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  • 151.
    Begum, Shahina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    von Schéele, Bo
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Individualized Stress Diagnosis Using Calibration and Case-Based Reasoning2007Ingår i: Proceedings of the 24th annual workshop of the Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society, Borås, Sweden, 2007, s. 59-69Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Diagnosing stress is difficult even for experts due to large individual variations. Clinician's use today manual test procedures where they measure blood pressure, ECG, finger temperature and breathing speed during a number of exercises. An experienced clinician makes diagnosis on different readings shown in a computer screen. There are only very few experts who are able to diagnose and predict stress-related problems. In this paper we have proposed a combined approach based on a calibration phase and case-based reasoning to provide assistance in diagnosing stress, using data from the finger temperature sensor readings. The calibration phase helps to establish a number of individual parameters. The system uses a case-based reasoning approach and also feedback on how well the patient succeeded with the different test, used for giving similar cases reliability estimates.

  • 152.
    Begum, Shahina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    von Schéele, Bo
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Similarity of Medical Cases in Health Care Using Cosine Similarity and Ontology2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of digital patient records in hospital saves both time and reduces risks wrong treatments caused by lack of information. Digital patient records also enable efficient spread and transfer of experience gained from diagnosis and treatment of individual patient. This is today mostly manual (speaking with col-leagues) and rarely aided by computerized system. Most of the content in patient re-cords is semi-structured textual information. In this paper we propose a hybrid tex-tual case-based reasoning system promoting experience reuse based on structured or unstructured patient records, case-based reasoning and similarity measurement based on cosine similarity metric improved by a domain specific ontology and the nearest neighbor method. Not only new cases are learned, hospital staff can also add comments to existing cases and the approach enables prototypical cases.

  • 153.
    Begum, Shahina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    von Schéele, Bo
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Using Calibration and Fuzzification of Cases for Improved Diagnosis and Treatment of Stress2006Ingår i: 8th European Workshop on Case-based Reasoning in the Health Sciences, workshop proceedings, 2006, s. 113-122Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the medical literature there are a number of physiological reactions related to cognitive activities. Psychosocial and psychophysiological stress is such activities reflected in physiological reactions. Stress related symptoms are highly individual, but decreased hands temperature is the common for most individuals. A clinician learns with experience how to interpret the different symptoms but there is no adaptive diagnostic system for diagnosing stress. Decision support systems (DSS) diagnosing stress would be valuable both for junior clinicians and as second opinion for experts. Due to the large individual variations and no general set of rules, DSS are difficult to build for this task. The proposed solution combines a calibration phase with case-based reason¬ing approach and fuzzification of cases. During the calibration phase a number of individual parameters and case specific fuzzy membership functions are es-tablishes. This case-based approach may help the clinician to make a diagnosis, classification and treatment plan. The case may also be used to follow the treat-ment progress. This may be done using the proposed system. Initial tests show promising results. The individual cases including calibration and fuzzy mem-bership functions may also be used in an autonomous system in home environ-ment for treatment programs for individuals often under high stress.

  • 154.
    Begum, Shahina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Barua, Shaibal
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    In-Vehicle Stress Monitoring Based on EEG Signal2017Ingår i: International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, ISSN 2248-9622, E-ISSN 2248-9622, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. 55-71Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, improved road safety by monitoring human factors i.e., stress, mental load, sleepiness, fatigue etc. of vehicle drivers has been addressed in a number of studies. Due to the individual variations and complex dynamic in-vehicle environment systems that can monitor such factors of a driver while driving is challenging. This paper presents a drivers’ stress monitoring system based on electroencephalography (EEG) signals enabling individual-focused computational approach that can generate automatic decision. Here, a combination of different signal processing i.e., discrete wavelet transform, largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and modified covariance have been applied to extract key features from the EEG signals. Hybrid classification approach Fuzzy-CBR (case-based reasoning) is used for decision support. The study has focused on both long and short-term temporal assessment of EEG signals enabling monitoring in different time intervals. In short time interval, which requires complex computations, the classification accuracy using the proposed approach is 79% compare to a human expert. Accuracy of EEG in developing such system is also compared with other reference signals e.g., Electrocardiography (ECG), Finger temperature, Skin conductance, and Respiration. The results show that in decision making the system can handle individual variations and provides decision in each minute time interval.

  • 155.
    Begum, Shahina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Larsson, Thomas B
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Towards a Compositional Service Architecture for Real-Time Cloud Robotics2016Ingår i: ACM SIGBED Review, E-ISSN 1551-3688, s. 63-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present our ongoing work towards a compositional service architecture that integrates cloud technology for computational capacity targeting real-time robotics applications. In particular we take a look at the challenges inherent within the data center where the services are executing. We outline characteristics of the services used in the real-time cloud robotics application, along with the service management and corresponding task model used to execute services. We identify several key central challenges that must be addressed towards integrating cloud technology in real-time robotics.

