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  • 101.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Industrial Software Systems.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A Survey of Software Architecture Evolvability2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    For long-lived systems, there is a need to address evolvability (i.e. a system’s ability to easily accommodate changes) explicitly during the entire lifecycle. In this report, we undertake a systematic review to obtain an overview of the existing studies in promoting software evolvability at architectural level. The search strategy identified 3036 studies, of which 54 were catalogued as primary studies for this review after using multi-step selection process. The studies are classified into five main categories of themes, including techniques that support quality considerations during software architecture design, architectural quality evaluation, economic valuation, architectural knowledge management and modeling techniques. Four dimensions of factors are identified that exert influence on software evolvability. To cope with these diverse influencing factors, combination of appropriate techniques becomes necessary.

  • 102.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    et al.
    ABB.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A Systematic Review on Architecting for Software Evolvability2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the Australian Software Engineering Conference, ASWEC 2010, 2010, s. 13-22Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For long-lived systems, there is a need to address evolvability (i.e. a system’s ability to easily accommodate changes) explicitly during the entire lifecycle. In this paper, we undertake a systematic review to obtain an overview of the existing studies in promoting software evolvability at architectural level. The search strategy identified 58 studies that were catalogued as primary studies for this review after using multi-step selection process. The studies are classified into five main categories of themes, including techniques that support quality considerations during software architecture design, architectural quality evaluation, economic valuation, architectural knowledge management and modeling techniques. The review investigates what is currently known about architecting software evolvability at architecture level. Implications for research and practice are presented.

  • 103.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    An Extended Quantitative Analysis Approach for Architecting Evolvable Software Systems2010Inngår i: Computing Professionals Conference Workshop on Industrial Software Evolution and Maintenance Processes (WISEMP'10), IEEE, MontrEal, QuEbec, Canada, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For long-lived systems, there is a need to address evolvability, i.e. a system's ability to easily accommodate changes, explicitly during the entire lifecycle. To improve the capability in being able to understand and analyze systematically software architecture evolution, we introduced in our earlier work a software evolvability model and a structured qualitative method for analyzing evolvability at the architectural level - the ARchitecture Evolvability Analysis (AREA) method. As architecture is influenced by system stakeholders representing different concerns and goals, the business and technical decisions that articulate the architecture tend to exhibit tradeoffs and need to be negotiated and resolved. To avoid intuitive choice of architectural solutions, we propose to extend the AREA method and strengthen its tradeoff analysis with explicit and quantitative treatment of stakeholders' prioritization of evolvability subcharacteristics and their preferences on design solutions. Finally, an example is used to illustrate the concept and applicability of the proposed approach.

  • 104.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    et al.
    ABB.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Analysis of Software Evolvability in Quality Models2009Inngår i: 35th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), Software Process and Product Improvement (SPPI) Track, IEEE, 2009, s. 279-282Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For long-lived systems, there is a need to address evolvability explicitly. For this purpose, we have in our earlier work developed a software evolvability framework based on industrial case studies. With this as input in this paper we analyze several existing quality models for the purpose of evaluating how software evolvability is addressed in these models. The goal of the analysis is to investigate if the elements of the evolvability framework can be systematically managed or integrated into different existing quality models. Our conclusion is that although none of the existing quality models is dedicated to the analysis of software evolvability, we can enrich respective quality model through integrating the missing elements, and adapt each quality model for software evolvability analysis purpose.

  • 105.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Experiences and Reflections on Cloud Computing Course for Second and Third Cycle Education2015Inngår i: ECSAW '15 Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, 2015, s. Article No. 29-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of Cloud Computing motivates teaching this subject to computer science senior students and graduate students so that they can gain broad exposure to the main body of knowledge of Cloud Computing and get prepared for occupations in industry. We started the development of such a course from the end of 2013. To efficiently develop a course that introduces a new technology and has a good balance of a theoretical base and practical experience, we have designed such a course in two steps, by giving a course to the third cycle education and then to the second cycle education after refinement. In this paper, we report on our experiences gained from giving the course to the third cycle education and our reflections from the experience. We also discuss what we can improve on the next course occasion and for the second cycle education on this subject.

