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  • 101.
    Georgieva, Margaryta
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Who Will Have Irresponsible, Untrustworthy, Immoral Intelligent Robot?: Why artifactually intelligent adaptive autonomous agents need to be artifactually moral?2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 102.
    Giovagnoli, Raffaela
    et al.
    Pontifical Lateran Univ Rome, Rome, Italy..
    Crucitti, Antonio
    UOC Chirurg Gen & Mininvas Osp Cristo Re Rome, Rome, Italy.;Univ Cattolica Sacro Cuore Rome, Ist Semeiot Chirurg, Rome, Italy..
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Chalmers Univ Technol, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Malardalen Univ, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Robotics and the quality of life: the case of robotics assisted surgery2019Inngår i: PHILOSOPHICAL INQUIRIES, ISSN 2281-8618, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 77-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Robotics is one of the most developing technological field that combines many scientific disciplines and has important social, ethical and economical effects. The philosophical debate on Artificial Intelligence is part of the classical branch of the philosophy of mind and developed interesting results crossing several disciplines (such as psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, neurobiology etc.). Many interesting views moved mostly from Turing challenges about human and machine intelligence. After a general presentation of new trends in the ambit of AI, which try to intend computing as natural and embodied, we present the case of robotics assisted surgery as a very important example of a practice which requires also practical considerations.

  • 103.
    Giovagnoli, Raffaela
    et al.
    PUL Rome, Italy.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Introduction to the Proceedings of the Workshop Habits and Rituals at IS4SI-2017 Gothenburg, Sweden2017Inngår i: Proceedings, Volume 1, Issue 3 (August 2017) PROC-MDPI-Vol1, ISSN 2409-9287, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 235-237Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Habits and rituals play a fundamental role in human life [1] and are worthy to be considered also because they represent a form of embodied knowledge. According to Dubray [2], habits can be studied in general, but also with the focus on their physiological, psychological, ethical, pedagogical, philosophical and theological aspects. They have been analyzed mostly by disciplines like anthropology, sociology and psychology. Nowadays, the importance of habits is recognized in the development of robotics, where the problem is to help elderly or sick people to continue their ordinary life and practices.

  • 104.
    Holstein, Tobias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Avoiding the intrinsic unfairness of the trolley problem2018Inngår i: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, 2018, s. 32-37Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As an envisaged future of transportation, self-driving cars are being discussed from various perspectives, including social, economical, engineering, computer science, design, and ethical aspects. On the one hand, self-driving cars present new engineering problems that are being gradually successfully solved. On the other hand, social and ethical problems have up to now being presented in the form of an idealized unsolvable decision-making problem, the so-called "trolley problem", which is built on the assumptions that are neither technically nor ethically justifiable. The intrinsic unfairness of the trolley problem comes from the assumption that lives of different people have different values. In this paper, techno-social arguments are used to show the infeasibility of the trolley problem when addressing the ethics of self-driving cars. We argue that different components can contribute to an "unfair" behaviour and features, which requires ethical analysis on multiple levels and stages of the development process. Instead of an idealized and intrinsically unfair thought experiment, we present real-life techno-social challenges relevant for the domain of software fairness in the context of self-driving cars. 

  • 105.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Risk-based decision-making fallacies: Why present functional safety standards are not enough2017Inngår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, ICSAW 2017: Side Track Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, s. 153-160Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional safety of a system is the part of its overall safety that depends on the system operating correctly in response to its inputs. Safety is defined as the absence of unacceptable/unreasonable risk by functional safety standards, which enforce safety requirements in each phase of the development process of safety-critical software and hardware systems. Acceptability of risks is judged within a framework of analysis with contextual and cultural aspects by individuals who may introduce subjectivity and misconceptions in the assessment. While functional safety standards elaborate much on the avoidance of unreasonable risk in the development of safety-critical software and hardware systems, little is addressed on the issue of avoiding unreasonable judgments of risk. Through the studies of common fallacies in risk perception and ethics, we present a moral-psychological analysis of functional safety standards and propose plausible improvements of the involved risk-related decision making processes, with a focus on the notion of an acceptable residual risk. As a functional safety reference model, we use the functional safety standard ISO 26262, which addresses potential hazards caused by malfunctions of software and hardware systems within road vehicles and defines safety measures that are required to achieve an acceptable level of safety. The analysis points out the critical importance of a robust safety culture with developed countermeasures to the common fallacies in risk perception, which are not addressed by contemporary functional safety standards. We argue that functional safety standards should be complemented with the analysis of potential hazards caused by fallacies in risk perception, their countermeasures, and the requirement that residual risks must be explicated, motivated, and accompanied by a plan for their continuous reduction. This approach becomes especially important in contemporary developed autonomous vehicles with increasing computational control by increasingly intelligent software applications.

