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  • 151.
    Granlund, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Automation in Healthcare Internal Logistics: A Case Study on Practice and Potential2013In: International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management (IJITM), ISSN 0219-8770, Vol. 10, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current demographic development puts even greater demands on the healthcare sector which already struggle with scarce resources and constant pressure of cost reductions. This paper aims at through a multiple case study describe how automation of hospital internal logistics can be a tool in improving the efficiency. The results include several potential implementations for patient transports, waste handling and small goods transports. However, organizational issues as lack of ownership and a strategic view render difficulties and needs to be dealt with. The authors conclude that transfer of knowledge and technology used in manufacturing industry would be beneficial. 

  • 152.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Coping with Variability in Automotive Product line Architectures Using Real Options2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive customers demand new functionality with every new product release and the time-to-market is

    constantly shortened. The automotive embedded systems are characterized by being mechatronic system which adds

    complexity. The systems are often resource constrained and trade-offs between the system behavior and the resources required is of great importance. The decisions are usually based on many factors that pull in different directions such as maintenance, portability, usability etc. The complex system and the many uncertain factors create a need for support in the design process. In this paper the use of Real Options is evaluated on a hypothetic but realistic case taken from the automotive industry. The case show how real option valuation provides additional guidance when making system design decisions. Real Options provide the opportunity to analyze the cost of designing for future growth of an platform, based on the estimated value of the future functionality. The value of a flexible design can thereby be quantified making the trade-off between short and long term solution more accurate.

  • 153.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University. Scania CV AB .
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Volvo Car Corporation.
    Evaluation of design options in embedded automotive product lines2009In: Applied Software Product Line Engineering, CRC Press , 2009, p. 477-496Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many industries, complex embedded product lines are designed. In theory, this follows a structured and well-organized process, where a set of given requirements is transformed step by step into an optimal product. However, in reality the complexity of the products and markets often lead to much less stringent ways of working. Let us consider a fictional, but not atypical, scenario. 

  • 154.
    Hagman, Simon
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Suonvieri, Robin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Monteringsverktyg2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Framtagning av monteringverktyg för stiftning av borrkronor.

  • 155.
    Hagob, Sihak
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Value Stream Mapping – Alfa Laval: Kartläggning av produktion- och informationsflödet2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkten att ständigt förbättras och öka konkurrenskraften arbetar Alfa Laval mot Leanprinciper. Vad som dock är ett problemområde är att se över fabriken ur ett helhetsperspektiv, närfabriken är uppdelad i många avdelningar. Lösningen till detta problem är att via olika metoder ellerverktyg kunna fastställa svaren på problemen.Denna examensrapport redogör för hur metoder inom Lean produktion kan vara lösningen förproblemområdet. Forskningen är huvudsakligen byggd på en bred värdeflödesanalys som syftar till attfånga in ett företags alla aspekter ur ett helhetsperspektiv, med syftet att minska risker försuboptimering och istället optimera produktionen som helhet.För att se gränssnitt mellan informationsflödet har i denna forskning metoden swimlane utgjort enkartläggning över ett företags hela kontorsavdelning, planerings och inköps avdelningar.Resultatet av denna forskning visar att värdeflödesanals är en bra metod för att kunna identifieraslöserier, ojämnheter i produktion, brister vid tillverkningen och flaskhalsar. För att sammankopplaolika avdelningar av ett företags informationsflöde, visas i resultaten att swimlane är en bra metod försyftet.

  • 156.
    Hazy, James K
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Essential reins for guiding complex organizations2014In: Millennial Spring:  Designing the Future of Organizations / [ed] M. Grace and G. B. Graen, Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 2014Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 157.
    Hedelind, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    On Reconfigurable Robotic Working Cells – a Case Study2008In: MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE NEW FRONTIER, London: Springer , 2008, p. 323-329Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s  global  market  and  increased  competition  between  companies  necessitate  the  development  of production  systems  that  are  agile  and  responsive  to  change.    This  paper  presents  the  results  of  a  project where a  flexible and  reconfigurable  robotic working  cell was  developed. There  has  been  a  strong  focus  on ease-of-use,  reconfigurability  and  visual management  throughout  the  project.  The  resulting  robotic working cell  has  been  evaluated  as  a  prototype  in  a  laboratory  and  developed  into  a  production module;  used  in production  at  a manufacturing  plant  in Sweden. A  discussion  around  the  concept  of  reconfigurable  robotic working cells will be presented, together with relevant theory.

  • 158.
    Hedelind, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Realization of Flexible and Reconfigurable Industrial Robot Automation2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s global market and tough competition between companies requires the development of increasingly productive production systems. Companies, struggling to become more competitive, use different advanced manufacturing technologies, such as industrial robotics. They seek higher productivity, consistent quality, and the removal of ergonomically unsound manual workstations. However, according to the general trends in the manufacturing industry, there is a need to implement production solutions that are flexible enough to handle a business environment exposed to frequent changes in production operations and product designs. The objective of the research presented in this thesis is to analyse how to support the design and implementation of flexible and reconfigurable industrial robot automation.

    This research is based on three case studies, carried out over a four-year time period. The researcher/author has been a participant in the projects studied. The first case study aimed at developing a flexible robotic working cell, and succeeded. However, although the cell was flexible enough to handle a wide variety of components, there were limitations on how easy it was to reconfigure the cell, i.e. change the operations performed in the cell and the layout of the cell. The second case study investigated how to design robotic working cells so that the cell is easy to reconfigure when there is a need to implement changes. Finally, the third case study focused on software support, with the main focus on enabling the user to rapidly introduce changes into a robotic working cell.

    As a result of the case studies, enablers for how to realize flexible and reconfigurable robotic working cells have been identified. In addition, the need for software support has been investigated, and a prototype of a supportive software tool has been developed.

  • 159.
    Hedelind, Mikael
    et al.
    ABB Automation Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Milic, Milun
    ABB Automation Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Intelligent Buffer Storage System: Enabling Fast and Flexible Assembling with Industrial Robots2006In: Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems, ISSN 1064-1246, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 367-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production cells usually require a continuous supply of parts to be assembled. Elaborate feeding mechanisms or a system of prepared pallets on which the parts have exact positions are expensive and if a variation of the product is to be produced, the feeding mechanism or pallets must be modified. Such solutions do not provide sufficient flexibility and increase production costs. Today's requirements for smaller series and customized orders have higher requirements on production cells.

    In this paper we show how flexible and adaptive production can be achieved, using methods and techniques from artificial intelligence by introducing an "autonomous" production cell, integrating and managing its own local buffer storage. The production cell is able to produce a number of variants of the product with no time delay between different configurations. The storage system, designated "Floating Storage", handles the local buffer storage and guides the industrial robots to use available floor-space as storage. The system also orders parts from the main storage as the buffer storage approaches depletion. The parts arrive to the cell in standard containers and a commercially available vision system is used to locate the material. The prototype has been introduced in an assembly line at ABB.

