lyfta fram före detta AN  patienters upplevelse av sjukdomsförloppet och de bidragande faktorerna till återhämtningen. 11 semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes och analyserades och resultatet tyder på att deltagarna delar likande livshistorier om både insjuknandet och faktorer till återhämtning. Delar av resultatet tyder på att deltagarna hittat motivation i relationer för bli fri från ätstörningen. Vidare forskningen inom detta område borde belysa och fördjupas i den attityd mot att sjukdomen är kronisk och även undersöka individers upplevda likgiltighet mot att kunna leva ett liv helt utan AN, då resonemanget att det inte går att bli helt återställd ofta uttrycks.

  • 233.
    Agocs, Mathias
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Analys av godssorteringen på DHL Freight AB: En fallstudie om logistik2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Det här examensarbetet har genomförts på DHL Freight AB i Eskilstuna som transporterar gods över hela Sverige. Där målsättningen varit att analysera den nuvarande sorteringsprocessen, identifiera bristerna runt sorteringsprocesserna och därefter presentera eventuella förbättringsförlag.

    De metoder som har använts för att utföra examensarbetet är följande. Resultatet grundar sig på den information som har införskaffats via observationer och intervjuer med personalen som är delaktiga i sorteringsprocessen samt olika litteraturstudier.

    De mest tongivande teorierna som examensarbetet utgått från och som författaren har genomgående haft i åtanke är logistik, distribution, Lean Produktion, kvalitet och processer.

    Analysen som utfördes resulterade i att ett antal brister som finns i sorteringsprocessen som kunde identifieras. De här bristerna bidrog till att komplikationer uppstod vid sorteringen av gods på DHL Freight AB. Några exempel på brister som identifierats är att efter godset har hanterats sker inte någon kvalitetssäkring innan godset lämnar terminalen. Dessutom är de resurser som finns idag inte så uppdaterade arbetssätten har inte ändrats eller förbättras på länge. Som till exempel förenkling av kodboken och en mycket tydligare platsning i zonerna så att inte godset ställs på fel plats. Ytterligare brister som kunde identifieras var att den mänskliga faktorn som spelar en stor roll i sorteringen av gods. Att man inte är tillräckligt uppmärksam när man kodar, hanterar eller platsar godset. Man är inte motiverad eller engagerad till att godset ska gå rätt till 100 procent eller så handlar det om att metoderna de använder för att hantera godset är otillräckliga.

    De förbättringsförslag som presenteras i den här rapporten innefattar förändringar som kan leda till att sorteringsprocessen på DHL Freight AB, men även i hela försörjningskedjan, blir mer kontrollerad och exakt jämfört med dagens situation. Förutom en bättre sorterings statistik som uppstår på DHL Freight AB vid sortering av gods, kan dessa förändringar även bidra till kostnadsbesparingar i form av energikostnader och personalkostnader hos DHL Freight i Eskilstuna

  • 234.
    Aguilar, Diana
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Mobila verksamhetslokaler: En studie om marknadsvärderingar2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile buildings offer a flexible supply of buildings as an alternative to permanent expansion or while the existing facilities being renovated or rebuilt. This flexible option is used, however in a rather small scale in the market. Thus, to increase consumption of mobile buildings, there is a need for market research that will contribute to find the factors that customer value.

    The purpose of research is to investigate customer values when it leases and/or uses temporary buildings, and possibly encourage new elements that do not exist in the market range yet.

    To obtain the valuation factors have been implemented a literature survey and 13 personal interviews were conducted. Interviews took place with people who use these buildings and those who entered a contract to rent these buildings. The study objects are offices, schools and kindergartens.

  • 235.
    Aguilar, Diana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Semenyuk, Tetyana
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Turesson, Alina
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Minimering av risker vid kreditgivning2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulence in the world economy with following liquidity problem in enterprises has lead to negative consequences for banks that creates a need for effective credit risk management. To prevent significant credit losses, banks tries constantly to minimize their risks in credit granting through identifying pitfalls.

    The purpose is to investigate the factors that contribute to the credit losses and illustrate how Nordea can minimize risks in credit granting.

    Data were gathered from the literature review and a case study. The object of study is the Swedish Business Bank Nordea where several credit managers has been interviewed at the regional level. To obtain a volume of credit development in Sweden, gathered the credit granting statistics of the source of Nordea Hypotek AB.

    According to the theory credit losses are depending on direct and indirect factors. While direct factors can be affected by a credit analyst, indirect factors are outside of his influence. It can be stated that Nordea has been succeed in minimizing of risks at the considerable degree, with reservation for some improvements, and that some factors that cause losses the bank manage to keep under control.