  • 156.
    Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bruhn, Fredrik
    Bruhnspace AB, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Software architecture for next generation hyperparallel cyber-physical hardware platforms: challenges and opportunities2015Ingår i: ECSAW '15 Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, 2015, Vol. Article No. 19Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present what is destined to become the de-facto standard for hardware platforms for next generation cyber-physical systems. Heterogeneous System Architecture (HSA) is an initiative to harmonize the industry around a common architecture which is easier to program and is an open standard defining the key interfaces for parallel computation. Since HSA is supported by virtually all major players in the silicon market we can conjecture that HSA, with its capabilities and quirks, will highly influence both the hardware and software for next generation cyber-physical systems. In this paper we describe HSA and discuss how its nature will influence architectures of system software and application software. Specifically, we believe that the system software needs to both leverage the hyperparallel nature of HSA while providing predictable and efficient resource allocation to different parallel activities. The application software, on the other hand, should be isolated from the complexity of the hardware architecture but yet be able to efficiently use the full potential of the hyperparallel nature of HSA.

  • 157.
    Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Real-Time Control Design for Flexible Scheduling using Jitter Margin2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time control algorithms are designed based on the characteristics of the controlled plants and they require good performance without delays. However, digital control implementation typically introduces delays and jitters due to insufficient CPU processing power and the limitations of the real-time scheduling method used. This can degrade the system performance or even make it unstable. In this paper we propose an integrated approach for control design and real-time scheduling, suitable for both discrete-time and continuous-time controllers. It guarantees system performance by accepting a certain minimum value of jitter for control tasks and feasibly schedules them together with other tasks in the system. Results from comparison with other approaches from real-time and control theory domains underline the effectiveness of our method.

  • 158.
    Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    J. Bril, Reinder
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A new approach for global synchronization in hierarchical scheduled real-time systems2009Ingår i: Work-in-Progress (WiP) session of the 21st Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS'09), 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 159.
    Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Shin, Insik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A Hierarchical Approach for Reconfigurable and Adaptive Embedded Systems2008Ingår i: APRES'08 Adaptive and Reconfigurable Embedded Systems: First International Workshop on Adaptive and Reconfigurable Embedded Systems, 2008, s. 51-54Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive and reconfigurable embedded systems have been gaining an increasing interest in the past year from both academics and industry. This paper presents our work on hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSF) intended as a backbone architecture facilitating the implementation of operating system support for adaptability and reconfigurability.

  • 160.
    Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Shin, Insik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Synchronization protocols for hierarchical real-time scheduling frameworks2008Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Compositional Theory and Technology for Real-Time Embedded Systems (CRTS'08) in conjunction with the 29th IEEE International Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS'08), Barcelona, Spain, 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 161.
    Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Shin, Insik
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Independent Abstraction and Dynamic Slack Reclaiming in Hierarchical Real-Time Open Systems2007Ingår i: Proceedings of the Work-In-Progress (WIP) session of the 19th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS'07), Pisa, Italy, 2007, s. 1-4Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Independent subsystem abstraction allows subsystems to be developed and validated separately and supports an easier subsystem integration. In particular, this approach is desirable in open systems, since it does not require knowledge of temporal behaviour of other subsystems. However, independent

    abstraction, assuming the worst-case CPU supply pattern, requires extra CPU allocations. We present our work in progress on dynamic slack reclamation, which keeps track of such extra CPU allocations at run time. We are also investigating how to utilize those extra resources for supporting soft real-time tasks.

  • 162.
    Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Shin, Insik
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    SIRAP: A Global Resource Sharing Protocol Facilitating Integration of Semi-independent Real-Time Systems2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a protocol for resource sharing in a hierarchical real-time scheduling framework. Together, the protocol and the scheduling framework significantly reduce the efforts and errors associated with integrating multiple semi-independent subsystems on a single processor. Thus, our proposed techniques facilitate modern software development processes, where subsystems are developed by independent teams (or subcontractors) and at a later stage integrated into a single product. Using our solution, a subsystem need not know, and is not dependent on, the timing behaviour of other subsystems; even though they share mutually exclusive resources. In this paper we also prove the correctness of our approach and evaluate its efficiency.

  • 163.
    Belli, Fevzi
    et al.
    University of Paderborn, Germany.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Panel Description: 40 Years of Software Engineering2008Ingår i: Proceedings 32nd Annual IEEE International Computer Software and Applications Conference, COMPSAC2008, 2008, s. 7-7Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the fall of 1968, NATO hosted in Garmisch- Partenkirchen, close to Munich, a conference devoted to the problems of the computer industry that was having a great deal of trouble in producing large and complex programs. The term Software Engineering (SE) was not in general use at that time, its adoption for the title of this conference was deliberately provocative. As a result, the conference and its report have played a major role in gaining general acceptance of the term SE.

