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  • 101.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Research and Technology Centre, Robert Bosch, India.
    Nélis, Vincent
    CISTER/INESC-TEC, ISEP, Portugal.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Partitioning the Network-on-Chip to Enable Virtualization on Many-Core Processors2015Inngår i: The 6th International Real-Time Scheduling Open Problems Seminar RTSOPS'15, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological advances have increased the transistor density, thereby ushering in multi- and more recently many-core systems, distinguished by the presence of hundreds of cores on a single chip. For such a platform, the Network-on-Chip (NoC) has emerged as a scalable and efficient interconnect fabric to realize the communication across an ever increasing number of processor cores, memories, and specialized IP blocks both on- and off-chip. In this paper, we highlighted some key problems in NoC based architectures that must be addressed before the deployment of real-time applications onto these platforms becomes possible. A paradigm shift from function centric to data and communication centric approaches is required. Combining hardware and software based flow-regulation seems to be the only way to ensure that NoCs go beyond the best-effort service and address the requirements of diverse applications.

  • 102.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Khalilzad, Nima
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bril, Reinder J.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Extended support for limited preemption fixed priority scheduling for OSEK/AUTOSAR-compliant operating systems2015Inngår i: 2015 10th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2015 - Proceedings, 2015, s. 207-217Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fixed Priority Scheduling (FPS) is the de facto standard in industry and it is the scheduling algorithm used in OSEK/AUTOSAR. Applications in such systems are compositions of so called runnables, the functional entities of the system. Runnables are mapped to operating system tasks during system synthesis. In order to improve system performance it is proposed to execute runnables non-preemptively while varying the tasks threshold between runnables. This allows simpler resource access, can reduce the stack usage of the system, and improve the schedulability of the task sets. FPDS , as a special case of fixed-priority scheduling with deferred preemptions, executes subjobs non-preemptively and preemption points have preemption thresholds, providing exactly the proposed behavior. However OSEK/AUTOSAR-conform systems cannot execute such schedules. In this paper we present an approach allowing the execution of FPDS schedules. In our approach we exploit pseudo resources in order to implement FPDS . It is further shown that our optimal algorithm produces a minimum number of resource accesses. In addition, a simulation based evaluation is presented in which the number of resource accesses as well as the number of required pseudo-resources by the proposed algorithms are investigated. Finally, we report the overhead of resource access primitives using our measurements performed on an AUTOSARcompliant operating system.

  • 103.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sandström, K.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden .
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Limiting temperature gradients on many-cores by adaptive reallocation of real-time workloads2014Inngår i: 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2014, 2014, s. Article number 7005241-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of many-core processors came with the increase in computational power needed for future applications. However new challenges arrived at the same time, especially for the real-time community. Each core on such a processor is a heat source and uneven usage can lead to hot spots on the processor, affecting its lifetime and reliability. For real-time systems, it is therefore of paramount importance to keep the temperature differences between the individual cores below critical values, in order to prevent premature failure of the system. We argue that this problem can not be solved by traditional approaches, since the growing number of cores makes them intractable. We rather argue to split the problem in the spacial domain and control the temperature on core level. The cores control their temperature by rearranging the load in a predictable manner during runtime. To achieve this, a feedback controller is implemented on each core. We conclude our work with a simulation based evaluation of the proposed approach comparing its performance against a previously presented algorithm. 

  • 104.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A Personalised Case-Based Stress Diagnosis System Using Physiological Sensor Signals2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is an increasing problem in our present world. It is recognised that increased exposure to stress may cause serious health problems if undiagnosed and untreated. In stress medicine, clinicians’ measure blood pressure, Electrocardiogram (ECG), finger temperature and respiration rate etc. during a number of exercises to diagnose stress-related disorders. However, in practice, it is difficult and tedious for a clinician to understand, interpret and analyze complex, lengthy sequential sensor signals. There are few experts who are able to diagnose and predict stress-related problems. Therefore, a system that can help clinicians in diagnosing stress is important.