  • 106.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Software Architecture Evolution –: An Integrated Approach in Industry (Extended Abstract)2010Inngår i: Australian Software Engineering Conference (ASWEC), Bulletin of Applied Computing and Information Technology, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the capability in being able to understand and analyze systematically software architecture evolution, we introduced in our earlier work a software evolvability model and software architecture evolvability analysis method. This extended abstract reports the integration of the evolvability model and evolvability analysis method in an industrial context.

  • 107.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Using Software Evolvability Model for Evolvability Analysis2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Software evolution is characterized by inevitable changes of software and increasing software complexities, which in turn may lead to huge costs unless rigorously taking into account change accommodations. This is in particular true for long-lived systems in which changes go beyond maintainability. For such systems, there is a need to address evolvability explicitly in the requirements and early design phases and maintain it during the entire lifecycle. Nevertheless, there is a lack of a model that can be used for analyzing, evaluating and comparing software systems in terms of evolvability. In this paper, we describe the initial establishment of an evolvability model as a framework for analysis of software evolvability. We motivate and exemplify the model through an industrial case study of a software-intensive automation system.

  • 108.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Larsson, Magnus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Analyzing Software Evolvability of an Industrial Automation Control System: A Case Study2008Inngår i: Proceedings - The 3rd International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, ICSEA 2008, 2008, s. 205-213Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 109.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Larsson, Magnus
    ABB Corporate Research.
    A systematic review of software architecture evolution research2012Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 16-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software evolvability describes a software system's ability to easily accommodate future changes. It is a fundamental characteristic for making strategic decisions, and increasing economic value of software. For long-lived systems, there is a need to address evolvability explicitly during the entire software lifecycle in order to prolong the productive lifetime of software systems. For this reason, many research studies have been proposed in this area both by researchers and industry practitioners. These studies comprise a spectrum of particular techniques and practices, covering various activities in software lifecycle. However, no systematic review has been conducted previously to provide an extensive overview of software architecture evolvability research. Objective: In this work, we present such a systematic review of architecting for software evolvability. The objective of this review is to obtain an overview of the existing approaches in analyzing and improving software evolvability at architectural level, and investigate impacts on research and practice. Method: The identification of the primary studies in this review was based on a pre-defined search strategy and a multi-step selection process. Results: Based on research topics in these studies, we have identified five main categories of themes: (i) techniques supporting quality consideration during software architecture design, (ii) architectural quality evaluation, (iii) economic valuation, (iv) architectural knowledge management, and (v) modeling techniques. A comprehensive overview of these categories and related studies is presented. Conclusion: The findings of this review also reveal suggestions for further research and practice, such as (i) it is necessary to establish a theoretical foundation for software evolution research due to the fact that the expertise in this area is still built on the basis of case studies instead of generalized knowledge; (ii) it is necessary to combine appropriate techniques to address the multifaceted perspectives of software evolvability due to the fact that each technique has its specific focus and context for which it is appropriate in the entire software lifecycle.

  • 110.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Jansen, Anton
    ABB.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Virtualize for Architecture Sustainability in Industrial Automation2013Inngår i: : Technology, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The technique of virtualization and cloud computing to manage system functionality and resources regardless of their physical locations is changing the way businesses and users interact with IT resources. Although several commercially available virtualization solutions already exist in the market, both for server and embedded real-time based systems, the deployment of virtualization and cloud-based technologies into the industrial automation domain is new. In this paper, we will first present the emerging trends of industrial automation domain and identify the architectural sustainability challenges that follow. Based on these challenges, we will then analyze how virtualization technology can contribute to cope with them, as well as the additional opportunities that it brings to industrial automation domain. The contributions of this paper are (1) to communicate the main trends happening in industrial automation, (2) clarify the architecture sustainability challenges that the automation domain is facing, and (3) identify the potentials of further utilizing virtualization technology in the industry domain.

