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  • 151.
    Adolfsson, Angelica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Anter, Merve
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Anter, Fasla
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Revision - hur uppnås god kvalitet i små revisionsbyråer?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte:  Syftet med studien är att belysa och analysera hur revisorn arbetar för att eliminera risken för att göra väsentliga fel i årsredovisningen. Studien ska även beskriva och skapa förståelse för Revisorsnämndens och små revisionsbyråers arbete och ställningstagande till kvalitetssäkring.

    Metod: Utifrån ett hermeneutiskt synsätt och med en kvalitativ metod utfördes personliga intervjuer med tre små revisionsbyråer och Revisorsnämnden. Vid val av informanter tillämpades ett strategiskt urval. I studien har en abduktiv ansats använts. 

    Slutsatser: Åtaganden för att god kvalitet ska uppnås i revisionen är revisionsprocessen, rotation på revisionsuppdrag vart sjunde år, tillämpning av analysmodell och etiska normer, FAR SRS:s kvalitetskontroller, internt kontrollsystem och kvalitetssäkring från RN.

  • 152.
    Adolfsson, Angelica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ståhl, Malin
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ton, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Diffusionen av Bolagsverkets e-tjänst för elektroniska årsredovisningar i XBRL-format2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the underlying factors that affect or will affect the diffusion of the Companies Registration Office e-service for electronic annual reports in XBRL-format. This is achieved by examining why some Private limited liability companies choose to use the Swedish Companies Registration Office e-service for electronic annual reports, while others have so far chosen to abstain. By examining the practical advantages and disadvantages that can actually occur in the sending of electronic annual reports in XBRL- format, a more thorough picture of the spreading can be presented.

  • 153.
    Adolfsson, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Johansson, Christian
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Framtidens kompetenser och resurser på grundsärskolan: - en pedagogisk utmaning!2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att, ur de professionellas perspektiv, ta reda på hur kompetensen på grundsärskolan ser ut idag hos några informanter och vad som kan behöva förändras och eventuellt se annorlunda i denna verksamhet, för att möta och tillgodose elevernas stödbehov inom de kommande tio åren. Studien bygger på kvalitativa intervjuer med åtta klasslärare i grundsärskolan. Pedagogerna fick ge uttryck för sin vision om hur en optimal organisation för verksamheten skulle kunna se ut, samt vilken sorts kompetens som skulle kunna gynna undervisningen och dess kvalitet. I resultatet framkom det att utmaning med arbetet med eleverna var att berika elevernas språk och kommunikationsförmåga. Andra svårigheter som belystes var åldersadekvat undervisningsmaterial och höga kunskapskrav. Klasslärarna ansåg att det fortfarande saknas professioner i verksamheterna såsom speciallärare, specialpedagog, IT-pedagog, samt även flerspråkiga pedagoger. Andra väsentliga faktorer som informanterna också påtalade i studien var pedagogiska lärverktyg, samt att grundsärskolans lärmiljö måste konstrueras och anpassas så att de blir mer tillgängliga för de elever som går där, både fysiskt och psykiskt. De konstaterade också att det fanns faktorer som påverkar möjligheten till en undervisning av god kvalitet, både pedagogernas kompetens, lokalernas utformning – omständigheter som tillsammans bildar undervisningskontexten.

  • 154.
    Adolfsson, Catarina
    Mälardalen University, Department of Mathematics and Physics.
    Lärares syn på lässvaga elever inom matematik2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att ta reda på hur lärarna upplever att lässvaga elever påverkas av sina lässvårigheter inom matematiken samt hur lärarna hanterar de problem som uppstår för att hjälpa eleven. Jag har valt den kvalitativa arbetsmetoden med semistrukturerade intervjufrågor. Resultatet visar att svag läsförmåga påverkar eleven inom matematiken men också inom andra ämnen. Inom matematiken påverkas eleven särskilt vid lästal samt vid problemlösning om eleven lämnas ensam med en text som den inte klarar av att läsa eller tyda. För att stödja eleven kan läraren eller någon annan läsa texten eller så arbetar eleverna i grupp där samarbetet mot resultatet är viktigast, inte att kunna läsa texten. Slutsatsen visar att eleven aldrig bör lämnas ensam med en text som den inte förstår, då eleven utestängs från den matematiska processen och det matematiska tänkandet.

  • 155.
    Adolfsson, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ergül, Caroline
    Reducering av produktionstryck i A-linan: Förflyttning av produkt2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 156.
    Adolfsson, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindgren, Peder
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Managing Transfer Projects in an Offshore Strategy: Swedish and Chinese Perspectives2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Offshoring concerns the relocation or a transfer of a company’s business activities to another country. When a company decides to offshore their business to another location it involves the transfer of products and knowledge which are both key activities in transfer projects. In today’s globalization it is difficult for companies to stay competitive in the marketplace. For this reason it is becoming more common that companies offshore parts of their business and opening affiliates abroad for the production of goods or services. It is challenging to transfer a product from one site to one other since the receiving site might not have been involved in the product development process from the beginning and therefore have limited associations to the product. The transfer of competence and knowledge but also different ways of working are some of the factors that needs to be successfully managed. This makes it especially challenging when considering cultural and geographical together with the temporal distance between the sites. It is difficult for companies to maintain a sourcing strategy that is cohesive and many companies therefor fails to manage a successful relationship with their offshore partners. The purpose with this study was to present a framework that would support the transfer process when aiming for parallel production. This was to include the features needed to be developed in order to manage the most important factors in the transfer process.

    In order to answer the research questions a case study with a qualitative research method was performed. Interviews in Sweden and China including 34 respondents were performed in order to identify the transfer process. The approach was a qualitative interview with a guided conversation with the emphasis on the authors asking questions and listening, and the respondent answering. The respondents was seen as meaning makers rather than passive channels for retrieving the data needed. The purpose was to derive interpretations rather than facts or laws. Each interview was conducted between three people including the two authors and one respondent.

    The findings indicate that the organization needs to improve their knowledge transfer process. The organization also needs to develop similar processes for the activities involved in the transfer process in order to perceive the same quality. The analysis of the qualitative findings resulted in a framework including six important factors for a successful transfer project. Following factors should be taken in consideration by the company to achieve a successful transfer project: identification of knowledge carriers, set up a transfer core-team, empowering knowledge sharing, the use of a personalized strategy, the development of similar processes and improve the common perception of quality.

  • 157.
    Adolfsson, Jessica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Azari Ghalati, Mozhgan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Tekle, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    "Säg till om jag stör": -En fallstudie om ledarskap, mångfaldsarbete och organisationskultur2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Date:                                 2020-01-24

    Level:                       Bachelor thesis in Business Administration, 15 cr

    Institution:                School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University

    Authors:                           Jessica Adolfsson             Sara Tekle            Mozhgan Azari Ghalati

    Title:                          “Let me know if I interrupt” - A case study about leadership, diversity work and organizational culture.

    Tutor:                        Andreas Pajuvirta

    Keywords:                Leadership, diversity work, inclusion, employees, organizational         culture and communication.