    This research work has investigated Artificial Intelligence techniques for developing an intelligent, integrated sensor system to establish diagnosis and treatment plans in the psychophysiological domain. This research uses physiological parameters i.e., finger temperature (FT) and heart rate variability (HRV) for quantifying stress levels.  Large individual variations in physiological parameters are one reason why case-based reasoning is applied as a core technique to facilitate experience reuse by retrieving previous similar cases. Feature extraction methods to represent important features of original signals for case indexing are investigated. Furthermore, fuzzy techniques are also employed and incorporated into the case-based reasoning system to handle vagueness and uncertainty inherently existing in clinicians’ reasoning.

    The evaluation of the approach is based on close collaboration with experts and measurements of FT and HRV from ECG data. The approach has been evaluated with clinicians and trial measurements on subjects (24+46 persons). An expert has ranked and estimated the similarity for all the subjects during classification. The result shows that the system reaches a level of performance close to an expert in both the cases. The proposed system could be used as an expert for a less experienced clinician or as a second opinion for an experienced clinician to supplement their decision making tasks in stress diagnosis.

  • 105.
    Begum, Shahina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Barua, Shaibal
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Physiological sensor signals classification for healthcare using sensor data fusion and case-based reasoning2014Inngår i: Sensors (Switzerland), ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 14, nr 7, s. 11770-11785Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, clinicians often do diagnosis and classification of diseases based on information collected from several physiological sensor signals. However, sensor signal could easily be vulnerable to uncertain noises or interferences and due to large individual variations sensitivity to different physiological sensors could also vary. Therefore, multiple sensor signal fusion is valuable to provide more robust and reliable decision. This paper demonstrates a physiological sensor signal classification approach using sensor signal fusion and case-based reasoning. The proposed approach has been evaluated to classify Stressed or Relaxed individuals using sensor data fusion. Physiological sensor signals i.e., Heart Rate (HR), Finger Temperature (FT), Respiration Rate (RR), Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) are collected during the data collection phase. Here, sensor fusion has been done in two different ways: (i) decision-level fusion using features extracted through traditional approaches; and (ii) data-level fusion using features extracted by means of Multivariate Multiscale Entropy (MMSE). Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is applied for the classification of the signals. The experimental result shows that the proposed system could classify Stressed or Relaxed individual 87.5% accurately compare to an expert in the domain. So, it shows promising result in the psychophysiological domain and could be possible to adapt this approach to other relevant healthcare systems. 

  • 106.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Hierarchical Real Time Scheduling and Synchronization2008Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The Hierarchical Scheduling Framework (HSF) has been introduced to enable compositional schedulability analysis and execution of embedded software systems with real-time constraints. In this thesis, we consider a system consisting of a number of semi-independent components called subsystems, and these subsystems are allowed to share logical resources. The HSF provides CPU-time to the subsystems and it guarantees that the individual subsystems respect their allocated CPU budgets. However, if subsystems are allowed to share logical resources, extra complexity with respect to analysis and run-time mechanisms is introduced. In this thesis we address three issues related to hierarchical scheduling of semi-independent subsystems. In the first part, we investigate the feasibility of implementing the hierarchical scheduling framework in a commercial operating system, and we present the detailed figures of various key properties with respect to the overhead of the implementation.

    In the second part, we studied the problem of supporting shared resources in a hierarchical scheduling framework and we propose two different solutions to support resource sharing. The first proposed solution is called SIRAP, a synchronization protocol for resource sharing in hierarchically scheduled open real-time systems, and the second solution is an enhanced overrun mechanism.

    In the third part, we present a resource efficient approach to minimize system load (i.e., the collective CPU requirements to guarantee the schedulability of hierarchically scheduled subsystems). Our work is motivated from a tradeoff between reducing resource locking times and reducing system load. We formulate an optimization problem that determines the resource locking times of each individual subsystem with the goal of minimizing the system load subject to system schedulability. We present linear complexity algorithms to find an optimal solution to the problem, and we prove their correctness

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • 107.
    Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Inam, Rafia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Multi-core Composability in the Face of Memory Bus Contention2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe the problem of achieving composability of independently developed real-time subsystems to be executed on a multicore platform.We evaluate existing work for achieving real-time performance on multicores and illustrate their lack with respect to composability. To better address composability we present a multi-resource server-based scheduling technique to provide predictable performance when composing multiple subsystems on a multicore platform. To achieve composability also on multicore platforms, we propose to add memory-bandwidth as an additional server resource. Tasks within our multi-resource servers are guaranteed both CPU- and memory-bandwidth; thus the performance of a server will become independent of resource usage by tasks in other servers. We are currently implementing multi-resource servers for the Enea’s OSE operating system for a P4080 8-core processor to be tested with software for a 3G-basestation.