    Bank´s fundamental strategy in risk management is to use reasonable credit granting. All of respondents have stressed the importance of thorough inquiry on new credit application and frequent following up suspicions of payment difficulties with existing borrowers. Through these routines can bank capture problematic business transactions and prevent appearance of credit losses.

  • 236.
    Ahl, Linda
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication. Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Approaching Curriculum Resources: Examining the potential of textbooks and teacher guides to support mathematics learning and teaching2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The driving forces of conducting the two studies presented in this thesis are: the strong position of curriculum resources in the mathematics classroom in general; teachers’ faith in curriculum resources to convey the intentions and goals of mathematics education; and the expected benefits to mathematics education through expanding the knowledge base of research in the area of curriculum resources in general, and teacher guides in particular. This thesis builds upon two studies conducted in Sweden. The first is a study on how teachers use teacher guides. The results of this study could be seen as one piece in the building of a theoretical understanding of how teachers use their tools in planning and enacting teaching. The data for Study I were collected through semi-structured interviews with five early-years mathematics teachers. In advance, the teachers were asked to copy the pages from the teacher guide they had used the week before the interview. The analysis of the interviews shows that less experienced teachers desire a wider scope of content in their teacher guide. More experienced teachers desire support from teaching activities, in the design of teaching in classroom practice. Another interesting result was that all teachers in our study, regardless of prior experience, knowledge, beliefs, etc., want the teacher guide to offer connections between theory and practice. The second study investigates what content is represented in Swedish textbooks. The results of this study map the terrain over how the most commonly used textbooks in Sweden construct the topic of proportion and proportional reasoning. My choice of textbooks is based on a questionnaire among all compulsory school mathematics teachers in the sixth largest municipality in Sweden, revealing that two curriculum resources together covered 97% of the classrooms in Grades 7-9. The study provides insights into the strengths and weaknesses in the presented structure regarding proportional reasoning in the most commonly used textbooks in Swedish lower secondary school. Teachers could use these insights when making decisions about how to use their textbooks, and to possibly reconsider how to organize the enactment of the national curriculum in order to develop deep understanding. The analyses could provide authors of teacher guides and textbooks with valuable information to consider regarding structure and design.

  • 237.
    Ahl, Linda
    Mälardalen University, Department of Mathematics and Physics.
    Problemlösning, kontext och kompetens2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka hur matematiklärarstudenter ska introducera problemlösning för sina elever och vad som påverkar studenternas tolkningar av problem. Jag har även undersökt vilka kompetenser studenterna anser att en matematiklärare behöver ha för att genomföra en framgångsrik undervisning i matematik genom problemlösning. I undersökningen diskuterar tre grupper med matematiklärarstudenter hur de ska introducera ett problem för eleverna och vilka komprtenser de anser att en matematiklärare behöver ha för att undervisa i matematik genom problemlösning. Resultaten visar att studenterna har olika strategier för att introducera problemlösning för eleverna och att studenternas tolkningar av problemet påverkar introduktionen. Studenterna gör olika tolkningar av problemet beroende av i vilken kontext de tolkar problemet. De har ingen enhetlig bild av vilka kompetenser som krävs av en matematiklärare, för att genomföra en undervisning som svarar mot skolverkets mål.

  • 238.
    Ahl, Linda
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    The Potential of Dominating Mathematics Textbooks in Sweden to Support the Learning and Teaching of Proportional ReasoningManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Proportional reasoning is a cornerstone in compulsory mathematics education. It is considered to be one of the most challenging topics to tech and learn. This article discusses the potential of two Swedish textbooks to support the teaching and learning of proportion and proportional reasoning. Since curricular resources, such as textbooks are teachers’ most important tools for planning and enacting lessons; the support they offer has great impact on how teaching and learning will be designed. To analyze the textbooks examined here, I use a framework developed by Shield and Dole, based on research. The study provides insights of the strengths and weaknesses in the presented structure regarding proportional reasoning in the most commonly used textbooks in Swedish lower secondary school. Teachers could use these insights, when making decisions about how to use their textbooks. This study is likely to map the terrain of Sweden, due to the textbooks widespread use.