  • 111.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ali Shah, Syed Muhammad
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, Kista.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, Kista.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, Kista.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Chalmers, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Choosing Component Origins for Software Intensive Systems: In-house, COTS, OSS or Outsourcing? - A Case Survey2018Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 237-261Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of which software component to use influences the success of a software system. Only a few empirical studies investigate how the choice of components is conducted in industrial practice. This is important to understand to tailor research solutions to the needs of the industry. Existing studies focus on the choice for off-the-shelf (OTS) components. It is, however, also important to understand the implications of the choice of alternative component sourcing options (CSOs), such as outsourcing versus the use of OTS. Previous research has shown that the choice has major implications on the development process as well as on the ability to evolve the system. The objective of this study is to explore how decision making took place in industry to choose among CSOs. Overall, 22 industrial cases have been studied through a case survey. The results show that the solutions specifically for CSO decisions are deterministic and based on optimization approaches. The non-deterministic solutions proposed for architectural group decision making appear to suit the CSO decision making in industry better. Interestingly, the final decision was perceived negatively in nine cases and positively in seven cases, while in the remaining cases it was perceived as neither positive nor negative.

  • 112.
    Petricic, Ana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Zagar, Mario
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Models transformation between UML and a Domain Specific Language2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As complexity of software systems is increasing, using a proper modelling language for designing and analysing a system is becoming more and more important. Over the recent years there is a tendency for using domain-specific languages which enable expressing design solutions in the idiom and the level of abstraction of the specific problem domain. Since a design process passes through different levels of abstractions and different properties of systems are being modelled, different modelling languages are used. While this approach enables an efficient and accurate design, it suffers from a problem of transformation between the models. This paper addresses a challenge of transformation between UML, a modelling language widely used, to a domain-specific language SaveComp component model (SaveCCM) intended for real-time embedded systems. In this paper we discuss a possible solution for achieving interoperability between SaveCCM and UML. The challenge of a transformation is to keep all necessary information including the semantics of the models. The paper presents the strategy for the transformation, its implementation and an analysis of the results.

  • 113.
    Petricic, Ana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lednicki, Luka
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    An empirical comparison of SaveUML and SaveCCM technologies: Version 1.02009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 114.
    Petricic, Ana
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Croatia .
    Lednicki, Luka
    University of Zagreb, Croatia .
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Using UML for Domain-Specific Component Models2009Inngår i: Fourteenth International Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the recent years there is a tendency for using domain-specific languages which enable expressing design solutions in the idiom and level of abstraction appropriate for a specific problem domain. While this approach enables an efficient and accurate design, it suffers from problems of standardization, portability and transformation between the models. This paper addresses a challenge of tailoring UML, a widely used modelling language, for domain specific modelling. We discuss a possible solution for achieving interoperability between UML and the domain-specific language SaveComp Component Model (SaveCCM) intended for real-time embedded systems, by means of implementing a transformation between UML and SaveCCM models. The challenge of the transformation is to keep all necessary information including the domain specific semantics. The paper presents the strategy for the transformation, its implementation and an analysis. We also address the second challenge, a usability of the domain-specific language (i.e. SaveCCM) in comparison with usability of extended UML and by an experiment analyse its usability in comparison with SaveCCM.

  • 115.
    Potena, P.
    et al.
    Computer Science Department, University of Alcalà, Alcalà de Henares, Madrid, Spain.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Marinelli, F.
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy.
    Cortellessa, V.
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienze dell’Informazione, e Matematica, Università dell’Aquila, Coppito, AQ, Italy.
    Software architecture quality of service analysis based on optimization models2016Inngår i: Intell. Syst. Ref. Libr., 2016, s. 421-446Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to predict Quality of Service (QoS) of a software architecture supports a large set of decisions across multiple lifecycle phases that span from design through implementation-integration to adaptation phase. However, due to the different amount and type of information available, different prediction approaches can be introduced in each phase. A major issue in this direction is that QoS attribute cannot be analyzed separately, because they (sometime adversely) affect each other. Therefore, approaches aimed at the tradeoff analysis of different attributes have been recently introduced (e.g., reliability versus cost, security versus performance). In this chapter we focus on modeling and analysis of QoS tradeoffs of a software architecture based on optimization models. A particular emphasis will be given to two aspects of this problem: (i) the mathematical foundations of QoS tradeoffs and their dependencies on the static and dynamic aspects of a software architecture, and (ii) the automation of architectural decisions driven by optimization models for QoS tradeoffs.