  • 108.
    Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    J. Bril, Reinder
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.
    Tighter Schedulability Analysis of Synchronization Protocols Based on Overrun Without Payback for Hierarchical Scheduling Frameworks2011Inngår i: 16th IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems (ICECCS'11), Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2011, s. 35-44Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 109.
    Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Shin, Insik
    Åsberg, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Bril, Reinder
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.
    Towards Hierarchical Scheduling in VxWorks2008Inngår i: OSPERT 2008, Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Operating Systems Platforms for Embedded Real-Time Applications, 2008, s. 63-72Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years, we have worked on hierarchical schedulingframeworks from a theoretical point of view. In thispaper we present our initial results of the implementationof our hierarchical scheduling framework in a commercialoperating system VxWorks. The purpose of the implementationis twofold: (1) we would like to demonstrate feasibilityof its implementation in a commercial operating system,without having to modify the kernel source code, and (2) wewould like to present detailed figures of various key propertieswith respect to the overhead of the implementation.During the implementation of the hierarchical scheduler,we have also developed a number of simple task schedulers.We present details of the implementation of Rate-Monotonic(RM) and Earliest Deadline First (EDF) schedulers. Finally,we present the design of our hierarchical schedulingframework, and we discuss our current status in the project.

  • 110.
    Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Shin, Insik
    Department of Computer Science, KAIST University , Korea.
    Overrun Methods and Resource Holding Times for Hierarchical Scheduling of Semi-Independent Real-Time Systems2010Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 93-104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hierarchical Scheduling Framework (HSF) has been introduced as a design-time framework toenable compositional schedulability analysis of embedded software systems with real-time properties. Inthis paper a software system consists of a number of semi-independent components called subsystems.Subsystems are developed independently and later integrated to form a system. To support this designprocess, in the paper, the proposed methods allow non-intrusive configuration and tuning of subsystemtiming-behaviour via subsystem interfaces for selecting scheduling parameters.This paper considers three methods to handle overruns due to resource sharing between subsystemsin the HSF. For each one of these three overrun methods corresponding scheduling algorithms and associatedschedulability analysis are presented together with analysis that shows under what circumstances one or the other is preferred. The analysis is generalized to allow for both Fixed Priority Scheduling (FPS)and Earliest Deadline First (EDF) scheduling. Also, a further contribution of the paper is the techniqueof calculating resource-holding times within the framework under different scheduling algorithms; theresource holding times being an important parameter in the global schedulability analysis.

  • 111.
    Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Shin, Insik
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Scheduling of Semi-Independent Real-Time Components: Overrun Methods and Resource Holding Times2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 13th IEEE International Conference on Emerging echnologies and Factory Automation (ETFA’08), 2008, s. 575-582Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hierarchical Scheduling Framework (HSF) has been introduced as a design-time framework enabling compositional schedulability analysis of embedded software systems with real-time properties. In this paper a system consists of a number of semi-independent components called subsystems. Subsystems are developed independently and later integrated to form a system. To support this design process, our proposed methods allow nonintrusive configuration and tuning of subsystem timing behaviour via subsystem interfaces for selecting scheduling parameters. This paper considers two methods to handle overruns due to resource sharing between subsystems in the HSF. We present the scheduling algorithms for overruns and their associated schedulability analysis, together with analysis that shows under what circumstances one or the other overrun method is preferred. Furthermore, we show how to calculate resource-holding times within our framework.