  • 164.
    Bello, L. L.
    et al.
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Åkerberg, J.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Gidlund, M.
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Guest Editorial Special Section on New Perspectives on Wireless Communications in Automation: From Industrial Monitoring and Control to Cyber-Physical Systems2017Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 1393-1396, artikel-id 7938563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 165.
    Bello, Luciano
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hedin, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sabelefeld, Andrei
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Value Sensitivity and Observable Abstract Values for Information Flow Control2015Ingår i: 20th International Conference on Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence and Reasoning LPAR'15, 2015, s. 63-78Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Much progress has recently been made on information flow control, enabling the enforcement of increasingly rich policies for increasingly expressive programming languages. This has resulted in tools for mainstream programming languages as JavaScript, Java, Caml, and Ada that enforce versatile security policies. However, a roadblock on the way to wider adoption of these tools has been their limited permissiveness (high number of false positives). Flow-, context-, and object-sensitive techniques have been suggested to improve the precision of static information flow control and dynamic monitors have been explored to leverage the knowledge about the current run for precision. This paper explores value sensitivity to boost the permissiveness of information flow control. We show that both dynamic and hybrid information flow mechanisms benefit from value sensitivity. Further, we introduce the concept of observable abstract values to generalize and leverage the power of value sensitivity to richer programming languages. We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by comparing it to known disciplines for dealing with information flow in dynamic and hybrid settings.

  • 166.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för innovation, design och produktutveckling.
    Condition Based Maintenance Systems Technology: Where is Development Heading?2004Ingår i: Proceedings of the 17th Congress of Euromaintenance, 2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 167.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för innovation, design och produktutveckling.
    Standardization Issues in Condition Based Maintenance2003Ingår i: Proceedings of the 16th International Congress, August 27-29, 2003, Växjö University, Sweden, Växjö: Växjö University Press , 2003Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 168.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för innovation, design och produktutveckling.
    Jackson, Mats
    Important Aspects to take into Consideration when Deciding to Implement Condition Based Maintenance2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 169.
    Berglund, Jessica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Gallardo, Marielle
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Spektrumanalys och Dynamiska Management-system med Cisco Radio Resource Management och CleanAir2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Störningar är en av de vanligaste orsakerna till försämrad prestanda och tillförlitlighet i trådlösa nätverk. Frekvensstörningar och brus kan lokaliseras genom att utföra spektrumanalys för att mäta amplitud- och frekvensegenskaper hos elektromagnetiska signaler. Inledningsvis gjordes en teoretisk beskrivning av spektrumanalys och site survey. Manuell spektrumanalys undersöktes dessutom praktiskt genom laborationsmätningar och grafritning med Metageek Wi-Spy och dess mjukvara Chanalyzer. Signaler från 802.11-enheter betraktades med spektrumanalys, och analyserades utifrån hur störande dess signaler såg ut att vara. Detta jämfördes sedan mot den faktiska störningsinverkan enheterna hade. Analysen visade att manuellt genomförd spektrumanalys kan vara svårtolkad när det kommer till att identifiera störande moment, då signaler från enheter som såg ut att störa mycket i själva verket inte gjorde det. Enheternas kanalaccessmetod, i det här fallet CSMA/CA, bidrog till en låg störningsinverkan då enheterna väntade med att sända tills mediet var ledigt, vilket minskade risken för kollisioner. Ciscos nya CleanAir-teknologi har inbyggd spektrumanalysfunktionalitet, för att kunna upptäcka, klassificera och undvika radiofrekvensstörningar. Att störningar automatiskt kan upptäckas och åtgärdas sparar både driftskostnader och minimerar nätverksavbrott. Denna automatisering är möjlig tack vare Cisco Radio Resource Management (RRM) som är ett system bestående av flera protokoll, och innefattar bland annat funktioner för att byta kanal och ändra utsänd effekt automatiskt. De protokoll som ingår i RRM undersöktes och diskuterades sedan i förhållande till genomförda laborationsmätningar. Laborationsmätningar visade att Ciscos Aironet 2700-accesspunkt var mer robust mot störningar än en D-Link-router avsedd för hemmabruk och mindre kontorsmiljöer. En accesspunkts robusthet avgörs av dess trådlösa standard, modulationsteknik och dynamiska managementprotokoll. Trådlös kommunikation är ett komplext ämne, där många faktorer har betydelse för ett nätverks prestanda. Det är därför inte lämpligt att dra några konkreta slutsatser från de laborationsmätningar som genomfördes. För framtida arbeten bör liknande laborationer med störningar från icke-802.11-enheter genomföras för att jämföra störningsinverkan från CSMA- och icke-CSMA-kommunikation.