  • 239.
    Ahl, Linda
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Hoelgaard, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Koljonen, Tuula
    Lärarhandledning för inspiration och kompetensutveckling2013In: Nämnaren : tidskrift för matematikundervisning, ISSN 0348-2723, no 4, p. 43-47Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 240.
    Ahl, Linda
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Koljonen, Tuula
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Investigating the voice of two Swedish mathematics teacher guides2015In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NINTH CONFERENCE OF THE EUROPEAN SOCIETY FOR RESEARCH IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION (CERME9) / [ed] Krainer, K Vondrova, N, CHARLES UNIV, FAC EDUC , 2015, p. 3165-3166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This poster presents a study on the voice of two Swedish mathematics teacher guides. We have made a content analysis of teacher guides to the two most commonly used mathematics textbooks in Swedish lower secondary school Grades 7 to 9. Our theoretical stance is that curriculum resources can support teachers pedagogical design capacity. Our analysis shows that the voice of both guides speaks through the teacher with narratives and scripted instructions, instead of making visible the strengths and weaknesses with different teaching design considerations. The results could be used to further elaborate on how the teacher guides can be designed to support the pedagogical design capacity for a range of different teachers.

  • 241. Ahl, Linda
    et al.
    Koljonen, Tuula
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    When teacher guides speak “past” the teacher: Two Swedish mathematics teacher guides2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we report on how two Swedish mathematics teacher guides communicate with teachers. We have analysed the guides from the theoretical stance that curriculum resources can support teachers’ pedagogical design capacity, i.e. support them to find productive ways to adapt curriculum resources. To investigate the guides we studied the “voice” by the use of language, focusing on personal pronouns and imperatives. Our analysis shows that both guides often speak “through” the teacher with narratives and scripted instructions, rather than “to” the teacher about strengths and weaknesses with different teaching design considerations. The results also show that in addition to speaking “to” or “through” guides can speak “past” the teacher, positioning her as an observer of the interaction between students and textbooks. This language construction is unexpected and may thus be seen as expanding the framework for investigating the “voice” of teacher guides. 

  • 242. Ahl, Linda
    et al.
    Koljonen, Tuula
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Helenius, Ola
    The voice of curriculum developers in teacher guides2017In: For the Learning of Mathematics, ISSN 0228-0671, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 35-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 243.
    Ahl, Linda
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication. Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Koljonen, Tuula
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication. Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Hoelgaard, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication. Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    HOW ARE MATHEMATICS TEACHER GUIDES USED FOR SUPPORT AND INSPIRATION IN TEACHING?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate how teachers talk about their use of mathematics teacher guides for support and inspiration, with the aim of broadening the knowledge of how teachers use these guides in and for teaching. Our second aim is to test whether guidelines for designing educative curriculum material can serve as an analytical tool. The results show that less experienced teachers use a wider scope of content in the teacher guide whereas more experienced teachers use teaching activities1 and support for the design of teaching. Common for all teachers, despite level of experience, is that they want the teacher guide to provide connections between theory and practice. The analytical tool served well for analysing interviews, helping us pay attention to the features of the content discussed.

  • 244.
    Ahl, Linnea
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Aarhus, Cathrine
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Mångkulturallitet i förskolan: En kvalitativ studie om några pedagogers förhållningssätt till mångkulturalitet2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att ta reda på vilket förhållningssätt några pedagoger har till mångkulturalitet. Vi har genomfört en kvalitativ studie på två förskolor i ett mångkulturellt område. För att ta reda på vilket förhållningssätt några pedagoger har till mångkulturlitet har vi valt att genomfört fyra observationer och fyra intervjuer med pedagoger i förskolan. Det visade sig att de svenska normerna är ständigt närvarande. Det finns ett dilemma med att synliggöra barnens kulturtillhörigheter, nämligen att barnen blir representanter för en kultur snarare en unik individ. Det framkom också att språket är en viktig del i utvecklandet av en kulturidentitet. Det är därför viktigt att barnen utvecklar sina modersmål för att på så vis utveckla flera kulturtillhörigheter men också för att kunna tillägna sig det svenska språket.

  • 245.
    Ahl, Therese
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Kinesiska universitetsstudenters uppfattningar om sexualundervisning för ungdomar i Kina2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sexuality and reproduction are two central parts of human life and they are integrated into our personalities. It is therefore important to create a good foundation for sexual health and wellbeing from an early age. To see adolescents as “ready to act-individuals” and to make them more involved in open dialog discussions contributes to extended possibilities for creating and sustaining a healthy lifestyle. The school is therefore considered as an important arena for health promoting and preventive actions where most adolescents can be reached. An obligated nine years school based education was implemented in China 1986, and school based Sex education became obligated in 2002.

     

    The study aimed to examine Chinese university student’s perceptions of Sexeducation for adolescents (10-19 years) in China and needs for changes and ongoing tendencies of development. Qualitative studies were conducted with three Chinese university students and contact was taken with a key person in China whom translated material for this study alone.

