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  • 151.
    Tan, Yuting
    et al.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Nookuea, Worrada
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Zhao, Li
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Property impacts on performance of CO2 pipeline transport2015Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, s. 2261-2267Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is one of the most potential technologies to mitigate climate change. Using pipelines to transport CO2 from emission sources to storage sites is one of common and mature technologies. The design and operation of pipeline transport process requires careful considerations of thermo-physical properties. This paper studied the impact of properties, including density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity, on the performance of CO2 pipeline transport. The pressure loss and temperature drop in steady state were calculated by using homogenous friction model and Sukhof temperature drop theory, respectively. The results of sensitivity study show that over-estimating density and viscosity increases the pressure loss while under-estimating of density and viscosity decreases it. Over-estimating density and heat capacity leads to lower temperature drop while underestimating of density and heat capacity result in higher temperature drop. This study suggests that the accuracy of property models for example, more accurate density model, should be developed for the CO2 transport design. 

  • 152.
    Tang, Y.
    et al.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Q.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Li, Y.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Liu, B.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Economic analysis on repurposed EV batteries in a distributed PV system under sharing business models2019Inngår i: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, s. 4304-4310Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to ensure the operation of distributed energy and relieve the pressure of retired EV batteries, repurposing EV batteries in energy storage for second-life use has gained increasing attentions. Considering that distributed battery storages are still not economically attractive at present, the booming of sharing economy may provide a more feasible option. Based on a non-cooperative game theoretical model, this study aims to make the economic analysis on repurposed EV batteries in a distributed PV system under sharing business models. Four scenarios were proposed, including: S1-without battery storage and without shared PV generation, S2-with battery storage and without shared PV generation, S3-with battery storage and with shared PV generation among the same type of users, as well as S4-with battery storage and with shared PV generation among different types of users. S1 is taken as a benchmark case, S2 is regarded as a traditional business model, and both S3 and S4 represent sharing business models. With a case study in Beijing, the obtained results show that: (i) sharing business models of S3 and S4, especially S4-with battery storage and with shared PV generation among different types of users, can reduce electricity expenses of the whole community; (ii) sharing business models, especially S4, can obviously enhance the PV self-consumption ratio, indicating a possible way to relieve government's financial burden of feed in tariff; (iii) sharing business models, especially S4, can also improve the economic viability of retired EV batteries significantly, which can help to promote the second-life use and provide references for setting retired EV batteries' prices.

  • 153.
    Tang, Y.
    et al.
    China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Q.
    China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Li, Y.
    China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Pan, X.
    China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Mclellan, B.
    Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Japan.
    The social-economic-environmental impacts of recycling retired EV batteries under reward-penalty mechanism2019Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 251, artikkel-id 113313Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing popularity of Electric Vehicles (EVs), a large number of EV batteries are intensively reaching their end-of-life, which has posed substantial challenges in ecological protection and sustainable development. However, the traditional subsidy mechanism is not effective in the current recycling market. Moreover, it is not conducive for guiding the EV industry to reduce dependence on the governmental financial support. As the reward-penalty mechanism has been successfully applied in similar fields, such as the recycling of waste portable batteries, it is expected to become a feasible alternative policy to promote the recycling of retired EV batteries. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the social-economic-environmental impacts of recycling retired EV batteries under reward-penalty mechanisms by developing a Stackelberg game theoretical model. Three scenarios are proposed and compared: S1 no policy intervention, S2 subsidy mechanism, and S3 reward-penalty mechanism. The obtained results show that:(i) Compared with the subsidy mechanism, the reward-penalty mechanism presents greater effects on recycling rate and the social welfare; (2) Under the subsidy mechanism, consumer surplus and the profit of EV manufacturer are two main driving factors of the social welfare. Under the reward-penalty mechanism, the reduced environmental burden tends to be another key contribution; (3) A relatively low minimum recycling rate favors the environmental benefit, consumer surplus and profit of EV manufacturer, while a relatively high minimum recycling rate is beneficial to reduce both the policy implementation cost and environmental burden caused by untreated EV batteries.

  • 154.
    Tang, Y.
    et al.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Q.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Mclellan, B.
    Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Japan.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Study on the impacts of sharing business models on economic performance of distributed PV-Battery systems2018Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 161, s. 544-558Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to promote the development of energy storage industry and relieve the retirement pressure of EV batteries, the application of retired EV batteries in energy storage for second-life use has gained significant attentions. Considering that distributed battery storages are still not economically attractive enough at present, the booming of sharing economy may provide a more feasible option. Based on a non-cooperative game theoretical model, this study aims to explore the impact of sharing business models on economic performance of retired EV batteries integrated with distributed PV systems. Four scenarios were proposed, including: a traditional scenario of S1 - individual battery storages, the sharing scenarios of S2 - shared battery storage, S3 - shared PV generation, and S4 - shared battery storage and shared PV generation. Through a case study in Beijing, the obtained results show that: (i)although sharing business models may not guarantee to bring economic benefits to each individual, they can contribute to a reduction in electricity expenses of the whole community; (ii) sharing business models can enhance PV self-consumption ratio and battery utilization ratio; (iii) sharing business models can improve the NPV by 1995 RMB-6975 RMB compared to the traditional scenario.

  • 155.
    Thorin, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Li, Hailong
    Chemical Engineering and Technology/Energy Processes, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Yan, Jinuye
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    On thermophysical properties of CO2/H2O mixtures with impurities in oxyfuel CCS systems2009Inngår i: IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 6 (2009), 2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 156.
    Tian, Ruijie
    et al.
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Qi
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Wang, G
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    LI, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Chen, S
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Li, Y
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Tian, Y
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Study on the promotion of natural gas-fired electricity with energy market reform in China using a dynamic game-theoretic model2017Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 185, s. 1832-1839Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural gas-fired electricity (NGFE) has gained great attention in China recently. However, the high generation cost leads to the NGFE cannot compete economically with the coal-fired electricity (CFE) when the value of peak power and positive environment externality of NGEF are not considered. Therefore, the market reform of natural gas (NG), including price deregulation, carbon tax and environmental subsidy are of vital importance to promote the penetration of NGFE. In the present study, a dynamic game-theoretic model was developed to analyze the impacts of market reforming for natural gas on the promotion effect of NGFE, in which the hourly real-time pricing (RTP) was applied in both natural gas and electricity markets. Five scenarios were proposed with different policy combinations of pricing mechanism reform, carbon tax and environmental subsidy. Based on the analysis results, it can be concluded that (i) deregulating the NG price, imposing carbon tax and adopting environment subsidy can promote the market penetration of NGFE greatly; and (ii) the market deregulation can increases the share of NGFE to 5.49%, and imposing the carbon tax of 100RMB/tonne CO2 can raise it further to 7.66%, furthermore if the environmental subsidy of 134.3 RMB/MWh is also included, the share of NGFE can reach 15%.