    Questions:               How can leadership contribute to create an inclusive organizational culture that promotes diversity? How do leaders work with diversity work and how is diversity work perceived by employees?

    Purpose:                  The purpose of this study is to investigate how leadership can contribute to create an inclusive organizational culture that promotes diversity. A case study examines how the leader works with diversity work and how employees perceive that it works in practice.

    Method:                    In this study, a qualitative research method was used where empirical data were collected via a semi-structured interview with a leader within the selected organization. In order to be able to compare whether the employees in the organization share the same view of the diversity work as the leader, a quantitative research method was also carried out in the form of questionnaires to the employees. The empirical evidence from the interviews together with theory forms the basis for the analysis and the answers to the questions.

    Conclusion:             In order to create an inclusive organizational culture, it is important that a leader includes several perspectives, respects all individuals similarities and differences and make all employees feel seen, confirmed and involved. To do this, communication and feedback is an important part.

    The leader of the organization where the case study has been conducted strives to have as many diverse groups as possible as this enriches the organization and represents the society in which we live.

    The leader also adds that the organization needs to be better of hiring young, old and overweight people. The employees feel that the diversity work in the organization works well.

  • 158.
    Adolfsson, Margareta
    et al.
    Jönköping Univ.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping Univ.
    Bjorck-Akesson, Eva
    Jönköping Univ.
    Ibragimova, Nina
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Pless, Mia
    Jönköping Univ.
    EXPLORING CHANGES OVER TIME IN HABILITATION PROFESSIONALS' PERCEPTIONS AND APPLICATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTIONING, DISABILITY AND HEALTH, VERSION FOR CHILDREN AND YOUTH (ICF-CY)2010In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 670-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study explored how professionals in interdisciplinary teams perceived the implementation of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, version for Children and Youth (ICF-CY) in Swedish habilitation services. Design: Descriptive longitudinal mixed-methods design. Methods: Following participation in a 2-day in-service training on the ICF-CY, 113 professionals from 14 interdisciplinary teams described their perceptions of the implementation of the ICF-CY at 3 consecutive time-points: during in-service training, after 1 year, and after 2.5 years. Results: Implementation of the ICF-CY in daily work focused on assessment and habilitation planning and required adaptations of routines and materials. The ICF-CY was perceived as useful in supporting analyses and in communication about children's needs. Professionals also perceived it as contributing to new perspectives on problems and a sharpened focus on participation. Conclusion: Professionals indicated that the ICF-CY enhanced their awareness of families' views of child participation, which corresponded to organizational goals for habilitation services. An implementation finding was a lack of tools fitting the comprehensive ICF-CY perspective. The study points to the need for ICF-CY-based assessment and intervention methods focusing on child participation.

  • 159.
    Adolfsson, Marie
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Att bryta heteronormen redan i förskolan: En undersökning av huruvida bilderböcker som bryter mot heteronormen används i förskolan och hur utbudet ser ut2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats har medvetenheten kring begreppet heteronorm i förskolan undersökts genom intervjuer med pedagoger på tre olika förskolor. Även utbudet av bilderböcker som bryter mot heteronormen har undersökts och en inventering har genomförts. Syftet var att få en insyn i hur pedagoger tänker kring frågan, om de använder sig av någon barnlitteratur som bryter mot heteronormen, och hur detta utbud av heteronormbrytande bilderböcker ser ut.

           I uppsatsen har det framkommit att medvetenheten kring begreppet heteronorm bland de deltagande pedagogerna är låg. Man ser sig som öppen när det gäller människor som bryter mot heteronormen, men man ser inget större behov av att arbeta med området när man inte har något barn som har samkönade föräldrar. Vad gäller bilderböcker som bryter mot heteronormen, ges majoriteten ut av bokförlag som har specialiserat sig på böcker som bryter mot normer, och endast ett fåtal har kommit ut på något större, mer allmänt, förlag.

           Slutsatsen är att det behövs kunskap hos pedagogerna i förskolan, för att de ska få en förståelse för vad heteronormen innebär, och varför man bör arbeta med det tidigt, då den saknas i både lärarutbildning och fortbildning som det ser ut nu.

  • 160. Adolfsson, Petra
    et al.
    Dobers, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Jonasson, Mikael
    Closing words!2009In: Guiding and guided tours / [ed] Adolfsson, P., Dobers, P. & Jonasson, M., Göteborg: BAS Publishers , 2009, p. 215-217Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 161. Adolfsson, Petra
    et al.
    Dobers, PeterMälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.Jonasson, Mikael
    Guiding and guided tours2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 162. Adolfsson, Petra
    et al.
    Dobers, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Jonasson, Mikael
    Introduction – Guiding and guided tours2009In: Guiding and guided tours / [ed] Adolfsson, P., Dobers, P. & Jonasson, M., Göteborg: BAS Publishers , 2009, p. 15-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 163.
    Afifi, S.
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Gholamhosseini, H.
    Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Sinha, R.
    Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Novel Medical Device for Early Detection of Melanoma2019In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365, Vol. 261, p. 122-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Early detection of melanoma is vital, as it helps in decreasing the death rate as well as treatment costs. Dermatologists are using image-based diagnostic tools to assist them in decision-making and detecting melanoma at an early stage. We aim to develop a novel handheld medical scanning device dedicated to early detection of melanoma at the primary healthcare with low cost and high performance. However, developing this particular device is very challenging due to the complicated computations required by the embedded diagnosis system. In this paper, we propose a hardware-friendly design for implementing an embedded system by exploiting the recent hardware advances in reconfigurable computing. The developed embedded system achieved optimized implementation results for the hardware resource utilization, power consumption, detection speed and processing time with high classification accuracy rate using real data for melanoma detection. Consequently, the proposed embedded diagnosis system meets the critical embedded systems constraints, which is capable for integration towards a cost- and energy-efficient medical device for early detection of melanoma.

  • 164.
    Afonso Olsson Ringby, Nancy
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Fredriksson, Malin
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wictorson, Ulrika
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Etablering och internationalisering av en produkt på konfektyrmarknaden2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problem: Då konfektyrmarknaden är välutbredd krävs det att företag inom den branschen noga överväger hur de vill etablera sin produkt på en ny marknad och hur de ska gå tillväga vid en internationalisering. Det finns flera olika tillvägagångssätt vid etablering och internationalisering. Uppsatsen beskriver dock företags etablerings- och internationaliseringsprocess utifrån utvalda internationaliserings- och etableringsmodeller samt ett antal begrepp.

    Syfte: Uppsatsens syfte är att beskriva hur företaget Manner har gått tillväga med sin etablering i Sverige med hjälp av erfarenheter från etableringen på hemmamarknaden och distributörens erfarenhet på den svenska marknaden.

    Metod: Studien är uppbyggd med två huvudrubriker som är etablering och internationalisering. Data som har använts är primärdata i form av intervjuer som var semistrukturerade och utfördes både i form av personliga intervjuer, mejlintervjuer och telefonintervjuer. Intervjuerna har sedan sammanställts och analyserats utifrån de teorier som valts som den teoretisk referensram.

