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  • 151.
    Wang, C.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Larsson, M.
    MEFOS - Metallurgical Research Institute AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Dahl, J.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    CO2 emission reduction in the steel industry by using emission trading programs2007Inngår i: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 4, nr 5, s. 505-518Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of the EU Emission Trading Scheme ( ETS) started on January 1(st) 2005 according to national plans for allocating emissions rights. The steel industry is one of the industrial sectors included in this scheme. The objective of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the optimum solution( s) for European steel plants to meet their emission allowance with low reduction cost. An optimization model based on a Swedish steel plant is developed and used. Three scenarios were created in the model, i. e., internal changes within the steel plant, EU ETS, and the Kyoto Protocol's clean development mechanism ( CDM). For the last scenario, China was selected as a country of the non- Annex I Party for the emission trading by CDM. The modeling results show that the studied plant will face an emission gap between allowed and calculated emissions in the near future. Compared to EU ETS, the implementation of CDM projects will make the plant reduce CO2 emissions at a lower cost. The internal changes within the plant will also play an important role for the solution of low abatement cost. The model developed could serve as a benchmark for the future emission trading simulation's purpose within the European steel industry.

  • 152.
    Wang, C. S.
    et al.
    Tianjin Univ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Minist Educ, Tianjin 30072, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jia, H. J.
    Tianjin Univ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Minist Educ, Tianjin 30072, Peoples R China..
    Wu, J. Z.
    Cardiff Univ, Sch Engn, Cardiff CF24 3AA, S Glam, Wales..
    Yu, J. C.
    State Grid Tianjin Elect Power Co, Tianjin 300010, Peoples R China..
    Xu, T.
    Tianjin Univ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Minist Educ, Tianjin 30072, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Y.
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Sustainable Dev Soc & Technol, S-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Renewable and distributed energy integration with mini/microgrids2019Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 237, s. 920-923Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 153.
    Wang, W.
    et al.
    School of Engineering, Sun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhou, China.
    Li, J.
    School of Engineering, Sun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhou, China.
    Wei, X.
    School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of TechnologyGuangzhou, China.
    Ding, J.
    School of Engineering, Sun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhou, China.
    Feng, H.
    National Supercomputing Center in ShenzhenShenzhen, China .
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Energy Process Division, Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholm, Sweden .
    Yang, J.
    School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of TechnologyGuangzhou, China.
    Carbon dioxide adsorption thermodynamics and mechanisms on MCM-41 supported polyethylenimine prepared by wet impregnation method2015Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 142, s. 221-228Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Amine-functionalized sorbents prepared by wet impregnation method shows great promises for CO2 capture from real flue gas in power plants. The objective of this work is to understand CO2 adsorption thermodynamics and mechanisms at varied polyethylenimine (PEI) loadings on mesoporous MCM-41 by wet impregnation method using a computational approach for the first time. The structures of PEI/MCM-41 sorbents were optimized using molecular dynamics (MD), and the CO2 adsorption thermodynamics at varied PEI loadings was simulated using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) method. Results showed a good agreement between experiments and simulation. On the surface of the MCM-41, there are high CO2-philic sites for CO2 adsorption, which were firstly covered by PEI molecular. The functionalization groups increased the interactions of the CO2 with more PEI molecular deployed on the surface of the MCM-41, then to the center of the pore. The adsorption performance of the composite sorbents depended on the adsorption cites and the space for CO2 diffusion. The CO2 adsorption thermodynamics and mechanisms at varied PEI loadings shed lights on tuning CO2 capture performance with amine-functionalized sorbents for power plant greenhouse gas control.

  • 154.
    Wang, Xiaoqiang
    et al.
    National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Power Generation Equipment (NELB), School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University.
    Nordlander, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Microalgal Biomethane Production Integrated with an Existing Biogas Plant: A Case Study in Sweden2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Microalgae are considered as potential sources for biodiesel production due to the higher growth rate than terrestrial plants. However, the large-scale application of algal biodiesel would be limited by the downstream cost of lipid extraction and the availability of water, CO2 and nutrients. A possible solution is to integrate algae cultivation with existing biogas plant, where algae can be cultivated using the discharges of CO2 and digestate as nutrient input, and then the attained biomass can be converted directly to biomethane by existing infrastructures. This integrated system is investigated and evaluated in this study. Algae are cultivated in a photobioreactor in a greenhouse, and two cultivation options (greenhouse with and without heating) are included. Life cycle assessment of the system was conducted, showing that algal biomethane production without greenhouse heating would have a net energy ratio of 1.54, which is slightly lower than that (1.78) of biomethane from ley crop. However, land requirement of the latter is approximately 68 times that of the former, because the area productivity of algae could reach at about 400 t/ha (dry basis) in half a year, while the annual productivity of ley crop is only about 5.8 t/ha. For the case of Växtkraft biogas plant in Västerås, Sweden, the integrated system has the potential to increase the annual biomethane output by 9.4 %. This new process is very simple, which might have potential for scale-up and commercial application of algal bioenergy.