  • 116.
    Ramesh, Umesh Balaji Kothandapani
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Energy Management in Embedded Systems –: Towards a Taxonomy2012Inngår i: 2012 1st International Workshop on Green and Sustainable Software, GREENS 2012 - Proceedings, 2012, s. 41-44Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy is an important constraint in embedded systems, and there exists a huge expertise in this domain about monitoring, managing and optimizing energy consumption in the computer systems. The aim of this paper is to present the energy management addressed in the research literature. Based on a systematic review, the paper presents a taxonomy of energy consumption and management in embedded systems.

  • 117.
    Sajeev, Abdulkadir
    et al.
    University of New England, Australia.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Will They Report It? Ethical Attitude of Graduate Software Engineers in Reporting Bad News2012Inngår i: 25th IEEE Conference on Software Engineering Eduaction and Training, 2012, s. 42-51Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hiding critical information has resulted in disastrous failures of some major software projects. This paper investigates, using a subset of Keil’s test, how graduates (70% of them with work experience) from different cultural backgrounds who are enrolled in a postgraduate course on global software development would handle negative information that is critical in a project. The subjects were mainly from Europe and Asia. The results showed that the subjects are highly likely to report critical information to their immediate supervisors (t(36)=-11, p<0.0005), but are undecided on whether they would take the matter further up the organisational hierarchy if the supervisor ignored their report. There was no significant difference between participants of different regions, or between those with and without work experience. The consequences of negative information not reaching the level where remedial actions can be taken could be serious in software projects. The results of this experiment point to the need to incorporate in software engineering curriculum the teaching of the ethical responsibility of effective communication of bad news.

  • 118.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Potena, Pasqualina
    Universita’ degli Studi di Bergamo Dalmine, Italy.
    Architectural Decisions for HW/SW Partitioning Based on Multiple Extra-Functional Properties2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing advances in hardware technologies are enabling significant improvements in application performance by the deployment of components to dedicated executable units. This is particularly valid for Cyber Physical Systems in which the applications are partitioned in HW and SW execution units. The growing complexity of such systems, and increasing requirements, both project- and product-related, makes the partitioning decision process complex. Although different approaches to this decision process have been proposed during recent decades, they lack the ability to provide relevant decisions based on a larger number of requirements and project/business constraints. A sound approach to this problem is taking into account all relevant requirements and constraints and their relations to the properties of the components deployed either as HW or SW units. A typical approach for managing a large number of criteria is a multicriteria decision analysis. This, in its turn, requires uniform definitions of component properties and their realization in respect to their HW/SW deployment. The aim of this paper is twofold: a) to provide an architectural metamodel of component-based applications with specifications of their properties with respect to their partitioning, and b) to categorize component properties in relation to HW/SW deployment. The metamodel enables the transition of system requirements to system and component properties. The categorization provides support for architectural decisions. It is demonstrated through a property guideline for the partitioning of the System Automation and Control domain. The guideline is based on interviews with practitioners and researchers, the experts in this domain.