    Resultat: Resultatet av undersökningen visade att företaget Manner har dragit nytta av sina tidigare erfarenheter från etableringen på hemmamarknaden i Österrike. Det beskrivs även hur de har använt sig av tidigare erfarenheter och hur de påverkats av omgivande faktorer med hjälp av internationaliserings- och etableringsmodeller.

  • 165.
    Afsar, Atahan
    et al.
    Sabanci University, Istanbul.
    Ulubilge, Tunca
    Sabanci University, Istanbul.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A biological plausible recurrent model of V1 hypercolumns2011In: BMC neuroscience (Online), ISSN 1471-2202, E-ISSN 1471-2202, Vol. 12(Suppl 1), no P48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 166.
    Afshar, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lock-Based Resource Sharing for Real-Time Multiprocessors2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems are widely used in the industry and are typically resource constrained, i.e., resources such as processors, I/O devices, shared buffers or shared memory might be limited in the system. Hence, techniques that can enable an efficient usage of processor bandwidths in such systems are of great importance. Locked-based resource sharing protocols are proposed as a solution to overcome resource limitation by allowing the available resources in the system to be safely shared. In recent years, due to a dramatic enhancement in the functionality of systems, a shift from single-core processors to multi-core processors has become inevitable from an industrial perspective to tackle the raised challenges due to increased system complexity. However, the resource sharing protocols are not fully mature for multi-core processors. The two classical multi-core processor resource sharing protocols, spin-based and suspension-based protocols, although providing mutually exclusive access to resources, can introduce long blocking delays to tasks, which may be unacceptable for many industrial applications. In this thesis we enhance the performance of resource sharing protocols for partitioned scheduling, which is the de-facto scheduling standard for industrial real-time multi-core processor systems such as in AUTOSAR, in terms of timing and memory requirements.

     

    A new scheduling approach uses a resource efficient hybrid approach combining both partitioned and global scheduling where the partitioned scheduling is used to schedule the major number of tasks in the system. In such a scheduling approach applications with critical task sets use partitioned scheduling to achieve higher level of predictability. Then the unused bandwidth on each core that is remained from partitioning is used to schedule less critical task sets using global scheduling to achieve higher system utilization. These scheduling schema however lacks a proper resource sharing protocol since the existing protocols designed for partitioned and global scheduling cannot be directly applied due to the complex hybrid structure of these scheduling frameworks. In this thesis we propose a resource sharing solution for such a complex structure. Further, we provide the blocking bounds incurred to tasks under the proposed protocols and enhance the schedulability analysis, which is an essential requirement for real-time systems, with the provided blocking bounds.

  • 167.
    Afshar, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lock-Based Resource Sharing in Real-Time Multiprocessor Platforms2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems are typically resource constrained, i.e., resources such as processors, I/O devices, shared buffers or shared memory can be limited for tasks in the system. Therefore, techniques that enable an efficient usage of such resources are of great importance.

    In the industry, typically large and complex software systems are divided into smaller parts (applications) where each part is developed independently. Migration towards multiprocessor platforms has become inevitable from an industrial perspective. Due to such migration and to efficient use of system resources, these applications eventually may be integrated on a shared multiprocessor platform. In order to facilitate the integration phase of the applications on a shared platform, the timing and resource requirements of each application can be provided in an interface when the application is developed. The system integrator can benefit from such provided information in the interface of each application to ease the integration process. In this thesis, we have provided the resource and timing requirements of each application in their interfaces for applications that may need several processors to be allocated on when they are developed.

    Although many scheduling techniques have been studied for multiprocessor systems, these techniques are usually based on the assumption that tasks are independent, i.e. do not share resources other than the processors. This assumption is typically not true. In this thesis, we provide an extension to such systems to handle sharing of resources other than processor among tasks. Two traditional approaches exist for multiprocessor systems to schedule tasks on processors. A recent scheduling approach for multiprocessors has combined the two traditional approaches and achieved a hybrid more efficient approach compared to the two previous one. Due to the complex nature of this scheduling approach the conventional approaches for resource sharing could not be used straight forwardly. In this thesis, we have modified resource sharing approaches such that they can be used in such hybrid scheduling systems. A second concern is that enabling resource sharing in the systems can cause unpredictable delays and variations in response time of tasks which can degrade system performance. Therefore, it is of great significance to improve the resource handling techniques to reduce the effect of imposed delays caused by resource sharing in a multiprocessor platform. In this thesis we have proposed alternative techniques for resource handling that can improve system performance for special setups.

  • 168.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Resource Sharing under Server-based Multiprocessor SchedulingIn: 33rd IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS'12), Work-in-Progress (WiP) sessionConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate a mechanism for handling resource sharing among tasks under a server-based scheduling technique in multiprocessor platforms, which combines partitioned and global scheduling to benefit a better scheduling method compared to conventional techniques.

  • 169.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bril, R. J.
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands .
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Flexible spin-lock model for resource sharing in multiprocessor real-time systems2014In: Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Ind. Embedded Syst., SIES, 2014, p. 41-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various approaches can be utilized upon resource locking for mutually exclusive resource access in multiprocessor platforms. So far two conventional approaches exist for dealing with tasks that are blocked on a global resource in a multi-processor platform. Either the blocked task performs a busy wait, i.e. spins, at the highest priority level until the resource is released, or it is suspended. Although both approaches provide mutually exclusive access to resources, they can introduce long blocking delays to tasks, which may be unacceptable for many industrial applications. In this paper, we propose a general spin-based model for resource sharing in multiprocessor platforms in which the priority of the blocked tasks during spinning can be selected arbitrarily. Moreover, we provide the analysis for two selected spin-lock priorities and we show by means of a general comparison as well as specific examples that these solutions may provide a better performance for higher priority tasks.

  • 170.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bril, Reinder J.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Resource sharing in a hybrid partitioned/global scheduling framework for multiprocessors2015In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For resource-constrained embedded real-time systems, resource-efficient approaches are very important. Such an approach is presented in this paper, targeting systems where a critical application is partitioned on a multi-core platform and the remaining capacity on each core is provided to a noncritical application using resource reservation techniques. To exploit the potential parallelism of the non-critical application, global scheduling is used for its constituent tasks. Previously, we enabled intra-application resource sharing for such a framework, i.e. each application has its own dedicated set of resources. In this paper, we enable inter-application resource sharing, in particular between the critical application and the non-critical application. This effectively enables resource sharing in a hybrid partitioned/global scheduling framework on multiprocessors. For resource sharing, we use a spin-based synchronization protocol. We derive blocking bounds and extend existing schedulability analysis for such a system.