  • 160.
    Hedelind, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hellström, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Robotics for SME´s – Investigating a Mobile, Flexible, and Reconfigurable Robot Solution2008In: 39th International Symposium on Robotics, ISR 2008, 2008, p. 56-61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s  business  environment  is  dominated  by  change and  uncertainty,  and  success  within  manufacturing  is becoming  more  and  more  difficult  to  sustain.  Also,  many European  manufacturing  companies  experience  low availability  of  human  resources  and  recruitment  problems. One way to handle this challenge and improve a company’s efficiency  could  be  to  invest  in  automation  and  industrial robotics.  However,  robot  automation  investments  are  in many  cases  still  too  difficult  and  too  technically  advanced especially  for small and medium sized enterprises. There  is need  for automated systems with an acceptable  investment, high  efficiency,  high  adaptability,  and with  such  flexibility that  it may produce  several different products  and  adapt  to future product variants without large additional investments. Thus,  the  concepts  of  flexibility  and  reconfigurability  are becoming  increasingly  important  within  manufacturing systems and robotic work stations. The objective of  this paper  is  to  investigate  the need  for flexible  and  reconfigurable  industrial  robot  systems  and  to present  some  possible  solutions  for  how  the  concept  of mobile  industrial  robotics  can  be  applied  within  industry, and  specifically  at  small  and  medium  sized  enterprises (SMEs). A conceptual solution for a mobile  industrial robot will be presented and evaluated in terms of applicability for a manufacturing SME. The  result  of  this  evaluation  is  that the concept of mobile  industrial robotics may be an enabler for  SMEs  to  overcome  the  barrier  to  invest  in  industrial robotics. However,  several  technical  developments  have  to be  accomplished  to  open  up  the  market  for  this  type  of solutions, and the common attitude of the SME would have to  be  changed  to  become  more  receptive  to  this  type  of highly  technological  solution,  i.e.  the perceived complexity of the highly complex system has to be low.  

  • 161.
    Hedelind, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    INDUSTRIAL ROBOTICS IN THE LEAN ENTERPRISE – A CASE STUDY2008In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology - XXII: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Manufacturing Research, 9-11 September, 2008, 2008, p. 171-180Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The  globalization  and  the  increasing  challenge  from  low-wage  competitors  highlight the need for European industries to enhance their ability to develop and manufacture products  competitively.  Meeting  customer  demands  requires  a  high  degree  of flexibility,  low-cost/low-volume  manufacturing  skills  and  an  ability  to  offer  short delivery times. In order to stay competitive, many manufacturing industries are trying to  implement  the  unique management  principles  and  practices  of  the Toyota Motor Corporation’s with many different names as e.g. “The Toyota Production System” or “Lean  production”.  One  question  and  debate  within  industry,  during  the transformation  towards  lean manufacturing  is whether  traditional robot automation fits  the principles and practices of  lean? This paper resents a case  study which has investigated  if  industrial  robot automation has a place  in a manufacturing  company pursuing the lean philosophy. The case study is based on one manufacturing company in  Sweden  that  is  currently  implementing  a  transformation  towards  a  lean-based production  system. The  case  study was performed  using  interviews  at  the  company, observation at the manufacturing plant, and workshops together with key-employees at the company. The results from the case study show that there is a need to align the company’s  present  robotic  equipment  and  machinery  towards  lean  principles.  The lean transformation within the company  is based on increased availability, controlled buffers, a more open  layout, and flow-based manufacturing with reduced batch sizes which all effect the equipment and machinery. In order for the robot automation to fit lean  principles  and  practices  there  is  a  need  for  development  of  robotized working cells  with  increased  availability,  reduced  set-up  times  by  improving  the  ability  for easily  reconfiguration,  and  improved  information  design  to  clearly  present  visual information and options to the operators.

  • 162.
    Hedström, Robin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
     Alfdex Manufacturing Footprint:  Future Expansion Strategy for Production 2014 - a Global Review 2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Investments in offshore manufacturing have in a historical perspective been taken as a series of separate decisions with a strong focus on cost reduction. This kind of cost is typically narrowed to the cost of purchase or manufacture. The total supply chain costs are hardly ever considered. Investments need to be reviewed within the context of a company´s total market and manufacturing requirements. This will prevent unwanted issues such as extended lead times, greater buffer stocks and excess capacity, uncoordinated strategic responses, conflicts and the failure to be profitable.

    Alfdex, which is a joint venture owned by Alfa Laval and Haldex, provide the global truck and diesel engine market with its products and is for the moment market leader. The future demand will however exceed their current capacity within five years. To avoid that any decision will be made ad hoc this project will identify some essential factors that are significant for a future expansion of production. This will thereafter be adapted for Alfdex situation to recommend where they should expand their future production based on an objective perspective.

    In this project seven markets will be reviewed; North America, Europe, South America, Russia, China, India, and Asia. The manufacturing footprint refers to where a company geographically locates its production. It is based on a long-term perspective and required reasonable strategic thinking and analysis.

    Four essential factors have been identified which will determine Alfdex manufacturing footprint recommendations; the current situation; the market development and capacity need; the issue of costs; global and local conditions and differences together with the supply chain. In addition a scenario matrix and analysis matrix have been developed to support the analysis.

    This work has shown that the most feasible solution, based on what is known today, is to make an onsite expansion in Landskrona, Sweden. By keeping the production in Sweden Alfdex will meet the most qualifications identified in the manufacturing footprint. Additionally a sales person and technical support are required in North America as well as allocating resources to monitor the Chinese market.

    In this version of the report customers’ and suppliers’ names as well as some figures have been concealed. In some cases the information has been replaced by an X and in others it has been completely removed.

  • 163.
    Hellstrand, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    On the value of land2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of sustainable development is once again moving the production factor land into the focus of economic theory and practise. There are three production factors, capital, labour and land. Land is a synonym to ecosystems. During the major part of the 20th century land in economic theory has been handled as a peripheral issue. The sustainability context implies a challenge to take land in proper consideration. That means to in an adequate way consider system characteristics that result in complex systems, such as thresholds, resilience, irreversibilities, and interdependencies between systems and system levels.

     The thesis examines

    • how land can be understood and handled in the context of a sustainable development,
    • the relations between land and society on a conceptual level and in operative terms,
    • the relations between system levels and between the three sustainability dimensions ecological, economic and social,
    • the importance of agriculture and animal production in a sustainable development. 

    The major findings are that in contexts such as economically profitable and natural resource-efficient milk production; methods to measure sustainability performance of production systems generally; and societal strategies for management of natural resources that support economic and social development within ecological sustainability limits, three “laws” need to be handled appropriate: Liebig’s “Law” of the minimum, Shelford´s “Law” of tolerance, and the “Law” of diminishing return in biological-ecological productions systems.

    The thesis identifies examples within dairy sciences, systems ecology, and engineering sciences that affect or may affect policies in real world systems from local to global level that can be substantially improved. In order to suggest relevant measures a tool-kit supporting a sustainable development have been generated, integrating contributions from agricultural sciences, systems ecology, economic theory, economic geography, applied environmental sciences and theories of complex systems. The thesis summarises around 30 years of professional experiences mainly within advanced consultancy, during which this tool-kit has been developed and applied. Evaluation of some applications afterwards shows relevance. For some of the examples analysed in the thesis, found weaknesses are such that global food security literally is threatened within one to twenty years.

  • 164.
    Hägg, Anette
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment Components AB Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Andersson, Anna
    Volvo Construction Equipment Components AB Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    The impact of outsourcing on logistics: Case study at Volvo2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The business today is dominated by change and uncertainty. It is getting more and more global and the increased expectations from the customers’ leads to higher demands on the businesses. The objective of this paper is to identify critical parameters that affect the efficiency of companies’ logistics. The aim is also to investigate which of the logistics parameters should be considered before taking sourcing decisions. The paper will review literature within related areas and present a case study performed at a company within the Volvo group. The conclusion is eleven parameters which are affecting the efficiency in the logistics system and nine should be considered before taking sourcing decisions and they are; delivery capacity, delivery dependability, capacity and technical equipment, total cost, quality, transportation cost, physical distance, flexibility and planning/ steering.