  • 157. Ting, Chen
    et al.
    Dongsheng, Shen
    Yiying, Jin
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Zhixin, Yu
    Huajun, Feng
    Yuyang, Long
    Jun, Xin
    Comprehensive evaluation of environ-economic benefits of anaerobic digestion technology in an integrated food waste-based methane plant using a fuzzy mathematical model2017Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 208, s. 666-677Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 158.
    Tomas Aparicio, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Starfelt, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Dynamic Simulation of Torrefaction2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 159.
    Wang, Bin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Tianjin Univ Commerce, Key Lab Refrigerat Technol Tianjin, Peoples R China..
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Tianjin Univ Commerce, Key Lab Refrigerat Technol Tianjin, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinying
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Zhu, Kai
    Tianjin Univ Commerce, Key Lab Refrigerat Technol Tianjin, Peoples R China..
    Modelling the Quench Tower in Flue Gas Cleaning of a Waste Fueled Power Plant2018Inngår i: JOINT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENERGY, ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT ICEEE 2018 AND ELECTRIC AND INTELLIGENT VEHICLES ICEIV 2018, DESTECH PUBLICATIONS, INC , 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To control the emission of pollutants in the flue gas, a separated flue gas quench was added after flue gas desulfurization and before flue gas condensation. A mathematic model was developed to simulate the heat and mass transfer in the flue gas quench. The model was validated through the comparison with measured data. Based on this model, the impacts of inlet flue gas condition and injected recycling water flow rate on the water consumption of the quench and the temperature of exit flue gas (FG) were studied. The results show that the temperature of exit FG and water consumption increased with the increase of flow rate and moisture content of FG. The temperature of exit FG increased and the water consumption decreased with the increase of droplet water diameter. The temperature of exit FG decreased and the water consumption increased with the increase of water flow rate. In order to cooled and humidified the flue gas sufficiently, the droplet diameter should be limited to 1.2 mm and the water to FG flow rate ratio (L/G) higher than 2.

  • 160.
    Wang, C.
    et al.
    Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Du, Y.
    Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Min, G.
    University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    New methods for clustering district heating users based on consumption patterns2019Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 251, artikkel-id 113373Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding energy users’ consumption patterns benefits both utility companies and consumers as it can support improving energy management and usage strategies. The rapid deployment of smart metering facilities has enabled the analysis of consumption patterns based on high-precision real usage data. This paper investigates data-driven unsupervised learning techniques to partition district heating users into separate clusters such that users in the same cluster possess similar consumption pattern. Taking into account the characteristics of heat usage, three new approaches of extracting pattern features from consumption data are proposed. Clustering algorithms with these features are executed on a real-world district heating consumption dataset. The results can reveal typical daily consumption patterns when the consumption linearly related to ambient temperature is removed. Users with heat usages that are highly imbalanced within a certain period of time or are highly consistent with the utility heat production load can also be grouped together. Our methods can facilitate gaining better knowledge regarding the behaviors of district heating users and hence can potentially be used to formulate new pricing and energy reduction solutions.

  • 161.
    Wang, C.
    et al.
    Shandong University, China.
    He, Z.
    Shandong University, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Wennerstern, R.
    Shandong University, China.
    Sun, Q.
    Shandong University, China.
    Evaluation on Performance of a Phase Change Material Based Cold Storage House2017Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, s. 3947-3952Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology of phase change materials used in cold storage house has great potential in energy storage and cost saving under the background of peak and valley price of electricity. A kind of cold storage house based on water/ice as phase change material was set up and studied. Performance of this cold storage house was experimentally tested and numerical simulated. The results showed that water/ice is a promising material for its high latent heat density. Cold storage house with water/ice PCM shifts electricity load to off-peak load and then increase operating cost due to peak load power pricing. In addition, water/ice PCM increases the insulation effect and then reduces the cold energy needed. The payback period of water/ice PCM in a laboratory scale is about 4.1 years in this study. 

  • 162.
    Wang, F.
    et al.
    Tianjin University, Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Zhao, J.
    Tianjin University, Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Deng, S.
    Tianjin University, Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Technical and economic analysis of integrating low-medium temperature solar energy into power plant2016Inngår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 112, s. 459-469Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to mitigate CO2 emission and improve the efficiency of the utilization of solar thermal energy (STE), solar thermal energy is proposed to be integrated into a power plant. In this paper, seven configurations were studied regarding the integration of STE. A 300 MWe subcritical coal-fired plant was selected as the reference, chemical absorption using monoethanolamine solvent was employed for CO2 capture, and parabolic trough collectors and evacuated tube collectors were used for STE collection. Both technical analysis and economic evaluation were conducted. Results show that integrating solar energy with post-combustion CO2 capture can effectively increase power generation and reduce the electrical efficiency penalty caused by CO2 capture. Among the different configurations, Config-2 and Config-6, which use medium temperature STE to replace high pressure feedwater without and with CO2 capture, show the highest net incremental solar efficiency. When building new plants, integrating solar energy can effectively reduce the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The lowest LCOE, 99.28 USD/MWh, results from Config-6, with a parabolic trough collector price of 185 USD/m2. When retrofitting existing power plants, Config-6 also shows the highest net present value (NPV), while Config-2 has the shortest payback time at a carbon tax of 50 USD/ton CO2. In addition, both LCOE and NPV/payback time are clearly affected by the relative solar load fraction, the price of solar thermal collectors and the carbon tax. Comparatively, the carbon tax can affect the configurations with CO2 capture more clearly than those without CO2 capture. 