  • 171.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bril, Reinder J.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Resource Sharing Under Global Scheduling with Partial Processor Bandwidth2015In: 2015 10th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2015 - Proceedings, 2015, p. 195-206Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resource efficient approaches are of great importance for resource constrained embedded systems. In this paper, we present an approach targeting systems where tasks of a critical application are partitioned on a multi-core platform and by using resource reservation techniques, the remaining bandwidth capacity on each core is utilized for one or a set of non-critical application(s). To provide a resource efficient solution and to exploit the potential parallelism of the extra applications on the multi-core processor, global scheduling is used to schedule the tasks of the non-critical applications. Recently a specific instantiation of such a system has been studied where tasks do not share resources other than the processor. In this paper, we enable semaphore-based resource sharing among tasks within critical and non-critical applications using a suspension-based synchronization protocol. Tasks of non-critical applications have partial access to the processor bandwidth. The paper provides the systems schedulability analysis where blocking due to resource sharing is bounded. Further, we perform experimental evaluations under balanced and unbalanced allocation of tasks of a critical application to cores.

  • 172.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    J. Bril, Reinder
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Per Processor Spin-Lock Priority for Partitioned Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two traditional approaches exist for a task that is blocked on a global resource; a task either performs a non-preemptive busy wait, i.e., spins, or suspends and releases the processor. Previously, we have shown that both approaches can be viewed as spinning either at the highest priority HP or at the lowest priority on the processor LP, respectively. Based on this view, previously we have generalized a task's blocking behavioral model, as spinning at any arbitrary priority level. In this paper, we focus on a particular class of spin-lock protocols from the introduced flexible spin-lock model where spinning is performed at a priority equal to or higher than the highest local ceiling of the global resources accessed on a processor referred to as CP spin-lock approach. In this paper, we assume that all tasks of a specific processor are spinning on the same priority level. Given this class and assumption, we show that there exists a spin-lock protocol in this range that dominates the classic spin-lock protocol which tasks spin on highest priority level (HP). However we show that this new approach is incomparable with the CP spin-lock approach. Moreover, we show that there may exist an intermediate spin-lock approach between the priority used by CP spin-lock approach and the new introduced spin-lock approach that can make a task set schedulable when those two cannot. We provide an extensive evaluation results comparing the HP, CP and the new proposed approach.

  • 173.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    J. Bril, Reinder
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Per Processor Spin-Lock Priority for Partitioned Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems2017In: Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems, ISSN 2199-2002, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two traditional approaches exist for a task that is blocked on a global resource; a task either performs a non-preemptive busy wait, i.e., spins, or suspends and releases the processor. Previously, we have shown that both approaches can be viewed as spinning either at the highest priority HP or at the lowest priority on the processor LP, respectively. Based on this view, previously we have generalized a task's blocking behavioral model, as spinning at any arbitrary priority level. In this paper, we focus on a particular class of spin-lock protocols from the introduced flexible spin-lock model where spinning is performed at a priority equal to or higher than the highest local ceiling of the global resources accessed on a processor referred to as CP spin-lock approach. In this paper, we assume that all tasks of a specific processor are spinning on the same priority level. Given this class and assumption, we show that there exists a spin-lock protocol in this range that dominates the classic spin-lock protocol which tasks spin on highest priority level (HP). However we show that this new approach is incomparable with the CP spin-lock approach. Moreover, we show that there may exist an intermediate spin-lock approach between the priority used by CP spin-lock approach and the new introduced spin-lock approach that can make a task set schedulable when those two cannot. We provide an extensive evaluation results comparing the HP, CP and the new proposed approach.

  • 174.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Integrating independently developed real-time applications on a shared multi-core architecture2013In: ACM SIGBED Review, v. 10, n. 3, 2013, p. 49-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shift towards multi-core platforms has become inevitable from an industry perspective, therefore proper techniques are needed to deal with challenges related to this migration from single core architectures to a multi-core architecture. One of the main concerns for the system developers in this context is the migration of legacy real-time systems to multi-core architectures. To address this concern and to simplify migration, independently developed subsystems are abstracted with an interface, such that when working with multiple independently-developed subsystems to be integrated on a shared platform, one does not need to be aware of information or policies used in other subsystems in order to determine subsystem-level schedulability. Instead schedulability can be checked through their interfaces at the time of integration on a shared multi-core architecture. In this paper we propose a solution for the case where some of the independently-developed subsystems are distributed over more than one processor and we propose an approach to generate interfaces of subsystems that may share mutually exclusive resources.

  • 175.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Semi-partitioning under a Blocking-Aware Task Allocation2015In: Proceedings - Real-Time Systems Symposium, 2015, p. 379-379Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-partitioned scheduling is a resource efficient scheduling approach compared to the conventional multiprocessor scheduling approaches in terms of system utilization and migration overhead. Semi-partitioned scheduling can better utilize processor bandwidth compared to the partitioned scheduling while introducing less overhead compared to the global scheduling. Various techniques have been proposed to schedule tasks in a semi-partitioned environment, however, they have used blockingagnostic allocation mechanisms in presence of resource sharing protocols. Since, the allocation mechanism can highly affect the system schedulability, in this paper we provide a blocking-aware allocation mechanism for semi-partitioned scheduling framework under a suspension-based resource sharing protocol. We have applied new heuristics for sorting the tasks in the algorithm that shows improvements upon system schedulability. Finally, we present our preliminary results.

  • 176.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Khalilzad, Nima
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bril, Reinder J.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Intra-component Resource Sharing on a Virtual Multiprocessor Platform2016In: ACM SIGBED Review: Special Issue on 8th International Workshop on Compositional Theory and Technology for Real-Time Embedded Systems, 2016, p. 31-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software development facilitates the development process of large and complex software systems. By the advent of multiprocessors, the independently developed components can be integrated on a multi-core platform to achieve an efficient use of system hardware and a decrease in system power consumption and costs. In this paper, we consider a virtual multiprocessor platform where each component can be dynamically allocated to any set of processors of the platform with a maximum concurrency level. Global-EDF is used for intra-component scheduling. The existing analysis for such systems have assumed that tasks are independent. In this paper, we enable intra-component resource sharing for this platform. We investigate using a spin-based resource sharing protocol with the accompanying analysis that extends the existing analysis for independent tasks. We briefly illustrate and evaluate our initial results with an example.

  • 177.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Moghaddami Khalilzad, Nima
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nemati, Farhang
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Resource Sharing among Prioritized Real-Time Applications on Multiprocessors2015In: ACM SIGBED Review - Special Issue on the 6th International Workshop on Compositional Theory and Technology for Real-Time Embedded Systems Homepage archiveVolume 12 Issue 1, 2015, p. 46-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a new protocol for handling resource sharing among prioritized real-time applications composed on a multiprocessor platform. We propose an optimal priority assignment algorithm which assigns unique priorities to the applications based on information in their interfaces. We have performed experimental evaluations to compare the proposed protocol (called MSOS-Priority) to the current state of the art locking protocols under multiprocessor partitioned scheduling, i.e., MPCP, MSRP, FMLP, MSOS, and OMLP. The valuations show that MSOS-Priority mostly performs significantly better than alternative approaches.