  • 165.
    Hägg, Anette
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Granlund, Åsa
    Need for strategic rightsourcing decision model: Case studies at ABB and Volvo2004In: Proceedings of the TMCE 2004, 2004, p. 1033-1042Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies of today act on a global competitive market. This dynamic business environment requires operational efficiency and capabilities to produce and develop products and services required by the market at the necessary rate of change. To achieve this many companies focus on core competencies, moving the rest to external suppliers. The trend has therefore turned from producing internally to buying from external suppliers. The objective in this paper is to identify critical parameters, which affects (or are affected) by the make or buy decision, based on the two case studies. This paper is based upon a literature overview and two case studies conducted at Volvo and ABB in Sweden. Both companies have out-sourced different components. Some of the parameters found in the case studies are; competitive priorities, resources, the logistic cost, core competencies, the feed-back loop and long time survival. The case study shows that not all outsourcing cases were such a success as expected, indicating the need for a "Rightsourcing model".

  • 166.
    Jackson, Mats
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hedelind, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hellström, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Robot Automation in a Lean Manufacturing System2009In: Proceedings of CARV International Conference on Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual Production, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 167.
    Jackson, Mats
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Zaman, Abedullah
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Factory-In-a-Box – Mobile Production Capacity on Demand2007In: International Journal of Modern Engineering, ISSN 1930-6628, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 12-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Change and uncertainty dominate today’s business environment. Meeting customer demands require a high degree of flexibility, low-cost/low volume- manufacturing skills, and short delivery times. In this highly competitive environment there is a great need to identify and develop unique manufacturing capabilities within industry. This paper will present an ongoing research project in Sweden called Factory-in-a-Box with the objective to develop mobile production capacity on demand. The Factory-in-a-Box concept consists of standardized production modules that are installed in e.g. a container and transported by e.g. a truck or by train. The modules may rapidly be combined into production systems that can be reconfigured for a new product and/or scaled to handle new volumes. The key features of this futuristic production system concept are flexibility, mobility, and speed. In the research project five fully operative demonstrators have been developed and implemented in close cooperation between different academic and industrial partners in Sweden.

  • 168.
    Janius, Camilla
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Löfqvist, André
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Produktionsstyrning och utfallsanalys2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a part of the Master of Science in product- and process development at Mälardalens University, this thesis is performed during the spring semester of 2015. The employer is Strängbetong AB winner of Lean-builders 2013 for their innovative production system in the traditional construction industry. The thesis is performed on Strängbetong factory in Kungsör and delimited to the reinforcing workshop, which is the first step of producing concrete pillars. These issues are the goals of which this thesis is to answer:

    Which are the most important factors that affect the production for the reinforcement work shop at Strängbetong AB in Kungsör the most and makes it possible for the waste to grow?

    How does a company achieve a better production management for a more predictable manufacturing?

    A description was made of the current state by mapping the manufacturing processes of reinforced cages with help of observations and literature studies. A value stream map was made to analyze the processes, which affects the productions outcome the most. The authors used an efficiency analysis of one of the main processes. To ensure that they had the right amount of input the process was observed for five days, in which they timed the process to get substantial data of unplanned stops and cycle times.

    It was discovered that one of the main elements that affected the production was the failure rate of the drawings used to produce reinforcement cages. With input from the factory audit department the authors could calculate 17 % of all drawings needed correction. When a drawing is incomplete it can keep the production waiting in an unpredictable amount of time, until the necessary changes have been made by the constructor to correct the errors. Some of the other elements that where discovered was unnecessary transport, capacity-constrained workstations and the workshops layout.

    The improvement proposals that were developed was to optimize processes through the development of a new assembly station, a new layout, strive to complete fewer orders rather than several.

    With these improvement suggestions and recommendation for Strängbetong to strive towards an optimized material flow throughout the factory, the company can achieve an improved flow and get better control over their production.

  • 169.
    Javadi, Siavash
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Towards tailoring the product introduction process for low-volume manufacturing industries2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the closing phase of product development projects, the product introduction process significantly influences the time to market and product quality. The rapid launching of new products to market aids manufacturing companies in avoiding crucial consequences, such as a loss of market share and revenue and the early obsolescence of products in a globalized market. Therefore, the characteristics and influential factors of the product introduction process must be identified to facilitate the management of new product development projects and to maintain competitiveness for manufacturing companies.

    The management and support of product introduction processes in low-volume manufacturing industries require solutions that are tailored to the characteristics and requirements of these industries. However, studies on the characteristics of low-volume manufacturing industries and their influence on the product introduction process are limited. Therefore, the objective of the research presented in this thesis is to develop knowledge about product introduction process and its facilitators in low-volume manufacturing industries by focusing on characteristics of products and production systems in these industries. To fulfil this objective, the characteristics of low-volume manufacturing industries and their influence on the product introduction process were investigated via literature reviews and a multiple-case study. In addition, the facilitators of the product introduction process in low-volume manufacturing industries were examined. A case study was performed, comprising two longitudinal real-time cases and two retrospective cases, all within one Swedish company.

    The characteristics of low-volume products and production systems are studied in this research. The identified influences of these characteristics on the product introduction process include few engineering prototypes, limited and uncertain numbers of pre-series productions and the infeasibility of conventional production ramp-up. Other identified influences include the modification of existing products instead of the development of entirely new products, the use of existing production systems with slight modifications for new products, a high frequency of introducing new products, and an extensive focus on the functionality of products instead of their manufacturability.

    Finally, the utilization of knowledge and experiences from the development and production of prior similar products was identified as a potential facilitator of the product introduction process in low-volume manufacturing industries. A process was suggested to support the product introduction process in low-volume manufacturing industries in gathering, sharing and using knowledge and experiences from the production of prior similar products. This process can compensate for the lack of opportunities to test and refine products and production systems during the product introduction process in low-volume manufacturing industries. 

  • 170.
    Javadi, Siavash
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Start of Production in Low-Volume Manufacturing Industries: Disturbances and Solutions2015In: Advances in Production Management Systems: Innovative Production Management Towards Sustainable Growth, 2015, Vol. 459, p. 475-483Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing disturbances during start of production of new products is of high importance to assure that products reach the market on-time with the intended quality and volume. Therefore, identification and elimination of sources of such disturbances is necessary. Since the literature about such disturbances in low-volume manufacturing industries are limited, this paper is aimed to identify the common sources of such disturbances and the possible solutions to mitigate them in low-volume manufacturing industries. A multiple-case study has been conducted to achieve this aim. The results show that main sources of disturbances are lack of opportunities to test and refine products, considering the production system “as is” and putting extensive focus on product functionality rather than its manufacturability. Moreover, using the knowledge and experiences from production of previous similar products is identified as a source of learning and compensation for lack of opportunities for test and refinement.

  • 171.
    Javadi, Siavash
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bellgran, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Characteristics of product introduction process in low-volume manufacturing industries: A case study2016In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786, ISSN 1741038X, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 535-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how the characteristics of low-volume manufacturing industries influence the product introduction process and factors which can facilitate that process in low-volume manufacturing industries.

