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  • 151.
    Darvish Shahrbabaki, Shahab Aldin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Green and Lean Production Visualization Tools; A Case Study exploring EVSM2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a great need for an environmental, economic and social sustainable society, meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations. Focusing on environmental sustainability, legislation and industrially accepted emission targets have emerged, on an overall level represented by e g the Kyoto protocol. Green as well as Lean production has thus become a more and more important topic in recent years. Based on the gigantic need for technologies and strategies that will reduce CO2 emissions globally, as well as customer demands for cost efficient and environmental friendly goods and processes, companies are starting to change their principles towards Green and Lean philosophies. In Green and/or Lean development, like other systematic approaches towards improved processes, there is a need for visualization tools to be used to analyze the supply chain and the manufacturing system. One possible visualization tool for this purpose is Environmental Value Stream Mapping, which has all the characteristics of its parent, VSM (Value Stream Mapping) and additional kaizen elements. In the EVSM, the environmental issues and the usage of material or energy have been added to the established VSM tool. However it has been almost four years since United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has introduced EVSM and there is no reliable evaluation how this tool really works and can be implemented. Therefore there is a need to evaluate and possibly improve this tool, based on practice and the applicability in industry. A case study has been performed testing the EVSM tool in industry and is presented in this paper. The aim of the case study is to analyze how the EVSM tool can be used as well as implementing suggested changes, summarized into, an Environmental Flow Process Chart. The EVSM tool seems suitable for showing the parts of the process in the supply chain which has more waste of energy or material. Still, it lacks information about where and how this waste are generated and which element of the process that is making the most waste, indicating a need for improvement

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    Green and Lean Production Visualization Tools;
  • 152.
    Deleryd, Mats
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. SIQ Swedish Inst Qual, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. SIQ Swedish Inst Qual, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Towards societal satisfaction in a fifth generation of quality - the sustainability modelIn: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality concept has developed over many generations. The purpose of this article is to review and describe how the quality movement developed through four sequential generations and how a fifth generation is upcoming. Building on the different generations of quality, the fifth generation reveals differing needs between customers and stakeholders. In the new generation of quality, societal satisfaction would be a more appropriate way of measuring sustainable success. Consequently, and to support societal satisfaction, additional quality management models that complement current approaches are needed. For organisations to manage current, fast-changing environments successfully, existing management models need to be further developed. Hence, to support decision makers in the fifth generation of quality, Quality 5.0, achieve societal satisfaction, this paper proposes a generic model for sustainable development, based on a longitudinal trend analysis of two sequential Delphi studies conducted in 2012 and 2018. The sustainability model supports all organisations-private or public, large or small-on their pathway towards sustainable organisational success and a sustainable future.

  • 153.
    Delkhosh, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lean Automation: Combining Lean with Industrial Robotics in Real Examples2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to analyze whether we can have a better automation manufacturing using lean solutions. First, this report is started with the background and problem description. After that the research questions are mentioned and the delimitations and expected results are discussed.

    The theoretical part of this thesis is describing the research methodology and the literatures review of automation and related challenges. A theoretical review of lean and lean automation concepts has been conducted.

    In the empirical part of the thesis some challenges of automation are listed based on interviews and case studies. Some observed lean automation solutions are discussed and evaluated. In the discussion and analysis part, a concept of lean automation is presented based on the results from the case studies and interviews.

    Finally, in the conclusion chapter, the research questions are answered and future research is proposed for further studies.

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    Lean Auotmation
  • 154.
    Detjens, Sönke
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Flores, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Evaluating Lean Manufacturing Proposals through Discrete Event Simulation – A Case Study at Alfa Laval2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In their strive for success in competitive markets companies often turn to Lean philosophy. However, for many companies Lean benefits are hard to substantialize especially when their ventures have met success through traditional manufacturing approaches. Traditional Lean tools analyze current situations or help Lean implementation. Therefore productions facilities require tools that enhance the evaluation of Lean proposals in such a way that decisions are supported by quantitative data and not only on a gut feeling.

    This thesis proposes how Discrete Event Simulation may be used as an evaluation tool in production process improvement to decide which proposal best suits Lean requirements. Theoretical and empirical studies were carried out. Literature review helped define the problem. A case study was performed at Alfa Laval to investigate through a holistic approach how and why did this tool provide a solution to the research questions. Case study analysis was substantiated with Discrete Event Simulation models for the evaluation of current and future state Lean proposals.

    Results of this study show that Discrete Event Simulation was not designed and does not function as a Lean specific tool. The use of Discrete Event Simulation in Lean assessment applications requires the organization to understand the principles of Lean and its desired effects. However, the use of traditional static Lean tools such as Value Stream Mapping and dynamic Discrete Event Simulation complement each other in a variety of ways. Discrete Event Simulation provides a unique condition to account for process variability and randomness. Both measurement of and reduction in variability through simulation provide insight to Lean implementation strategies.

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    fulltext
  • 155.
    Edoff, Petra
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Between outsourcing and Open Innovation: An intercultural case study in the Telecom industry2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the competition is increasing both nationally and globally, the companies are looking for new ways to decrease costs and gain innovation. The latest hot topic is Open innovation (OI), which can be seen as the ultimate limit in terms of accessible expertise, since it makes no difference in valuing an idea in terms of its origin. The trend is that companies are increasingly acknowledging the relevance of external resources, engaging in OI rather than relying exclusively on internal research and development (Chesborough, 2006). There are many types of supplier relations and innovation networks that the companies can take part in, but OI can be seen more as an approach and mindset that should determine how the companies act, whether it’s a question of being more open for ideas from another department, or even towards a competitor company. The companies are often using different types of collaborations and strategy and, potentially, trying to move up “the scale” towards OI.  With this thesis work I propose that there are many different aspects that the companies have to be aware of when moving up the scale from in-house development towards global OI. In reality, not many companies are taking the full advantage of OI, nonetheless knows the perquisites for doing so. OI may be the trend for development of companies, but today the nature of this is complex as companies are using different layers of the supplier and collaboration types in different parts of the organization. The success stories which Chesborough uses to exemplify the concept of OI do not address the grey area, or place on a scale, where many companies are situated in. This study will therefore explore the complexity in managing these collaborations that is not so present in the literature. How do you manage a collaboration that includes supplier relation, partnership and a want for OI at the same time? This means that there has to be a selection on which projects to collaborate with, as well as strategies for collaborating in a more innovative way and the steps that needs to be taken to get there.  In this thesis I am going to use this broad definition of innovation:

    Innovation is the total set of activities leading to the introduction of something new, resulting in strengthening the defendable competitive advantage of a company. (van der Meer, 1996)

    My partner company in this study is a global Telecom company (DU Technology) who would like to learn more about this and improve their collaboration with an Indian Service provider (ITC). These companies will be used as a case study to provide an example on how complex the movement towards OI can be, and what it demands from the companies to succeed. As the companies are working in a global context, I will also highlight the importance of an understanding for the cultural differences that affects collaboration and how to manage these when they are not a part of your own company.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 156.
    Edoff, Petra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Boivie, Ylva
    Managing Offshore Development- an Intercultural Perspective2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshore Outsourcing, by utilizing the suppliers´ economy of scale and lower wages, is one of the solutions that companies use to reduce costs. However, as the outsourced tasks are getting more complex and require innovative practices, cultural differences get exposed. Cultural aspects are important to consider in securing efficiency and innovation in offshore outsourcing. Nevertheless, the cultural influence has only been studied to a limited extent in literature. With this in mind, we have performed a case study exploring the cultural differences between a Swedish high tech company and its Indian service provider. The study is based on 40 in-depth interviews, observations and business review documentation. The phenomenon of culture is framed by a literature review on organizational culture, national culture and contextual factors. Our results show that by understanding, relating to and managing cultural differences in a systematic manner, companies can gain competitive advantages.