     

    The result showed various constructions of school based Sexeducation in China and that its implementation and construction needs more support. It also showed a need for the development of influence and participation in the school based Sexeducation. A need for creating an improved communication between teachers and students was also expressed and a more salutogenic approach needs to be developed.

     

    Through collaboration with other countries, for example Sweden, can today’s open-minded process of change benefit even more.

     

  • 246.
    Ahl, Therese
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sexual behavior among Chinese male and female medical university students in Chongqing, China2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sexuality is one of the most fundamental values of life as it affects our behaviors, thoughts and emotions. Young people are an especially essential group for promoting sexual health as it is during adolescents the base for our sexuality is created. The aim of this study was to examine Chinese male and female medical university student’s knowledge and ideas of sexual behavior at Chongqing Medical University in Chongqing, China. An explorative quantitative survey study was conducted at place in Chongqing. The survey study’s result showed that ideas of sexual behavior were seem to be permissive and love-based, and also bi- and homosexuality to be mainly acceptable. The Internet, books and friends were seemed as important sources for knowledge whereas few believed to have received adequate knowledge from school. It was also seemed to be a major lack of knowledge regarding STD’s and how to protect yourself as “safe periods” was believed to be an important contraceptive method. The relationship between contraception and the protection against STD seems to be obscure.

  • 247.
    Ahlberg, Carl
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Embedded high-resolution stereo-vision of high frame-rate and low latency through FPGA-acceleration2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous agents rely on information from the surrounding environment to act upon. In the array of sensors available, the image sensor is perhaps the most versatile, allowing for detection of colour, size, shape, and depth. For the latter, in a dynamic environment, assuming no a priori knowledge, stereo vision is a commonly adopted technique. How to interpret images, and extract relevant information, is referred to as computer vision. Computer vision, and specifically stereo-vision algorithms, are complex and computationally expensive, already considering a single stereo pair, with results that are, in terms of accuracy, qualitatively difficult to compare. Adding to the challenge is a continuous stream of images, of a high frame rate, and the race of ever increasing image resolutions. In the context of autonomous agents, considerations regarding real-time requirements, embedded/resource limited processing platforms, power consumption, and physical size, further add up to an unarguably challenging problem.

    This thesis aims to achieve embedded high-resolution stereo-vision of high frame-rate and low latency, by approaching the problem from two different angles, hardware and algorithmic development, in a symbiotic relationship. The first contributions of the thesis are the GIMME and GIMME2 embedded vision platforms, which offer hardware accelerated processing through FGPAs, specifically targeting stereo vision, contrary to available COTS systems at the time. The second contribution, toward stereo vision algorithms, is twofold. Firstly, the problem of scalability and the associated disparity range is addressed by proposing a segment-based stereo algorithm. In segment space, matching is independent of image scale, and similarly, disparity range is measured in terms of segments, indicating relatively few hypotheses to cover the entire range of the scene. Secondly, more in line with the conventional stereo correspondence for FPGAs, the Census Transform (CT) has been identified as a recurring cost metric. This thesis proposes an optimisation of the CT through a Genetic Algorithm (GA) - the Genetic Algorithm Census Transform (GACT). The GACT shows promising results for benchmark datasets, compared to established CT methods, while being resource efficient.

  • 248.
    Ahlberg, Carl
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekstrand, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Feljan, Juraj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gustavsson, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Svogor, Ivan
    FOI, University of Zagreb.
    Segerblad, Emil
    The Black Pearl: An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Black Pearl is a custom made autonomous underwater vehicle developed at Mälardalen University, Sweden. It is built in a modular fashion, including its mechanics, electronics and software. After a successful participation at the RoboSub competition in 2012 and winning the prize for best craftsmanship, this year we made minor improvements to the hardware, while the focus of the robot's evolution shifted to the software part. In this paper we give an overview of how the Black Pearl is built, both from the hardware and software point of view.

  • 249.
    Ahlberg, Carl
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekstrand, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Spampinato, Giacomo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    GIMME2 - An embedded system for stereo vision and processing of megapixel images with FPGA-acceleration2015In: 2015 International Conference on ReConFigurable Computing and FPGAs, ReConFig 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents GIMME2, an embedded stereovision system, designed to be compact, power efficient, cost effective, and high performing in the area of image processing. GIMME2 features two 10 megapixel image sensors and a Xilinx Zynq, which combines FPGA-fabric with a dual-core ARM CPU on a single chip. This enables GIMME2 to process video-rate megapixel image streams at real-time, exploiting the benefits of heterogeneous processing.

  • 250.
    Ahlberg, Carl
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Leon, Miguel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekstrand, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    The Genetic Algorithm Census TransformManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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