  • 155.
    Weidl, Galia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för Energiteknik.
    Madsen, Anders
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Bayesian Networks for Root Cause Analysis in process operationManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 156.
    Weidl, Galia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för Energiteknik.
    Madsen, Anders
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Condition Monitoring, Root Cause Analysis and Decision Support on Urgency of ActionsManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 157.
    Weidl, Galia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för Energiteknik.
    Wollmar, G
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Adaptive Root Cause Analysis under Uncertainties in Industrial Process OperationManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 158.
    Wetterlund, E.
    et al.
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University.
    Leduc, S.
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Kindermann, G.
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), 2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Optimal use of forest residues in Europe under different policies-second generation biofuels versus combined heat and power2013Inngår i: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6815, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 3-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has set a 10 % target for the share of renewable energy in the transportation sector for 2020. To reach this target, second generation biofuels from, for example, forest residues are expected to replace around 3 % of the transport fossil fuel consumption. However, forest residues could also be utilised in the heat and electricity sectors where large amounts of fossil fuels can be replaced, thus reducing global fossil CO2 emissions. This study investigates the use of forest residues for second generation biofuel (ethanol or methanol) or combined heat and power (CHP) production at the European level, with focus on the influence of different economic policy instruments, such as carbon cost or biofuel policy support. A techno-economic, geographically explicit optimisation model is used. The model determines the optimal locations of bioenergy conversion plants by minimising the cost of the entire supply chain. The results show that in order to reach a 3 % second generation biofuel share, a biofuel support comparable to today's tax exemptions would be needed. With a carbon cost applied, most available forest residues would be allocated to CHP production, with a substantial resulting CO2 emission reduction potential. The major potential for woody biomass and biofuel production is found in the region around the Baltic Sea, with Italy as one of the main biofuel importers.

  • 159.
    Win, Kaung Myat
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Emissions from realistic operation of residential wood pellets heating systems2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions from residential combustion appliances vary significantly depending on the firing behaviours and combustion conditions, in addition to combustion technologies and fuel quality. Although wood pellet combustion in residential heating boilers is efficient, the combustion conditions during start-up and stop phases are not optimal and produce significantly high emissions such as carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon from incomplete combustion. The emissions from the start-up and stop phases of the pellet boilers are not fully taken into account in test methods for ecolabels which primarily focus on emissions during operation on full load and part load.

     The objective of the thesis is to investigate the emission characteristics during realistic operation of residential wood pellet boilers in order to identify when the major part of the annual emissions occur. Emissions from four residential wood pellet boilers were measured and characterized for three operating phases (start-up, steady and stop). Emissions from realistic operation of combined solar and wood pellet heating systems was continuously measured to investigate the influence of start-up and stop phases on total annual emissions. Measured emission data from the pellet devices were used to build an emission model to predict the annual emission factors from the dynamic operation of the heating system using the simulation software TRNSYS.

     Start-up emissions are found to vary with ignition type, supply of air and fuel, and time to complete the phase. Stop emissions are influenced by fan operation characteristics and the cleaning routine. Start-up and stop phases under realistic operation conditions contribute 80 – 95% of annual carbon monoxide (CO) emission, 60 – 90% total hydrocarbon (TOC), 10 – 20% of nitrogen oxides (NO), and 30 – 40% particles emissions. Annual emission factors from realistic operation of tested residential heating system with a top fed wood pelt boiler can be between 190 and 400 mg/MJ for the CO emissions, between 60 and 95 mg/MJ for the NO, between 6 and 25 mg/MJ for the TOC, between 30 and 116 mg/MJ for the particulate matter and between 2x1013 and 4x1013 /MJ for the number of particles. If the boiler has the cleaning sequence with compressed air such as in boiler B2, annual CO emission factor can be up to 550 mg/MJ. Average CO, TOC and particles emissions under realistic annual condition were greater than the limits values of two eco labels. These results highlight the importance of start-up and stop phases in annual emission factors (especially CO and TOC). Since a large or dominating part of the annual emissions in real operation arise from the start-up and stop sequences, test methods required by the ecolabels should take these emissions into account. In this way it will encourage the boiler manufacturers to minimize annual emissions.