  • 157.
    Edoff, Petra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Boivie, Ylva
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Managing offshore development- an intercultural perspective2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 158.
    Edoff, Petra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Srinivasan, Jayakanth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Transfer Management for Global Product Development Organization2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global product development has become integral to the way enterprises work today. The drivers for distribution work to global locations such India and China began with a focus on the significant cost differentials when compared to executing the work in western countries (Mao et al. 2008). Since then, the availability of talent (Lewin et al, 2009; Quelin & Duhamel, 2003) and accessibility of markets (Goldbrunner et al, 2006; Mao et al. 2008) have become equally important motivators.

     

    The use of offshoring adds an additional layer of complexity to the already complex product development governance processes that companies use. Current literature discuss the offshoring or outsourcing decision (Levina & Su, 2008), describing organizational objectives for offshoring (Quelin & Duhamel, 2003; Lewin et al, 2009), guidelines for location choices (Cohen et al, 2009), deciding what functions to send offshore (Contractor et al, 2010) coupled with core competencies, as well as risks associated with offshoring (Lewin and Peeters, 2006; Aron & Singh, 2005). The offshoring process itself can be framed in terms of the decision to send functions (components, products, or services) overseas, progressing to planning and executing a transfer and iterating through the governance associated with operations. Since the vast majority of the literature focus on the decision stage of the offshoring process, or the governance perspective on existing globally distributed teams, there is still a need for understanding the process of transferring components and whole products. This papers aims to shed further light on that gap by describing the actual process of executing a successful transfer.

     The empirical foundation of this paper is a single in-depth case study of a new product development organization being established in China. We used an inductive approach that relied on qualitative and archival data to truly understand the dynamics of managing the offshoring of complex products and uncover the underlying mechanisms and structures. Given the paucity of literature and experience reports on transfers, an exploratory approach for collecting qualitative data was used. The primary source of data collection in this paper was interviews with key stakeholders within the projects at the general management and project management levels. We interviewed 15 managers from the Swedish and Chinese centres, and analysed archival data to gain a deeper understanding into both the sending and receiving side.

     The case enterprise, called Eurosoft, has a rich history of outsourcing to other suppliers, and was beginning to establish its presence in China. A strategic decision was taken by senior leadership to create an offshore organization in China that would assume complete ownership of one of their flagship products. Contrary to the conventional wisdom of having the same organizational structure replicated on the European and Chinese sites, Eurosoft chose to establish a product-centred organization on the China side. This paper will give insight to the context of transferring entire product responsibility for a mature product. While the strategies and motivations of distributing work across the product development life cycle have been debated in the literature, the question remains – how do you implement it?

     The case highlighted the key challenges that organizations face when handing an offshoring scenario. Even though Eurosoft Swedish centre was transitioning work to a sister organization within the larger Eurosoft enterprise, they faced hurdles with respect to establishing a common framework for carrying out the product transfer; communicating across cultural and national boundaries; having the receiving team demonstrate and feel comfortable with their competence; and dealing with the mismatch of organizational priorities in the two organizations. Eurosoft found that it was challenging to adhere to the transfer model when key resources from the sending side were often also focused on development projects unrelated to the transfer. When those projects ran into problems, the mentors from the sending side were unavailable to the receiving side. This introduces variability in the transfer process. While everyone recognized the importance of defining and locking the scope of the transfer, they found that scope creep occurred because a strategic roadmap was not articulated to the whole team. Furthermore, the number of interdependencies within a given product and between the products in the portfolio made it difficult to get consensus on the scope. The challenges that emerged in the case are consistent with that faced by project managers studied by Lacity and Rottman (2008). While none of these challenges in and of themselves are unique, the combination of the challenges in the context of a transfer project provides useful insights to both theory and practice.

     Based on the study, our recommendations to the practicing manager are to:

    -          Establish a standard transfer model that clarifies transfer scope up front, and develop a governance mechanism to assess progress.

    -          Ensure communication modes and interface mechanisms are articulated and agreed upon, and that training has been provided to address soft issues such as culture.

    -          Provide dedicated resources to ensure effective knowledge transfer to the receiving team

    -          Develop competencies in the receiving team across the four areas of technical, product governance, ways of working, and cultural commonality.

  • 159.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Resilience Within a Weaker Work Environment System— The Position and Influence of Swedish Safety Representatives2016In: Safety or Profit?: International Studies in Governance, Change and the Work Environment / [ed] David Walters; Theo Nichols, Taylor and Francis , 2016, p. 51-70Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes and discusses the situation of Swedish safety representatives (SRs) with respect to formal rights and position, power balance and influence, and the social construction of risks and solutions. It is prefaced by a short account of the development of the Swedish work environment (WE) system and how recent economic and political changes may have affected this and the position of safety reps. An underlying question is, Why do safety reps refrain from fully using their rights and opportunities to act against risk at work? They may pursue any serious risk as much as is needed. And work environment surveys indicate widespread and serious risks at work that the SRs (and others) could require employers to improve (AV, 2010). The risks are estimated to cause at least 1,000 fatalities per year, but possibly many more (Järvholm, 2010). Despite this, in 2006, only 3% of the blue collar SRs in the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO) survey had used their right to appeal to the labor inspectorate during the previous 3 years (Gellerstedt, 2007: 49-50). Case studies also indicate that safety reps do not use all of their rights to pursue issues they find important (e.g., Frick, 1994; Frick and Forsberg, 2010). To at least somewhat understand the difference between theoretical and real safety rep influence, we have to look not only to their formal position but also to their labor-market power and how risks are constructed and understood at the workplace; and how these factors have changed in the Swedish labor market. 

  • 160.
    Eklund, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Materials Supply, Measurability and Guidelines towards efficiency2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Measurability in production is a cornerstone in all production, but to determine if chosen key performance indicators (KPI’s) are right and in the right amount, to be of help in the daily work, is a challenge. In materials supply processes, there are in some companies not easy to manage KPI’s, resulting in the end in overcapacity in different areas. The question is whether this is acceptable, or if it is a source of cost that has significant improvement potential? In many companies, you do not really know, since there is a lack of facts to draw conclusions from.

    Today materials supply is becoming more and more in focus within production development with many theses and ongoing research and development projects. In global companies, management has recognized the importance of the development of this area with new methods and routines for production improvements in the materials supply area.