  • 178.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nemati, Farhang
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Resource Sharing under Multiprocessor Semi-Partitioned Scheduling2012In: 18th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA'12), 2012, p. 290-299Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-partitioned scheduling has become the subject of recent interest for multiprocessors due to better utilization results, compared to conventional global and partitioned scheduling algorithms. Under semi-partitioned scheduling, a major group of tasks are assigned to fixed processors while a low number of tasks are allocated to more than one processor. Various task assigning techniques have recently been proposed in a semi-partitioned environment. However, a synchronization mechanism for resource sharing among tasks in semi-partitioned scheduling has not yet been investigated. In this paper we propose and evaluate two methods for handling resource sharing under semi-partitioned scheduling in multiprocessor platforms. The main challenge addressed in this paper is to serve the resource requests of tasks that are assigned to different processors.

  • 179.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nemati, Farhang
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Resource Sharing under Multiprocessor Semi-Partitioned Scheduling2012In: 7th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES'12): Conference Proceedings, 2012, p. 315-318Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-partitioned scheduling has been the subject of recent interest, compared with conventional global and partitioned scheduling algorithms for multiprocessors, due to better utilization results. In semi-partitioned scheduling most tasks are assigned to fixed processors while a low number of tasks are split up and allocated to different processors. Various techniques have recently been proposed to assign tasks in a semi-partitioned environment. However, an appropriate resource sharing mechanism for handling the resource requests between tasks in semi-partitioned scheduling has not yet been investigated. In this paper we propose two methods for handling resource sharing under semi-partitioned scheduling in multiprocessor platforms. The main challenge is to handle the resource requests of tasks that are split over multiple processors.

  • 180.
    Afshar, Sara Zargari
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Real-time and offline evaluation of myoelectric pattern recognition for upper limb prosthesis controlManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 181.
    Afshar, Sara Zargari
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    J. Bril, Reinder
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An optimal spin-lock priority assignment algorithm for real-time multi-core systems2017In: The 23th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications RTCSA'17, 2017, article id 8046310Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Support for exclusive access to shared (global) resources is instrumental in the context of embedded real-time multi-core systems, and mechanisms for achieving such access must be deterministic and efficient. There exist two traditional approaches for multiprocessors when a task requests a global resource that is locked by a task on a remote core: a spin-based approach, i.e. non-preemptive busy waiting for the resource to become available, and a suspension-based approach, i.e. the task relinquishes the processor. A suspension-based approach can be viewed as a spin-based approach where the lowest priority on a core is used during spinning, similar to a non-preemptive spin-based approach where the highest priority on a core is used. By taking such a view, we previously provided a general model for spinning, where any arbitrary priority can be used for spinning, i.e. from the lowest to the highest priority on a core. Targeting partitioned fixed-priority preemptive scheduled multiprocessors and spin-based approaches that use a fixed priority for spinning per core for all tasks, we aim at increasing the schedulability of multiprocessor systems by using the spin-lock priority per core as parameter. In this paper, we present (i) a generalization of the traditional worst-case response-time analysis for non-preemptive spin-based approaches addressing an arbitrary but fixed spin-lock priority per core, (ii) an optimal spin-lock priority assignment (OSPA) algorithm per core, i.e. an algorithm that will find a fixed spin-lock priority per core that will make the system schedulable, whenever such an assignment exists and, (iii) comparative evaluations of the OSPA algorithm with the spin-based and suspension-based approaches where OSPA showed up to 38% improvement compared to both approaches.

  • 182.
    Afshar, Sara Zargari
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Koroorian, Fereidon
    ABB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Investigating Alternatives for System Architectures to Enhance Discrete Manufacturing2019In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, Vol. 15, no 8, article id 1550147719868668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the possibility of advancing discrete manufacturing using system architectures that are developed for Collaborative Process Automation Systems. Collaborative Process Automation System is a technology that has the potential to achieve production excellence for process industry. However, not much attention has been paid on using the architectures based on Collaborative Process Automation Systems for discrete manufacturing domains. In this article, we propose a base architecture consisting of three layers, and we discuss various alternatives to make the communications among the layers. We consider legacy components in the proposal, in contrast to most of the related works. In order to show the practicality of the proposed alternatives, we present an example that has been implemented in an ongoing project at ABB Robotics in Sweden.

  • 183.
    Afshari, Houtan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Finding optimum batch sizes for a high mix, low volume surface mount technology line2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 184.
    Afsharmazayejani, R.
    et al.
    Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
    Yazdanpanah, F.
    Vali-e-Asr University, Rafsanjan, Iran.
    Rezaei, A.
    Northwestern University, Evanston, United States.
    Alaei, M.
    Vali-e-Asr University, Rafsanjan, Iran.
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    HoneyWiN: Novel honeycomb-based wireless NoC architecture in many-core era2018In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, Vol. 10824 LNCS, p. 304-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although NoC-based systems with many cores are commercially available, their multi-hop nature has become a bottleneck on scaling performance and energy consumption parameters. Alternatively, hybrid wireless NoC provides a postern by exploiting single-hop express links for long-distance communications. Also, there is a common wisdom that grid-like mesh is the most stable topology in conventional designs. That is why almost all of the emerging architectures had been relying on this topology as well. In this paper, first we challenge the efficiency of the grid-like mesh in emerging systems. Then, we propose HoneyWiN, a hybrid reconfigurable wireless NoC architecture that relies on the honeycomb topology. The simulation results show that on average HoneyWiN saves 17% of energy consumption while increases the network throughput by 10% compared to its wireless mesh counterpart. 

  • 185.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Embedded Systems.
    Search-based approaches to software fault prediction and software testing2009Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software verification and validation activities are essential for software quality but also constitute a large part of software development costs. Therefore efficient and cost effective software verification and validation activities are both a priority and a necessity considering the pressure to decrease time-to-market and intense competition faced by many, if not all, companies today. It is then perhaps not unexpected that decisions related to software quality, when to stop testing, testing schedule and testing resource allocation needs to be as accurate as possible. This thesis investigates the application of search-based techniques within two activities of software verification and validation: Software fault prediction and software testing for non-functional system properties. Software fault prediction modeling can provide support for making important decisions as outlined above. In this thesis we empirically evaluate symbolic regression using genetic programming (a search-based technique) as a potential method for software fault predictions. Using data sets from both industrial and open-source software, the strengths and weaknesses of applying symbolic regression in genetic programming are evaluated against competitive techniques. In addition to software fault prediction this thesis also consolidates available research into predictive modeling of other attributes by applying symbolic regression in genetic programming, thus presenting a broader perspective. As an extension to the application of search-based techniques within software verification and validation this thesis further investigates the extent of application of search-based techniques for testing non-functional system properties. Based on the research findings in this thesis it can be concluded that applying symbolic regression in genetic programming may be a viable technique for software fault prediction. We additionally seek literature evidence where other search-based techniques are applied for testing of non-functional system properties, hence contributing towards the growing application of search-based techniques in diverse activities within software verification and validation.