  • 163.
    Wang, F.
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Efficient Utilization of Low and Medium Grade Energy (Tianjin University), Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Zhao, J.
    Key Laboratory of Efficient Utilization of Low and Medium Grade Energy (Tianjin University), Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Ningbo RX New Materials Tech. Co., Ltd., Ningbo, China.
    Deng, S.
    Key Laboratory of Efficient Utilization of Low and Medium Grade Energy (Tianjin University), Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Key Laboratory of Efficient Utilization of Low and Medium Grade Energy (Tianjin University), Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Preliminary experimental study of post-combustion carbon capture integrated with solar thermal collectors2017Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 185, s. 1471-1480Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The amine-based chemical absorption for CO2 capture normally needs to extract steam from the steam turbine cycle for solvent regeneration. Integrating solar thermal energy enables the reduction of steam extraction and therefore, can reduce the energy penalty caused by CO2 capture. In this paper, a pilot system of the solar thermal energy assisted chemical absorption was built to investigate the system performance. Two types of solar thermal energy collectors, parabolic trough and linear Fresnel reflector, were tested. It was found that the values of operation parameters can meet the requirements of designed setting parameters, and the solar collectors can provide the thermal energy required by the reboiler, while its contribution was mainly determined by solar irradiation. The solvent regeneration was investigated by varying the heat input. The results show that the response time of the reboiler heat duty is longer than those of the reboiler temperature and desorber pressure. This work provides a better understanding about the overall operation and control of the system.

  • 164.
    Wang, Fu
    et al.
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Jun
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Hao
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Zhao, Li
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China; Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Experimental study of solar assisted post-combustion carbon capture2015Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, s. 2246-2252Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar-assisted post-combustion carbon capture system is studied to compensate the energy penalty of coal-fired plant due to absorbent regeneration. The system is highly integrated with the amine-based carbon capture process coupled with solar thermal sub-system. The dynamic performance is largely affected by the variations of parameters and the fluctuations in solar collectors. An experimental facility of solar-assisted chemical absorption pilot with two types of collectors (parabolic trough and linear Fresnel) was constructed in this study. The impacts on the absorbent regeneration performance were studied on the dynamic variation of the solar heat and the operating temperature of the reboiler. The results show that an optimum ration of liquid-to-gas of 2.5-3.0 was determined at the lowest of the required regeneration energy. The study suggests that a better understanding of the key parameters associated with both capture process as well as the solar assisted sub-system if of importance for the overall operation and control.

  • 165.
    Wang, G.
    et al.
    China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Q.
    China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Li, Y.
    China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Policy simulation for promoting residential PV considering anecdotal information exchanges based on social network modelling2018Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 223, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveys and empirical researches have revealed that the households’ perceptions of benefits play a more important role than the benefits themselves in the decision process of adopting residential photovoltaic (PV). However, it has been overlooked in previous models about the green technology diffusion. This work developed an innovation diffusion model based on a social network, which was integrated with an anecdotal information exchange process. The contributions were to model the households’ evaluation, which changes with social influence, and analyze the impact of such dynamics on the adoption of residential PV. A case study was conducted for villages in Beijing. Different scenarios about policies have been considered concerning both the economic benefits and the information diffusion on social network. The results show that: (1) Providing insurance against the damage of PV to adopters for free can improve the adoption rate from 24% up to 62% (full insurance), and the new adopter acquisition cost is only 36% of that of providing additional subsidy; (2) The enhancement of communications (e.g. Bulletin Board System (BBS) and Social Networking Services (SNS)) creates an obstacle to the residential PV adoption when the majority of households have insufficient knowledge about the PV system; and (3) Information campaigns and information screening are both effective and necessary in mitigating the negative effect from the enhancement of communications at the initial stage of the residential PV market. 

  • 166.
    Wang, Ge
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Acad Chinese Energy Strategy, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Qi
    China Univ Petr, Acad Chinese Energy Strategy, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Li, Yan
    China Univ Petr, Acad Chinese Energy Strategy, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Siyuan
    China Univ Petr, Acad Chinese Energy Strategy, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    The impact of social network on the adoption of real-time electricity pricing mechanism2017Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 9TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLIED ENERGY / [ed] Yan, J Wu, J Li, H, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2017, s. 3154-3159Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The option menu of electricity tariffs is a compromise way for introducing real-time pricing (RTP) to consumers while remain the alternative fixed pricing (FP). Since it is difficult for a consumer to evaluate RTP and FP two tariffs because of the information asymmetry, and the acquaintances' opinions may play an important role when making a choice. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the social network on the diffusion of real-time electricity price using evolutionary game theoretical analysis. Consumers with heterogeneities in demand response capability and relationships in the social network are considered in an electricity market RTP and FP simultaneously. The consumers who adopt RTP can response to the varying price by shifting their electricity consumption to minimize their expenditures and inversely influence the price. As a case study, hundreds of scenarios of different initial conditions including social networks structures and update rules were analyzed and inter-compared using the developed model. The results show that: (i) the higher degree of the consumers social network, the slower the diffusion of RTP; (ii) increasing the proportion of consumers with high demand response capability can promote the adoption of RTP, implying the worth of promoting the utilization of smart home technology; (iii) a small exogenous probability (e.g. 1%) of the tariff choice mutation can accelerate the diffusion of RTP, indicating that the advertisement of RTP can be useful.

  • 167.
    Wang, Ge
    et al.
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Qi
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    McLellan, BC
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Chen, Siyuan
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Li, Yan
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Tian, Yulu
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Study on the promotion impact of demand response on distributed PV penetration by using non-cooperative game theoretical analysis2017Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 185, nr 2, s. 1869-1878Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Promoting the penetration of distributed photovoltaic systems (PV) at the end-user side is an important and urgent task. This study aims to evaluate the promotion impact of the response capability of smart home consumers on the distributed PV penetration using non-cooperativegame theoretical analysis. In the analysis, the Nash equilibrium can be found for consumers with different levels of demand response capability in an electricity market with real-time pricing (RTP) mechanism under different PV installed capacities and battery capacities. As a case study, 5 levels of consumers' response capability, 32 combinations of PV installed capacities and battery capacities were analyzed and inter-compared using the developed model. The results show that: (i) the consumers with higher response capability are able to accept larger PV capacity because the marginal revenue of new installed PV for smart consumers decreases much more slowly compared to that of a common consumer; (ii) the consumers with higher response capability need less batteries to promote PV economic acceptability; (iii) the consumers with higher responsecapability can meet the electricity demand in real-time with least expenditure, so they get more ultimate benefit from the games.