    In this thesis, the author will try to deal with these challenges and give the reader some proposals and solutions. The first area is KPI’s and the author proposes some measurements to be used in the daily work within materials supply. The second area in the thesis is to develop guidelines for materials supply concepts to be used in different types of production set-ups.

    The author has made several case studies, in one case company as well as in three reference companies, as well as literature and document studies.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 161.
    Eklund, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Internal Materials Handling in a Lean Manufacturing Environment: Challenges and a Design Process from an Industrial Perspective2009In: Proceedings of The International 3'rd Swedish Production Symposium, SPS '09, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Ekman, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Design av laddstation för elbilar2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Projektet påbörjades med en förstudie som skulle resultera i ett koncept och en fysisk modell.Projektet går ut på att designa en laddstation för elbilar och på det sättet bidra till samhälletsomställning till förnyelsebara energikällor. Produkten är tänkt att placeras i Mälardalen påallmänna parkeringar, shoppingcenter, privata parkeringar för bostads- och hyresrätter,parkeringshus och liknande.Jag började med att genomföra en marknadsundersökning där jag undersökte existerandelösningar på marknaden. Deras styrkor och svagheter analyserades från olika perspektiv t.ex.design och användarvänlighet. Vidare försökte jag ta reda på vad Mälardalens var känt för,detta för att kunna hitta en gemensam nämnare och införliva det i designen. Här upprättades enfunktionsanalys, en QFD och en kravspecifikation.Med det avklarat fortsatte jag med konceptutvecklingen. Enkla skisser togs fram ochförverkligades i SolidWorks för att få en bättre känsla för designen. De utvärderades två gångeroch till slut valdes ett koncept ut. Jag valde att utveckla det valda konceptet vidare för att fåfram den slutliga designen. Det bästa konceptet förverkligades sen i en fysisk modell ihögskolans verkstad.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 163.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Enterprise Systems & Business Relationships: The Utilization of IT in the Business with Customers and Suppliers2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with how companies utilize their enterprise systems in their business relationships. The study’s starting point is enterprise systems that basically are standardised information systems that the company can acquire from software vendors like SAP, Oracle and Microsoft. Enterprise systems aim to integrate and manage all the company’s data and it can also be linked to its business partners.

    The thesis contains two case studies of how a focal company utilizes its enterprise system in their business relationships. To accomplish this, an analytical framework based upon the combination of an information systems (IS) and a business relationship perspective is developed and applied. The IS perspective follows an ‘ensemble view of technology’ approach which describes the use of information systems as embedded in a both technical and social context. The business relationship perspective is founded in empirical studies of industrial companies. Basically, business relationships are unique and based on the companies’ exchanges. It also involves behavioural elements as trust, commitment, adaptations and interdependencies between the partners.

    The two case studies cover the business relationships between ten companies and the character of the studied business relationships varies. The results show that enterprise systems are mainly focused on the companies’ internal activities. The exchanges in the business relationships are either carried out without the enterprise system or are supported by some complementary information system. Enterprise systems are thus mainly seen as production systems. This can be explained by the heritage from former material and resource planning (MRP) systems. An alternative explanation can be that business relationships are unique and require continuous adaptations and a mutual orientation. Enterprise systems require structural data rendering them difficult to use for the activities of a business relationship. The users then develop other, individual, applications that handle what is needed in their ongoing business. The threat is that information can be lost on a company level. The challenge is therefore to investigate the complementary information systems functions to see if it is possible to extend the enterprise system to include them. To be worth its epithet, the enterprise system must facilitate all the business activities found in the companies business relationships.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 164.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Erixon, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Lind, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Révay, Péter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Information Systems Use as a Result of External Influences2006In: microCAD 2006 International Scientific Conference: Applied Information Engineering, 2006, p. 73-78Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of an information system (IS) can be studied as a result of all the efforts that an organization has put on the introduction of IS, as for example change management, user training, support training and proper technical infrastructure. The description takes its starting point in the organization per se, whilst the one in this paper is external. In this paper, a complementary perspective is offered that can explain the final use of an IS, illustrated by three empirical papers. The use of an IS can be a result of the interorganizational influences as customers, suppliers or other stakeholders. The paper shows that the external environment has a direct effect on how the user experiences an IS and uses it.

  • 165.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Erixon, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Révay, Péter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    'Supra-System': A Bigger Picture on Information Systems Use2007In: microCAD 2007 International Scientific Conference: Applied Information Engineering, 2007, p. 51-56Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Elassar, Ghada
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Risk Management and Logistic Improvement of Oil Handling in Gear Manufacturing2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, safety and environmental awareness about the increased industrial accidents have become a critical issue that concerns both, individuals and governmental policies. This leads to higher demands on the manufacturing industry to be safer and more environmentally friendly. Recently, there has been a number of industrial accidents and serious fires in the world that have increased because of using plastic composite IBC containers in industrial manufacturing. And this becomes a common important issue for all manufacturers that strive to improve their environmental performance.

    The main purpose of this thesis is to investigate different available options of oil fluid storage and transportation in the industry, and to identify the most crucial factors related to each storage and transportation mode. Those factors are investigated and highlighted regarding to their effect on quality, environment and work environment. The thesis also aims to investigate and analyse the hazards associated with oil storage in the plant and in the warehouse and to use risk management strategies in order to identify and mitigate risks in the early stages.

    The work is carried out at GKN Driveline Köping AB that required a study of the methods used in industry for oil storage and transportation. Therefore the work focuses on identifying suppliers’ different transportation processes including different packaging options.

    This report includes an explanation of the methodology that is used to perform the task that the company has entrusted, and also contains a review of the comprehensive literature study. The method used to investigate hazards associated with oil transportation and storage is risk management that includes risk assessment tools, FMEA analysis and Ishikawa diagram. FMEA is performed to analyse both, the company’s current process and the process of filling oil by tank trucks regarding quality, environment and work environment. Benchmarking is another analysing tool used to analyse Volvo Power train and GKN Driveline different performances. The empirical findings are analysed by utilizing the JIT philosophy to identify the non value added activities and then determine the inconsistency with JIT philosophy. Kaizen and possible improvements are identified as well, with the help of the visual map VSM.

    The results that have been achieved are presented and modified according to what suppliers can provide, what the law demands, what the insurance requires and even what fits with the plant structure. The conclusion includes a description of the relation between internal and external logistics and how the synergy between them affects the choice for different transportation processes. It also includes a suggestion for possible improvement regarding logistical costs and transportation costs.