  • 119.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Potena, Pasqualina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Universita’ degli Studi di Bergamo .
    Technical Report: Extra-Functional Properties for HW/SW Deployment of Cyber-Physical Applications2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 120.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Modelling for Hardware and Software Partitioning based on Multiple Properties2013Inngår i: Proceedings - 39th Euromicro Conference Series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2013, 2013, s. 189-194Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In many embedded systems types the separation process for deploying the applications as software and hardware executable units, called partitioning is crucial. This is due to the fact that partitioning decisions impact the overall life cycle of the systems. In industry it is common practice to take partitioning decisions in an early stage of the design, based on hardware and software designers expertise. We propose a new methodology as a combination of modelbased and component-based approaches which enables a late partitioning decisions based on high level system requirements and project constrains. The final partitioning is decided based on a multi-property analysis approach. Here, we focus on the formalization of the overall process and in particular on the definition of a comprehensive system metamodel. This is meant to support modelling approaches suitable for enabling both the partitioning and reuse. An industrial case study is used to illustrate the approach.

  • 121.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Technical Report: Modelling for hardware and software deployment based on multiple properties selection2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This technical report is an appendix to a paper Gaetana Sapienza, Ivica Crnkovic, Tiberiu Seceleanu, Modelling for hardware and software deployment based on multiple properties selection, 2012 The report contains (1) a full specification of a embedded component-based system model using in MultiPart approach, and (2) a full specification of the Wind Turbine controller model generated by Simulink.

  • 122.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Towards a Methodology for Hardware and Software Design Separation in Embedded Systems2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Software Engineering Advances (ICSEA 2012), 2012, s. 557-562Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of embedded systems in automation industry often includes development of both software and hardware, which requires both software and hardware expertise. In the current practice these expertise are not often completely combined in synergic ways. Traditionally, design gets separated into hardware design and software design at very early stage which negatively impacts the overall application development process due to design flow interruption and redesign. In order to overcome to the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a new design methodology that provides platform independent design first, and pushes hardware- and software-dependent design to a later stage. This enables “software-independent” hardware and “hardware-independent” software development after the separation stage, which collectively improve the overall development process.

  • 123.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Inclusion of Ethical Aspects in Multi-criteria Decision Analysis2016Inngår i: Proceedings - 2016 1st International Workshop on Decision Making in Software ARCHitecture, MARCH 2016, 2016, s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision process is often based on multi-faceted and mutually opposing criteria. In order to provide rigorous techniques for problem structuring and criteria aggregation used for classification and ranking of alternatives, Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) has been used as a method to achieve architectural decisions. Even though it has already been argued in literature that MCDA essentially depends on value systems of decision-makers, it is a question how the decision result reflects a particular criterion, requirement or a particular decision. This is especially true if a criterion is not precisely specified. In this paper we analyse the ethical aspects of MCDA. In our analysis we argue that it is in the long run necessary to make value basis of decision-making and ethical considerations explicit and subject for scrutiny. As a support to encourage introduction of transparent value-based deliberation we propose an extended MCDA scheme that would explicitly take into account ethical analysis. As an illustration, we present an industrial case study for the Software (SW)/Hardware (HW) partitioning of a wind turbine application in which different decisions can be taken, depending on the ethical aspects. 

  • 124.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Partitioning decision process for embedded hardware and software deployment2013Inngår i: Proc Int Comput Software Appl Conf, 2013, s. 674-680Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many types of embedded systems applications are implemented as a combination of software and hardware. For such systems the mapping of the application units into hardware and software, i.e. The partitioning process, is a key phase of the design. Although there exist techniques for partitioning, the entire process, in particular in relation to different application requirements and project constraints, is not properly supported. This leads to several unplanned iterations, redesigns and interruptions due to uncontrolled dependencies between hardware and software parts. In order to overcome these problems, we provide a design process that enables the partitioning based on a multiple criteria decision analysis in a late design phase. We illustrate the proposed approach and provide a proof-of concept on an industrial case study to validate the approach applicability.

  • 125.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Component Models for Reasoning2013Inngår i: Computer, ISSN 0018-9162, Vol. 46, nr 11, s. 40-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Component models with a rich specification—that is, component models built for reasoning—facilitate the use of different analysis and prediction techniques that simplify a system’s design while increasing trust in its correct functioning.