  • 186.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Alone, Snehal
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Glocksien, Kerstin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Torkar, Richard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Software Test Process Improvement Approaches: A Systematic Literature Review and an Industrial Case Study2016In: Journal of Systems and Software JSS, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 111, p. 1-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software test process improvement (STPI) approaches are frameworks that guide software development organizations to improve their software testing process. We have identified existing STPI approaches and their characteristics (such as completeness of development, availability of information and assessment instruments, and domain limitations of the approaches) using a systematic literature review (SLR). Furthermore, two selected approaches (TPI NEXT and TMMi) are evaluated with respect to their content and assessment results in industry. As a result of this study, we have identified 18 STPI approaches and their characteristics. A detailed comparison of the content of TPI NEXT and TMMi is done. We found that many of the STPI approaches do not provide sufficient information or the approaches do not include assessment instruments. This makes it difficult to apply many approaches in industry. Greater similarities were found between TPI NEXT and TMMi and fewer differences. We conclude that numerous STPI approaches are available but not all are generally applicable for industry. One major difference between available approaches is their model representation. Even though the applied approaches generally show strong similarities, differences in the assessment results arise due to their different model representations.

  • 187.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bruneliere, H.
    IMT Atlantique – LS2N (CNRS) – ARMINES, France.
    Di Ruscio, D.
    Università degli Studi dell'Aquila - DISIM | Center of Excellence DEWS, Italy.
    Sadovykh, A.
    Softeam, France.
    Mazzini, S.
    Intecs, Italy.
    Cariou, E.
    Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, LIUPPA, France.
    Truscan, D.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Cabot, J.
    ICREA, Spain.
    Gómez, A.
    Internet Interdisciplinary Institute (IN3), Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC), Spain.
    Gorroñogoitia, J.
    ATOS, Spain.
    Pomante, L.
    Università degli Studi dell'Aquila - DISIM | Center of Excellence DEWS, Italy.
    Smrz, P.
    Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic.
    The MegaM@Rt2 ECSEL project: MegaModelling at Runtime – Scalable model-based framework for continuous development and runtime validation of complex systems2018In: Microprocessors and microsystems, ISSN 0141-9331, E-ISSN 1872-9436, Vol. 61, p. 86-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge for the European electronic industry is to enhance productivity by ensuring quality of development, integration and maintenance while reducing the associated costs. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) principles and techniques have already shown promising capabilities, but they still need to scale up to support real-world scenarios implied by the full deployment and use of complex electronic components and systems. Moreover, maintaining efficient traceability, integration, and communication between two fundamental system life cycle phases (design time and runtime) is another challenge requiring the scalability of MDE. This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL 1 project entitled “MegaModelling at runtime – Scalable model-based framework for continuous development and runtime validation of complex systems” (MegaM@Rt2), whose aim is to address the above mentioned challenges facing MDE. Driven by both large and small industrial enterprises, with the support of research partners and technology providers, MegaM@Rt2 aims to deliver a framework of tools and methods for: 1) system engineering/design and continuous development, 2) related runtime analysis and 3) global models and traceability management. Diverse industrial use cases (covering strategic domains such as aeronautics, railway, construction and telecommunications) will integrate and demonstrate the validity of the MegaM@Rt2 solution. This paper provides an overview of the MegaM@Rt2 project with respect to its approach, mission, objectives as well as to its implementation details. It further introduces the consortium as well as describes the work packages and few already produced deliverables.

  • 188.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bruneliere, Hugo
    AtlanMod Team, Inria, France.
    Di Ruscio, Davide
    Univ. of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.
    Sadovykh, Andrey
    Softeam, France.
    Mazzini, Silvia
    Intecs, Italy.
    Cariou, Eric
    Univ. de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, Pau, France.
    Truscan, Dragos
    Åbo Akademi Univ., Turku, Finland.
    Cabot, Jordi
    Jordi Cabot ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Field, Daniel
    ATOS, Madrid, Spain.
    Pomante, Luigi
    Univ. of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.
    Smrz, Pavel
    Brno Univ. of Technol., Brno, Czech Republic.
    The MegaM@Rt2 ECSEL Project: MegaModelling at Runtime — Scalable Model-Based Framework for Continuous Development and Runtime Validation of Complex Systems2017In: The 2017 Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design DSD'17, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge for the European electronic industry is to enhance productivity while reducing costs and ensuring quality in development, integration and maintenance. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) principles and techniques have already shown promising capabilities but still need to scale to support real-world scenarios implied by the full deployment and use of complex electronic components and systems. Moreover, maintaining efficient traceability, integration and communication between two fundamental system life-time phases (design time and runtime) is another challenge facing scalability of MDE. This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled "MegaModelling at runtime -- Scalable model-based framework for continuous development and runtime validation of complex systems" (MegaM@Rt2), whose aim is to address the above mentioned challenges facing MDE. Driven by both large and small industrial enterprises, with the support of research partners and technology providers, MegaM@Rt2 aims to deliver a framework of tools and methods for: 1) system engineering/design & continuous development, 2) related runtime analysis and 3) global model & traceability management, respectively. The diverse industrial use cases (covering domains such as aeronautics, railway, construction and telecommunications) will integrate and apply such a framework that shall demonstrate the validation of the MegaM@Rt2 solution.

  • 189.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Caporuscio, M.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Conboy, H.
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA, United States.
    Di Marco, A.
    University of l'Aquila, Italy.
    Duchien, D. L.
    University of Lille, France.
    Pérez, D.
    University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Seceleanu, C.
    Kyushu University, Japan.
    Shahbazian, A.
    University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States.
    Spalazzese, R.
    Microsoft, WA, United States.
    Tivoli, M.
    Florida State University, FL, United States.
    Vasilescu, B.
    University College Dublin and Lero, Ireland.
    Washizaki, H
    Mälardalen University.
    Weyns, D.
    University of Southern California, CA, United States.
    Pasquale, L.
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Nistor, A.
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Muşlu, K.
    Waseda University, Japan.
    Kamei, Y.
    Waseda University, Japan.
    Hanam, Q.
    Carnegie Mellon University, PA, United States.
    Ying, A. T. T.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
    Program committee for icse 2018 posters track2018In: Proceedings / International Conference of Software Engineering, ISSN 0270-5257, E-ISSN 1558-1225, Vol. Part F137351Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ghazi, Nauman
    Blekinge Institute of Technolog.
    Itkonen, Juha
    Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Torkar, Richard
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Andrews, Anneliese
    University of Denver, USA.
    Bhatti, Khurram
    Blekinge Institute of Technolog.
    An experiment on the effectiveness and efficiency of exploratory testing2015In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 844-878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exploratory testing (ET) approach is commonly applied in industry, but lacks scientific research. The scientific community needs quantitative results on the performance of ET taken from realistic experimental settings. The objective of this paper is to quantify the effectiveness and efficiency of ET vs. testing with documented test cases (test case based testing, TCT). We performed four controlled experiments where a total of 24 practitioners and 46 students performed manual functional testing using ET and TCT. We measured the number of identified defects in the 90-minute testing sessions, the detection difficulty, severity and types of the detected defects, and the number of false defect reports. The results show that ET found a significantly greater number of defects. ET also found significantly more defects of varying levels of difficulty, types and severity levels. However, the two testing approaches did not differ significantly in terms of the number of false defect reports submitted. We conclude that ET was more efficient than TCT in our experiment. ET was also more effective than TCT when detection difficulty, type of defects and severity levels are considered. The two approaches are comparable when it comes to the number of false defect reports submitted.