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    fulltext
  • 167.
    Elfving, Sofi
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Understanding Complexity of Product Development in Small Companies: A Case Study2004In: DS 34: Proceedings EDIProD 2004, Zielona Gora, Poland, 07.-09.10.2004, 2004, p. 149-158Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 168.
    Elfving, Sofi
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Fagerström, Björn
    Efficient Collaborative Product Development: Critical Aspects and Parameters Influencing the Outcome of Collaboration2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 169.
    Elfving, Sofi
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Jackson, Mats
    A Model for Evaluating and Improving Collaborative Product Development2005In: Proceedings ICED 05, the 15th International Conference on Engineering Design, Volume DS 35, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 170.
    Ericson Öberg, A.
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Arvika, Sweden.
    Hammersberg, P.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Factors influencing control charts usage of operational measures2017In: Measuring Business Excellence, ISSN 1368-3047, E-ISSN 1758-8057, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 225-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing implementation of control charts on key performance indicators (KPIs). Design/methodology/approach: Factors driving organizational change described in literature are analyzed inspired by the affinity-interrelationship method. A holistic multiple-case design is used to conduct six workshops to affect the usage of control charts on KPIs at a global company in the automotive industry. The theoretical factors are compared with the result from the case study. Findings: The important factors for implementation success differ to some extent between the theoretical and empirical studies. High-level commitment and a clear definition of the goal of change could be most important when creating a motivation for change. Thereafter, having a dedicated change agent, choosing an important KPI and being able to describe the gain in financial terms becomes more important. Practical implications: By using control charts on KPIs, the organization in the case study has become more proactive, addressing the right issues upstream in the process, in the right way, cross-functionally. Originality/value: Factors affecting the implementation of already available solutions in the industry are highlighted. This potentially provides a basis for improved decision making, which has a significant value. 

  • 171.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Music, Anes
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Identifying factors that cause inventory build-ups and how to solve it2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies have put much focus on production systems to generate and maintain competitiveness which has contributed in less focus to logistics. The material flow is the process after the main processes and has therefore been regarded as “unimportant”. If the material flow fails, there can be consequences such as inventory-build ups or undersupply of material. Lean thinking is one strategy that may be applied to analyze and identify wastes, but the identification of problems has been harder to detect, while the ability to solve them has not improved at the same rate.

    Following two research questions has been asked to identify how companies should proceed to improve their inventory management but also what factors contribute to the inventory build-ups. 

    ·        What may cause excess inventory in manufacturing companies?

    • How can a manufacturing company reduce WIP´s?

    The research method is based on a qualitative approach with an interpretivist research methodology to help answer the questions. A case study was done at a manufacturing company to help answer the research questions. The data has been collected by observations trough section B1 and unstructured interviews with both management and operators. The collected data was later compared to the literature according to the inductive reasoning to be able to make suggestions for improvements. The DMAIC tool has been a central point of this research regarding the mapping of the current state and suggestion of a future state.

    The case study was conducted at Company X AB in the middle of Sweden which is a company that manufactures components and complete solutions. The focus on production has resulted in less focus on the internal logistics. With the low focus on the internal logistics, inventory build-ups have occurred.

    The results point to the OEE being a contributing factor to the inventory build-up. The availability of both machines was low and therefore caused the OEE to be low. The low availability was caused by long changeovers, staff shortages, and emergency reparations. The conclusions are that Company X must make improvements so that the factors of the low availability decrease in frequency and severity to reduce the work-in-process (WIP). The improvements should be approached with different lean-tools such as SMED, KANBAN, FIFO and 5S.

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  • 172.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Music, Anes
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Organizational readiness for the implementation of robots in collaborative environments: a case study2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept Industry 4.0 brings several technologies that could be useful for the factories and manufacturers to become more competitive. One of these technologies is the robots in collaborative environments which operate fenceless together with the operators. The interest of these robots in the manufacturing sector has been getting more attention in recent years. These implementation types require the organizations to determine their readiness levels to have success with the robot. Currently, the successful implantations of the robots in collaborative environments in industry are few, and the success factors must be mapped. Therefore, investigating the potential barriers, enablers and establishing a road map for a case company could be useful to fill this gap and assist the organizations with what is necessary to accomplish a successful implementation.

    A case study was conducted at a manufacturing company in Sweden, which allowed for insights into how an actual organization approaches the situation. The case company organization was in the process of acquiring a robot in a collaborative environment, hence, the data from the case company was relevant to answer the research questions. Furthermore, the data was collected using interviews, observations, and documents at the case company. A literature review was performed to provide information regarding the common factors within a RCE implementation, which also was a base for the interview guide. The data was analysed by comparing the theoretical framework and with the empirical findings to bring forth a conclusion and to establish a road map for the case company. A road map was created with sets of questions to address the identified barriers and enablers found in both literature and at the case company.

    The constructed road map contains questions concerning the areas of knowledge about the robot in collaborative environments, communication & information, organizational aspects, and resistance towards the change. By addressing the questions developed in the framework, the organization could get an advantage when considering the implementation of the robot. For the case company, as they are further along in the process, the road map could indicate how well they have performed in current projects. Furthermore, it could generate a more successful project the next time.

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  • 173.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Music, Anes
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Andersson, Staffan Karl Lennart
    Hedelind, Mikael
    Supporting Organizational Readiness when Implementing Robot in a Collaborative Environment2021In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 brings several technologies that might be useful for manufacturers to become more competitive. One of these technologies is robots in collaborative environments (RCE), which operate fenceless together with the operators. The interest of these robots in the manufacturing sector has been getting more attention recently. Nevertheless, manufacturers should determine their organization's readiness for implementing RCE successfully. Therefore, this paper presents results from a case study conducted at a manufacturing company in Sweden. The case study approach allowed for insights into how manufacturers can approach RCE organizational readiness. The investigated case company was in the process of acquiring a robot in a collaborative environment. The resulting list of critical factors contains aspects concerning four areas to support organizational readiness for RCE, namely, communication, knowledge, organizational, and resistance. By addressing the critical factors presented in the list, manufacturers can identify critical organizational readiness aspects when implementing RCE. 

  • 174.
    Eriksson, Emil
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Personlig uppvärmning: Produktutvecklingsprocess av en produkt som löser personlig uppvärmning i en utomhusmiljö2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work is about a new product concept that can warm up persons in an outside hiking environment where you do not have access to electricity in abundance. As a secondary objective for this product it should minimize or prevent thermal signature when used. The product should be small enough to be stored in the backpack of the soldier or the hiker. The interface and functions of the product should be simple enough to be operated in the dark by everyone no matter what condition they are in.This work is done with guidance from The Swedish armed forces. The Swedish armed forces are the major authority in Sweden with over 13000 employees all around Sweden, most of them working and sleeping outside and in need of heat gear. Since the authority’s objective is unique due to their ability to use armed combat they often do not want to be spotted by their enemy.The basic goal of this work is to provide a concept design on how a product like this would look and operate.The markets are both the civilian hiking community and the military authorities.Many product development tools will be used to ensure that the finished product meet the objectives and goals defined.The finished product will be presented in CAD-models, drawings and a presentation.The finished product consists of a Sodium acetate pad inside a heat-insulating polyester container. The product is used on the inside of the thigh and is secured with Velcro tape.