  • 126.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    et al.
    ABB.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Transaction level control for application execution on the SegBus Platform2009Inngår i: Proceedings - International Computer Software and Applications Conference, vol. 1, 2009, 2009, s. 537-542Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We define here a simple, low level control procedure definition, to support application implementation on a particular multiprocessor platform, namely the SegBus segmented bus. The approach considers communication as data package transactions from one device to another. It takes into consideration the platform characteristics and requires details of application partitioning and mapping on platform resources. The dependency between operations are extracted from a SDFlike representation, and the actual control code is produced as “application-dependent” VHDL code, grouped in so-called snippets, application and platform instance dependent. The obtained code is inserted in a specific section of a (segmentor central level) arbiter. We illustrate the application of our approach on a small implementation example.

  • 127.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Noyrit, Florian
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Collaboration between Industry and Research for the Introduction of Model-Driven Software Engineering in a Master Program2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching of model-driven software engineering in a software engineering master program curriculum suits well with the maturity of the students and their ability to understand the concept. Still the education might

    fail if the teaching is not based on convincing arguments and relations to the research or practice. We are about introducing a model-driven engineering

    course in our software engineering master curriculum and our goal is to relate the teaching with both research results and industrial practice. In this paper, we describe our approach - how to utilize the research results and how to relate the course to the requirements from industry we have cooperation with.

  • 128.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pettersson, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Nolte, thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Save-IDE – A Tool for Design, Analysis andImplementation of Component-based Embedded Systems2009Inngår i: 2009 31ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, PROCEEDINGS, IEEE Computer Society , 2009, s. 607-610Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents Save-IDE, an Integrated Development Environment for thedevelopment of component-based embedded systems. Save-IDE supports efficient development of dependable embedded systems by providing tools for design of embedded software systems using a dedicated component model, formal specification and analysis of component and system behaviors already in early development phases, and a fully automated transformation of the system of components into an executable image.

  • 129.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Håkansson, John
    Uppsala University.
    Save-IDE - An Integrated development environment for building predictable component-based embedded systems2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE 2008), L'Aquila, Italy, 2008, s. 493-494Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present an Integrated Development Environment Save-IDE, a toolset that embraces several tools: a tool for designing component-based systems and components, modeling and predicting certain run-time properties, such as timing properties, and transforming the components to real-time execution elements. Save-IDE is specialized for the domain of dependable embedded systems, which in addition to standard design tools requires tool support for analysis and verification of particular properties of such systems.

  • 130.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Stepan, Petr
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Integration of Extra-Functional Properties in Component Models2009Inngår i: COMPONENT-BASED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, PROCEEDINGS, Springer Berlin , 2009, s. 173-190Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of extra-functional properties in component models is one ofthe main challenges in the component-based software engineering community.Still, the starting point in their management, namely their specification in acontext of component models is not addressed in a systematic way. Extra-functional properties can be expressed as attributes (or combinations of them)of components, or of a system, but also as attributes of other elements, such as interfaces and connectors. Attributes can be defined as estimations, or can be measured, or modelled; this means that an attribute can be expressed through multiple values valid under different conditions. This paper addresses how this diversity in attribute specifications and their relations to component model canbe expressed, by proposing a model for attribute specifications and their integrations in componentmodels. A format for attribute specification is proposed,discussed and analyzed, and the approach is exemplified through its integration both in the ProCom component model and its integrated development environment.

  • 131.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Vulgarakis, Aneta
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Bures, Tomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A Component Model for Control-Intensive Distributed Embedded Systems2008Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5282, Springer, 2008, s. 310-317Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we focus on design of a class of distributed embedded systems that primarily perform real-time controlling tasks. We propose a two-layer component model for design and development of such embedded systems with the aim of using component-based development for decreasing the complexity in design and providing a ground for analyzing them and predict their properties, such as resource consumption and timing behavior. The two-layer model is used to efficiently cope with different design paradigms on different abstraction levels. The model is illustrated by an example from the vehicular domain.