     The annual emissions of residential pellet heating system can be reduced by optimizing the number of start-ups of the pellet boiler. It is possible to reduce up to 85% of the number of start-ups by optimizing the system design and its controller such as switching of the boiler pump after it stops, using two temperature sensors for boiler ON/OFF control, optimizing of the positions of the connections to the storage tank, increasing the mixing valve temperature in the boiler circuit and decreasing the pump flow rate. For 85 % reduction of start-ups, 75 % of CO and TOC emission factors were reduced while 13% increase in NO and 15 % increase in particle emissions was observed.

  • 160.
    Win, Kaung Myat
    et al.
    Högskolan i Dalarna.
    Persson, Tomas
    Högskolan i Dalarna.
    Emissions characteristics of a residential pellet boiler and a stove2010Inngår i: / [ed] Swedish Bioenergy Association, 2010, s. 85-88Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from a residential pellet boiler and a stove are measured at a realistic 6-day operation sequence and during steady state operation. The aim is to characterize the emissions during each phase inorder to identify when the major part of the emissions occur to enable actions for emission reduction where the savingscan be highest. The characterized emissions comprised carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), total organic carbon(TOC) and particulate matter (PM 2.5). In this study, emissions were characterised by mass concentration and emissionsduring start-up and stop phases were also presented in accumulated mass. The influence of start-up and stop phases onthe emissions, average emission factors for the boiler and stove were analysed using the measured data from a six-daystest. The share of start-up and stop emissions are significant for CO and TOC contributing 95% and 89% respectively atthe 20kW boiler and 82% and 89% respectively at the 12 kW stove. NO and particles emissions are shown to dominateduring stationary operation.

  • 161.
    Win, Kaung Myat
    et al.
    Dalarna University.
    Persson, Tomas
    Dalarna University.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University.
    Particles and gaseous emissions from realistic operation of residential wood pellet heating systems2012Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, Vol. 59, s. 320-327Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from six residential wood pellet heating systems are determined at a realistic six day operation sequence. The study aims to investigate the total emissions from a realistic operation of the heating systems including start-up and stop phases. Five combined solar and pellet heating systems and one reference boiler without solar system with an integrated DHW preparation was tested in a laboratory at realistic operation conditions. The investigated emissions comprised carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), total organic carbon (TOC) and particulate matter (PM2.5). In this study, the emissions are presented as accumulated total emissions from the whole six days period and the emissions from start-up and stop phases are also presented separately to evaluate the influence of the emissions from these phases on the total emissions. Emission factors of the measured systems from the six day period are between 192 and 547 mg MJ -1 for the CO emissions, between 61 and 95 mg MJ -1 for the NO, between 6 and 45 mg MJ -1 for the TOC, between 31 and 116 mg MJ -1 for the particulate matter and between 2.1 × 10 13 and 4 × 10 13 for the number of particles. The emissions from the start-up and stop phases are significantly high for the CO (63-95 %) and the TOC (48-93 %). NO and particles emissions are shown to dominate during stationary operation. However, 30-40 % of the particle emissions arise from the start and stop periods. It is also shown that the average emissions of CO, TOC and particles under the realistic annual conditions were higher than the limit values of two eco labels.

  • 162.
    Win, Kaung Myat
    et al.
    Högskolan i Dalarna.
    Persson, Tomas
    Högskolan i Dalarna.
    Paavilainen, Janne
    Högskolan i Dalarna.
    Emissions Characteristics of residential pellet boilers during start-up and stop periods2010Inngår i: 3rd International Scientific Conference on Energy systems with IT / [ed] Erik Dahlquist, Jenny Palm, 2010, s. 120-130Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, gaseous emissions and particles are measured during start-up and stop periods for anover-fed boiler and an under-fed boiler. Both gaseous and particulate matter emissions arecontinuously measured in the laboratory. The measurement of gaseous emissions includes oxygen(O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide and (NO). The emissions rates arecalculated from measured emissions concentrations and flue gas flow. The behaviours of the boilersduring start-up and stop periods are analysed and the emissions are characterised in terms of CO, NO,TOC and particles (PM2.5 mass and number). The duration of the characterised periods vary betweentwo boilers due to the difference in type of ignition and combustion control. The under-fed boiler Bproduces higher emissions during start-up periods than the over-fed boiler A. More hydrocarbon andparticles are emitted by the under-fed boiler during stop periods. Accumulated mass of CO and TOCduring start-up and stop periods contribute a major portion of the total mass emitted during wholeoperation. However, accumulated mass of NO and PM during start-up and stop periods are notsignificant as the duration of emission peak is relatively short.