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  • 175.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Collaborative Product Development: A collaborative decision-making approach2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
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  • 176.
    Eriksson, Julia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Busck, Victor
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Improving Software Development Process Through Industry 4.0 Technologies: A focus on Railway Embedded Software2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Date: 4th June 2023

    Level: Master thesis in Product- and Process Development, advanced level, 30 credits

    Institution: School of Innovation, Design and Engineering at Mälardalen University

    Authors: Victor Busck Julia Eriksson

    Title: Improving Software Development Process Through Industry 4.0 Methodologies - A focus on Railway Embedded Software

    Supervisor: Yuji Yamamoto - Mälardalens University, Raluca Marinescu - Alstom, Ian Bird-Radolovic - Alstom

    Keywords: Safety-critical software development; Software development;Industry 4.0; Artificial Intelligence

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate what challenges and bottlenecks may occur in the development process of safety-critical software and suggest how Industry 4.0 technologies could be applied to overcome the bottlenecks and improve the process.

    Research questions:

    1. What bottlenecks can the railway domain encounter when developing safety-critical software?

    2. How can Industry 4.0 technologies be applied to overcome thebottlenecks and improve the development process of safety-critical software?

    Methodology: The study is based on a qualitative research methodology following an abductive approach. This led to the theoretical framework being gradually developed in parallel with the empirical data collection. The theoretical collection was based on scientific reports and books. The empirical data collection was based on a questionnaire, of which five in-depth interviews werethen conducted based on responses. Out of the five, three were semi-structured and two unstructured.

    Conclusion: The study concluded that all phases except design and implementation and software evaluation contained various bottlenecks related to tools, training, processes, resources and communication. However, it can be concluded that the testing phases were the biggest bottleneck at Alstom. To overcome testing challenges and improve the development process, the analysis shows that Industry 4.0 technologies such as AI, NLP and ML could be used to automate testing activities. 

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    Improving Software Development Process Through Industry 4.0 Technologies
  • 177.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Videography as Design Nexus: Critical Inquires into the Affordances and Efficacies of Live-action Video Instructions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about live-action instructional videos (LAVs). By addressing design problems with respect to the how-to video genre, the thesis asks fundamental questions about mediated instructional communication efficacies and the factors that either obstruct or augment them. 

    The analysis presented in this thesis is based on the notion that videography is a design nexus and key focal point of the connections that make live-action video instructional efforts possible. This Design Nexus is explored by defining and illuminating key ontological dimensions, medium specificities and the video users’ cognitive capacities. This is to acknowledge that the users of instructions in this thesis are center stage, both as biological and cultural beings.

    The methods used in this thesis and its associated papers are eye-tracking, video observations, questionnaires, self-reports, focus group interviews and YouTube analytics. Hence, both numerical data and non-numerical data are analyzed in this study.

    The results of the analyses indicate that pre-production planning is key in live-action video instructional endeavors, but not at the expense of the videographer’s status as designer. Moreover, the analyses show that users’ cognitive processing and visual decoding depend on the power of the live-action format to show actual human behavior and action. Other presented evidence seems to infer that LAV-instructions are a little less demanding if users apply a focused decoding style when interacting with them. Nevertheless, physiological engagement of this kind is likely not to fully compensate for users’ psychological engagement.

    This thesis contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of humans’ abilities to interpret the actions of others via medial means. By relating this to video medium-specific affordances, this thesis also furthers important efficacy distinctions and boundary conditions. This understanding is considered important for live-action video makers and designers of visual instructions as well as scholars who need to develop better methods to assess users’ behavioral engagement when they interact with digital instructional media.

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  • 178.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Technologically mature but with limited capabilities2016In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 9754, 2016, p. 3-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing population of elderly people with an extensive knowledge of ICT is to be expected - a generation that has several decades of daily experience from using computers, cell phones and other devices at work situations and in their spare time. Today the discussion of elderly people and technology is dominated by the perception that the elderly are comparatively inexperienced with regard to digital technology. The challenge for the future is, however, to overcome the gradual loss of the senses with the help of technical devices that fulfill the needs of older technologically mature users. 

  • 179.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    The perception of aging and use of robots2018In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 10926, 2018, p. 30-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implications of robots’ design for their acceptance in nursing settings, particularly for elderly people and those involved in their care, have not been thoroughly considered from an information design perspective. This research gap is addressed here, as such a perspective enables consideration of several important socio-cultural aspects of robots, including potentially significant elements of visual culture. Since all these aspects influence views of robots as aids for elderly people, there is a need to understand how robots’ design (in terms of appearance) and perceptions of aging influence intended elderly users, their relatives, caregivers and decision-makers. Robots materialize digital technology, both metaphorically and literally. AI and embedded systems enable robots to act, but the shape and materials selected to make them influence our interactions with them. Thus, as shown in this paper, application of an information design perspective can provide deeper insights about the influences of current and historical culture and media on both the perceptions and experiences of aging, and relations of these perceptions and experiences to the acceptance (or lack of acceptance) of robots as tools for nursing old people. 

  • 180.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Sjölinder, M.
    RISE SICS, Sweden.
    Söderberg, J.
    RISE SICS, Sweden.
    Using VR to improve the design of assembly tasks and increase task efficiency2018In: Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, NordDesign 2018, The Design Society , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss how theories of vision, touch, sound, and learning behavior can form a basis for the development of a testbed through which real-life task performance can be compared with task performance in a Virtual Reality (VR) environment. By taking a multisensory approach, it will be possible to simulate the functionalities of a real training setting in a VR environment. Approaching this problem from a theoretical perspective, we will view it from a new angle and discuss whether we can enhance and nuance feedback in the virtual experience through the use of ambient media like sound, scent, heat, and wind. Sound may hold a great potential here. For visual perception, it is not only crucial that we can see relationships but that we are also able to search for patterns that we recognize. If an object is taken outside its context, its meaning can easily shift. To see is to search for patterns, but vision is also dependent on our experience of other senses. We can imagine how a given surface might feel by looking at a representation of the object, and this is because of previous tactile experiences with similar objects. From a technical perspective, integrating sound in a virtual environment is a straightforward process. Research shows that the process of learning a series of physical actions can be enhanced when it occurs in parallel with verbal or written information. In the literature, this phenomenon is described in terms of enactment or subject-performed tasks. Based on theories regarding vision, touch, sound and learning behavior, we suggest the design of a testbed that can be used in a pilot study aimed at increasing knowledge on how VR and AR can support learning in an assembly or installation context in order to produce guidelines for such an environment.

  • 181.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Sjölinder, M.
    Rise, Sweden.
    Wallberg, A.
    Rise, Sweden.
    Söderberg, J.
    Rise, Sweden.
    VR for ASSEMBLY TASKS in the MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY - INTERACTION and BEHAVIOUR2020In: Proceedings of the Design Society: DESIGN Conference, Cambridge University Press , 2020, p. 1697-1706Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A testbed was developed aiming to contribute to further knowledge on what is required from a VR application in order to be useful for planning of assembly tasks. In a pilot study the testbed was tested on students. The focus of the study was to explore the users' behaviour, and to gain a better understanding of their experience using VR. The students experienced a gap between the real world and VR, which confirms theories that VR is not a copy or twin of an object or environment.