  • 168.
    Wang, Ge
    et al.
    China University of Petroleum-Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Qi
    China University of Petroleum-Beijing, China.
    Mclellan, Benjamin C.
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Multi-region optimal deployment of renewable energy considering different interregional transmission scenarios2016Inngår i: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 108, s. 108-118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 169.
    Wang, Ge
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Qi
    China Univ Petr, Peoples R China.
    Tian, Ruijie
    China Univ Petr, Peoples R China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Combined Impacts of RTP and FIT on Optimal Management for a Residential Micro-Grid2015Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, s. 1666-1672Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential micro-grid can reduce the household's electricity expense as well as shift the electricity demand from peak time to valley time. Optimal management of a typical residential smart micro-grid is conducted using a proposed model in the present study. In the optimal management, the real-time pricing mechanism, feed-in-tariff for Photovoltaics (PV) power as residential electricity generators, and residential appliances are considered. Four scenarios are studied and the result shows that the real-time pricing mechanism shifts effectively the electricity consumption from time peak time to valley time, and different feed-in-tariff of Photovoltaic (PV) can shift the energy consumption of micro-grid between periods with strong solar irradiation and weak solar irradiation.

  • 170.
    Wang, L.
    et al.
    SINTEF Energy Research, Sem Saelends vei 11, Trondheim, Norway.
    Skreiberg, Ø.
    SINTEF Energy Research, Sem Saelends vei 11, Trondheim, Norway.
    Becidan, M.
    SINTEF Energy Research, Sem Saelends vei 11, Trondheim, Norway.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Sintering of rye straw ash and effect of additives2014Inngår i: Energy Procedia, 2014, s. 2008-2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of kaolin and calcite additives on the rye straw ash sintering behaviors were investigated. The rye straw ash has a high sintering tendency, with observation of severe fusion during combustion. The formation and melting of potassium silicates play key roles in sintering of the rye straw ash at elevated temperatures. Fusion characteristics temperatures of the rye straw ash were significantly increased upon kaolin and calcite addition. Kaolin addition led to formation of high temperature melting potassium aluminum silicates, which were revealed by XRD analyses. Due to formation of high temperature melting species due to kaolin addition, the severe sintering of the rye straw ash was significantly reduced. Addition of calcite provided CaO to react with silica in the rye straw ash, causing generation of high temperature melting calcium rich silicates. In addition, the dilution effect from calcite is a main reason for improved rye straw sintering behaviors.

  • 171.
    Wang, L.
    et al.
    SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Skreiberg, Ø.
    SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Khalil, R.
    SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Effect of fuel mixing on melting behavior of spruce wood ash2019Inngår i: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, s. 1342-1347Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to investigate effects of fuel mixing on melting behavior of spruce wood ash. Spruce bark was studied as additive fuel regarding its ability to lower the melting and flowing temperature of spruce wood ash. Standard ash fusion characterization tests were carried out on ashes from mixtures of spruce wood and bark after heating at 550 °C. The ash residues after the ash fusion tests were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). High melting temperature and low sintering tendency of spruce wood ash was observed. It is mainly attributed to formation of calcium rich silicates with high melting temperatures. Upon mixing with 10 wt% bark, the melting temperature of the spruce wood ash considerably decreased, which flowed completely after the ash fusion test. Compared to spruce wood ash, SEM images showed that the ash from the mixture of spruce wood and bark passed a molten stage with formation of slag. SEM-EDX revealed that the concentration of silicon in the spruce wood ash increased as a result of mixing with spruce bark. It favors formation of low temperature melting potassium silicates.

  • 172.
    Wang, Liang
    et al.
    SINTEF Energy Research, Norway.
    Skreiberg, Øyvind
    SINTEF Energy Research, Norway.
    Becidan, Michael
    SINTEF Energy Research, Norway.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Investigation of rye straw ash sintering characteristics and the effect of additives2016Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 162, s. 1195-1204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of ash sintering during combustion of agricultural residues is far from complete, because of the high heterogeneity of the content and composition of ash forming matters and the complex transformation of them. In order to make agricultural residues competitive fuels on the energy market, further research efforts are needed to investigate agricultural residues' ash sintering behavior and propose relevant anti-sintering measures. The aim of this work was to investigate the ash characteristics of rye straw and effects of additives. Three additives were studied regarding their abilities to prevent and abate rye straw ash sintering. Standard ash fusion characterization and laboratory-scale sintering tests were performed on ashes from mixtures of rye straw and additives produced at 550°C.Ash residues from sintering tests at higher temperatures were analyzed using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). High sintering and melting tendency of the rye straw ash at elevated temperatures was observed. Severe sintering of the rye straw ash was attributed to the formation and fusion of low temperature K-silicates and K-phosphates with high K/Ca ratios. Among the three additives, calcite served the best one to mitigate sintering of the rye straw ash. Ca from the calcite promoted formation of high temperature silicates and calcium rich K-phosphates. In addition, calcite may hinder aggregating of ash melts and further formation of large ash slag. Therefore, the chemical reactions and physical restraining effects arose by calcite addition contributed to reduction of ash melts and sintering degree. Upon addition of kaolin, compositions of rye straw ash shifted from low temperature melting K-silicates to high temperature melting K-Al-silicates. The changes of ash chemistry were favorable for reducing sintering of the rye straw ash. As the Ca-sludge was added, reduction of sintering of the ryestraw ash was less pronounced. Only K4CaSi3O9 and a small amount of KCaPO4 were identified in the rye straw ash as Ca-sludge was added.