  • 163.
    Wu, S.
    et al.
    National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles, School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China.
    Xiong, R.
    National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles, School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Nian, V.
    Energy Studies Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Ma, S.
    National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles, School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China.
    The state of the art on preheating lithium-ion batteries in cold weather2020Inngår i: Journal of Energy Storage, E-ISSN 2352-152X, Vol. 27, artikkel-id 101059Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Preheating batteries in electric vehicles under cold weather conditions is one of the key measures to improve the performance and lifetime of lithium-ion batteries. In general, preheating can be divided into external heating and internal heating, depending on the location of the heat source. External heating methods are usually characterized by low system complexity, long heating time and high energy loss; while internal heating methods can achieve a shorter heating time, a higher heating efficiency and lower impacts on thermal-induced aging but at a higher risk in safety. Through reviewing recent progress in the development of preheating methods for lithium-ion batteries, this paper provides insights on developing new preheating techniques and guidance on the selection of preheating methods. 

  • 164.
    Xin, Zhao
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Sahoo, Smruti
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Rantzer, Jonatan
    Modelon AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Sielemann, Michael
    Modelon AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Off-design performance analysis of hybridized aircraft gas turbine2019Inngår i: Aeronautical Journal, ISSN 0001-9240, Vol. 1231270, s. 1999-2018Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An advanced geared turbofan with year 2035 technology level assumptions was established and used for the hybridisation study in this paper. By boosting the low-speed shaft of the turbofan with electrical power through the accessory gearbox, a parallel hybrid concept was set up. Focusing on the off-design performance of the hybridised gas turbine, electrical power input to the shaft, defined as positive hybridisation in this context, generally moves the compressor operation towards surge. On the other hand, the negative hybridisation, which is to reverse the power flow direction can improve the part-load operations of the turbofan and minimise the use of compressor handling bleeds. For the pre-defined mission given in the paper, negative hybridisation of descent, approach and landing, and taxi operations with 580 kW, 240 kW and 650 kW, respectively was found sufficient to keep a minimum compressor surge margin requirement without handling bleed.

    Looking at the hybridisation of key operating points, boosting the cruise operation of the baseline geared turbofan is, however, detrimental to the engine efficiency as it is pushing the cruise operation further away from the energy optimal design point. Without major modifications to the engine design, the benefit of the hybridisation appears primarily at the thermomechanical design point, the hot-day take-off. With the constraint of the turbine blade metal temperature in mind, a 500kW positive hybridisation at hot-day take-off gave cruise specific fuel consumption (SFC) reduction up to 0.5%, mainly because of reduced cooling flow requirement. Through the introduction of typical electrical power system performance characteristics and engine performance exchange rates, a first principles assessment is illustrated. By applying the strategies discussed in the paper, a 3% reduction in block fuel burn can be expected, if a higher power density electrical power system can be achieved.

  • 165.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Characterization of flue gas in oxy-coal combustion processes for CO2 capture2012Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 90, nr 1, s. 113-121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxy-coal combustion is one of the technical solutions for mitigating CO2 in thermal power plants. For designing a technically viable and economically effective CO2 capture process, effects by coals and configurations of flue gas cleaning steps are of importance. In this paper, characterization of the flue gas recycle (FGR) is conducted for an oxy-coal combustion process. Different configurations of FGR as well as cleaning units including electrostatic precipitators (ESP), flue gas desulfurization (FGD), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) deNOx and flue gas condensation (FGC) are studied for the oxy-coal combustion process. In addition, other important parameters such as FGR rate and FGR ratio, flue gas compositions, and load of flue gas cleaning units are analyzed based on coal properties and plant operational conditions.

  • 166.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Foster, Stephen
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    GLOBAL SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC INDUSTRY ANALYSIS WITH FOCUS ON THE CHINESE MARKET2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several industries are shifting to sustainable business to the use of renewable resources and holdtheir accountable for the environmental and social responsibility including the mitigation ofgreenhouse gases, especially in clean power generation technologies. Solar power has shown asustained level of growth with an annual rate around 30% in the photovoltaic industry. Thispaper analyzes how solar power has attracted large investment Technological advancements andgrowth rates in China demonstrate how China is positioned to become the next world leader inmanufacturing, based on the literature survey and data collection, the relationship between marketof solar power stimulated by different policy incentives and the manufacturing development isdiscussed. The barriers such as investment in thin film, government support and coordination,solar cell efficiency and product quality etc, for the future development in China have also beenaddressed.