  • 132.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Vulgarakis, Aneta
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    A Model-Based Framework for Designing Embedded Real-Time Systems2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the Work-In-Progress (WIP) track of the 19th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2007), Pisa, Italy, 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the challenge of designing embedded real-time systems in an uniformed view no matter what their targeted utilisation domain is. Although Component-Based Development is an acknowledged approach for developing non real-time and non embedded systems, it still struggles to emerge in embedded real-time domains. This is mainly due to an inability to have accepted definitions and standards well-suited with the highly constrained characteristics (timing requirements, memory size, CPU speed) of such domain. In leaning upon a model-based framework, this paper describes a work-in-progress which aims at getting a common definition of what real-time components are as well as having a common structure to specify and design them.

  • 133.
    Soares, Larissa Rocha
    et al.
    Univ Fed Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brazil.
    Potena, Pasqualina
    Machado, Ivan do Carmo
    Univ Fed Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brazil.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Univ Fed Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brazil.
    de Almeida, Eduardo Santana
    Analysis of Non-Functional Properties in Software Product Lines: a Systematic Review2014Inngår i: 2014 40TH EUROMICRO CONFERENCE SERIES ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND ADVANCED APPLICATIONS (SEAA 2014), 2014, s. 328-335Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software Product Lines (SPL) approach has been widely developed in academia and successfully applied in industry. Based on the selection of features, stakeholders can efficiently derive tailor-made programs satisfying different requirements. While SPL was very successful at building products based on identified features, achievements and preservation of many nonfunctional properties (NFPs) remain challenging. A knowledge how to deal with NFPs is still not fully obtained. In this paper, we present a systematic literature review of NFPs analysis for SPL products, focusing on runtime NFPs. The goal of the paper is twofold: (i) to present an holistic overview of SPL approaches that have been reported regarding the analysis of runtime NFPs, and (ii) to categorize NFPs treated in the scientific literature regarding development of SPLs. We analyzed 36 research papers, and identified that system performance attributes are typically the most considered. The results also aid future research studies in NFPs analysis by providing an unbiased view of the body of empirical evidence and by guiding future research directions.

  • 134.
    Svogor, I.
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Vrcek, N.
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    An extended model for multi-criteria software component allocation on a heterogeneous embedded platform2013Inngår i: Journal of Computing and Information Technology, ISSN 1330-1136, E-ISSN 1846-3908, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 211-222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent development of heterogeneous platforms (i.e. those containing different types of computational units such as multicore CPUs, GPUs, and FPGAs) has enabled significant improvements in performance for real-time data processing. This potential, however, is still not fully utilized due to the lack of methods for optimal configuration of software; the allocation of different software components to different computational unit types is crucial for getting the maximal utilization of the platform, but for more complex systems it is difficult to find ad-hoc a good enough or the best configuration. With respect to system and user defined constraints, in this paper we are applying analytical hierarchical process and a genetic algorithm to find feasible, locally optimal solution for allocating software components to computational units.

  • 135.
    T., Vale
    et al.
    Uni-versidade Federal Do Reɥoncavo da Bahia (UFRB), Brazil.
    Ivica, Crnkovic
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    E.S., De Almeida
    Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brazil.
    P.A.D.M., Silveira Neto
    RiSE, Reuse in Software Engineering, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Y.C., Cavalcanti
    RiSE, Reuse in Software Engineering, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    S.R.D.L., Meira
    Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Twenty-eight years of component-based software engineering2016Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 111, s. 128-148Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of developing software components was envisioned more than forty years ago. In the past two decades, Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE) has emerged as a distinguishable approach in software engineering, and it has attracted the attention of many researchers, which has led to many results being published in the research literature. There is a huge amount of knowledge encapsulated in conferences and journals targeting this area, but a systematic analysis of that knowledge is missing. For this reason, we aim to investigate the state-of-the-art of the CBSE area through a detailed literature review. To do this, 1231 studies dating from 1984 to 2012 were analyzed. Using the available evidence, this paper addresses five dimensions of CBSE: main objectives, research topics, application domains, research intensity and applied research methods. The main objectives found were to increase productivity, save costs and improve quality. The most addressed application domains are homogeneously divided between commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), distributed and embedded systems. Intensity of research showed a considerable increase in the last fourteen years. In addition to the analysis, this paper also synthesizes the available evidence, identifies open issues and points out areas that call for further research. 