    Design/methodology/approach: A literature review in combination with a multiple-case study were used to achieve the purpose of the paper. The multiple-case study was based on two product development projects in a low-volume manufacturing company.

    Findings: The main identified characteristics of the product introduction process in low-volume manufacturing industries were a low number of prototypes, absence of conventional production ramp-up, reduced complexity of the process, failure to consider the manufacturability of the products due to an extensive focus on their functionality, and increased complexity of resource allocation. It was determined that knowledge and experiences from prior production of similar products could serve as a facilitator of the manufacturing process.

    Research limitations/implications: The main limitation of this study is that the identified characteristics and facilitating factors are confined to the internal variables of the studied company. A study of the role of external variables during the product introduction process such as suppliers and customers could be the subject of future studies.

    Practical implications: This research will provide practitioners in low-volume manufacturing industries with general insight about the characteristics of the product introduction process and the aspects that should be considered during the process.

  • 172.
    Javadi, Siavash
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bellgran, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Product development in low-volume manufacturing industries: Characteristics and influencing factors2015In: DS 80-4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 20TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 15) VOL 4: DESIGN FOR X, DESIGN TO X, 2015, p. 145-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product development process has a considerable effect on factors such as time to market and quality of product which are vital for manufacturing companies to remain competitive. Therefore, study of the factors which influence the product development process such as characteristics of products and production systems is necessary to support and improve the product development process. Since most of the studies have been conducted in the context of high-volume manufacturing industries, the influences of characteristics of low-volume products and production systems on the product development process in such industries have not been considered sufficiently. In this paper, characteristics of low-volume products and production systems, their inter-relations and their influences on the product development process have been studied through a multiple case study. A general map of characteristics of low-volume products and production systems and their inter-relations was presented in this paper. Moreover, the influences of these characteristics on product development process including the reduced complexity of the process and lack of opportunities for test and refinement were discussed.

  • 173.
    Johanson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Koga, Chitoshi
    Kobe University, Kobe, Japan.
    Skoog, Matti
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Henningsson, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    The Japanese Government's intellectual capital reporting guideline: What are the challenges for firms and capital market agents?2006In: Journal of Intellectual Capital, ISSN 1469-1930, E-ISSN 1758-7468, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 474-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Purpose – The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the Guideline for Intellectual Property Information Disclosure (GIPID) in relation to the ambitious aspirations behind the guideline and in that way develop a future research agenda aiming at addressing the main challenges regarding the construction of guidelines for future IC reporting. Design/methodology/approach – The purpose will be achieved by comparing the GIPID with two other IC guideline proposals, namely MERITUM and the Danish Guideline for Intellectual Capital Statements, respectively, from a capital market communication perspective and from a management control perspective. References are made to 12 Japanese companies that have published IP reports. The sample companies operate in a wide range of nine industries covering, for example, security, manufacturing, transportation, and chemistry, and comprise large as well as small firms.

    Findings – The study identifies four major challenges for intellectual capital guidelines and reporting. These challenges regard market communication, management control, uniqueness versus comparability, and confidentiality versus accountability. The paper concludes with a number of questions of vital importance for future research within the research area.

    Originality/value – This is one of the first papers that discuss the Japanese Guideline for Intellectual Property Information Disclosure as well as to compare it with similar European guidelines. 

  • 174.
    Johansson, Glenn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Jonkoping Univ, Jonkoping, Sweden.;Malardalen Univ, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Safsten, Kristina
    Jonkoping Univ, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Adolfsson, Ann-Cathrine
    Jonkoping Univ, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    IMPLEMENTATION OF R&D MANAGEMENT MODELS IN GLOBAL ORGANISATIONS2015In: DS 80-3 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 20TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 15) VOL 3: ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses implementation of R&D management models in global product development organisations. The study rests upon empirical material originating from five industrial companies that was collected via workshops and interviews. A number of enablers for and barriers to implementation of R&D management models have been identified. The study adds to the current theory on how companies with global organisations can ensure that the R&D management model is implemented throughout the entire organisation. In addition, the practical value refers to that the identified enablers and barriers support companies in their strive towards better adherence to the R&D management models in product development projects.

  • 175.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kellokumpu, Petra
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Klamningskoncept för kablage på motor: Examensarbete, produktutveckling - konstruktion2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har utförts på initiativ av Scania CV AB. Scania är en världsledande tillverkare av tunga lastbilar, bussar och industri- och marinmotorer. Konstruktionsgruppen inom Scania som detta examensarbete utfördes vid är benämnd NMKA och är en del av avdelningen NM – Engine development som bedriver forskning & utveckling av Scania motorer.

    Denna avhandling inom produktutveckling tjänar syftet som slutgiltigt examinationsmoment för civilingenjörsprogrammet Innovation och produktdesign på Mälardalens högskola. Arbetet har utgått ifrån en metod för produktutveckling som lärs ut i samband med utbildningen.

    Uppdraget har baserats på frågeställningen att utveckla ett robust klamningskoncept för kablage på motor, som uppfyller de ergonomiska och konstruktionsmässiga krav som Scania ställer på sina artiklar. Klamningskonceptet ska därmed möjliggöra säker infästning av lättare kabel, rör och slang i flera olika dimensioner. Samt även kunna upprätthålla denna funktion under de stränga förhållanden som råder i miljön kring motor. Vilket ställer höga krav på brukstemperatur, kemikaliebeständighet, egenfrekvens och livslängd.

    Det befintliga infästningselement som används idag i aktuella applikationsområden uppfyller inte Scanias ergonomiska krav och måste därför fasas ut och ersättas. En begränsning som medföljer är att det nya klamningskonceptets artikelpris måste ligga inom samma prisspektrum som sin föregångare.

    En stor del av Scanias verksamhet är belägen i Södertälje, däribland produktionslinan för montering av raka motorer till lastbil, buss och marina applikationer. Monteringen av motorkomponenter sker i hög grad manuellt, vilket medför repetitiva och ibland ergonomiskt påfrestande moment för montörerna. Scania värnar om sina anställda och prioriterar deras hälsa högt så att dem kan känna sig trygga i sin arbetsmiljö och fullfölja ett långt arbetsliv. Att ta fram och utveckla nya produktlösningar som minimerar eller motverkar riskerna för skador är därför en naturlig del av förbättringsarbetet. Samt en bidragande faktor till initiativet bakom formuleringen till detta examensarbete.

    Detta examensarbete har resulterat i ett förslag på ett klamningskoncept som har lägre artikelkostnad, är mer ergonomisk att montera och har kortare monteringstid. Klamningskonceptet är avsett enbart för applikationsområden med lättare rör och kablage, med infästning för M6-skruvförband. På det testade applikationsområdet avluftningsnätet innebär gruppens klamningskoncept en årlig kostnadsreducering på 50 % relativt det nuvarande infästningselementet.