  • 167.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Chou, S. K.
    National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Innovative research for sustainable energy systems2015Inngår i: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 191-191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 168.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Chou, S. K.
    University of Singapore, Singapore .
    Desideri, U.
    Universita' di Perugia, Italy .
    Xia, X.
    University of Pretoria, South Africa .
    Innovative and sustainable solutions of clean energy technologies and policies (Part I)2014Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 130, s. 447-449Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 169.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Chou, S. K.
    National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Desideri, U.
    Universita' di Perugia, Italy.
    Xia, X.
    University of Pretoria, South Africa .
    Innovative and sustainable solutions of clean energy technologies and policies (Part II)2014Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 136, s. 756-758Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 170.
    Yang, X.
    et al.
    Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Niu, Z.
    Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Bai, Q.
    Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Cui, X.
    Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    He, Y. -L
    Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Experimental study on the solidification process of fluid saturated in fin-foam composites for cold storage2019Inngår i: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 161, artikkel-id 114163Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold storage can effectively turn electricity to cold energy during off peak hours and reduce electricity peak load by supplying cold energy for air conditioning. Solid-liquid phase change rate is seriously encumbered by the relatively-low thermal conductivity of phase change materials (PCMs). A novel fin-foam structure was established to enhance solidification heat transfer and the solidification characteristics were experimentally explored. An experimental system visualizing solid-liquid interface and temperature monitoring was built. The parameters of fin-foam structure, including fin sizes, fin pitch and number were investigated experimentally. Particular attention was paid to justifying the local thermal equilibrium state via measuring temperature on metallic ligament surface and the saturating fluid in pore space. Results showed that inserting fins into metal foam can make a promotional improvement on solidification rate of water by 28.35%. The solid-liquid interface became locally curved after inserting fins. Thermal adhesive and insulation adhesive did not affect the accuracy at pore-scale temperature measurement. Solidification process can be further enhanced through increasing fin width and number rather than fin pitch. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 171. Yong, C.
    et al.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Asian biofuel development at a crossroad, Renewable Energy for Development2008Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 172.
    Zambrano, Jesus
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Samuelsson, Oscar
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Machine learning techniques for monitoring the sludge profile in a secondary settler tank2019Inngår i: Applied water science, ISSN 2190-5487, E-ISSN 2190-5495, Vol. 9, nr 6, artikkel-id UNSP 146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the performance of two machine learning methods, Gaussian process regression (GPR) and Gaussian mixture models (GMMs), as two possible methods for monitoring the sludge profile in a secondary settler tank (SST). In GPR, the prediction of the response variable is given as a Gaussian probability density function, whereas in the GMM the probability density function is built as a weighted sum of Gaussian distributions. In both approaches, a residual is calculated and a fault detection criterion is implemented via a recursive decision rule. As case study, GMM and GPR were tested using real data from a sensor measuring the suspended solids concentration as a function of the SST level in a wastewater treatment plant in Bromma, Sweden. Results suggest that GMM gives a faster response but is also more sensitive than GPR to changes during normal conditions.

  • 173. Zeng, L.
    et al.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Yu, X.
    Energy Efficiency Benchmarking in Chinese Cement Industry2007Inngår i: The 3rd International Green Energy Conference, 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 174.
    Zeng, Lei
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology , Luleå, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Luleå University of Technology , Luleå, Sweden.
    Policy, Institutional and Market Barriers to the Implementation of Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) in China2005Inngår i: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, nr 2, s. 259-271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    China is the second largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the world, with potentially about two thirds of total Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) for Asia on the world carbon market (Gruetter, 2002). Since 68% of its primary energy is from coal, China’s average energy intensity is 7.5 times higher than the EU and 4.3 times higher than the US (EU, 2003). Therefore, introducing advanced clean technologies and management to China represents opportunities for Annex I countries to obtain low-cost CERs through CDM projects, and access to one of the largest potential energy conservation markets in the world. CDM can provide a win-win solution for both China and Annex I countries, and the Chinese government considers that the introduction of CDM projects can bring advanced energy technologies and foreign investment to China, thereby helping China’s sustainable economy and generating CERs. As energy efficiency is generally low and carbon intensity is high in both China’s energy supply and demand sectors, numerous options exist for costeffective energy conservation and GHG mitigation with CDM. This paper reviews current Chinese policies and administrative and institutional settings for CDM cooperation, and discusses existing policy, institutional and other barriers in the energy market by drawing on observations and experience from previous initiatives such as Cleaner Production and energy efficiency. Some options to remove these barriers are addressed. In order to make CDM projects feasible, China’s government needs to promote awareness, streamline administrative