  • 173.
    Wang, W.
    et al.
    Sun Yat-Sen University, China.
    Guo, Shaopeng
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Zhao, J.
    Tianjin University, China.
    Li, X.
    Tianjin University, China.
    Ding, J.
    Sun Yat-Sen University, China.
    Experimental study on the direct/indirect contact energy storage container in mobilized thermal energy system (M-TES)2014Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 119, nr 15, s. 181-189Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A mobilized thermal energy storage (TES) system has been proposed to recover and use industrial waste or excess heat for distributed users. In this paper, lab-scale test facilities have been built to understand the mechanisms of heat charging and discharging processes. The facilities consist of a direct/indirect-contact thermal energy storage container, heat transfer oil (HTO)/water tanks, an electrical boiler, HTO/water pumps and a plate heat exchanger. The organic phase change material (PCM), erythritol, which is sugar alcohol, was chosen as the working material due to its large heat density (330. kJ/kg) and suitable melting point (118. °C) for industrial low-temperature heat recovery, as well as non toxic and corrosive. Although differential scanning calorimetry tests have shown that a large temperature range exists during the phase change of erythritol, it did not affect the heat discharging during the tests of system performance. Heat charging/discharging results show that for the direct-contact storage container, heat discharging process is much faster than charging process. At the initial stage of heat charging, heat transfer oil is blocked to enter the container, resulting in a slow charging rate. Meanwhile, the PCM attached on the container wall on the bottom always melts last. It has been found that increasing the flow rate of HTO can effectively enhance the charging/discharging processes. For the indirect-contact storage container, heat charging and discharging take almost the same time; and the flow rate of HTO does not show an obvious effect on the charging and discharging processes due to the weak thermal conductivity of the solid phase change material. Comparatively, using the direct-contact storage container may achieve shorter charging/discharging processes than using the indirect-contact storage container.

  • 174.
    Wang, W.
    et al.
    Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Guo, S.
    Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou, China .
    He, S.
    Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Ding, J.
    Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Yang, J.
    South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.
    Numerical simulation study on discharging process of the direct-contact phase change energy storage system2015Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 150, s. 61-68Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mobilized thermal energy storage system (M-TES) has been demonstrated as a promising technology to supply heat using waste heat in industries to distributed users, where heat discharging determines whether M-TES system can satisfy the required heating rate. The objective of this work is to investigate the solidification mechanism of phase change materials (PCM) for heat discharging in a direct-contact thermal energy storage (TES) container for M-TES. A 2-dimensional (2D) numerical simulation model of the TES tank is developed in ANSYS FLUENT, and validated with the experimental measurement. Effects of flow rate and inlet temperature of heat transfer oil (HTO) were studied. Results show that (a) the discharging process includes the formation of solidified PCM followed by the sinking of solidified PCM; (b) the discharging time of M-TES can be reduced by increasing the flow rate of heat transfer oil. When the flow rate is increased from 0.46m3/h to 0.92m3/h, the solidified PCM is increased from 25vol.% to 90vol.% within 30min; (c) the discharging time can be reduced by decreasing the inlet temperature of HTO. While the inlet temperature is reduced from 50°C to 30°C, the solidified PCM is increased from 60vol.% to 90vol.% within 30min. This work provides engineering insights for the rational design of discharging process for M-TES system. 

  • 175.
    Wang, Y.
    et al.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Nian, V.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yuan, J.
    China Institute of FTZ Supply Chain, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai, China.
    Life cycle analysis of integrated gasification combined cycle power generation in the context of Southeast Asia2018Inngår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, nr 6, artikkel-id en11061587Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Coal remains a major source of electricity production even under the current state of developments in climate policies due to national energy priorities. Coal remains the most attractive option, especially to the developing economies in Southeast Asia, due to its abundance and affordability in the region, despite the heavily polluting nature of this energy source. Gasification of coal running on an integration gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) represents an option to reduce the environmental impacts of power generation from coal, but the decarbonization potential and suitability of IGCC in the context of Southeast Asia remain unclear. Using Singapore as an example, this paper presents a study on the life cycle analysis (LCA) of IGCC power generation with and without CCS based on a generic process-driven analysis method. We further evaluate the suitability of IGCC with and without CCS as an option to address the energy and climate objectives for the developing economies in Southeast Asia. Findings suggest that the current IGCC technology is a much less attractive option in the context of Southeast Asia when compared to other available power generation technologies, such as solar photovoltaic systems, coal with CCS, and potentially nuclear power technologies.

  • 176.
    Wang, Y.
    et al.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Wang, B.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Zhu, K.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    He, W.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Liu, S.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Energy saving potential of using heat pipes for CPU cooling2018Inngår i: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 143, s. 630-638Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Air cooling is the most common cooling solution for central processing units (CPUs). However, the heat dissipation capacity of conventional air-cooled heatsinks is limited because of non-uniform temperature distribution in the base of heatsinks. Embedded heat pipes into the heatsink is an effective method to improve the heat dissipation of the CPU and make the temperature distribution of the heatsink base more uniform. This work studied the cooling performance of the heat pipe embedded heatsinks, including the surface temperature, the average temperature of base, the thermal resistance and the power consumption. The impact of the different arrangements of heat pipes on the temperature distribution was also investigated. Results show that to obtain the same CPU temperature, a lower air velocity was needed for the heatsink with embedded heat pipe at the same heat flux. The minimum thermal resistance of the studied heat pipe embedded heatsinks was 0.15 °C/W, which is lower than that of the reference conventional heatsink, 0.22 °C/W. In addition, the heatsink with H-shape arrangement of embedded heat pipes had the best overall performance, which cooling capacity was increased by 22.5% and the weight of the heatsink was reduced by 30.1% compared with the heatsink without heat pipes. The energy saving potential was also evaluated based on the measured real operating status of CPUs. The dynamic simulation results show that the total fan power consumption can be effectively reduced when using a heat pipe embedded heatsink to replace the conventional heatsink, which can be up to 66.2%. 