  • 176.
    Johansson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Kompetens och förutsättningar för praktikbaserad innovation. Från självreglerat till expertstött förbättrings- och utvecklingsarbete2017In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 22, no 1-2, p. 124-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förbättrings- och utvecklingsarbete drivs inom tillverkande industri i många fall med en ambition att involvera medarbetare på alla nivåer i en organisation. I artikeln adresseras hur förbättrings- och utvecklingsarbete kan organiseras inom industriell produktion och hur det inverkar på förutsättningarna för ett kompetent utförande av förbättrings- och utvecklingsarbete. Två fallstudier från tillverkande industri utgör det empiriska underlaget. I resultatet identifieras två spänningsfält för förbättrings- och utvecklingsarbete: självorganiserat-avsiktligt organiserat, samt självreglerande-expertstött arbete. I spänningsfälten identifieras fyra positioner: Den intuitivt drivna, den gruppdrivna, den coachdrivna och den vägledningsdrivna. En slutsats är att en begränsad distribuerad kompetens är en allt för svag katalysator för att bedriva förbättrings- och utvecklingsarbete i de självreglerande positionerna. Expertstöd i form av en kompetent andre kan genom facilitering eller handledning möjliggöra mer av utforskande aktiviteter och kan då bidra till att bryta med invanda handlingsmönster i sökandet efter nya lösningar. Det möjliggör mer av ett arbetsintegrerat lärande samt utgör en viktig grund för framväxt av praktikbaserad innovation.

  • 177.
    Johansson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Organizing viable development work in operations2017In: International Series in Operations Research and Management Science, Volume 255, Springer New York LLC , 2017, p. 49-65Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to give an account of and discuss how viable development work can be organized and engage employees on all levels of an organization, which, depending on the specific needs, enables the emergence of both exploitation and exploration. A further aim is to describe the relationship between how development work is carried out and the opportunities afforded by such work for continuous learning of development work competence. The empirical material contains several examples of how employees are committed to improving their own operations, which in itself is an important prerequisite for a continuous work-integrated learning. However, the empirical findings presented in this chapter indicate that this is not a sufficient condition for the long-term development of skills relevant to pursuing structured development work. One conclusion to draw is that development work needs to be treated as a domain-specific competence in itself, which in turn needs to be distributed throughout the organization. 

  • 178.
    Johansson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Transcending the dichotomy of exploitative and explorative work orientations2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Johansson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Badasjane, Viktoria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Rösiö, Carin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Exploring the integration process of new practices for knowledge sharing2019In: 26 th EurOMA Conference EurOMA, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to provide new perspectives on the implementation of new operations management practices by applying three different but interrelated frameworks: Human Interaction Dynamics, Normalization Process Theory, and Professional competence as ways of being. The empirical material in this paper is based on a case study within a global manufacturing company, and more specific the development and implementation of a new OM practice for knowledge sharing at one of the sites in Sweden. A mixed-method approach is used, and the empirical material is collected through analysis of a database, two group interviews, and a survey.

  • 180.
    Johansson, Peter E
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Solving the bottlenecks. The craftsmanship of collaborative research2018In: Participatory Innovation Conference 2018 PIN-C 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 181.
    Johansson, Peter E
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Wallo, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology, Sweden.
    Exploring the work and competence of interactive researchersIn: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786, ISSN 1741-038XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the competence in use when working with interactive research, which is a continuation and elaboration of action research.

    Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research approach was adopted for the study. The main body of empirical material in this paper is based on two sources of data – a survey comprising open-ended questions, followed by a series of focus group interviews. The respondents were researchers with varying degrees of experience in using interactive research.

    Findings: The findings provide illustrations of what characterises interactive research as work and identify an additional set of activities that go beyond traditional research activities. Some activities are relatively easy to describe, while others exist in the gaps between other activities – e.g. boundary spanning – and are harder to explicitly define in terms of implications for the involved researchers’ competence. The work activities reaching beyond the traditional research boundaries are implicit and are not a common shared practice. From a competence point of view, this implies that the competence in use for these implicit tasks of interactive research becomes individually carried. Based on these findings, a number of individual aspects of what constitutes competence in use are suggested.

    Research limitations/implications: In future studies, it would be valuable to use a mixed-method approach that also includes longitudinal observations of the actual work of conducting interactive research.

    Practical implications: The findings and suggestions for how to understand the competence of interactive researchers can be used as guidance for training in research education.

    Originality/value: This study contributes to previous research by describing important requirements and critical elements of competence in use when conducting interactive research.

  • 182.
    Johansson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Osterman, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Conceptions and operational use of value and waste in lean manufacturing - an interpretivist approach2017In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 55, no 23, p. 6903-6915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we explore how the key concepts of lean manufacturing, value, value adding and waste are conceived and operationally used by Lean trainers in operational work processes. A comparative case study with a mixed method approach, using an explanatory sequential design, was conducted. This means that a set of quantitative data were collected, which was followed by the collection of qualitative data with the purpose of explaining and understanding the quantitative measures. An interpretivist approach is used as a framework, which implies a perspective on contemporary operations management paradigms, such as lean manufacturing, as a continuous construction of inter-subjective experiences. What becomes evident in the empirical findings is that there are both similarities and differences in the Lean trainers conceptions and use of value adding and waste. The similarities and differences can be explained by variations in two dimensions: (a) the character of the work process, which ranges between mechanical and craftsmanship, and (b) Lean trainers approach to key concepts, which ranges between being rule-based and reflective. By using a research design where the concepts of value adding and waste were used simultaneously, and adopting an interpretivist approach on lean manufacturing, we were able to reveal conditions that in other cases remain hidden.

  • 183.
    Johansson, Robin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ekstedt, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Effektivisering av en produktion präglad av många produktvarianter2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Change is taking place all the time and it has happened as much for the last 50 years as in the entire human history. Hence changes are taking place at an ever higher rate, it is a must for companies to keep up with the development and streamline themselves to not be outdone by other companies. Companies compete with each other by offering high quality products at attractive prices with short lead times. Lean philosophy has become a widespread tool for companies to work with in this necessary streamlining work.

    The purpose of the work in this report is to streamline the manufacturing of elementary products at the case company. The reason has been to chart how the production process works today by performing a value-flow analysis. Our project is based on the value-flow analysis to find what deficiencies there is in the production and create an improved future position.

    Value-flow analysis, shortened VSM in literature, is a Lean production tool for mapping the flow of a product or service. It is a visual tool that helps identify value-enhancing and non-value enhancing parts and clearly illuminate wastes.

    The case company has a large product mix where many of the products undergo different processes, making it difficult to perform a proper value-flow analysis. We constrained our work to the 80/20 products and within these products found a suitable product family for our value-flow analysis, which symbolizes a large part of the case company's production. The improvements we propose mean a significant reduction of lead time within the production, which means more efficient production with lower costs and shorter delivery times.

    The production strategy we present that in theory leads to a significant reduction in lead time, requires further investigations and needs to be adapted to the case company's production with a high product mix before implementation.

  • 184.
    Johnsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ekman, Sten
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Innovation Advising in practice: Four cases where the RAFT model has been used in environmental innovations, and how twenty-one STPs offers Innovation Advising.2010In: XXVII IASP World Conference on Science and Technology Parks, 2010, Daejeon Convention Center, Korea, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Science and Technology Park's (STP) often offers business incubators to Idea owners where they can develop ideas into companies. The scope of this paper is a study in how the RAFT-model, a “How to”-model based innovation process, affected four Idea owners with environmental innovations in different business areas. This paper also shows how twenty-one Swedish STPs offer Innovation Advice (IA) to Idea owners and think of IA as a competitive offer. All Idea owners found the RAFT-model useful and consider using the RAFT-model again. Two ideas were still in a developing progress and the other two were shut down. Five of the STPs thought IA as a competitive offer to Idea owners, the others found IA proper to be offered by other organizations. Conclusions from this study are that the RAFT-model was appropriate to environmental innovations and STPs found IA valuable for Idea owners but not as a competitive motive.