  • 170.
    Bergman, B.L.S
    et al.
    Chalmers university of .
    Fundin, Anders
    Chalmers university of technology, Sweden.
    Gremyr, I.C
    Chalmers university of technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, P.M
    Chalmers university of technology, Sweden.
    Beyond root-cause analysis2002Ingår i: Proceedings of the Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), 2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 171.
    Bergman, Jan E. S.
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Sweden.
    Bruhn, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Isham, Brett
    Interamerican University of Puerto Rico, Bayamón, Puerto Rico.
    Rincon-Charris, Amilcar
    Interamerican University of Puerto Rico, Bayamón, Puerto Rico.
    Capo-Lugo, Pedro
    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, USA.
    Åhlen, Lennart
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Sweden.
    Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Analysis and Data Selection on-board the Puerto Rico CubeSat2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 172.
    Bergström, Henning
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A Study on Timed Base Choice Criteria for Testing Embedded Software2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Programs for Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) are often written in graphical or textual languages. Control engineers design and use them in systems where safety is vital, such as avionics, nuclear power plants or transportation systems. Malfunction of such a computer could have severe consequences, therefore thorough testing of PLCs are important. The Base Choice (BC) combination strategy was proposed as a suitable technique for testing software. Test cases are created based on BC strategy by varying the values of one parameter at a time while keeping the values of the other parameters fixed on the values in the base choice. However, this strategy might not be as effective when used on embedded software where parameters need to be set for a certain amount of time in order to trigger a certain interesting behavior. By incorporating time as another parameter when generating the tests, the goal is to create a better strategy that will increase not only code coverage but also fault detection compared to base choice strategy. Timed Base Choice (TBC) coverage criteria is an improvement upon the regular Base Choice criteria with the inclusion of time. We define TBC as follows: The base test case in timed base choice criteria is determined by the tester of the program. A criterion suggested by Ammann and Offutt is the “most likely value” from the point of view of the user. In addition, a time choice T is determined by the tester as the most likely time for keeping the base test case to the same values. From the base test case, new test cases are created by varying the interesting values of one parameter at a time, keeping the values of the other parameters fixed on the base test case. Each new test case is executed with the input values set for a certain amount of time determined by the time choice T. The time choice is given in time units. The research questions stated in this thesis are as follows: Research Question 1 (RQ1) How does Timed Base Choice tests compare to Base Choice tests in terms of decision coverage? Research Question 2 (RQ2) How does Timed Base Choice tests compare to Base Choice tests in terms of fault detection? In order to answer these questions, an empirical study was made in which 11 programs was tested along with respective test cases generated by BC and TBC. Each program was executed on a PLC along with the belonging test cases and several faulty programs (mutants). From this testing we got the corresponding decision coverage for each program achieved by BC and TBC respectively as well as a mutation score measuring how many of the mutated programs was detected and killed. We found that TBC outperformed BC testing both in terms of decision coverage and fault detection. Using TBC testing we managed to achieve full decision coverage on several programs that we were unable to achieve using regular BC. This shows that TBC is an improvement upon the regular BC in both ways, thus answering our previously stated research questions.

  • 173.
    Bergström, Henning
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Using Timed Base-Choice Coverage Criterion for Testing Industrial Control Software2017Ingår i: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, s. 216-219Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The base-choice criterion was proposed as a suitable technique for testing software based on its nominal choice of input parameters. Test cases are created based on this strategy by varying the values of one input parameter at a time while keeping the values of the other parameters fixed on the base choice. However, this strategy might not be as effective when used on industrial control software for testing timed behavior. We propose to incorporate time as another parameter when generating and executing tests by defining the timed base-choice coverage criterion. We performed an empirical evaluation using 11 industrial programs written in the IEC 61131-3 programming language. We found that tests generated for timed base-choice criterion show better code coverage (7% improvement) and fault detection (27% improvement) in terms of mutation score than tests satisfying base-choice coverage criterion. The results demonstrate the feasibility of applying timed base-choice criterion for testing industrial control software.

  • 174.
    Berhmann, Gerd
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Denmark .
    David, Alexandre
    Aalborg University, Denmark .
    Guldstrand Larsen, Kim
    Aalborg University, Denmark .
    Håkansson, John
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Pettersson, Paul
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wang, Yi
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hendriks, Martijn
    Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands .
    UPPAAL 4.02006Ingår i: Third International Conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2006, 2006, s. 125-126Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    UPPAAL 4.0 is the result of over two and a half years of development and contains many new features, additions to the modeling language, performance improvements, enhancements and polish to the the easy to use graphical user interface, and is accompanied by several open source libraries. The tool and libraries are available free of charge for academic, educational and evaluation purposes from http://www.uppaal.com/. We describe three of the new features: User defined functions, priorities and symmetry reduction. 

  • 175.
    Berhmann, Gerd
    et al.
    NORDUnet A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    David, Alexandre
    Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University.
    Guldstrand Larsen, Kim
    Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Yi, Wang
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Developing UPPAAL over 15 years2011Ingår i: Software - Practice and Experience, ISSN 0038-0644, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 133-142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    UPPAAL is a tool suitable for model checking real-time systems described as networks of timed automata communicating by channel synchronizations and extended with integer variables. Its first version was released in 1995 and its development is still very active. It now features an advanced modeling language, a user-friendly graphical interface, and a performant model checker engine. In addition, several flavors of the tool have matured in recent years. In this paper, we present how we managed to maintain the tool during 15 years, its current architecture with its challenges, and we give the future directions of the tool.