  • 182.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Skagert, K.
    Division Material and Production, Department Method for Product Realization, RISE Research Institute of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekwall, P. -E
    Faculty of Media Studies, Dalarna university, Falun, Sweden.
    Design process of live-action video instructions2023In: Expanding the Frontiers of Design: Critical Perspectives, CRC Press , 2023, p. 329-348Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Eshetu Birkie, Seyoum
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zemke Chavez, Zuhara
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Emma
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE Research Institute of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bellgran, Monica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Lotta
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bohman, Mikael
    AstraZeneca Sweden Operations, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Elvin, Malin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Systematic Green Design in Production Equipment Investments: Conceptual Development and Outlook2023In: Advances in Production Management Systems. Production Management Systems for Responsible Manufacturing, Service, and Logistics Futures / [ed] Alfnes, E., Romsdal, A., Strandhagen, J.O., von Cieminski, G., Romero, D, Springer, 2023, p. 287-301Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the concept of green design in the context of production, focusing on investment projects for production equipment design and acquisition by a manufacturing firm. Research towards making manufacturing and production related activities more sustainable is increasing. In the manufacturing sector, environmental sustainability tends to be more commonly approached from the operations perspective. However, the decisions taken in the design phase of the production equipment significantly impact the operations phase. Therefore, proactive design approaches for sustainability applied in product design settings could be transferred to the design of the production equipment to build in green aspects from the outset. This study explores the research questions of what green production equipment design entails and how the concept of green design has evolved in the context of production. Overall, this conceptual paper highlights the importance of incorporating green design principles from the outset of the production design. Transferable methodological issues are also explored for further detailed investigation in the production equipment design context. Strong collaboration between equipment suppliers and the buying manufacturer that aims to integrate sustainability as part of requirements is proposed as an enabler for the way forward. The paper also provides insights into the evolution of the concept in this context for possible future research. 

  • 184.
    Etxagibel Larrañaga, Asier
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Flores García, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Approaching the Reduction of Uncertainty in Production System Design through Discrete-Event Simulation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of uncertainties associated to the introduction of novelty and significant change challenge manufacturing competitiveness. Addressing this issue, the purpose of this qualitative case study is to examine the uncertainties reduced by Discrete Event Simulation (DES) use during the design of a production system when significant changes are introduced at a manufacturing company. The results of this paper, based on empirical findings from a Swedish manufacturing company, reveal the presence of eight different uncertainties affecting the design of a production system including state, technical, environmental, systemic, temporal, structural, epistemic, and definitional. Empirical results also show how DES contributed to reducing technical, structural, epistemic, and definitional uncertainties. This paper contributes to existing knowledge by proposing a model that aids decision makers anticipate the type of uncertainty faced and the suitability of DES use as an uncertainty reducing activity during significant change introduction in the design of a production system.

  • 185.
    Evans, Pete
    et al.
    Iowa State University, United States of America.
    Söderlund, Carina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    PROTOTYPING REMOTELY TOGETHER WITH 2D, 3D AND IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL REALITY DESIGN TOOLS2021In: DS 110: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education (E&PDE 2021) / [ed] Grierson, Hilary; Erik, Buck, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the Fourth Industrial Revolution has seen a technological evolution accelerate at an exponential rate (Schwab, 2016). Due to the development of digital technology, this accelerating trend has been identified around workforce, technology and learning (Richardson, 2012). COVID-19 has exasperated the digitalization in industry, academia and society. In design education, due to the pandemic, design students and teachers are often situated at different locations, at a distance.
 We are now working and studying remotely with a documented detriment to learning. This distance diminishes engagement between peers, instructors and also the important corporeal material in design amongst others. Preparing students to thrive in these distant interactions and then their rapidly advancing professional domains becomes a cornerstone for today’s pedagogical foundations through technological-enabled distant learning. Heidi Hayes Jacobs sees differentiated learning interactions actualized in practice by Rosan Bosch Studio (2018) around metaphors of mountain top, cave, campfire, watering hole and hands-on and movement (Thornby, 2014). These ideas relate to differentiated learning scenarios such as lecture, informal intimate conversations, focus groups, spontaneous meetings, and tacit and embodied interplay. These ideas and metaphors are critical in design education that are at risk of disappearing in our virtual zoom world. Research indicates a need for immersive collaborative learning across educational, design, psychological, and neurological domains to specifically include ideas of inclusion even by way of a literal diversity of thinking that multimodal learning provides.
 Extending this focus in distant learning we believe it is critical to include multimodal embodied options through collaborative virtual environments (CVE). A previous pilot on virtual reality (VR) among design students indicates the potential for divergent thinking and creativity (Lee, Sun, and Yang, 2019). Our aim is to explore co-created learning in immersive VR to study if it supports flexible thinking to move design studio pedagogy forward. Flexible thinking in this case deals with the students’ possibilities to be innovative, creative with divergent thinking.
 This research sets out to answer the question, what are the differences and similarities between the students’ design concepts when co-creating in a multimodal and immersive virtual classroom in VR, compared to previous real classroom experiences.
 The study is conducted in a design class with approximately 30 industrial design students. We will evaluate student project outcomes and surveys in an industrial design course at multiple points, with a design process map over the course to determine any effect on flexible thinking.

  • 186.
    Evelina, Nyberg
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mohammad Reza, Heidari
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lagerhantering för Centrallager2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Alstom Rail Sweden AB design, manufacture and maintain trains, as well as many electrical components. These items are manufactured by suppliers and today there are multiple Alstom sites worldwide that are able to enter orders from these suppliers. When the components become obsolete (are no longer manufactured) it is up to Alstom in Västerås to assess how many of these components that need to be available  in order to keep up with the demand of the aftermarket. A Central Order Desk will be established at Alstom in Västerås for that reason. The project has been delimited to three different topics: warehouse management, material management and ERP-systems. Within these topics, four operations or processes are the center of the research: inventory, picking systems, scanning and tracking a serial number. The research question has been formulated as follows; How can a warehouse manage considerably growing volumes and co-exist with an existing production stock during its  transformation to become a Central Order Desk? A study visit to Volvo GTO in Köping offered new perspectives of warehouse management which led to different concepts for the warehouse being created. By sorting the orders for picking and scanning, certain scheduling algorithms were identified as more effective when it came to waiting time, especially for prioritized orders. The applications and modules within the ERP-core model and ERP-system SAP, specific to the Supply Chain departments, were investigated in order to allow all Supply Chain departments to track a unit's serial number. This created a list of requirements which the departments will need to meet once they create the structures in the new system.

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  • 187.
    Fagerström, Björn
    et al.
    Envirotainer Engineering AB, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Efficient collaboration between main and sub-suppliers2002In: Computers in industry, ISSN 0166-3615, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 25-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many sub-suppliers are interested in closer integration with main suppliers for product development. However, main suppliers have much work that needs to be coordinated, and close integration with suppliers is used only when it is required, and when additional value is created through integration. The main objective of this paper, is therefore, to discuss different supplier roles and increase the understanding of how suppliers can be integrated with the main supplier. The result is based on a case study with one main supplier and nine of its sub-suppliers, where the main supplier develops, assembles, and delivers a complete, complex product to the customer, and the sub-suppliers develop and manufacture sub-systems for the main supplier. The results give new insights into what the sub-suppliers could do in order to improve integration with the main supplier.