  • 185.
    Johnsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Karlsson, Helena
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    External Innovation Driver (EID) - a Developing and Organization Learning Service in Innovation Management. Three cases where an EID develop and learn SMEs innovation management2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative companies are more successful than non-innovative ones, but there seems to be a lack of knowledge in innovation-management. Can an EID (External Innovation Driver) develop and learn a SME (Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises) about innovation management? If so, should the EID be supported by a STP (Science and Technology Park)? The scope of this study includes three cases where SME:s in Sweden got education and idea-developing-support through one idea-generating phase and one idea-developing phase. Out of 55 identified ideas in Phase One, 12 ideas were developed in Phase Two. The SME:s got education from “Learning by watching” combined with “Learning by doing” according to the RAFT-model, which resulted in 6 ideas reaching the market, 1 idea became a research project and 5 ideas were terminated. The SME:s felt it secure to know that the EID was a neutral and trusted person, supported by a STP, not claiming for partnerships.

  • 186.
    Josefsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Trollsfjord, Pia
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Effektiv intern materialförsörjning i en volym- och produktmässigt varierad tillverkning: En fallstudie på ABB IEC LV Motors2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to investigate how the material flow, of a high-frequent component family, to an assembly line with volume and product mix variations, can be streamlined.

    In order to examine this, the aim has been divided into two defined queries.

    1. Which factors affect the efficiency of the material flow, for a high-frequent component family, to an assembly line?   
    2. How can an effective material flow, for a high-frequent component family, be designed?

    Methodology: Both a case study and a literature study has been performed, in order to answer the queries. Literature in the areas of material and inventory control, transportation and material handling has been studied. The case study, which was carried out at a company, was based on process mapping combined with interviews and observations. Collected data from the case study have been analysed with support of literature.

    Findings: Different factors that are restricting the efficiency of the material flow for an assembly line has been identified. Unnecessary operations and inefficient material handling resulted in high cycle times for the material flow. Furthermore, the layout and control of the inventory resulted in long lead time and unnecessary inefficient transportations. Inadequate design and integration of the logistic subsystems has shown to be a significant cause, resulting in limited effectiveness of the studied material flow. On this basis, a new design of the material flow has been proposed, where the holistic perspective and integration are central. A new inventory design and a tugger-train transportation solution along a timed route, reduce the material handling and the number of deliveries. In addition, a pull flow system where consumption controls material replenishment, reduces both inventory levels and the number of inventory buffers.

    Implications: The purpose of the study has been achieved by solving the defined queries. By identifying factors that reduce the effectiveness of the material flow, a more efficient solution can be designed. The study shows that there are several possible improvement opportunities for the studied material flow. However, only one case study was performed, therefore its ability to create scientific value, can be regarded as limited.

    Recommendations: For further studies, it may be of interest to study several companies with similar problems to be able to draw general conclusions with scientific depth.

  • 187.
    Kabroo, Carl Gustaf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Willenius, Robert
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Produktionsoptimering av elektromagnetiska omrörare - "ORD 43P" och "EM Stabilizer"2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis in product development – design was carried out between February and June 2013 and includes 15 credits (C-level), and is the final course of the Bachelor Program in Engineering, Innovation and Product Design. 

    The thesis dealt with the problem of adaptation to production and cost optimization of two pieces of electromagnetic stirrers at the company ABB, Process Automation, Metallurgy in Västerås. After contact with the supervisor from ABB, Jan-Erik Eriksson, the project work commenced to adapt the manufacturing design of the product ORD 43P and EM Stabilizer.

    To achieve cost-optimized production and production adapted design, the authors applied the following product development tools: Design for Cost, Design for Manufacture and Design for Assembly. To verify that the design was optimal, but also that it did not break during stress, the authors used the computer based module finite element method of the CAD program SolidWorks. 

    The selection of components was based on the component’s price per kilo. 

    To select the optimum material, that is high strength and affordable, the authors used the material database software CES EduPack. The materials selected from CES EduPack could not be found by the authors as standard material at the market. Therefore, the authors changed strategy to compare and select materials based on market research of standard materials with suppliers.

    The components of ORD 43P were optimized in terms of design in comparison with existing components coil bracket and insulation boards. They were also cost reduced significantly. The component frame base was examined briefly. 

    Through product development the components coil bracket, insulating boards and frame base the total cost of ORD 43P was reduced by 2,47 %. 

    The authors found that the total cost of ORD 43P could be reduced between 10-25 % as many of its components are oversized and made ​​of more expensive materials than needed. 

    The components of EM Stabilizer, cover and pneumatic hose, were designed with optimum design and was cost reduced.Through product development the components cover and pneumatic hose the costs of EM stabilizer were reduced by 1,3 %. 

    The authors assume that the costs of the EM Stabilizer can be reduced, because it is relatively new at the market. ABB want to ensure that the product reach its guaranteed life by over-sizing many of the components of the product and use more expensive material than necessary.

  • 188.
    Karim, Aria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Schnelzer, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Differences in Lengths of Life of Production Equipment & Production Systems and their implications on Acquisition & Replacement Processes2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays usage of advanced production equipment becomes more common among production industries, future challenges in the market require flexibility in production industries due to growing competition and demand responses. Decisions regarding acquisition and replacement of production equipment have a major role in future profitability and competitiveness of production industries. Production equipment life cycle is dependent on technical, economical and conceptual lengths of life. Technical and economical lengths of life are connected to production equipment and the conceptual length of life is connected to production systems.

    Acquisition and replacement assessment processes of production equipment within production industries require involvement from different responsible departments. Varieties of perspectives differ from different departments in their prioritization regarding economical, technical and conceptual lengths of life. Lack of collaboration and evaluation of critical factors create quality and capacity issues in production industries. This project is directed to investigate issues concerning establishment of a sustainable long term thinking in consideration of economical, technical lengths of life of production equipment and also conceptual length of life of production systems in an earlier stage of acquisition and replacement assessment processes.

    Investigated research questions in this project are the following; What is the correlation between lengths of life of production equipment & production systems and how they influence each other? What is the basis for acquisition and replacement assessment of production equipment? How does buyer-supplier relationship influence length of life of production equipment? This thesis work is based on both theoretical and empirical findings. A case study was performed with a survey and interviews to gather data for the analysis.

    Technical and conceptual lengths of life are both based on economical profitability and have to be adapted to product generations. Expensive investments in production equipment are critical and can be risky for production industries if marketing experts are excluded or if future product generation forecast are not considered in production equipment acquisition processes. Information and knowledge inputs from production equipment suppliers have to be considered in an earlier stage of concept development in production systems.

  • 189.
    Karlberg, Christian
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Energi- och bullerlösningar för fastigheter i tågtrafiken2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 190.
    Karlsson, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Produktanpassning vid insourcing av bearbetning: Tillverkningsanpassad konstruktion och insourcing i produktutvecklingsprocessen2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    High product quality together with low manufacturing cost are vital aspects of the economic success of a product. To achieve such success the method Design for Manufacturing (DFM) is used. DFM is a highly integrative method and demands a cross-functional team consisting of experts such as production engineers, pre-process engineers and manufacturing personnel (Ulrich & Eppinger, 2014).