  • 177.
    Wang, Y.
    et al.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Zhu, K.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Cui, Z.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Wei, J.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Evaluation of water cooling heat sink performance and dynamic flow effect2019Inngår i: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, s. 2417-2422Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the advent of high-performance of data centre, the energy consumption of servers has proliferated. Consequently, the generated tremendous amount of heat requires huge energy consumption. Improving energy efficiency is going to play a key role in reducing the energy consumption of data centre. Adopting the heat sink with higher heat transfer and flow performance or precisely control the cooling capacity are two effective way for energy saving in heat dissipation. In this paper, three water cooled heat sink with different pin fin are evaluated by experiments. The heat sink with square pin fin has better heat and flow effect. Meanwhile, the precisely control of the pump power according to the working load is used for energy saving. The energy saving effect is evaluated by benefit factor. However, the most effective way of energy saving is adopting the heat sink with higher comprehensive effect. 

  • 178.
    Wei, P.
    et al.
    Institute of the Building Environment and Sustainability Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.
    Cheng, H.
    Institute of the Building Environment and Sustainability Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.
    Liu, W.
    Institute of the Building Environment and Sustainability Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.
    Congfu, M.
    Institute of the Building Environment and Sustainability Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yang, X.
    Institute of the Building Environment and Sustainability Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.
    Jin, L.
    Institute of the Building Environment and Sustainability Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.
    Numerical study on thermal energy storage tube filled by metal foam with gradient porosities2019Inngår i: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Institute of Physics Publishing , 2019, Vol. 268, nr 1, artikkel-id 012163Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal energy storage has attracted more and more attentions due mainly to its ability of peak load shifting. Shell-and-tube configuration is a typical heat exchanger for thermal energy storage. To enhance phase change heat transfer, open-cell metal foam has been involved in various kinds of shell-and-tube heat exchangers. To further improve the overall thermal performance of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, metal foams with gradient porosities were inserted into the shell side. Positive and negative gradients in porosity were studied for comparison. Numerical model was developed based on the finite volume method and three sets of numerical simulations were performed. Transient melting front and melting fraction were illustrated for comparison. Results demonstrated that the positive gradient in porosity outperformed the other two kinds of configurations, resulting in a 17.5% reduction in full melting time. 

  • 179.
    Weidong, Wang
    et al.
    Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Shiquan, He
    Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Jing, Ding
    Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Jianping, Yang
    South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.
    Numerical Evaluation on a Direct-contact Thermal Energy Storage System2017Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, s. 4389-4394Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates numerically various configurations of direct-contact PCM thermal energy storage devices, regarding inlet location, inlet flow directions, pre-heating and inlet tubes with straight fins. The direct-contact conjugate heat transfer between the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and PCM during melting process, is solved numerically by enthalpy-porosity formulation in the computational fluid dynamic approach. The results indicate that pre-heating could form channels in a short time, which improve heat transfer rate for charging stages. To further enhance heat transfer performance, inlet tubes embedded with straight fins. Compared to pre-heating method, the electric power can be saved. Each design are evaluated with respect to their heat transfer performance vis-à-vis heat storage ratio.

  • 180.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    et al.
    Shandong University, China.
    Sun, Qie
    Shandong University, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    The Future Potential for Carbon Capture and Storage in Climate Change Mitigation: An overview from perspectives of technology, economy and risk2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 103, s. 724-736Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the recent IPCC reports, the effects from anthropogenic climate change effects are becoming more serious and actions more urgent. The global mean concentration of CO2, the most important Greenhouse Gas (GHG), in the atmosphere is now close to 400 ppm. The most comprehensive research efforts concerning safe levels propose that we should strive to keep the atmospheric concentration of CO2below 350 ppm. This is also a more transparent global goal than using effects in the components of the climate system. Most scenarios show that the combustion of fossil fuels will increase in the future, while the development of renewables is still too marginal to stop this growth. The possibility that countries will leave fossil resources underground does not seem realistic. The only options in the short run to halt emissions of CO2 are the large-scale application of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in combination with increased energy efficiency. In the long run, we have to radically transform our societal metabolism towards greater resource efficiency, where renewables can play a more important role. The main barriers for implementation of CCS on a large scale are not technical, but economic and social. As long as the costs for emitting CO2 are much lower than implementing CCS technology, there will not be a market-driven development of CCS. A major challenge for CCS will be to achieve wide public acceptance, since this will also affect the future political attitude to it. This will require an open communication about safety aspects early in the planning phase, where it can be shown that safety issues can be handled, even in the event of major leaks of CO2. To assume a low probability of accidents is not a feasible way forward in the communication process. The future concerning CO2 emissions will be determined very much by actions of the biggest emitters. The developed countries have already emitted a large amount of CO2 and must now take a step forward to show that they are willing to invest in CCS technology. At this stage, it is reasonable to expect developed countries to take a leading role in developing the CCS technology on a large-scale. It is highly probable that developing countries like China will follow this path in the near future, since they have a clear ambition to take a lead in climate change mitigation in the long run and to avoid blame for a deteriorating environment.

  • 181.
    Wilhelmsen, O.
    et al.
    Sintef Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Skaugen, G.
    Sintef Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Jørstad, O.
    tatoil ASA, Trondheim, Norway.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Evaluation of SPUNG# and other equations of state for use in carbon capture and storage modelling2012Inngår i: Energy Procedia, 2012, s. 236-245Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, Equations of State (EoS) relevant for carbon capture and storage modelling have been evaluated for pure CO2 and CO 2-mixtures with particular focus on the extended corresponding state approach, SPUNG/SRK. Our work continues the search of an EoS which is accurate, consistent and computationally fast for CO2-mixtures. These EoS have been evaluated: Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK), SRK with Peneloux shift, Peng-Robinson, Lee-Kesler, SPUNG/SRK and the multi-parameter approach GERG-2004. The EoS were compared to the accurate reference EoS by Span and Wagner for pure CO2. Only SPUNG/SRK and GERG-2004 predicted the density accurately near the critical point (< 1.5 % Absolute Average Deviation (AAD)). For binary mixtures, Lee-Kesler and SPUNG/SRK had similar accuracy in density predictions. SRK had a sufficient accuracy for the gas phase below the critical point (<2.5%), and Peng Robinson had a decent accuracy for liquid mixtures (<3%). GERG-2004 was the most accurate EoS for all the single phase density predictions. It was also the best EoS for all the VLE predictions except for mixtures containing CO2 and O2, where it had deviations in the bubble point predictions (∼20 % AAD). Even though multi-parameter EoS such as GERG-2004 are state-of-the-art for high accuracy predictions, this work shows that extended corresponding state EoS may be an excellent compromise between computational speed and accuracy. The SPUNG approach combines high accuracy with a versatile and transparent methodology. New experimental data may easily be taken into account to improve the predictive abilities in the two phase region. The approach may be improved and extended to enable applications for more difficult systems, such as polar mixtures with CO2 and H 2O.