  • 106.
    Jägemar, Marcus
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cognitively Sustainable ICT with Ubiquitous Mobile Services - Challenges and Opportunities2015Inngår i: The 37th International Conference on Software Engineering ICSE, 2015, nr 37, s. 531-540Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has led to an unprecedented development in almost all areas of human life. It forms the basis for what is called “the cognitive revolution” – a fundamental change in the way we communicate, feel, think and learn based on an extension of individual information processing capacities by communication with other people through technology. This so-called “extended cognition” shapes human relations in a radically new way. It is accompanied by a decrease of shared attention and affective presence within closely related groups. This weakens the deepest and most important bonds, that used to shape human identity. Sustainability, both environmental and social (economic, technological, political and cultural) is one of the most important issues of our time. In connection with “extended cognition” we have identified a new, basic type of social sustainability that everyone takes for granted, and which we claim is in danger due to our changed ways of communication. We base our conclusion on a detailed analysis of the current state of the practice and observed trends. The contribution of our article consists of identifying cognitive sustainability and explaining its central role for all other aspects of sustainability, showing how it relates to the cognitive revolution, its opportunities and challenges. Complex social structures with different degrees of proximity have always functioned as mechanisms behind belongingness and identity. To create a long-term cognitive sustainability, we need to rethink and design new communication technologies that support differentiated and complex social relationships.

  • 107.
    Kienle, Holger
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lober, Andreas
    External.
    Vasiliu, Crina
    External.
    How Open are Societies in the Virtual? Towards an Assessment of the Distribution of Power Between Users and Operators2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual environments such as massive multi-player online games and virtual worlds areexpected to have an increasing impact on peoples' lives. These virtual environments arenot mere play, but are hosting virtual societies and communities. From this perspective, itseems pertinent to ask, what is the degree of freedom that users are experiencing in thesevirtual environments? In this paper, we try to analyze this question with the help of fourlenses|social, ethical, technical, and legal|that expose dierent viewpoints from whichthis matter can be looked at. We focus our discussion on two stakeholders|the operatorsof virtual environments and its users|and look at the distribution of power between them.While our analysis is only a rst step towards understanding this question, we believe thatour lenses are a useful approach to structure the discussion.

  • 108.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Almér, Alexander
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Predictive Regulation in Affective and Adaptive Behaviour: An Allostatic-Cybernetics Perspective2017Inngår i: Advanced Research on Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures / [ed] Jordi Vallverdu, Manuel Mazzara, Max Talanov, Salvatore Distefano, Robert Lowe, Sweden: IGI , 2017, s. 148-176Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, different notions of allostasis (the process of achieving stability through change) as they apply to adaptive behavior are presented. The authors discuss how notions of allostasis can be usefully applied to Cybernetics-based homeostatic systems. Particular emphasis is placed upon affective states – motivational and emotional – and, above all, the notion of 'predictive' regulation, as distinct from forms of 'reactive' regulation, in homeostatic systems. The authors focus here on Ashby's ultrastability concept that entails behavior change for correcting homeostatic errors (deviations from the healthy range of essential, physiological, variables). The authors consider how the ultrastability concept can be broadened to incorporate allostatic mechanisms and how they may enhance adaptive physiological and behavioral activity. Finally, this chapter references different (Cybernetics-based) theoretical frameworks that incorporate the notion of allostasis. The article then attempts to untangle how the given perspectives fit into the 'allostatic ultrastable systems' framework postulated by the authors. Predictive Regulation in Affective and Adaptive Behaviour: An Allostatic-Cybernetics Perspective (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311112080_Predictive_Regulation_in_Affective_and_Adaptive_Behaviour_An_Allostatic-Cybernetics_Perspective [accessed Nov 17 2017].

  • 109.
    Mikkilineni, Rao
    et al.
    C3 DNA Inc., California, USA,.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Chalmers University of Technology & University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Workshop on Architecting Self-Managing Distributed Systems: ASDS @ ECSA 20152015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops (ECSAW '15), 2015, Vol. Article No. 2Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel approaches in theory and practice of unified modeling of the computer and the computed in order to create self-managing adaptive computations, also parallel calls for new computing models to address distributed, interactive, concurrent dynamic processes are driving a new approach to distributed computing system design. ASDS workshop addresses these and other related approaches to increase the efficiency of computations in order to meet the challenges of high degree of scaling and large fluctuations. We believe that introducing elements of cognition into distributed computing systems that makes them "aware" of both the process intent and its evolution will enable self-managing capabilities to address both scale and fluctuations. The workshop brings together researchers in software architecture, computing and cognition to discuss and evaluate various approaches to introduce cognition into distributed computing elements.