    Volvo CE has a continuous work with DFM and it is done through many iterations and direct contact between the manufacturing- and design department. Although the overall work with DFM is continuous the department Driveline Systems Product Improvement is requesting a method for this work, due to the lack of any methods used today. It is discovered that there are many different methods for DFM described by many authors, and in this thesis methods by Ulrich & Eppinger (2014), Dalton et al. (2016) and O’Driscoll (2002) are investigated. A standardized way may increase the quality of the DFM work and may help create a more holistic view. A holistic view over the work with DFM can help create better conditions for re-use of previous knowledge related to manufacturing of the parts.

    In addition of the requested method for DFM the current product development process used, DMAIC, is investigated. The process is today mainly used and adapted for the development and improvement of existing products. The reason of the current case studies is to increase the utilization level at the current manufacturing department, and thus no improvement or development is initially present. Therefore, the current insourcing case studies are compared to the Volvo process DMAIC. To connect the current case to established product development processes the case studies are also compared to a theoretical product development process.

     

    Methods used within this thesis are field work, with interviews and case studies, and a complementary literature study to investigate methods and to increase the understanding of DFM and insourcing. In the field work two parts for insourcing are investigated as two case studies. The parts are initially selected through a project selection, where a total of six parts are included. To perform the selection and further development of the current case studies Ullmans (2010) design process were applied, with use of relevant methods and tools for this work. Also, some elements of the product development process according to Ulrich & Eppinger (2014) were applied. Based on the requested method for DFM and the current case studies the following research questions were raised:

     

    How does an insourcing process correlate with theoretical design processes and with Volvo’s product development process?

    Where in the insourcing process is it relevant to include DFM?

     

    Aspects of DFM are aspects that affect the manufacturing cost. When insourcing processing of parts and labour shift rate are the most relevant and important aspects and should be addressed when selecting and evaluating project. Both processing of parts and labour shift rate are aspects that affect the manufacturing cost. When insourcing it is also important to include aspects connected to outsourcing, and this fact cannot be identified in the DMAIC process nor the design process of Ullman (2010). Compared to the current insourcing case studies there are some differences between both the design process of Ullman (2010) and the Volvo process DMAIC, even if there also are some similarities.

  • 191.
    Karlsson, Helena
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Direct and Indirect Innovation Integration in Swedish SMEs Business Strategy2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is a central strategic issue for companies who wants to repeatedlyinnovative and build long-term competitiveness. Research stresses the importance of strong linkages between innovation and the strategic orientation of a company. Despite that does both research and experience show that SME:s often have a short-term focus on results and are low-risk oriented towards incremental innovations or show a reactive, non-strategic approach towardsinnovation. This case study survey to what extent innovation is an, direct or indirect, integrated part of a SME:s overall business strategy. The case study was conducted at one Swedish SME in three stages with 10 participants with broad representation of management and employees from the entire company. Innovation was found to be strongly centred to the persons of top management, have strong informal linkages to top levels of formal business strategy but with weak integration at practical action oriented levels of strategy.

  • 192.
    Karlsson, Helena
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    The importance of skill and experience in innovation auditing2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation auditing is by both academia and practitioners considered to be important for differentpurposes such as increased innovativeness and a multitude of auditing tools and methods exist. Majority of these doto some extent use best practice and most provides explicate judgment criteria why their dependence of theauditors’ skill and experience is relatively low. A literature review was conducted to deepen the understanding ofhow the auditors’ skill and experience is considered in current innovation audit literature. Only a few were found toaddress the issue explicitly but a majority contained examples of situations where skill or experience of the auditoraffected the audit process. Innovation auditing doesn’t only seem to provide a base for increased innovativenessand maturation but also requires auditing maturity.

  • 193.
    Karlsson, Helena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Johnsson, Mikael
    Interview Supported Innovation Audit: How does a complementary interview affect the understanding of an innovation audits results when the interview is vased on the audit statements.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: SMEs tend to lack the ability of sustainable development throughcost-effective and repeated innovation. One way to find out a currentinnovation state is to run a self-assessment innovation audit, which are wellused but got critics to not show reliable results The authors formed researchquestion: How might a complementary interview affect the understandingof the result of the innovation audit when the interview is based on the samestatements used in the audit? The study was conducted at two Swedish SMEswith a mix of management and personnel. 21 respondents at both companiesanswered 840 audit-statements and equal amount of interview questionsrephrased from a “how-perspective”. 4 audit-statements were left blank and103 interview questions were answered, “I don't know”. A great differ inthe respondents understanding appeared and the conclusion was that a selfassessment innovation audit might not show reliable results conducted without a complementing interview.

  • 194.
    Karlsson, Helena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Schaeffer, Jennie
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Winbo, Karolina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Assessment and Support?: AiR - A Pilot Project on Support Systems for Innovation in Automation Industry2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various methods to assess innovation are used in companies and organizations. Audits provide little support for day to day use and few explicitly address how companies can benefit from the audit results in terms of e.g. how to learn, formulate goals and operationalization. Based on a concrete example, this paper explores how innovation assessment can be considered a tripartite audit process designed to support learning and give an increased cultural support for innovation. In the paper the audit process will be discussed from the perspectives of what, who and how. 'What' address the tool and assessment area, 'who' focus on the people that participates in the assessment process and 'how' on the very assessment execution. The awareness of the notion 'innovation' among the 70 industrial companies in the Automation Region Network in mid-Sweden are typically low, and as a response to that a pilot study project Automation Innovation Region (AiR) started in 2012 to develop support for innovation. During one year 2014/2015, employees in five companies (N=44) participated in the study. The project developed a process, AiR Innowatch (Innowatch), combining a photo-based workshop on innovation, three workshops with themes on innovation climate, a web based weekly assessment tool, and a quarterly survey. The tools focus on innovation culture (what), the process highlights reflection, learning and integration (how) on assessment results from the perspective of individual, group and organisational (who) perspective. The goal was to design a learning based audit process that supports the companies to independently continue their work for increased innovativeness after the formal assessment process. This paper present the tools developed and the results from the pilot study as a base for discussion on auditing as a tool that supports learning and development of an organisational culture for increased innovativeness in established organisations. 

  • 195.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Analyzes of a wheel loader usage2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The wheel loader is a very versatile machine hence the layout of the machine and the software has to be a compromise of all the possible application. If the machine could detect the application and adapt the software settings to optimize the machine for the current application more application unique settings would be possible. To make the application identification cost efficient and possible to implement over the whole product range a minimum of added product cost is preferred. Therefore only using existing sensors of a wheel loader and using a software algorithm for the identification is suggested. In the following chapters three common applications are described from a generic point of view. The identification can be divided into different sections days, series, cycles and phases. The declaration of the phases is meant to be consistent regardless of application, however some phases may not be present in some application, 18 phases are identified to cover all application. Algorithms are developed to identify three different applications, bucket, pallet, timber and two different material classes. It is stated that it is possible to differentiate at least two different material classes with the suggested algorithms.