  • 176.
    Bilic, Damir
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Daniel, Sundmark
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Wallin, Peter
    RISE SICS, Västerås, Sweden.
    Causevic, Adnan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ES (Embedded Systems).
    Amlinger, Christoffer
    Volvo CE, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Model-Based Product Line Engineering in an Industrial Automotive Context: An Exploratory Case Study2018Ingår i: 1st Intl. Workshop on Variability and Evolution of Software-intensive Systems VariVolution'18, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Product Line Engineering is an approach to reuse assets of complex systems by taking advantage of commonalities between product families. Reuse within complex systems usually means reuse of artifacts from different engineering domains such as mechanical, electronics and software engineering. Model-based systems engineering is becoming a standard for systems engineering and collaboration within different domains. This paper presents an exploratory case study on initial efforts of adopting Product Line Engineering practices within the model-based systems engineering process at Volvo Construction Equipment (Volvo CE), Sweden. We have used SysML to create overloaded models of the engine systems at Volvo CE. The variability within the engine systems was captured by using the Orthogonal Variability Modeling language. The case study has shown us that overloaded SysML models tend to become complex even on small scale systems, which in turn makes scalability of the approach a major challenge. For successful reuse and to, possibly, tackle scalability, it is necessary to have a database of reusable assets from which product variants can be derived.

  • 177.
    Bizhuta, Ermal
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Carhoshi, Dhespina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Applicability Study of Software Architectures in the Discrete Manufacturing Domain2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing, under the umbrella of the latest industrial revolution, has gone through enormous changes in the last decades to then later evolve in what we know now as smart manufacturing. Different companies and entities have developed their own versions of architectures for intelligentand digitalized manufacturing systems. Ideating a exible and safe architecture is one of the first steps towards a system that intends to be applicable in different environments, regardless of the vast variety of possibilities available. For this purpose, the following thesis presents an investigation on the state-of-the-art solutions of the most recent digitalized cloud-based system architectures in the domain of discreet manufacturing. Based on an initial system architecture conceived from the company ABB, an evaluation of this architecture was conducted, by taking in consideration the existing systematical approaches to the digitalization of this industry. In the following thesis work, we investigate, describe and evaluate the limitations and strengths of the most recent and known architectural approaches to cloud robotics. Finally, a few key remarks are made towards ABB's initial solution but also to the industry in general.

  • 178.
    Björkman, Mats
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ES (Embedded Systems).
    Cooperation between academia and industry within embedded sensor systems2018Ingår i: World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering IUPESM 2018, 2018, Vol. 68, nr 1Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 179.
    Björnfot, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Asplund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wall, Göran
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Distributed Run-Time System, a Protocol for Ada1993Ingår i: Proc. Ada-Europe'93, LNCS 688, 1993, s. 249-263Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The requirements and specification of a protocol for low level communication between the run-time systems in a distributed Ada environment is presented. This allows an Ada system to be separated into software resources and run-time controllers. Calls to the local run-time system of a node, concerning task management, are transformed into remote calls to the controller, that schedules all tasks in the application. The calls to the run-time system together with all messages, requests and replies, that are triggered as a consequence, are described. The controller will be implemented in hardware separate from the processors. Communication between processors and controllers are by means of high speed (Gigabit) networks. In the proposed system, partitioning and distribution of Ada programs can fully utilize the inherent and strong type checking in Ada.

  • 180.
    Björnfot, Lars
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wall, Göran
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Asplund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Distribution of Tasks Within a Centrally Scheduled Local Area Network1994Ingår i: Proc. Ada-Europe'94, LNCS 887, 1994, s. 421-432Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution of a single Ada program on a local area network is accomplished by partitioning the run-time system into two parts. A central scheduling module is responsible for task management. Distributed run-time executives handle context switches and remote entry calls; however all activities are supervised by the scheduler. The scheduler can be implemented in hardware in order to achieve high efficiency. A network based on optical fibers is necessary due to the high speed required for system calls. Asynchronous Transfer Mode is suggested as the protocol for the communication. We describe an implementation of the divided run-time system on an Ethernet network, using MC68030-based micro computers as targets and an Ada program executing on a Rational host as the scheduler.

  • 181.
    Björnfot, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wall, Göran
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Asplund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Termination of Ada Tasks in Hardware1995Ingår i: Proc. TRI-Ada'95, 1995, s. 474-486Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 182.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik. SICS, Sweden.
    Flier, Holger
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik. ETH, Suisse.
    Maue, Jens
    ETH, Suisse.
    Mihalák, Matúš
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik. ETH, Suisse.
    Hump Yard Track Allocation with Temporary Car Storage2011Ingår i: 4th International Seminar on Railway Operations Modelling and Analysis, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In rail freight operation, freight cars need to be separated and reformed into new trains at hump yards. The classification procedure is complex and hump yards constitute bottlenecks in the rail freight network, often causing outbound trains to be delayed. One of the problems is that planning for the allocation of tracks at hump yards is difficult, given that the planner has limited resources (tracks, shunting engines, etc.) and needs to foresee the future capacity requirements when planning for the current inbound trains. In this paper, we consider the problem of allocating classification tracks in a rail freight hump yard for arriving and departing trains with predetermined arrival and departure times. The core problem can be formulated as a special list coloring problem. We focus on an extension where individual cars can temporarily be stored on a special subset of the tracks. An extension where individual cars can temporarily be stored on a special subset of the tracks is also considered. We model the problem using mixed integer programming, and also propose several heuristics that can quickly give feasible track allocations. As a case study, we consider a real-world problem instance from the Hallsberg Rangerbangard hump yard in Sweden. Planning over horizons over two to four days, we obtain feasible solutions from both the exact and heuristic approaches that allow all outgoing trains to leave on time.