    The outcome of the workshop will be an increased shared understanding of challenges and opportunities in architecting distributed computing systems with self-management using elements of cognitive computing.

  • 110.
    Packalén, Sture
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Haag, Ingemar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Jansson, Magnus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Päplow, Thorsten
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Öhman, Marie
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Molander Danielsson, Karin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Schirrmacher, Beate
    Stockholms universitet.
    LITTERATUR OCH SPRÅK: Rethinking Knowledge. Modelling the World as Unfolding through Info-Computation; Musikens roll i Günter Grass prosa; Bölls, Giordanos und Hamiltons irische Tagebücher; Remembrance of the Holocaust; 1800-talets självbiografi bortom Rousseau och Goethe; Jack London’s White Fang as Ethological and Evolutionistic Bildungsroman; Sense of Nature and Ecopedagogical Design in Swedish Children’s literature2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Föreliggande nummer av Litteratur och språk har både till innehåll och utformning ett brett internationellt anslag med bidrag som är skrivna på svenska, engelska och tyska.

    Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic inleder med en artikel som anlägger ett nytt, evolutionärt perspektiv på kunskap. Författaren konstaterar att kunskap alltsedan Platon och Aristoteles har studerats inom epistemologin, en gren av filosofin som sysslar med propositionell kunskap, dvs. kunskap som kan uttryckas enligt formeln "A vet att p" där A är en person och p är en proposition (ett påstående). Det centrala här är sanningshalten i påståenden. Dodig-Crnkovic tar dock i sin artikel ”Rethinking Knowledge. Modelling the World as Unfolding through Info-Computation for an Embodied Situated Cognitive Agent” ett annorlunda grepp. Hon behandlar kunskap som ett biologiskt fenomen, såsom informationsstrukturer skapade av en organism som omvandlar information till nödvändig kunskap för överlevnad. Även de enklaste levande varelser använder information som de ordnar i olika komplexa kunskapsstrukturer. Därför kan kunskap studeras ur ett evolutionärt perspektiv som en process där informationsstrukturer i levande organismer blir alltmer komplexa som en följd av växelverkan med omgivningen, en växelverkan som även innefattar kommunikation med andra organismer.

    I det andra bidraget ”Trummor och kontrapunkt. Musikens roll i Günter Grass prosa” låter Beate Schirrmacher oss se att Günter Grass inte endast är författare och bildkonstnär, utan att även musiken spelar en central roll i hans författarskap. Schirrmacher framhåller att det finns många intermediala referenser till musik i Grass romaner. Ändå har t ex trummandets roll i Die Blechtrommel (1959) och referensen till den musikaliska kräftgången i novelltiteln Im Krebsgang (2002) länge förbisetts. Med hjälp av intermediala teorier följer artikeln upp musikens betydelse i Grass prosa. Författaren använder sig av ett transmedialt perspektiv som fokuserar på gemensamheterna mellan text och musik. Repetitivitet, simultanitet och performativitet förknippas mer med musik än med litteratur, men de är också återkommande kännetecken i Grass berättarteknik. I textexempel från Die Blechtrommel, Im Krebsgang und Ein weites Feld (1995) analyserar Schirrmacher verkens transmediala gemensamhet med musik. Hon lyfter fram hur repetitiva, simultana och performativa mönster blir avgörande för tolkningen, vilket i sin tur kastar nytt ljus över Grass prosa och lyfter fram aspekter som tidigare förbisetts eller till och med kritiserats.

    Thorsten Päplow tar i ”Poetologische Konzeptionen des Platzes in drei ‚Irischen Tagebüchern‘: Heinrich Bölls Irisches Tagebuch, Ralph Giordanos Mein Irisches Tagebuch und Hugo Hamiltons Die redselige Insel. Irisches Tagebuch” upp platsens betydelse som poetologisk faktor i tre resetexter, nämligen i de ”irländska dagböcker” som författats av Heinrich Böll, Ralph Giordano och Hugo Hamilton. Eftersom det hittills knappast funnits några undersökningar kring vilken bärighet betydelsen av orter och platser har i reselitteraturen, presenterar artikelförfattaren inledningsvis olika orts- och platskoncept. De analyser som sedan följer syftar till att åskådliggöra vilken roll orter, platser eller landskap kan ha som betydelsepotential i respektive författares ”irländska dagbok”.