  • 196.
    Karlsson, Maija
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Finn fem fel: Ett verktyg för återmatning och hantering av fel i SDE's montering2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetets syfte är att utforma rutiner och verktyg för att säkerställa att relevant information om allvarliga och frekventa problem når föregående processer. Den information som föregående processer tar emot ska vara av sådan karaktär att de vet vad de ska fokusera på i sitt förbättringsarbete. Strävan har varit att ta fram ett felrapporteringsverktyg där alla fel som påträffas i produktionen ska kunna gå att rapporteras in. Utifrån den datainsamling som har gjorts via sekundär- och primärdata har den information som ska rapporters in tagits fram. Felrapporteringen ska ske i en Lotus Notes databas, detta för att programmet redan finns inom SDE`s väggar. De fel som hittas och rapporters in i felrapporteringsverktyget riktas var och en mot ett ansvarigt område. Tillexempel om det fattas ett hål på en artikel och det hålet finns med på ritningen riktas felet mot inköp. Varje ansvarigt område ska månadsvis skriva ut och åtgärda sina tre ”fem i botten” scorecard i kategorierna konsekvens, kostnad och frekvens. Fem i botten scorecarden bygger på paretoprincipen, det betyder att scorecarden visar de fem största felen varje månad i de tre olika kategorierna. Den information som loggas in i felrapporteringsverktyget kommer även att vara ett reklamationsunderlag då inköp står som ansvarigt område. Dataanalysen kommer att göras i ett Business Intelligence verktyg som heter QlikView. Detta för att QlikView på ett smidigt sätt tar data från en eller flera databaser och gör det möjligt för användaren att snabbt och enkelt analysera informationen.

  • 197.
    Kristensson, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Modell för arbete med duglighet: Utformad vid Volvo CE Component Division2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetets uppdrag är att skapa en bild av dagens situation gällande duglighet vid de två bearbetande verkstäderna TMA och TMG. Vidare ska en analys av duglighetsarbete i dagsläget utföras och en modell för hur arbetet kan ske i framtiden tas fram.

    Syftet med examensarbetet är att erbjuda berörd personal vid Volvo Construction Equipment AB Component Division i Eskilstuna en modell för arbete med duglighetsstudier och uppföljning så att dugligare processer kan uppnås. Det primära syftet är att skapa rutiner så att man fortsätter arbetet efter ett duglighetsindex beräknats och inte endast konstaterar att resultatet är bra eller dåligt. I efterarbetet ska man försöka koppla bidragande faktorer från ett otillfredsställande utfall till de 4M:en (Maskin, Människa, Metod och Material).

    På CMP sker självklart ett kontinuerligt kvalitetsarbete då ett av Volvos starka kärnvärden är kvalitet, men trots det ständiga arbetet når man inte alltid de uppsatta kvalitetsmålen. Ett steg i att förändra situationen är införandet av ”The CMP Zero Tolerance Program” som är ett led till att förbättra kvaliteten och sänka antalet defekter till 600 PPM. Detta examensarbete är en del i det programmet och fokuserar på duglighetsarbetet.

    För att nå dugligare processer krävs ett kontinuerligt förbättringsarbete. Det förutsätter att man aktivt fortsätter projektet efter att man beräknat ett duglighetsindex samt lokaliserar orsakande faktorer och förbättrar läget. För att få till detta arbete krävs rutiner och engagemang. Rapporten levererar en modell för hur man vardagligt kan arbeta med duglighet men även rutiner för en effektivt förbättringsarbete.

  • 198.
    Kuduzovic, Lejla
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Förslag till framtagning av kvalitetssäkringsrutiner för induktionshärdade drivaxlar vid Volvo CE Component Division: Examensarbete, produktutveckling, 30 poäng Avancerad nivå2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har handlar om att ta fram kvalitetssäkringsrutiner för induktiva värmebehandlingsmetoder mot det nya mätlabbet i samband att kvalitetssäkra produktionen av drivaxlar på Volvo Component Division. Uppgiften betyder att visa hur kvalitetssäkringen av både processen och tillverkningen ska ske genom att förebygga att fel uppstår. Huvudsaken är inte hur problemet blir löst, istället kommer koncentration lagts på metoden.

     

    Det övergripande syftet med examensarbetet är att försöka hjälpa personalen i företaget komma fram till förslag och konkreta resultat i form av kvalitetssäkringsrutiner för att förbättra både produktionen och den befintliga produktutvecklingsprocessen.

    Främsta målet är att bygga upp en fungerande kvalitetssäkring av induktiv värmebehandling inom Component Division genom att ta fram kvalitetssäkringsrutiner som stödjer metoden. Dessa rutiner skall bygga på önskemål från kunden, detta framför allt i form av beställningsblanketter, instruktioner och checklistor.

     

    Volvo Construction Equipment AB Component Division Eskilstuna arbetar idag med en kontinuerlig process- och produktförbättring med avseende på att förebygga eventuella kvalitetsbristerna. Meningen är att man i samband med den nya utbyggnaden av fabriken, nya maskiner och ny utrustning också ska bygga ett nytt materiallabb där materialprovbitar skall kunna skickas in av operatören/teknikern för olika kvalitetsundersökningar.

    I dagsläget har man börjat producera drivaxlar enligt den nya flödesgruppen vars förutsättning är att artiklarna skall tillverkas från råämne till monteringsklara detaljer. För att få ut ett smidigt produktionsflöde och optimera produktionen inom flödesgruppen måste alla parametrar och faktorer stämma på båda sidorna. Detta fås genom ständiga förbättringar samt statistiska styrningar av processen genom kontroller, underhåll och uppföljningar.

     

    Examensarbetet har till följd därav resulterat i instruktioner som beskriver kontrolleringar och provtagningar av värmebehandlade artiklar i cell07 som en åtgärd för att bygga en fungerande kvalitetssäkring av induktionshärdade artiklar på CMP. För att detta kvalitetsarbete skall ge resultat bör operationsbeskrivningen mätinstruktioner följas av samtliga på avdelningen.

    Därför är det viktigt att när ett kvalitetsproblem väl har identifierats skall nästa steg vara att gå vidare med att försöka bena ut orsakerna till problemet och hitta lösningar till dessa för att undvika eller förebygga att samma sak händer nästa gång.

     

  • 199.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Swerea IVF, Mölndal, Sweden.
    De Goey, H.
    Swerea IVF, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Can Social Sustainability Values be Incorporated in a Product Service System for Temporary Public Building Modules?2017In: Procedia CIRP, Elsevier B.V. , 2017, Vol. 64, p. 193-198Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporary constructions industry has cost efficiency and sustainability challenges that may require new innovative business models as well as product and processes. This paperaims to discuss how social sustainability services can be included in product service system (PSS)by investigating a case where employment is offered in distributed temporary building module manufacturing in the PSS context. The case has been evaluated against PSS literature. Recent reviews and literature on inclusion of social sustainability and PSS for buildings were used. It is concluded that the current concept fits basic definitions of PSS although it is not typical. The social value of employment is difficult to evaluate and inclusion in PSS needs further research. Design practice could be used to further develop the services in the studied concept. 

  • 200.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hildenbrand, Jutta
    Swerea IVF, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Christina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Swerea IVF.
    Design for green lean building module production - Case study2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 594-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increasing societal need for temporary buildings, while construction industry faces resource and time efficiency challenges, factory assembly of modular buildings can be a solution. This case study at a start-up company uses experiences from assembly system design and eco-design literature to propose green lean design principles to be used in the design and development of building modules and their assembly stations. The eco-design strategy wheel is used as a basis and adapted for the assessment of green and lean building manufacturing.

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