  • 183.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Flier, Holger
    ETH Zürich, Institute of Theoretical Computer Science, Switzerland.
    Maue, Jens
    ETH Zürich, Institute of Theoretical Computer Science, Switzerland.
    Mihalák, Matúš
    ETH Zürich, Institute of Theoretical Computer Science, Switzerland.
    Track Allocation in Freight-Train Classification with Mixed Tracks2011Ingår i: OpenAccess Series in Informatics, Volume 20, 2011, 2011, s. 38-51Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the process of forming outbound trains from cars of inbound trains at rail-freight hump yards. Given the arrival and departure times as well as the composition of the trains, we study the problem of allocating classification tracks to outbound trains such that every outbound train can be built on a separate classification track. We observe that the core problem can be formulated as a special list coloring problem in interval graphs, which is known to be NP-complete. We focus on an extension where individual cars of different trains can temporarily be stored on a special subset of the tracks. This problem induces several new variants of the list-coloring problem, in which the given intervals can be shortened by cutting off a prefix of the interval. We show that in case of uniform and sufficient track lengths, the corresponding coloring problem can be solved in polynomial time, if the goal is to minimize the total cost associated with cutting off prefixes of the intervals. Based on these results, we devise two heuristics as well as an integer program to tackle the problem. As a case study, we consider a real-world problem instance from the Hallsberg Rangerbangard hump yard in Sweden. Planning over horizons of seven days, we obtain feasible solutions from the integer program in all scenarios, and from the heuristics in most scenarios.

  • 184.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Shared Stack Analysis in Transaction-Based Systems2007Ingår i: Work in Progress Proceedings RTSS'07, Tucson, Arizona, USA, 2007, s. 37-40Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present our ongoing work on shared stack analysis for hybrid (static and dynamic) scheduled fixed priority systems. We present two methods that extend our previous work to support stack analysis for the general tasks model with offsets where several transactions can share a common run-time stack. The aim of this work is to support stack analysis of a wider range of systems. 

  • 185.
    Bohlin, markus
    et al.
    SICS.
    Lu, Yue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Kraft, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Kreuger, Per
    SICS, Sweden.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Best-Effort Simulation-Based Timing Analysis using Hill-Climbing with Random Restarts2009Ingår i: In Proc. of RTCSA, Aug. 2009., 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 186.
    Bosnic, Ivana
    et al.
    FER, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Cavrak, Igor
    FER, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Di Nitto, Elisabetta
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Zagar, Mario
    FER, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Hall of Fame nomination paper: Distributed Software Development course2017Ingår i: 30th IEEE Conference on Software Engineering Education & Training CSEE&T, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed Software Development course is a joint project-based course involving three universities, from Croatia, Sweden and Italy, running each year since 2003. Distributed student teams work on all phases of a complex software engineering project, solving several challenges of working in a global environment, thus obtaining a valuable experience for their future careers. The course is very well received

  • 187.
    Bosnic, Ivana
    et al.
    FER, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cavrak, Igor
    FER, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Di Nitto, Elisabetta
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Feljan, Juraj
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Introducing SCRUM into a Distributed Software Development Course2015Ingår i: Workshop on Enhancing Software Engineering Education WESEE2015, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing enactment of Global Software Engineering in industry has triggered educational institutions to perceive the importance of preparing students for distributed software development. During the last twelve years we have disclosed advantages and pitfalls of GSE to our students through our Distributed Software Development course. After running the projects according to the iterative process model for eleven years, we decided to shift to an agile development model, SCRUM. This decision was due to the growing industrial adoption of agile methods, but more importantly to increase proactiveness, sense of responsibility, and to balance the workload among the project team members. In this paper we describe the process and outcomes of our first attempt at introducing SCRUM in our distributed course.

  • 188.
    Bosnic, Ivana
    et al.
    FER, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cavrak, Igor
    FER, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Di Nitto, Elisabetta
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Zagar, Mario
    FER, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Managing diversity in distributed software development education: a longitudinal case study2019Ingår i: ACM Transactions on Computing Education, ISSN 1946-6226, E-ISSN 1946-6226, Vol. 19, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching Distributed Software Development with real distributed settings is a challenging and rewarding task. Distributed courses are idiosyncratically more challenging than standard local courses.We have experienced this during our distributed course, which has been run for 14 consecutive years. In this paper, we present and analyze the emerging diversities specific to distributed project-based courses. We base our arguments on our experience and we exploit a three-layered distributed course model, which we use to analyze several course elements throughout the 14-years lifetime of our distributed project-based course. In particular, we focus on the changes that the course underwent throughout the years, combining findings obtained from the analyzed data with our own teaching perceptions. Additionally, we propose insights on how to manage the various diversity aspects.