    I ”German Literature and Remembrance of the Holocaust” pekar Sture Packalén med utgångspunkt från den tyskspråkiga litteraturen efter 1945 på vilken central roll just litteraturen spelat under hela efterkrigstiden för att bevara minnet av Förintelsen, men också minnet av de tyska lidandena. Packalén visar att de tyska författarna i denna minnesprocess tagit på sig rollen som ett ”nationens samvete”. Samtidigt lyfter han fram hur det i de litterära texterna synliggörs att nationalsocialismen och Förintelsen varit och fortfarande är svårhanterliga ämnen i Tyskland. I artikeln framhålls vidare att dialogen kring det förflutna, det man minns av nazisttiden och de olika roller Förintelsen spelat och fortfarande spelar i dagens tyska samhälle är beroende av på vilket sätt och av vem allt detta blir ihågkommet. Det går därför inte att tala om en enhetlig ”tysk” minneskultur vare sig före eller efter 1989. Däremot kan man i litteraturen urskilja olika minnesgemenskaper som var för sig fokuserar förföljelsen av judarna, Förintelsen, kriget och det nazistiska förflutna på ett karakteristiskt sätt.

    Ingemar Haag konstaterar i ”De två vägarna – 1800-talets självbiografi bortom Jean-Jacques Rousseau och Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: några nedslag hos George Sand, Alfred de Musset och Thomas De Quincey”, att borgerlighetens ökade samhälleliga inflytande under 17- och 1800-talen också krävde krävde ett konstnärligt uttryck. Haag tar vidare upp att det finns en viss samstämmighet inom forskningen om att just romanen blev borgerlighetens genre per se. Han menar att man också skulle kunna lägga till självbiografin som ett led i detta legitimeringsprojekt. 1800-talet flödar över av självbiografier. Rousseau blev tidigt den stora förebilden. Hans introverta självanalys fick många efterföljare – men senare också många kritiker, som förhöll sig negativa till hans navelskåderi. Sand och de Musset var några av hans belackare. I sin essä diskuterar Ingemar Haag Sands, de Mussets och De Quinceys självbiografiska texter som ett svar på Rousseaus introspektiva förhållningssätt. De sympatiserar, enligt Haag, snarare med den hållning som Goethe förespråkar i Dichtung und Wahrheit, där jaget definieras utifrån interaktionen med historien och samhället.

    De två avslutande bidragen har båda en ekokritisk inriktning. Karin Molander Danielssons artikel ”White Fang as Ethological and Evolutionistic Bildungsroman” är en studie som tar särskilt fasta på hur Jack London i sin roman White Fang framställer huvudkaraktärens beteende och kognition. I artikeln görs även en jämförelse av hur hundar och vargar beskrivs i den etologiska litteraturen. Molander Danielsson visar fram hur huvudpersonens utveckling från vild varghybrid till domesticerad hund på många sätt motsvarar den evolutionära utveckling som hunden, canis familiaris, genomgått. Romanen kan därför enligt artikelförfattaren läsas både som en evolutionär och som en traditionell Bildungsroman.

    Den sista artikeln med titeln “Sense of Nature and Ecopedagogical Design in Swedish Children’s Literature from the 20th Century” består av fyra konferensbidrag skrivna av Magnus Jansson, Karin Molander Danielsson, Sture Packalén och Marie Öhman. De deltog i juni 2013 i den tionde internationella litteraturkonferensen ”Changing Nature: Migrations, Energies, Limits” i arrangemang av ASLE, The Association for the Study of Literature and the Environment vid University of Kansas, Lawrence. Med exempel från Elsa Beskow, Selma Lagerlöf, Inga Borg och Astrid Lindgren fokuserar artikelförfattarna i sina bidrag på hur ekopedagogiska drag och människans interaktion med naturen framträder i svenska barnbokstexter från tidigt till sent nittonhundratal.

     

  • 111.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Inclusion of Ethical Aspects in Multi-criteria Decision Analysis2016Inngår i: Proceedings - 2016 1st International Workshop on Decision Making in Software ARCHitecture, MARCH 2016, 2016, s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision process is often based on multi-faceted and mutually opposing criteria. In order to provide rigorous techniques for problem structuring and criteria aggregation used for classification and ranking of alternatives, Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) has been used as a method to achieve architectural decisions. Even though it has already been argued in literature that MCDA essentially depends on value systems of decision-makers, it is a question how the decision result reflects a particular criterion, requirement or a particular decision. This is especially true if a criterion is not precisely specified. In this paper we analyse the ethical aspects of MCDA. In our analysis we argue that it is in the long run necessary to make value basis of decision-making and ethical considerations explicit and subject for scrutiny. As a support to encourage introduction of transparent value-based deliberation we propose an extended MCDA scheme that would explicitly take into account ethical analysis. As an illustration, we present an industrial case study for the Software (SW)/Hardware (HW) partitioning of a wind turbine application in which different decisions can be taken, depending on the ethical aspects. 