  • 191.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    A comparative evaluation of using genetic programming for predicting fault count data2008In: Proceedings - The 3rd International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, ICSEA 2008, Includes ENTISY 2008: International Workshop on Enterprise Information Systems, 2008, p. 407-414Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been a number of software reliability growth models (SRGMs) proposed in literature. Due to several reasons, such as violation of models’ assumptions and complexity of models, the practitioners face difficulties in knowing which models to apply in practice. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of traditional models and use of genetic programming (GP) for modeling software reliability growth based on weekly fault count data of three different industrial projects. The motivation of using a GP approach is its ability to evolve a model based entirely on prior data without the need of making underlying assumptions. The results show the strengths of using GP for predicting fault count data.

  • 192.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan .
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Towards benchmarking feature subset selection methods for software fault prediction2016In: Computational Intelligence and Quantitative Software Engineering / [ed] Witold Pedrycz, Giancarlo Succi and Alberto Sillitti, Springer-Verlag , 2016, p. 33-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the general acceptance that software engineering datasets often contain noisy, irrele- vant or redundant variables, very few benchmark studies of feature subset selection (FSS) methods on real-life data from software projects have been conducted. This paper provides an empirical comparison of state-of-the-art FSS methods: information gain attribute ranking (IG); Relief (RLF); principal com- ponent analysis (PCA); correlation-based feature selection (CFS); consistency-based subset evaluation (CNS); wrapper subset evaluation (WRP); and an evolutionary computation method, genetic program- ming (GP), on five fault prediction datasets from the PROMISE data repository. For all the datasets, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve—the AUC value averaged over 10-fold cross- validation runs—was calculated for each FSS method-dataset combination before and after FSS. Two diverse learning algorithms, C4.5 and na ??ve Bayes (NB) are used to test the attribute sets given by each FSS method. The results show that although there are no statistically significant differences between the AUC values for the different FSS methods for both C4.5 and NB, a smaller set of FSS methods (IG, RLF, GP) consistently select fewer attributes without degrading classification accuracy. We conclude that in general, FSS is beneficial as it helps improve classification accuracy of NB and C4.5. There is no single best FSS method for all datasets but IG, RLF and GP consistently select fewer attributes without degrading classification accuracy within statistically significant boundaries.

  • 193.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Wikstrand, Greger
    KnowIT YAHM Sweden AB.
    Search-based prediction of fault-slip-through in large software projects2010In: Proceedings - 2nd International Symposium on Search Based Software Engineering, SSBSE 2010, 2010, p. 79-88Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large percentage of the cost of rework can be avoided by ?nding more faults earlier in a software testing process. Therefore, determination of which software testing phases to focus improvements work on, has considerable industrial interest. This paper evaluates the use of ?ve different techniques, namely particle swarm optimization based arti?cial neural networks (PSO-ANN), arti?cial immune recognition systems (AIRS), gene expression programming (GEP), genetic programming (GP) and multiple regression (MR), for predicting the number of faults slipping through unit, function, integration and system testing phases. The objective is to quantify improvement potential in different testing phases by striving towards ?nding the right faults in the right phase. We have conducted an empirical study of two large projects from a telecommunication company developing mobile platforms and wireless semiconductors. The results are compared using simple residuals, goodness of ?t and absolute relative error measures. They indicate that the four search-based techniques (PSOANN, AIRS, GEP, GP) perform better than multiple regression for predicting the fault-slip-through for each of the four testing phases. At the unit and function testing phases, AIRS and PSO-ANN performed better while GP performed better at integration and system testing phases. The study concludes that a variety of search-based techniques are applicable for predicting the improvement potential in different testing phases with GP showing more consistent performance across two of the four test phases.

  • 194.
    Agbamuche, Joy
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    How does the alignment of IT to business strategy affect the organisation of the IT function?2008Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Date: 2008-06-04

    Purpose: The primary goal of this research is to describe the IT function and examine how its alignment to an organisations strategy affects the way it is organised.

    Method: The chosen method was a purely theoretical examination with the use of the case study of Windham International as primary resource and secondary resources such as book and literature review used for the thesis.

    Research Questions: How does the alignment of IT to business strategy affect the organisation of the IT function?

    Conclusion: One of the findings was that a few researchers seem to suggest that the centralized mode of organising IT was symbolic of the past, while outsourcing and decentralization are the modern approach to organising IT. Wyndham International shows the opposite, after the introduction of the CIO in 2002, centralization was the chosen mode of organisation because that was what would best fit the new strategic approach of the organisation. Insourcing rather than outsourcing proved to be a winning formula.

  • 195.
    Agemalm, Stina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Thuvander, Frida
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att vårda palliativt: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients who receive palliative care experience that they lose their independence through the disease and are frustrated that their body is not functioning as before. They also experience that their situation make them change their attitudes towards life. Several patients appreciate when healthcare professionals show genuine interest and the same patients have confidence in the healthcare system. Some patients experience that the healthcare professionals have no time and that their knowledge regarding their psychosocial problems is inadequate. Aim: The purpose is to describe nurses experience of nursing in palliative care. Method: Qualitative literature study with descriptive synthesis. Ten qualitative articles have been analyzed and is presented in the result. Results: After analysis, two themes were disclosed; Becoming enriched and Being challenged who described nurse’s experiences presented under five subthemes. Conclusion: Nurses perceived, among other things, that they were strengthened as a person and that they learned to re-prioritize and appreciate life. They also experienced grief over the fate of patients and it was common to take work home. Several of the nurses perceived that doctors did not give them support, others felt that their lack of experience contributed to the care worsening.

  • 196.
    Agerlo, Cathrine
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Lord, Ann
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Om elevernas motivation är lärarens verktyg, vilka är då de faktorer som påverkar motivationen för att lära matematik?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att få ökad kunskap om och förståelse för faktorer som påverkar elevers motivation för matematik, och som därmed har effekter för deras kunskapsinhämtning. För att besvara studiens frågeställningar, har en kvalitativ undersökning gjorts i form av 16 semistrukturerade intervjuer med förstelärare i matematik, speciallärare mot matematikutveckling och elever från årskurs 4-9. Studien visar att pedagogerna ser faktorer som relationer mellan lärare och elev, lärarens ledarskap och förmåga att bedriva intressant och meningsfull undervisning som framgångsrika liksom elevers känsla av kunna lyckas. Eleverna anser att matematik är roligt då de förstår. Resultatet har analyserats mot relevant tidigare forskning och studiens teoretiska utgångspunkter. Utifrån resultatdialogen anser vi att kunskap om elevers motivation för matematik är viktig för våra elevers kunskapsutveckling.