  • 112.
    Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Shin, Insik
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    SIRAP: A Synchronization Protocol for Hierarchical Resource Sharing in Real-Time Open Systems2007Inngår i: EMSOFT'07: Proceedings of the Seventh ACM and IEEE International Conference on Embedded Software, 2007, s. 279-288Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a protocol for resource sharing in a hierarchical real-time scheduling framework. Targeting real-time open systems, the protocol and the scheduling framework significantly reduce the efforts and errors associated with integrating multiple semi-independent subsystems on a single processor. Thus, our proposed techniques facilitate modern software development processes, where subsystems are developed by independent teams (or subcontractors) and at a later stage integrated into a single product. Using our solution, a subsystem need not know, and is not dependent on, the timing behaviour of other subsystems; even though they share mutually exclusive resources. In this paper we also prove the correctness of our approach and evaluate its efficiency.

  • 113.
    Bendiuga, Volodymyr
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Multi-Core Pattern2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 114.
    Bergström, Albert
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A Survey on Developers’ Preferences in Integrated Development Environments2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Software development is a demanding task where developers face great challenges. Development tools are expected to be user-friendly. However, little research has been done to understand developers’ needs and priorities when it comes to such tools, so called Integrated Development Environments (IDEs). It is important to gain a better insight into developers’ prioritization of IDE qualities, in order to be able to make such tools more efficient and better tailored to their users’ real needs. The objective of this thesis is to gain a deeper understanding of software developers’ perspective regarding IDEs with the goal of facilitating further improvements of these tools. This thesis report presents the results of a quantitative survey, responded by twenty professional software developers, which focuses on developers’ prioritization of qualities in adopted IDEs and their perceived satisfaction with the qualities themselves and the IDEs overall. Moreover, we investigate whether limiting developers’ choice of IDE also affects their overall satisfaction of chosen IDEs. By analyzing the results, we conclude that developers perceive reliability, ease of use and efficiency as, on one hand the most important qualities of IDEs, and on the other hand those most in need of improvements. The results also suggest that developers’ satisfaction with their IDEs is not significantly affected by limiting their choice of development tools.

  • 115.
    Bergvall, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för innovation, design och produktutveckling.
    Teknisk illustration: Gestaltning av avancerad teknik som inte redan är producerad2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    En ny sportbil håller på att tas fram, men bilen är fortfarande bara i ritningsstadiet. Biltillverkaren behöver informationsmaterial i form av en teknisk illustration. Arbetet går ut på att skapa en teknisk illustrationen som informerar målgruppen om bilens avancerade teknik och visar hur det slutgiltiga resultatet av bilen kommer att se ut.

    Mitt arbete fokuserar i huvudsak på två delar av informationsdesign, kommunikation och estetik. Illustrationen ska tydligt kommunicera information om bilens teknik till betraktaren samt vara estetiskt tilltalande för att behålla betraktarens intresse samt tydligt visa rätt materialkänslor i bilens olika material.

    Eftersom bilen fortfarande är i ritningsstadiet har ingen tillgång till en verklig bil att studera och fotografera funnits. Stora delar av projektet har gått ut på att söka efter andra typer av referensmaterial för att kunna skapa illustrationen.

  • 116.
    Berndtsson, Andreas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    VPN Mesh in Industrial Networking2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis report describes the process and present the results gained while evaluating available VPN mesh solutions and equipment for integration into Industrial systems. The task was divided into several sub steps; summarize the previous work done in the VPN mesh area, evaluate the available VPN mesh solutions, verify that the interesting equipment comply with the criteria set by ABB and lastly verify that the equipment can be integrated transparently into already running systems. The result shows that there is equipment that complies with the criteria, which can also be integrated transparently into running systems. The result also shows that IPSec should be used as the VPN protocol since IPSec can make use of the crypto hardware whereas TLS based VPNs currently cannot. Even though the implementation of secure gateways would provide authentication and authorization to the network, the cost of implementing these gateways would be great. The best solution would be to present the evaluated equipment as an optional feature instead of making it standard equipment in each system.