  • 188.
    Faramondi, L.
    et al.
    Unit of Automatic Control, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Guarino, S.
    University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Setola, R.
    Unit of Automatic Control, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    A Hardware-in-the-Loop Water Distribution Testbed Dataset for Cyber-Physical Security Testing2021In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 9, p. 122385-1223896, article id 9526562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a dataset to support researchers in the validation process of solutions such as Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) based on artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques for the detection and categorization of threats in Cyber Physical Systems (CPS). To this end, data were acquired from a hardware-in-the-loop Water Distribution Testbed (WDT) which emulates water flowing between eight tanks via solenoid-valves, pumps, pressure and flow sensors. The testbed is composed of a real subsystem that is virtually connected to a simulated one. The proposed dataset encompasses both physical and network data in order to highlight the consequences of attacks in the physical process as well as in network traffic behaviour. Simulations data are organized in four different acquisitions for a total duration of 2 hours by considering normal scenario and multiple anomalies due to cyber and physical attacks.

  • 189.
    Fattouh, Anas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Ahlskog, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hatvani, Leo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Remote integration of advanced manufacturing technologies into production systems: integration processes, key challenges and mitigation actions2023In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines the remote integration process of advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) into the production system and identifies key challenges and mitigating actions for a smoother introduction and integration process.

    Design/methodology/approach: The study adopts a case study approach to a cyber-physical production system at an industrial technology center using a mobile robot as an AMT.

    Findings: By applying the plug-and-produce concept, the study exemplifies an AMT's remote integration process into a cyber-physical production system in nine steps. Eleven key challenges and twelve mitigation actions for remote integration are described based on technology–organization–environment theory. Finally, a remote integration framework is proposed to facilitate AMT integration into production systems.

    Practical implications: The study presents results purely from a practical perspective, which could reduce dilemmas in early decision-making related to smart production. The proposed framework can improve flexibility and decrease the time needed to configure new AMTs in existing production systems.

    Originality/value: The area of remote integration for AMT has not been addressed in depth before. The consequences of lacking in-depth studies for remote integration imply that current implementation processes do not match the needs and the existing situation in the industry and often underestimate the complexity of considering both technological and organizational issues. The new integrated framework can already be deployed by industry professionals in their efforts to integrate new technologies with shorter time to volume and increased quality but also as a means for training employees in critical competencies required for remote integration.

  • 190.
    Finstorp, Edward
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kartläggning och nulägesanalys av materialflöde2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The purpose of the introduction is to provide a description of the background and problem related to logistics in manufacturing companies to develop a deeper understanding in why this subject is important for today’s businesses. The aim for the thesis is to investigate an internal material flow that starts with unloading and ends with point of use, in order to provide suggestions for improvement based on theories on Lean and material handling. Two research questions have been formulated from the purpose, to find problem solving solutions:

    FF1: What wastes occur in the material handling process?

    FF2: How can efficiency increase in the flow of materials?

    Approach and method: A case study has been conducted at a manufacturing company and data has been collected through observations and interviews. A literature study has been conducted through data obtained from scientific articles and books as a foundation to the theoretical framework that has been used to analyze the empirical data from the case study.

    Results: Waste was identified at the case company. The types of waste that was identified was waiting, transportation, excess inventory, unnecessary work and underutilization of employees. Among the reasons for these wastes were complex and inexplicit flows and also non-standardized work.

    Conclusion: A conclusion that can be drawn from the study is that waste in the material handling process contributes to an inefficient flow of materials at the case company. Suggestions for improvements to achieve an increased efficiency in the material flow have been made by the use of analysis of empirical data, flowcharts and spaghetti diagrams.

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    Kartläggning och nulägesanalys av materialflöde
  • 191.
    Flammini, Francesco
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Gaglione, Andrea
    Brit Insurance, London, UK.
    Tokody, Daniel
    Next Technologies Ltd. Complex Systems Research Institute, Maglód, Hungary.
    Dobrilović, Dalibor
    Technical Faculty “Mihajlo Pupin” Zrenjanin, University of Novi Sad, Zrenjanin, Serbia.
    Virtualization Technology for LoRaWAN Roaming Simulation in Smart Cities2021In: Machine Intelligence and Data Analytics for Sustainable Future Smart Cities / [ed] Uttam Ghosh; Yassine Maleh; Mamoun Alazab; Al-Sakib Khan Pathan, Springer, 2021, p. 251-265Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) low power and long range wireless technologies play a key role as an enabling technology for the development of the communication backbone for future smart cities, which will be increasingly based on multi-sensor intelligent data analytics. At the current state-of-the-art, a number of technologies collectively known as Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWANs) can provide connectivity for IoT applications. Among LPWAN technologies, Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) has been effectively used in a wide range of application domains. An important factor that accelerates the process of LoRaWAN implementation in IoT systems is the use of LoRaWAN simulation tools. Most simulation tools are widely used to simulate various networking technologies. As for LoRaWAN, their focus is on simulation of PHY and MAC layers. In this chapter, we address the possible use of virtualization technologies to simulate LoRaWAN at the application layer. Virtual network laboratories based on virtual technologies have existed for over a decade. These laboratories have been used for the purpose of educational and test environments. This chapter presents a novel model based on virtualization technology for the design, development and testing of the application for roaming in LoRaWAN networks in the context of future smart cities to enable continuous intelligent infrastructure monitoring and surveillance using moving devices such as those wearables or installed on-board vehicles and drones. The virtual network and its architecture for the simulation of LoRaWAN applications are presented in this chapter together with example use case scenarios.

  • 192.
    Flores Avalos, Beatriz
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Zufic, Marlene
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    VR-teknologi för utvärdering av monteringslina2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 193.
    Flores-García, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Decision Making in Production System Design – Approaches and Challenges2021Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Flores-García, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Supporting Decision-Making in the Design of Production Systems: A Discrete Event Simulation perspective2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies are introducing process innovations, namely new production processes or technologies, to achieve increased competitiveness. Production systems design can ensure the fulfillment of process innovations. However, literature shows that the staff responsible for the design of production systems face unfamiliar circumstances, lack of consensus or understanding (equivocality), and absence of information (uncertainty). Hence, manufacturing companies find it difficult to support decision-making in the design of production systems leading to increased competitiveness. One way to support decision-making during production systems design is through discrete-event simulation (DES). However, there is limited understanding of the application of DES in decision-making support, in this context.

    Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to support decision-making through DES in the design of production systems involving process innovations. To this end, the thesis reviews the current understanding of production system design, including decision-making and DES. This thesis adopts a qualitative case study method to extract empirical data from three production systems design projects of a manufacturing company in the heavy vehicle industry.

    The thesis offers several contributions. Firstly, the findings identify the conditions of use, challenges, requirements, and activities essential for the utilization of DES during production system design related to process innovations. These important findings are critical for supporting decision-making when manufacturing companies renew their production processes. Secondly, this thesis reveals that determining the conditions of use of DES for supporting decision-making rests on the structuredness of a decision (e.g. its degree of equivocality or analyzability), and the quantitative or qualitative nature or DES models. Thirdly, the results describe four novel findings about the challenges undermining the use of DES including equivocality, uncertainty, and the lack of a structured approach and the absence of resources for DES use. Fourthly, the results reveal three requirements necessary for the use of DES including analyzing information consensus, specifying the activities of conceptual models, and coordinating DES models with the information needs. Fifthly, this thesis provides three valuable findings describing additional activities in the design of production systems related to defining the objectives of DES models, and facilitating a structured approach and the management of resources for the use of DES.