  • 182.
    Wu, T.
    et al.
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yu, Z.
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Optimizing the Energy Structure for Space Heating - An Approach Based on External Cost2017Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, s. 3194-3199Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Coal is the dominating fuel for heating, resulting in serious air pollution in China especially in winter. To mitigate the problem, Chinese government has issued policies to motivate consumers to use natural gas to replace coal. Considering the high price of natural gas, in order to further promote the utilization of natural gas, this paper has proposed a new method that considers the external cost of fuel when optimizing the energy structure for space heating. The external cost is commonly used to reflect the impacts of pollutant emissions to measure social benefit. The proposed method has been applied to a case study for the regions of Beijing and Tianjin. Results show that optimizing the fuel consumption in Beijing and Tianjin as a whole can reduce the external cost by 36 million dollars. 

  • 183.
    Xi, X.
    et al.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yang, X.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China.
    Yu, Z.
    Department of Energy and Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, Stavanger 4036, Norway.
    Air pollution related externality of district heating - A case study of Changping, Beijing2019Inngår i: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, s. 4323-4330Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution, caused by the use of fossil fuel, has been an environmental plague in China. It has a strong negative impact on human health. Since the costs of damage to health are not born by the pollution producers, these costs translate to social externality. Policies have an important role in optimizing resource allocation, such as penalizing the pollutant producers and incentivizing clean energy development. Among others, replacing coal with natural gas for heating represents an important example of air quality improvement measures. This paper presents a study that evaluates the health impacts from air pollution and the external cost of the "Coal-To-Gas" policy in district heating using Changping District (Beijing, China) as an example. Four scenarios were considered based on the historical and standard PM2.5 concentration. Results show that PM2.5 is responsible for causing an increase of 40% premature deaths in 2015 and that the monetary value of damage to health is higher than 1.2 billion CNY. In 2016 and 2017, the reported air quality was better than that in 2015. As a result, 13.3% and 26% premature deaths caused by air pollution were avoided in 2016 and 2017 compared to 2015 respectively. If the PM2.5 concentration level were to be reduced to national standard, the number of premature deaths attributed to PM2.5 could further decrease to 47.7% compared to 2015. Overall, the Coal-To-Gas policy in district heating reduces 0.017%~0.45% of premature death caused by air pollution each year. Air pollution reduction policies, which are expected to improve air quality together in the future, and the specific policy of Coal-To-Gas in district heating, could make great contribution to reducing the premature death caused by environmental problem and need more attention from the government and the public.

  • 184.
    Xie, J.
    et al.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Guo, J.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Ma, Z.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Xue, J. -H
    University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Sun, Q.
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    SEA: A Combined Model for Heat Demand Prediction2018Inngår i: Proceedings of 2018 6th IEEE International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content, IC-NIDC 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, s. 71-75Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat demand prediction is a prominent research topic in the area of intelligent energy networks. It has been well recognized that periodicity is one of the important characteristics of heat demand. Seasonal-trend decomposition based on LOESS (STL) algorithm can analyze the periodicity of a heat demand series, and decompose the series into seasonal and trend components. Then, predicting the seasonal and trend components respectively, and combining their predictions together as the heat demand prediction is a possible way to predict heat demand. In this paper, STL-ENN-ARIMA (SEA), a combined model, was proposed based on the combination of the Elman neural network (ENN) and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, which are commonly applied to heat demand prediction. ENN and ARIMA are used to predict seasonal and trend components, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed SEA model has a promising performance.

  • 185. Xueqin, Yang
    et al.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Zhixin, Yu
    Zhen, Wang
    Impacts of emission reduction and external cost on natural gas distribution2017Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 207, s. 553-561Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural gas, as a cleaner fossil fuel energy resource, is playing an increasingly important role in the futureenergy mix to achieve emission reduction target globally. In this study, a new method based on the exter-nal cost is developed to identify an optimal solution for natural gas distribution. China is selected for acase study. Both the economic cost and the external cost of pollutant emissions have been considered.The provincial distribution of natural gas and other energy resources is optimized with the aim to min-imize both economic and external costs. Results show that the supply of natural gas should be prioritizedfor Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai, owing to higher external costs and the optimized distribution canreduce the overall external cost by 4% in China. The optimization of natural gas distribution will alsoinfluence CO2emissions, therefore, the determination of the reduction target for each province shouldconsider the external cost. Sensitivity study also shows that the minimum energy demand, the maximumnatural gas supply and the minimum natural gas demand are the key parameters that impact the opti-mized distribution for each province.

  • 186.
    Yan, A.
    et al.
    Tianjin University, Tianjin, China .
    Zhao, J.
    Tianjin University, Tianjin, China .
    An, Q.
    Tianjin University, Tianjin, China .
    Zhao, Y.
    Tianjin University, Tianjin, China .
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Huang, Y. J.
    Fudan University, Shanghai, China .
    Hydraulic performance of a new district heating systems with distributed variable speed pumps2013Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 112, s. 876-885Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of distributed variable speed pumps (DVSP) in the district heating (DH) network has been considered as a technology improvement that has a potential of saving energy, compared to the conventional central circulating pump (CCCP) DH system. A hydraulic model was developed to simulate the hydraulic performance of such a DVSP DH system, based on Kirchhoff's laws. It was applied to a real DH network in Kuerle, China. In order to improve the model accuracy, a new parameter called resistance ratio was proposed by comparing the measured data and the simulated result. The validation result shows that the model has the ability to predict the hydraulic behavior of the DVSP system. The results show that when the rotational speeds of all substation pumps are synchronously decreased by the same percentage, the pump heads and the flow rates are also reduced synchronously and almost in the same degree in all loops. In addition, two operation cases of DH were investigated, including (I) the flow rate varies in all of the loops simultaneously, and (II) the flow rate varies only in one of the loops. For both cases, the DVSP system has a better performance of saving energy at least 30% than the CCCP system. Compared to the CCCP system, the installed pump capacities can be smaller in the DVSP system. Hence, applying DSVP, especially at a low flow rate, can save quite much electricity. Based on the example network in Kuerle, the DVSP system consumes electricity 71% and 31% less than the CCCP system for Cases I and II respectively.