  • 117.
    Bexelius, Tobias
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    HaGPipe: Programming the graphics pipeline in Haskell2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

     

    In this paper I present the domain specific language HaGPipe for graphics programming in Haskell. HaGPipe has a clean, purely functional and strongly typed interface and targets the whole graphics pipeline including the programmable shaders of the GPU. It can be extended for use with various backends and this paper provides two different ones. The first one generates vertex and fragment shaders in Cg for the GPU, and the second one generates vertex shader code for the SPUs on PlayStation 3. I will demonstrate HaGPipe's many capabilities of producing optimized code, including an extensible rewrite rule framework, automatic packing of vertex data, common sub expression elimination and both automatic basic block level vectorization and loop vectorization through the use of structures of arrays.

  • 118.
    Bhatti, ZafarAhmad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Incorporating Safety Requirements using Patterns in ArchWiz Tool: Safety requirements in Archwiz tool2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Usability Supporting Architectural Patterns (USAP) has already introduced a concept in software architecture for coping usability issues in better style and revealing its obscured dimensions. A support is also needed to develop the safety systems in such a way that they employ the same rules and get a better understanding of safety, its requirements and the architecture. A way to determine safety requirements from the patterns and working with the responsibilities of patterns was the aim for this thesis report. On the other hand, a useful tool with the name “ArchWiz” was to be developed further from its prototypical form-an assisting tool for architects to look for requirements and evaluation of their architecture. The mature development of ArchWiz tool, and incorporating the safety perspective with respect to USAP vogue was also the goal of the thesis.

    In a development process, architecture designing is a crucial and vital part of software system. During architecture designing process very first decisions and information are gained to validate if the system has the potential to meet its requirements and intended behaviours. Along with other important quality attributes, safety architecture has played an important role in developing today’s critical software and automated systems. These safety issues especially in software architecture are to protect, recover, discover and mitigate the hazards, faults, failures and catastrophic perils. The deficiency and obscurity of these inherent dangers can be reduced by understanding the safety in general and analysing its requirements from unseen perspectives. Later, these requirements can be traced into the architecture of a similar system as a knowledge base or experience gained.

    Architectural patterns and their investigation in safety provide a broad horizon for requirement and solution in various aspects. They help to bring out the requirements in refined way and in general manners too. The report, therefore, presents the suggestion to formalize the suggestions in safety with respect to requirement engineering in architectural context as well as reusable solution for these issues; alike in USAP style.

  • 119.
    Bihi, Ahmed
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Analysis of similarity and differences between articles using semantics2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Adding semantic analysis in the process of comparing news articles enables a deeper level of analysis than traditional keyword matching. In this bachelor’s thesis, we have compared, implemented, and evaluated three commonly used approaches for document-level similarity. The three similarity measurement selected were, keyword matching, TF-IDF vector distance, and Latent Semantic Indexing. Each method was evaluated on a coherent set of news articles where the majority of the articles were written about Donald Trump and the American election the 9th of November 2016, there were several control articles, about random topics, in the set of articles. TF-IDF vector distance combined with Cosine similarity and Latent Semantic Indexing gave the best results on the set of articles by separating the control articles from the Trump articles. Keyword matching and TF-IDF distance using Euclidean distance did not separate the Trump articles from the control articles. We implemented and performed sentiment analysis on the set of news articles in the classes positive, negative and neutral and then validated them against human readers classifying the articles. With the sentiment analysis (positive, negative, and neutral) implementation, we got a high correlation with human readers (100%).