    This thesis present a framework that contributes to the use of DES for decision-making support at manufacturing companies. Based on this framework, managers of those companies can supervise formal activities involving the use of DES in production systems design.

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  • 195.
    Flores-García, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Supporting Production System Design Decisions through Discrete Event Simulation2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies are increasingly required to deal with and introduce significant changes in their production systems to gain a competitive advantage. The production system design process is widely considered a means of introducing such changes, and decisions made during design are viewed as critical to its characterization and performance. However, this presents a problem because committing to decisions that involve significant changes implies not only dealing with requirements, products, challenges, or expectations that are different from what currently exists, but also addressing uncertainties regarding both the information necessary for committing to a production system design decision and the actual benefits that can be achieved as a result of these changes. One way to support the production system design decisions in this context is through the use of Discrete Event Simulation (DES). However, understanding of DES use when supporting production system design decisions in this domain remains limited.    

    Therefore, the objective of this thesis is to explore the use of DES in support of production system design decisions when significant changes are introduced. Data are collected through a multiple case study method and DES from three real-time production system design projects at one manufacturing company. All production system design projects studied involved the introduction of significant production system changes for which limited experience existed. The cases and results are presented in three appended publications.

    The findings establish the purpose of DES use when supporting production system design decisions in this context. To this end three groups of DES model objectives are identified: communicating decisions and visualizing results, evaluating a production system design concept focused on operational performance, and experimenting with what-if scenarios while predicting production system outputs. The points of DES use when supporting production system design decisions are specified in relation to current theoretical understanding of a production system design process. Then, challenges and contributions of DES use supporting production system design decisions are identified.

    A framework is presented to facilitate the use of DES supporting production system design decisions when significant changes are introduced. The framework is based on the identification of high-level strategic objectives and relates these to production system design decisions. It defines DES use in support of these decisions and establishes milestones for DES use during production system design. Based on an analysis of the challenges and contributions of DES use, the framework helps formulate the purpose of DES use to achieve production system design decision support. 

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    fulltext
  • 196.
    Flores-García, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. IPR (Innovation and Product Realisation).
    Decision Making Approaches in Process Innovations: An Explorative Case Study2019In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management JMTM, ISSN 1741-038X, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the selection of decision-making approaches at manufacturing companies when implementing process innovations.Design/methodology/approach: This study reviews the current understanding of decision structuredness for determining a decision-making approach, and conducts a case study based on an interactive research approach at a global manufacturer. Findings: The findings show the correspondence of intuitive, normative, and combined intuitive and normative decision-making approaches in relation to varying degrees of equivocality and analyzability. Accordingly, the conditions for determining a decision-making choice when implementing process innovations are revealed. Research limitations/implications: This study contributes to increased understanding of the combined use of intuitive and normative decision-making in production system design. Practical implications: Empirical data are drawn from two projects in the heavy-vehicle industry. The study describes decisions, from start to finish, and the corresponding decision-making approaches when implementing process innovations. These findings are of value to staff responsible for the design of production systems. Originality/value: Unlike prior conceptual studies, this study considers normative, intuitive, and combined intuitive and normative decision-making. In addition, this study extends the current understanding of decision structuredness, and discloses the correspondence of decision-making approaches to varying degrees of equivocality and analyzability.

  • 197.
    Flores-García, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. IPR (Innovation and Product Realisation).
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Towards a Reduction of Uncertainty in Production System Design Decisions2016In: Swedish Production Symposium 2016 SPS 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A tenet of production system design is to increase a manufacturing company’s competitiveness by introducing novel processes, technologies, and products. However, uncertainties exist regarding the actual benefits that can be attained when novelty and change are introduced into a production system. Addressing this issue, this paper explores how manufacturing companies can reduce uncertainties that challenge production system design decisions when significant changes are introduced into the production system. A real-time case study at a Swedish manufacturing company that decided to change its existing product specific assembly system to a multi-product assembly one was performed. Empirical results identify uncertainties challenging production system design configuration, and the activities targeting reduction of uncertainty. To extend current theory, empirical case study data is synthesized with current findings in production system design decisions, and uncertainty reduction in product design decisions. The paper concludes that information acquisition, uncertainty prioritization, project member background, and complexity of change influence uncertainty reduction in production system design decisions. Managerial implications highlight the importance of information acquisition and a structured approach when reducing uncertainties necessary to achieve an efficient and effective production system design. Thus, academic approaches to uncertainty reduction could benefit manufacturing practice.

  • 198.
    Flores-García, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    What guides information consensus? Approaching the reduction of equivocality in process innovations2020In: International Journal of Manufacturing Research IJMR, ISSN 1750-0591, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 73-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the achievement of information consensus and the reduction of equivocality in process innovations. Drawing on the operations management literature, a new framework to guide information consensus in the reduction of equivocality in process innovations is proposed. The analysis is based on a real-time case study in the heavy vehicle industry. The results show that information consensus is not achieved by a single event, but active work towards this goal is necessary, and a clear set of pre-requisites is needed for achieving information consensus. The concepts of strategic objective, decision areas, and external and internal fit are identified as pre-requisites for achieving information consensus about the purpose, characteristics, and functionalities of process innovations.

  • 199.
    Flores-García, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Urenda Moris, Matias
    University of Uppsala, Sweden.
    Syberfeldtb, Anna
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Simulation-based Optimization for Facility Layout Design in Conditions of High Uncertainty2018In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 72, p. -339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increased use of Simulation based Optimization, the design of facility layout is challenged by high levels of uncertainty associated with new production processes. Addressing this issue, this paper aims to understand the conceptual modeling activities of Simulation-based Optimization for facility layout design in conditions of high uncertainty. Based on three in-depth case studies, the results of this paper show how characterization criteria of production systems can be used in conceptual modelling to reduce uncertainty. These results may be essential to support managers and stakeholders during the introduction of new production processes in the design of facility layouts.

  • 200.
    Flores-García, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. KTH, Sweden.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Revisiting challenges in using Discrete Event Simulation in early stages of Production System Design2018In: International conference of advances in production management systems APMS, Springer, 2018, Vol. 535, p. 534-540Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents challenges of using discrete event simulation when supporting decision in early stages of production system design, when significant changes are introduced. It was based on three real-time case studies performed at one manufacturing company during 2014-2016. Challenges in the cases were mapped to previous literature, pointing out discrepancies and highlighting three additional challenges, specifically related to issues in the early stages of the pro-duction system design process. The significant change introduced to the assembly system, and the early phases of evaluation put significant challenges to the use of discrete event simulation and the study points out further efforts needed to support manufacturing companies under change, with an established industrial structure and legacy systems to consider.

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