  • 189. Boussemart, Yves
    et al.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    The Gurkh Framework: an Industrial Case Study and Certification Issues for Safety Critical Software2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 190.
    Boussemart, Yves
    et al.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Ouimet, Martin
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Gorelov, Sebastien
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Non-Intrusive System-Level Fault Tolerance for an Electronic Throttle Controller2006Ingår i: Proceedings ICN 2006, ICONS 2006, MVL 2006, 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the methodology used to add nonintrusive system-level fault tolerance to an electronic throttle controller. The original model of the throttle controller is a hybrid system created at a major automotive company. We use Gurkh as a framework within which we translate the hybrid model into a set of timed automata and perform analysis using formal methods. The first step of the translation process is to transform the hybrid model and its static schedule into Gurkh’s preemptive tasking paradigm. Using the UPPAAL tool, we then check the correctness of the resulting set of timed-automata by formally verifying reachability and timing properties. We also propose a method for quantifying the quality of the translation by estimating the amount of jitter thence introduced. The final step is the implementation of a Monitoring Chip based on the formal system model. The chip provides non-intrusive "out-of-path" and timing error detection which in turn allows for fault tolerance at a system level.

  • 191.
    Brahneborg, Daniel
    et al.
    Infoflex Connect AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Causevic, Adnan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Black-Box Approach to Latency and Throughput Analysis2017Ingår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion, QRS-C 2017, 2017, s. 603-604, artikel-id 8004393Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To enable fast and reliable delivery of mobile text messages (SMS), special bidirectional protocols are often used. Measuring the achieved throughput and involved latency is however non-trivial, due to the complexity of these protocols. Modifying an existing system would incur too much of a risk, so instead a new tool was created to analyse the log files containing information about this traffic in a black-box fashion. When the produced raw data was converted into graphs, they gave new insights into the behaviour of both the protocols and the remote systems involved.

  • 192.
    Brahneborg, Daniel
    et al.
    Infoflex Connect AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Causevic, Adnan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Pragmatic Perspective on Regression Testing Challenges2017Ingår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion, QRS-C 2017, Prague, Czech Republic, 2017, s. 618-619, artikel-id 8004401Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Regression testing research has received significant focus during the past decades, acknowledging the benefits it can provide to organisations in terms of reduced development and maintenance costs, as well as sustained end-user satisfaction. There are several challenges left to overcome before the industry can fully take advantage of the available research results in this area. To get a better overview of how current regression testing research fits in with today’s industrial practices, we read a selection of papers in the field and based on our experience, critically examined their content. As a result, we present and discuss a taxonomy of regression testing challenges, from the perspectives of both methods and organisations, that we believe will foster the industrial uptake of regression testing.

  • 193.
    Brahneborg, Daniel
    et al.
    Infoflex Connect AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Causevic, Adnan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Daniel, Sundmark
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Round-Trip Time Anomaly Detection2018Ingår i: ICPE '18 Proceedings of the 2018 ACM/SPEC International Conference on Performance Engineering, 2018, s. 107-114Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile text messages (SMS) are sometimes used for authentication, which requires short and reliable delivery times. The observed round-trip times when sending an SMS message provide valuable information on the quality of the connection. In this industry paper, we propose a method for detecting round-trip time anomalies, where the exact distribution is unknown, the variance is several orders of magnitude, and there are lots of shorter spikes that should be ignored. In particular, we show that using an adaption of Double Seasonal Exponential Smoothing to reduce the content dependent variations, followed by the Remedian to find short-term and long-term medians, successfully identifies larger groups of outliers. As training data for our method we use log files from a live SMS gateway. In order to verify the effectiveness of our approach, we utilize simulated data. Our contributions are a description on how to isolate content dependent variations, and the sequence of steps to find significant anomalies in big data.

  • 194.
    Breivold, Hongyu Pei
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden .
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Radosevic, Iva
    Balatinac, Ivan
    Architecting for the cloud: A systematic review2014Ingår i: Proceedings - 17th IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering, CSE 2014, Jointly with 13th IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications, IUCC 2014, 13th International Symposium on Pervasive Systems, Algorithms, and Networks, I-SPAN 2014 and 8th International Conference on Frontier of Computer Science and Technology, FCST 2014, 2014, s. 312-318Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud Computing has emerged as a new paradigm in the field of network-based services within many industrial and application domains. The major benefits that it provides in terms of IT efficiency and business agility represent a huge competitive advantage for an organization. However, building new services in the cloud or designing cloud-based solutions into existing business context in general is a complex decision process involving many factors. In this paper, we undertake a systematic review to obtain an overview of the existing studies in designing cloud-based solutions. In particular, we investigate the main challenges and concerns when building cloud-based architectures and different architectural approaches and design considerations that are proposed in literatures to meet these specific concerns. The search strategy identified 72 studies that were catalogued as primary studies for this review after using multi-step selection process. The main challenges and concerns are classified into four main categories: security and trustworthiness, elasticity, portability and interoperability, and cloud resilience. We have also categorized studies that describe architectural approaches and design considerations when architecting for the cloud. Implications for research and practice are presented as well.