  • 175.
    Zhang, C.
    et al.
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liu, C.
    Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, K.
    Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Crowdfunding preferences for a sustainable milk product with integrated photovoltaic water pumping system in China2019Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 255, artikkel-id 113694Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the role of potential investors in financing renewable energy systems—specifically, relating to crowdfunding as a financing mechanism, with the enhancement of internet and social-media tools. The research question in this study is whether crowdfunding with a novel socio-technical product reward program attracts potential customers to a more sustainable milk product with a specific integrated photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) system. The particular case study we empirically investigated is product reward crowdfunding in dairy milk production in China. The milk production chain was supplied by PVWP system integration, which generated solar energy both for feed production for dairy cows and for the operation of dairy farms. 48 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted between the research team and customers in order to perform qualitative analyses of the determinants of customers’ milk purchase behaviors. In addition, 357 online surveys were collected for quantitative analysis. Binary and ordered probit regressions were employed to use survey date to systematically estimate purchase intention and willingness-to-pay for sustainable milk. Customer behaviors, environmental consciousness, and individual socio-demographic factors were investigated as potential explanatory variables. Over 82% of the survey participants showed intentions to purchase the sustainable milk with the PVWP system. In the survey and interview samples, results showed that milk quality, nutrition improvement, emissions reduction, and environmental benefits attributed to the integrated PVWP system were the major factors considered by interviewees who showed intentions to purchase the crowdfunded dairy milk. Regression model results suggested that potential customers with higher income levels, and those of parenting age, and those with young children or planning to have children, had a higher willingness-to-pay than other customers for the crowdfunded sustainable dairy milk. The familiarity with and popularity of online shopping and pre-sale purchases in China made customers more open to and proactive towards pre-pay and crowdfunding mechanisms. This article evaluated key factors which may influence potential customers for crowdfunding, and used a discrete choice model to estimate customers’ willingness-to-pay for reward-based projects. These results could help producers of sustainable milk products to identify potential target groups in China and estimate market demand. This exploratory study could provide a framework with both quantitative and qualitative assessment of crowdfunding for renewable energy systems in a national or international context. 

  • 176.
    Zhang, C.
    et al.
    Energy Processes Division, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Energy Processes Division, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yang, J.
    School of Humanities and Economic Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, China.
    Yu, C.
    Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Energy Processes Division, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Economic assessment of photovoltaic water pumping integration with dairy milk production2018Inngår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 177, s. 750-764Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As dairy consumption grows, domestic dairy farms face challenges in reducing the cost of feeds and the production of high-quality milk for market demands. This paper aims to introduce and integrate solar energy into the milk production chain to investigate its economic performance. By collecting data on milk production processes from 11 dairy farms in China, we quantified electricity usage and costs of milk production to identify the best and worst cases. Crop yields response to the water demand and the electricity requirements of the dairy farms were considered. The study simulated scenarios of self-sufficiency at 20%, 80%, and 100%, in the identified farms by integrating a photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) system to provide both power and water for alfalfa and other feeds’ irrigation and subsequent milk production. We evaluated annual discounted cost, revenue and net profit under each scenario and case. The results showed that a dairy farm with an integrated PVWP system and self-sufficient feeds would lead to value add-ins, such as electricity saving with solar energy generation, economic cost saving of crops, and CO2 emission reduction. The analysis on return on investment (ROI) and internal rate of return (IRR) revealed that not all the self-sufficient feeds can bring positive marginal profit. Among the investigated scenarios and cases, the dairy farm marked out by the highest ROI with 3.12 and IRR with 20.4%, was the farm where the integrated PVWP system was used to reach 20% self-sufficiency (self-production of only alfalfa). The other scenarios and cases with higher levels of self-sufficiency showed lower ROIs and IRRs. This indicates that high self-production levels of feeds decrease the total profit due to high investment cost. Sensitivity analyses of crop price and operational cost were conducted for ROI with single and double factor approaches. Scale and production of feeds proportions should be carefully considered in improving the economic performance of dairy milk production.