  • 187.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Chou, S. K.
    National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Innovative research for sustainable energy systems2015Inngår i: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 191-191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 188.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Desideri, U.
    Universita’ di Perugia, Università degli Studi di Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    Chou, S. K.
    National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Energy solutions for a sustainable world2016Inngår i: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 13, nr 8, s. 757-758Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 189.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Shamim, T.
    Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
    Chou, S. K.
    National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Desideri, U.
    Università di Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino, Pisa, Italy .
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Clean, efficient and affordable energy for a sustainable future2017Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 185, s. 953-962Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 190.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Shamim, T.
    Masdar Inst Sci & Technol, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.
    Choud, S. K.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Clean, Efficient and Affordable Energy for a Sustainable Future - The Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2015)2015Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, s. 1-2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 191.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sun, F.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Peoples R China..
    Chou, S. K.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore..
    Desideri, U.
    Univ Pisa, Pisa, Italy..
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Xiong, R.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Peoples R China.
    Transformative Innovations for a Sustainable Future2017Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 204, s. 867-872Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 192.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Sun, F.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Chou, S. K.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore.
    Desideri, U.
    Univ Pisa, Italy..
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Xiong, R.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Natl Engn Lab Elect Vehicles, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    Transformative innovations for a sustainable future2018Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 231, s. 1383-1388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 193.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sun, F.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Natl Engn Lab Elect Vehicles, Peoples R China..
    Chou, S. K.
    Natl Univ Singapore.
    Desideri, U.
    Univ Pisa, Italy..
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Xiong, R.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Peoples R China..
    Transformative innovations for a sustainable future - Part III2018Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, s. 1-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 194.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Energy, S-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Sun, F.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Natl Engn Lab Elect Vehicles, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    Choug, S. K.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Mech Engn, 9 Engn Dr 1,Blk EA 04-12, Singapore 117576, Singapore..
    Desideri, U.
    Univ Pisa, Dept Energy Syst Terr & Construct Engn, I-56122 Pisa, Italy..
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Xiong, R.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Natl Engn Lab Elect Vehicles, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    Transformative Innovations for a Sustainable Future - Part II2017Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 207, s. 1-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 195.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wu, J.
    Cardiff University, United Kingdom.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Applied Energy2017Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, s. 1-2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 196.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wu, J.
    Tongji University, China.
    Yang, Ying
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Wang, H.
    Tongji University, China.
    Wang, X.
    Tongji University, China.
    Editorial cleaner energy for cleaner city2018Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 152, s. 1-2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 197.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yang, H.
    Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Chen, X.
    Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
    Innovative solutions for energy transitions: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018)2019Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 158, s. 1-2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 198.
    Yang, X.
    et al.
    Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Niu, Z.
    Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Bai, Q.
    Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Cui, X.
    Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    He, Y. -L
    Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Experimental study on the solidification process of fluid saturated in fin-foam composites for cold storage2019Inngår i: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 161, artikkel-id 114163Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold storage can effectively turn electricity to cold energy during off peak hours and reduce electricity peak load by supplying cold energy for air conditioning. Solid-liquid phase change rate is seriously encumbered by the relatively-low thermal conductivity of phase change materials (PCMs). A novel fin-foam structure was established to enhance solidification heat transfer and the solidification characteristics were experimentally explored. An experimental system visualizing solid-liquid interface and temperature monitoring was built. The parameters of fin-foam structure, including fin sizes, fin pitch and number were investigated experimentally. Particular attention was paid to justifying the local thermal equilibrium state via measuring temperature on metallic ligament surface and the saturating fluid in pore space. Results showed that inserting fins into metal foam can make a promotional improvement on solidification rate of water by 28.35%. The solid-liquid interface became locally curved after inserting fins. Thermal adhesive and insulation adhesive did not affect the accuracy at pore-scale temperature measurement. Solidification process can be further enhanced through increasing fin width and number rather than fin pitch. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 199.
    Yang, Xingyang
    et al.
    Tianjin University, China.
    Zhao, Li
    Tianjin University, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yu, Zhixin
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Theoretical analysis of a combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle using zeotropic mixture2015Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 160, s. 912-919Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A theoretical study on a combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle using zeotropic mixture isobutane/pentane is carried out. The performances of different mixture compositions are compared. An exergy analysis is conducted for the cycle. The result reveals that most exergy destruction happens in the ejector, where more than 40% exergy is lost. The heat exchange in generator causes the second largest exergy loss, larger than 28%. As the mass fraction of isobutane changes ranges from 100% to 0%, the relative exergy destruction of each component is also changing. And mixture isobutane/pentane (50/50) has the maximum exergy efficiency of 7.83%. The parametric analysis of generator temperature, condenser temperature and evaporator temperature for all the mixtures shows that, all these three thermodynamic parameters have a strong effect on the cycle performance.

  • 200.
    Yang, Xueqin
    et al.
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Wang, Zhen
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Impacts of Emission Reduction Target and External Costs on Provincial Natural Gas Distribution in China2017Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, s. 3326-3331Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural gas is playing a more and more important role in emission reduction, and it is regarded as inevitable choice for the future energy consumption. In this study, a mathematical model was developed to identify an optimal solution for natural gas distribution in China. In line with previous research studies, the economic cost is the most important criterion that was considered. Additionally, the external cost of emissions was included as a second criterion. In order to satisfy the energy conservation and emission reduction target, the paper contributes with an optimization approach of the provincial distribution of natural gas with the aim to minimize the comprehensive costs. The problem was solved using Lingo software. An important contribution of the paper is that external costs was considered in the optimization of natural gas distribution from a provincial level perspective.

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