  • 195.
    Brynedal Ignell, Nils
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Definition, analysis and implementation of a model-checked Space Plug-and-play Architecture adaptation for the Controller Area Network2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Virtual Network (VN) protocol is a communications protocol software compatible with the Space Plug-and-play Architecture (SPA). This Master Thesis defines a protocol that extends the Virtual Network protocol to cover communication over the Controller Area Network (CAN). The Virtual Network for the Controller Area Network (VN-CAN) is defined, modelled and verified using UPPAAL as well as implemented and tested while running on actual hardware.

    The VN-CAN protocol enables components on the CAN network to communicate with other components both inside and outside of the CAN network, which together with the modularity of both the protocol and the implementation enables application level software to be agnostic of their physical position in the network.

    The implementation enables components to automatically discover routes to other components on the VN network without the need for any prior knowledge about the network topology. A method for direct addressing, i.e. that two components on the CAN network can communicate directly without sending messages via a central router, has been added to the VN-CAN protocol in order to reduce traffic on the CAN network. UPPAAL modelling and verification of the VN-CAN protocol has been done to give a high level of confidence in the correctness of the protocol. Testing on actual hardware has shown that the protocol achieves the goals of address resolution, self addressing and transfer of VN messages over CAN.

  • 196.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Model-based Approach for Vehicular Systems2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a novel model-based approach for the software development of vehicular embedded systems. The proposed approach discloses the opportunity of improving efficiency of the development process by providing support to identify viable design solutions with respect to selected non functional requirements. To this end, it leverages the interplay of two modelling languages for the vehicular domain whose integration is achieved by a suite of model transformations. An instantiation of the methodology is discussed for timing requirements, which are among the most critical ones for the development of vehicular systems. The applicability of the methodology is demonstrated as proof of concepts on industrial use cases performed in cooperation with our industrial partners.

  • 197.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A-CPS: Automation in high-performance cyber physical systems development2019Ingår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 2405, CEUR-WS , 2019, s. 15-20Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe the Automation in High-performance Cyber Physical Systems Development research project. Its main goal is to contribute to the advancement of the state of the art in the model-based development of heterogeneous vehicular systems. In particular, the project aims at providing a model-based framework for the automatic assessment of timeliness of vehicular systems by means of model-based simulation, timing analysis and their interplay. Additional information on the project can be found through its official website: http://www.es.mdh.se/projects/520-Automation_in_High_performance_Cyber_Physical_Systems_Development Copyright © 2019 for this paper by its authors.

  • 198.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Bidirectionality in Model-Driven Engineering2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In Model-Driven Engineering bidirectional model transformations emerged as an important ingredient to cope with scenarios such as change propagation, synchronization and to keep consistent system views whenever changes occurring on some view have to be propagated over the others. However, bidirectional mappings open a number of intricate issues that have been only partially solved by research.

    This master thesis identifies a set of features characterizing bidirectional transformations and validates them against two existing approaches. In particular, a benchmark based on the UML2RDBMS transformation and consisting of two different configurations is implemented by means of two different approaches, such as Triple Graph Grammars and the Janus Transformation Language, for understanding bidirectional transformations with respect to the elicited features.

  • 199.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Raising Abstraction in Timing Analysis for Vehicular Embedded Systems through Model-Driven Engineering2015Ingår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2015, Vol. 1499, s. 11-20Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of vehicular embedded systems is continuously increasing and this can negatively a ect their development cost and time to market. One way to alleviate these issues is to anticipate analysis of system properties at design time for early architectural re- nements. In this paper, we present a licentiate work which aims at contributing to this e ort. In particular, considering the importance of timing constraints typical of vehicular embedded systems, we leverage Model-Driven Engineering for realizing an automatic approach which allows the developer to perform timing analysis on design models, without having to manually specify timing elements. The proposed approach, starting from a high-level model of the vehicular embedded application, generates a set of candidate models enriched with timing elements in a semi-automatic manner. Timing analysis is run on the generated models and, based on its results, the approach supports the selection of the best candidate model for a speci c, non-empty, set of timing constraints

  • 200.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Addazi, Lorenzo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Eramo, Romina
    University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy..
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    MoVES: a Model-driven methodology for Vehicular Embedded Systems2018Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, s. 6424-6445Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a novel model-driven methodology for the software development of real-time distributed vehicular embedded systems on single- and multi-core platforms. The proposed methodology discloses the opportunity of improving the cost-efficiency of the development process by providing automated support to identify viable design solutions with respect to selected non-functional requirements. To this end, it leverages the interplay of modelling languages for the vehicular domain whose integration is achieved by a suite of model transformations. An instantiation of the methodology is discussed for timing requirements, which are among the most critical ones for vehicular systems. To support the design of temporally correct systems, a cooperation between EAST-ADL and the Rubus Component Model is opportunely built-up by means of model transformations, enabling timing-aware design and model-based timing analysis of the system. The applicability of the methodology is demonstrated as proof of concepts on industrial use cases performed in cooperation with our industrial partners.

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