  • 177.
    Zhang, Guoqiang
    et al.
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Jin, Hongguang
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Integrated Black Liquor Gasification Polygeneration System with CO2 Capture in Pulp and Paper Mills to Produce Methanol and Electricity2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the KAMa reference pulp and paper mill, polygeneration systems with a black liquorgasifier are studied. The systems introduce black liquor gasifier to replace a recovery boiler inpulp mills to produce both methanol and electricity while capturing CO2 by means of oxygen-fuelcombustion and Selexol pre-combustion. The systems are simulated and compared with or withoutCO2 capture integrated with black liquor gasification. The productions of methanol and electricityfrom the black liquor are compared with that of the reference system, which is defined as arecovery boiler based power generation system. Thermodynamic and economic performanceincluding efficiency and costs are compared between the polygeneration systems and the referencesystem. Compared with the reference system the polygeneration system produces additional73.5MW methanol while reducing electricity of 11.2MW with the investment incremental of 8.6%.The penalty due to CO2 capture and compression is 0.46 MJ electricity/kg CO2 avoided foroxygen-fuel combustion method (86% carbon capture). This penalty is much lower than that ofthe CO2 penalty in coal power plant which is in the range of about 0.91 (IGCC, 91.7% CO2capture) to 1.56 (steam power, 91.7% CO2 capture) MJ electricity/kg CO2. However, due to thelarge steam demand and methanol production, the CO2 penalty can reach 1.33 MJ Methanol /kgCO2 avoided in the Selexol capture system (73% carbon capture). The incremental cost due toCO2 capture and storage is 22.9 $/tonne CO2 for oxyfuel combustion and 48.6 $/tonne CO2 forSelexol capture. For the large demand of steam in the mill, much syngas is used to meet the steamdememd, which limits the production of methanol, especially in the case of Selexol capture ofCO2.

  • 178.
    Zhang, J.
    et al.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Liu, J.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Zhang, R.
    Institute of Water Resources for Pastoral Areas, Hohhot, China .
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Gao, X.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Model of evapotranspiration and groundwater level based on photovoltaic water pumping system2014Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 136, s. 1132-1137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic (PV) water pumping system has been proved being environmental-friendly and low energy-cost, which has a promising prospect in arid areas which are rich in solar energy resources. However, water resources remain to be one of the main restraints to the application of PV water pumping system widely. Models to evaluate the evapotranspiration and groundwater level in the well are estimated based on the data of a field trip, which was conducted in Wulanchabu grassland, Inner Mongolia, China. Data about the performance of the PV water pumping system, including evapotranspiration and the groundwater level variation were collected. In this paper, evapotranspiration is calculated by Penman-Monteith method and Theis formula is introduced to calculate the soil characters and simulate the groundwater level variation. PRMSE and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency are used to validate the model performance with the collected lysimeter data and groundwater level. The results show that the modeling of the evapotranspiration and groundwater level is reliable. According to the water demand and energy demand, the method to optimize the pumping system is introduced. Based on the calculated result and collected data of water demand and groundwater level, groundwater in the site is abundant to support the system. However, due to the stickiness of the soil condition, the recharge rate is smaller than the pumping rate. According to the comparison, the current system is oversized. In this condition, the pump would run out of water, and have to stop pumping. Therefore, not only the water quantity is an important factor to be considered, the soil condition and recharge rate are also of great significance to the optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems.

  • 179.
    Zhao, R.
    et al.
    Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Deng, S.
    Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Wang, S.
    Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Zhao, L.
    Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Zhang, Y.
    Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Liu, B.
    Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yu, Z.
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Thermodynamic research of adsorbent materials on energy efficiency of vacuum-pressure swing adsorption cycle for CO2 capture2018Inngår i: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 128, s. 818-829Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comprehensive thermodynamic research on energy efficiency of vacuum-pressure swing adsorption (VPSA). The study examined the influence from four types of typical adsorbent materials on the energy efficiency of VPSA by cycle parameters. The selected adsorbent materials are activated carbons, zeolite 5A, zeolite 13X, silica gels, and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The study also analyzes the effects of separation temperature, adsorption pressure, desorption pressure, CO2 concentration and percent of unused bed on the energy-efficiency of VPSA cycle. The examined performance parameters are CO2 working capacity, proportionality factor, energy consumption and second-law efficiency. The results show that the energy consumption is approximately 2.0–4.5 MJ/kg and the second-law efficiencies are 4–7% for VPSA cycles using the five adsorbent materials. The effect of adsorbent materials on the energy efficiency mainly depends on the proportionality factor of CO2 working capacity (β) of VPSA cycle, which is important to screen materials at the fixed cyclic boundary conditions and preliminary calculation of second-law efficiency for VPSA cycles. For existing adsorbent materials which are Type I commonly, the lower values of β would lead to the higher second-law efficiencies. The development of new adsorbents of Type III would be extremely urgent in near future. 