  • 112.
    Schroeder, Marcin
    et al.
    Akita International University.
    Marijuan, Pedro Clemente
    Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud (IACS), Zaragoza, Spain.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Seventh International Conference on the Foundations of Information Science (FIS 2017): Structure, Dynamics, Complexity in the Informational Nature2017Inngår i: Proceedings, Volume 1, Issue 3 (August 2017) PROC-MDPI-Vol1, ISSN 2409-9287, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 1-3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Science evolved in the last few decades from peripheral studies of other disciplines which used the concept of information with a more or less common-sense meaning, to a fully-fledged discipline with a growing toolkit of concepts and methods of inquiry. This does not mean that the concept of information acquired a unique definition across research and application fields or that there is a consensus regarding its theoretical description. However no nontrivial concept of science or philosophy has such unchallenged, uniform formulation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

  • 113.
    Thekkilakattil, Abhilash
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Chalmers Technical University and University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ethics Aspects Of Embedded And Cyber-Physical Systems2015Inngår i: 2015 IEEE 39th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC), 2015, s. 39-44Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing complexity of software employed in the cyber-physical domain is calling for a thorough study of both its functional and extra-functional properties. Ethical aspects are among important extra-functional properties, that cover the whole life cycle with different stages from design, development, deployment/production to use of cyber physical systems. One of the ethical challenges involved is the question of identifying the responsibilities of each stakeholder associated with the development and use of a cyber-physical system. This challenge is made even more pressing by the introduction of autonomous increasingly intelligent systems that can perform functionalities without human intervention, because of the lack of experience, best practices and policies for such technology. In this article, we provide a framework for responsibility attribution based on the amount of autonomy and automation involved in AI based cyber-physical systems. Our approach enables traceability of anomalous behaviors back to the responsible agents, be they human or software, allowing us to identify and separate the "responsibility" of the decision-making software from human responsibility. This provides us with a framework to accommodate the ethical "responsibility" of the software for AI based cyber-physical systems that will be deployed in the future, underscoring the role of ethics as an important extra-functional property. Finally, this systematic approach makes apparent the need for rigorous communication protocols between different actors associated with the development and operation of cyber-physical systems that further identifies the ethical challenges involved in the form of group responsibilities.

  • 114.
    Zins, Chaim
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    KNOWLEDGE MAP OF INFORMATION SCIENCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE OF THE FIELD2007Inngår i: Brazilian Journal of Information Science, ISSN 1981-1640, Vol. 1, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This collective paper incorporates eleven position papers on implications of the "Knowledge Map of Information Science,” a Critical Delphi study conducted in 2003-2005 and published as a series of four articles (ZINS, 2007 a, b, c, d). The Delphi study captured the deliberations of 57 leading information science scholars from 16 countries to provide (1) definitions of the fundamental concepts of data, information knowledge and message, (2) alternative conceptions of the broad information science domain, (3) different classificatory mappings of the field, and (4) comprehensive mappings of information science. Overall, the Knowledge Map provides an early 21st century snapshot of the field that should help guide future research, educational programming, publishing, and other professional and scholarly thrusts. Future information science mapping research should be done periodically, including additional Delphi studies and assessments of the degree of the field's expansion and probable division into sub-fields. Alternative methodologies for mapping the expanding information science universe and its synergies with other fields of knowledge should also be explored.

  • 115.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Akan, Batu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Towards Industrial Robots with Human Like Moral Responsibilities2010Inngår i: 5th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2010, Osaka, Japan, 2010, s. 85-86Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots do not have any capability of taking moral responsibility. At the same time industrial robotics is entering a new era with "intelligent" robots sharing workbench with humans. Teams consisting of humans and industrial robots are no longer science fiction. The biggest worry in this scenario is the fear of humans losing control and robots running amok. We believe that the current way of implementing safety measures have shortcomings, and cannot address challenges related to close collaboration between humans and robots. We propose that "intelligent" industrial robots of the future should have moral responsibilities towards their human colleagues. We also propose that implementation of moral responsibility is radically different from standard safety measures.

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