  • 197.
    Agerskans, Natalie
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ergonomisk kartläggning av internt logistikflöde - Med förbättringsförslag: En fallstudie genomförd på ett företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is firstly to identify risks of ergonomic strain in a future internal logistics flow and secondly propose how to avoid these risks by applying LEAN methodology and a new logistics solution. In order to identify causes for problems and to find improvement opportunities the following issues have been addressed:

    1)    What tasks in the studied logistics flow lead to risks of ergonomic strain?

    2)    How can the studied company implement the LEAN methodology to improve ergonomics in the material handling?

    3)    How can a new general and more ergonomic logistic solution for material handling look like for the studied company?

    Method: The study has been conducted based on a case at an industrial company. Data has been collected through interviews and observations at the company, visits at two other industries and through a literature survey. To identify and assess various ergonomic risks, the RAMP tool has been applied.

    Study result: The study resulted in an ergonomic survey for a selected internal logistics flow with suggestions on how to improve ergonomics in the studied company´s material handling. The ergonomic survey showed that several work tasks cause an increased risk for the operators to develop strain injuries and therefore improvements are required. Heavy lifting, pulling and sliding work pieces and incorrect working positions were shown to have the most adverse impact on good ergonomics. To reduce these risks - without major changes to the current factory layout and existing workflow - work rotation, various tools/aids and modifications of technical equip-ment can be implemented. Proposals are presented on how a new and more ergonomic material handling solution can be achieved at the studied company through the introduction of a pickup station and a “supermarket”. A suggested framework is also presented for how the company can use LEAN methodology in order to achieve better ergonomics in the material handling process.

    Conclusion: The ergonomic survey indicated that improvements are required in order not to risk strain injuries for the operators. Suggestions have been made for how the ergonomic situation can be improved.

    Recommendations: The studied company is recommended to take measures with respect to the ergonomic risks identified. Before the proposed improvements can be introduced, studies are required to evaluate the improvement proposals from other than ergonomic aspects as well as performing a RAMP analysis. The studied company is also recommended to investigate the possibility of introducing the proposed LEAN framework.

    Keywords: Strain ergonomics, RAMP, Picking station, Work environment, Internal logistics, Material handling

  • 198.
    Agestav, Amanda
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nilsson, Camilla
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Så styrs Mälarenergi med hjälp av Balanserat Styrkort2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title:   Controlling Mälarenergi by Balanced Scorecard 

    Seminar date:  2009-01-16 

    Institution:   School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology 

    Course:   Bachelor thesis 15hp 

    Authors:   Camilla Nilsson, Amanda Agestav 

    Advisor:   Ulla Pettersson 

    The main issues:                What does Mälarenergi's Balanced Scorecard look like? Which Balanced Scorecard perspectives are important to Mälarenergi? Is Balanced Scorecard a purposeful control model in order for the group management to fulfil the aims of the owners' directives? 

    Purpose:                            The purpose is to find out how the group management at Mälarenergi works with Balanced Scorecard. Is Balanced Scorecard a purposeful tool for the group management to fulfill the aims of the owners' directives? 

    Method:                             This study is based on a qualitative research method in the form of interviews. We have interviewed one respondent. Secondary data have been produced by literature search. 

    Conclusion:                       Mälarenergi uses Balanced Scorecard exclusively at a group management level. The strategic work at the business areas' different division levels takes place aided by a business development model. We believe that Balanced Scorecard is a purposeful tool to use in order to clarify a company's strategy work and reach the goals in the owners' directives. However, Mälarenergi needs to complement the Balanced Scorecard with another model, since the business areas are so different from each other. In doing so, however, there is a risk that not all employees will be involved in the Balanced Scorecard, but that this will become an exclusive tool to the group management. We believe that there is no clear connection between the Balanced Scorecard work done in the group management and the work within the different business areas with their various focus areas.

     

  • 199.
    Agha Jafari Wolde, Bahareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A systematic Mapping study of ADAS and Autonomous Driving2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, autonomous driving revolution is getting closer to reality. To achieve the Autonomous driving the first step is to develop the Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS). Driver-assistance systems are one of the fastest-growing segments in automotive electronics since already there are many forms of ADAS available. To investigate state of art of development of ADAS towards Autonomous Driving, we develop Systematic Mapping Study (SMS). SMS methodology is used to collect, classify, and analyze the relevant publications. A classification is introduced based on the developments carried out in ADAS towards Autonomous driving. According to SMS methodology, we identified 894 relevant publications about ADAS and its developmental journey toward Autonomous Driving completed from 2012 to 2016. We classify the area of our research under three classifications: technical classifications, research types and research contributions. The related publications are classified under thirty-three technical classifications. This thesis sheds light on a better understanding of the achievements and shortcomings in this area. By evaluating collected results, we answer our seven research questions. The result specifies that most of the publications belong to the Models and Solution Proposal from the research type and contribution. The least number of the publications belong to the Automated…Autonomous driving from the technical classification which indicated the lack of publications in this area. 

  • 200.
    Agha Seyed Ali, Sam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Arif Dawody, Zhilvan
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Åkerström, Niklas
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    E-budgivning: Vägen in på marknaden2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågeställning: Finns utrymmet för en ny verksamhet som E-budgivning på den svenska bostadsmarknaden? Fungerar företagets affärsidé eller är marknaden mättad?                    Kan E-budgivning eventuellt utmana andra aktörer och få en etablerad plats på svenska bostadsmarknaden?

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka och analysera E-budgivnings chanser på marknaden för en eventuell framgång.

    Metod: En kvalitativ intervju med en representant från E-budgivning samt en kvantitativ enkätundersökning bidrog till primärdata. De sekundärdata som samlats är litteratur från böcker, tidsskrifter samt Internet.

    Allt fler företag väljer att satsa på Internetbaserade marknaden. Företag bemöter en hård konkurrens på bostadsmarknaden och slåss om konsumenterna som blivit allt mer prismedvetna mycket på grund av Internets framfart.

    Studien riktar sig till ett nystartat företag vid namn E-budgivning som är intresserade av att etablera sig på svenska bostadsmarknaden. Under tidigare år har valet av mäklare varit en självklarhet vid försäljning och köp av en bostad. Idag är inte valet lika självklart eftersom flera aktörer trätt in på marknaden och där urvalet av en rad olika alternativ finns att tillgå.

    Ett intresse samt funderingar uppkom om hur marknaden kommer se ut i framtiden och vilka chanser och möjligheter E-budgivning har. Genom teorier och empirisk data från undersökningar genom arbetets gång har konstanterandet gjorts att E-budgivnings etableringsmöjligheter ligger rätt i tiden. En stor faktor till resultatet är mycket på grund av teknologiska utvecklingen i kombination med företagets nischade affärsidé.

    Däremot passar den långt ifrån alla konsumenter då alla har skilda åsikter och behov vilket även historien bevisar. Studien visar att E-budgivning inte har en chans att hota stora aktörer på allvar, däremot har företaget goda möjligheter att få marknadsandelar med rätt marknadsföring.

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