  • 136.
    Zagar, Mario
    et al.
    Univ Zagreb, Fac Elect Engn & Comp, Zagreb, Croatia..
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Stipanicev, Darko
    Univ Split, Fac Elect Engn Mech Engn & Naval Architecture, Split, Croatia..
    Stula, Maja
    Univ Split, Fac Elect Engn Mech Engn & Naval Architecture, Split, Croatia..
    Feljan, Juraj
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lednicki, Luka
    Univ Zagreb, Fac Elect Engn & Comp, Zagreb, Croatia..
    Maras, Josip
    Univ Split, Fac Elect Engn Mech Engn & Naval Architecture, Split, Croatia..
    Petricic, Ana
    Univ Zagreb, Fac Elect Engn & Comp, Zagreb, Croatia..
    DICES: Distributed Component-based Embedded Software Systems2012Inngår i: ANNUAL 2010/2011 OF THE CROATIAN ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING / [ed] Ziljak, V, CROATIAN ACADEMY ENGINEERING , 2012, s. 154-167Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article gives a short overview of the contribution of DICES project. The goal of the project is to advance theories and technologies used in development of distributed embedded systems. Three examples of the contributions are presented: a) reverse engineering of web based applications, design extraction and extraction of reusable user-interface controls, b) a fretwork for building systems that use UPnP devices and treat them as components in the same way as software components, and c) PRIDE - development environment for designing, modeling and developing embedded systems, based on ProCom technology.

  • 137.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    A Model for Reuse and Optimization of Embedded Software Components2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces, ITI, 2007, s. 567-572Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In software engineering for embedded systems generic reusable software components must often be discarded in favor of using resource optimized solutions. In this paper we outline a modelthat enables the utilization of component-based principles even for embedded systems with high optimization demands. The model supports the creation of component variants optimized for different scenarios, through the introduction of an entrance preparation step and an ending verification step into the component design process. These activities are proposed to be supported by tools working on metadata associated with components, where the metadata is possible to automatically retrieve from many development tools. This paper outlines the theoretical model that is the basis for our current realization work.

  • 138.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Introducing Component Based Software Engineering at an Embedded Systems Sub-Contractor2008Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 34TH EUROMICRO CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND ADVANCED APPLICATIONS, 2008, s. 59-67Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Attractive benefits with successful implementation of component-based principles include managing complexity, reduction of time-to-market, increased quality, and reusability. Deployment of component-based development is however not simple - it depends on many strategic, technical, and business decisions. In this paper we report experiences from our attempts with finding a correct implementation of component-based principles for the business situation of sub-contractors of embedded systems. Findings related to suitable component models, component technologies, and component management are presented. Overall the results confirm the suitability of component-based principles for the domain, but also show the need (and potential) in further development of CBSE theory and technology for embedded systems. 

  • 139.
    Švogor, I.
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Vrček, N.
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Multi-Criteria Software Component Allocation on a Heterogeneous Platform2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces, ITI, 2013, 2013, s. 341-346Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent development of heterogeneous platforms (i.e. those containing different types of computing units such as multicore CPUs, GPUs, and FPGAs) has enabled significant improvements in perfo-rmance processing large amount of data in realtime. This possibility however is still not fully utilized due to a lack of methods for optimal configuration of software; the allocation of different software components to different computing unit types is crucial for getting the maximal utilization of the platform, but for more complex systems it is difficult to find ad-hoc a good enough or the best configuration. In this paper we present an approach to find a feasible and locally optimal solution for allocating software components to processing units in a heterogeneous platform.

123 101 - 139 of 139
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