  • 180.
    Zimmerman, Nathan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Vanadium Redox Flow Battery: Sizing of VRB in electrified heavy construction equipment2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In an effort to reduce global emissions by electrifying vehicles and machines with internal combustion engines has led to the development of batteries that are more powerful and efficient than the common lead acid battery.  One of the most popular batteries being used for such an installation is lithium ion, but due to its short effective usable lifetime, charging time, and costs has driven researcher to other technologies to replace it.  Vanadium redox flow batteries have come into the spotlight recently as a means of replacing rechargeable batteries in electric vehicles and has previously be used mainly to store energy for load leveling.  It possesses many qualities that would be beneficial to electrify vehicles.  The battery has the ability for power and energy to be sized independently which is not dissimilar to internal combustion vehicles.  It also has the potential for a tolerance to low discharges, fast response time, and can quickly be refueled by replacing the electrolyte; just like is done when a car refuels at the gas station. 

    The purpose of the study is to determine the possibility of using vanadium redox flow batteries to power heavy construction equipment, a wheel loader, with a finite amount of space available for implementation.  A model has been designed in MATLAB to determine how long the battery could last under typically applications for the wheel loader which needs a peak power of 200 kW.  From the volume available it has been determined that the battery can be installed with an energy capacity of 148 kWh.  The results of the model show that vanadium redox flow batteries can be used to power a wheel loader but due to the limiting energy density and cell components it remains to be impractical.

  • 181.
    Zimmerman, Nathan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Towards On-line Fault Detection and Diagnostics in District Heating Systems2017Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, s. 1960-1966Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction for detecting faults in pressure sensors and diagnostics in a district heating network.  Proper pressure throughout the network is essential in maintaining the requirements for the end-user.  A district heating network library has been constructed in OpenModelica for the purpose of developing a district heating network representation of Skultuna, Sweden.  The use of object-oriented program will give the ease of expanding the network to encompass the entire network distribution from Mälarenergi AB, Västerås, Sweden. The physical model can then be used in conjunction with sensor data to calculate residual values.  These residuals are then used as input into a Bayesian Network to determine the possibility of three different operating outcomes. This approach will allow for operators to evaluate a systems performance, help in decision support mechanisms, and can provide assistance in scheduling maintenance.  

  • 182.
    Zimmerman, Nathan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lindberg, Carl-Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. ABB Corporate Research .
    Agglomeration Detection in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers Using Refuse Derived Fuels2016Inngår i: 2016 9th EUROSIM Congress on Modelling and Simulation, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, s. 123-128Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of agglomerates in a refuse derived fuel (RDF) fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler has been investigated by implementing a dynamic model of the combustion process. The nature of refuse derived fuel, which is complex in composition, leads to an increased tendency for agglomerate formation. Notwithstanding the fact that a robust control scheme is essential in preventing the decrease in boiler efficiency from accelerated agglomerate formation. Therefore, a mechanism for detecting agglomeration through a physical model by looking at the minimum fluidization is presented. As agglomerates form between the fuel ash and bed sand the average diameter of the sand will increase and therefore the minimum fluidization velocity. Samples of bed material have been sieved and measured from a 150MW circulating fluidized bed boiler fired with refuse derived fuel to determine bed material size distribution. The findings have been correlated and match an increase in the minimum fluidization velocity during a seven day sampling period where the bed material size distribution increases above the average sand diameter.

  • 183.
    Öhrlund, Jack
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Östman, Catrin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    DIGITALIZATION IS HEATING UP THE BUSINESS MODEL: A degree project regarding the impact of digitalization on a business model canvas within district heating2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this degree project is to analyze and investigate how digitalization will affect business modeling in the district heating business.

    The chosen approach to this degree project was an iterative, abductive method, in order to always use a feedback-analysis and to keep the project open for new findings. The interviews were a mix of a structured method and a qualitative approach. With the structured method, the findings from the interviews were similar and regarding the research topic, and the qualitative approach in some open questions led to matters that otherwise would have been unnoticed. The interviews were performed via e-mail, phone and through personal interviews.

    This degree project concluded that digitalization has an impact on business modeling in district heating. Digitalization will affect some elements in a major way, for example key resources that will be characterized by digitalization. The findings from this work showed that a business model operating in district heating in a time of digitalization should focus on three main parts: economy, environment and easy visualization. An optimization tool should focus on delivering a value that consist of these three, and the remaining elements should together contribute to that value proposition.

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