  • 120.
    Billman, Albin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Solving flow shop problems using a forward-chaining partial-order planner2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Planning is the task of putting together a sequence of actions that takes a start state to a goal state. Since planning is a crucial part of human intelligence it is also a crucial part of artificial intelligence. As with human planning there are many different ways of AI planning and many different problems to plan. This thesis aims to discover how well a specific way of AI planning performs on a specific sort of problem. The planner that was investigated is called the POPF planner which is a forward-chaining partial-order planner which is an attempt at merging two different ways of planning. This was done to see how well this relatively uncommon method of planning compares to other more traditional methods of planning such as forward-chaining planners when solving a flow shop problem. A flow shop problem is a problem regarding minimizing the idle time for a facility that contains a number of m machines that need to do n jobs. Each of the n jobs 1…n have to be processed on m machines 1…m in that order. Tests were done to see how the POPF planner performed in comparison to planners that work differently. This was done by creating a flow shop problem suitable for testing and then testing the POPF planner on the problem and comparing the results to two other planners. The other planners being the COLIN and TFD planners which both work differently from each other and the POPF planner. Suggestions were also made for how the POPF planner could potentially be improved using additional methods such as landmarks. The results of the test show that the POPF planner is better than the COLIN planner and as good if not better than the TFD planner depending on the complexity of the problem. An additional test was done using the POPStar planner that specializes in the sorts of problem that was created for testing. This POPStar planner outperformed the other planners as expected but it loses in flexibility since it cannot solve problems defined in PDDL. The final results show that the POPF planner performs on a similar level to other general planners when it comes to solving flow shop problems while still having some of the benefits of being a partial-order planner such as being more flexible than a totally-ordered planner.

  • 121.
    Björkholdt, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    jFunda2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Kadesjös Ingenjörsbyrå AB, ett konsultföretag inom bygg- och VVS-sektorn med ca 50 anställda, använder ett egenskrivet BASIC program i DOS för beräkning av grundfundament i betong med grundsula och plintskaft avseende stabilitet och erforderlig armering. I dagsläget finns det ungefär 10 användare av programmet.

    Några kända problem med programmet är att varje dator måste konfigureras manuellt med kommandopromptens NET USE kommando. Detta för att en anslutning av nätverksskrivaren till den lokala porten LPT1 måste finnas för att utskriften ska fungera. Dessutom kan varken indata eller resultat från ett fundament sparas.

    Detta examensarbete behandlar arbetet för att konvertera det äldre DOS programmet till ett modernare fönsterbaserat programspråk med möjlighet att kunna spara fundamenten för respektive projekt.

  • 122.
    Björklund, Hanna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Ayhan, Azize
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för innovation, design och produktutveckling.
    Studentguiden Västerås: En rapport om hur en studentguide produceras - från uppdrag till leverans2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårt examensarbete har varit att producera en studentguide om Västerås till

    företaget Västerås & Company. Västerås & Company har i uppdrag att

    marknadsföra Västerås Mälarstaden till externa kunder som en attraktiv stad för

    företagsetablering, boende, konferenser/kongresser, högskolestudier och

    fritidsturism. Västerås & Company har producerat ett antal broschyrer som är

    riktade till olika målgrupper.

    Syftet med vår studentguide är att den ska locka presumtiva studenter till Västerås

    stad men även innehålla nyttiga fakta för nyinflyttade studenter.

    För att uppnå bästa resultat med vår studentguide har riktlinjerna i

    informationsdesign använts. Vi har under arbetets gång använt oss av Rune

    Petterssons modell ”

    2001, sid.51-55

    Från uppdrag till leverans – en kreativ process” (Pettersson).

    Vid insamling av material och vid utformning av broschyren har vi vänt oss till

    vår målgrupp. De har via två webbenkäter, en fokusgrupp och en utprovning

    hjälpt oss att kunna tillfredsställa målgruppen. Vi har även gjort en textanalys av

    materialet för att få en uppfattning om dess läsbarhet.

    Våra slutsatser är att det av högsta grad är viktigt att lära känna sin målgrupp och

    att inte underskatta den tid det kan ta att lära känna den. Att använda sig av

    riktlinjerna för informationsdesign gör att materialet blir mer användaranpassat.

    Dessutom har ”meddelandet” en bättre chans att nå fram och tillfredsställa

    mottagaren. Petterssons modell ”

    sid.51-55

    Från uppdrag till leverans – en kreativ process”en passande modell att utgå från för ett arbete som detta. (Pettersson, 2001,)

  • 123.
    Björnander, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Methods and Tool Support for Analyzing Architectural Models of Embedded Systems2012Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems are ubiquitous in the modern world. They are microcomputers most often included incomplete devices consisting of software and hardware. Embedded systems range from small devices to large systems monitoring and controlling complex processes. Design and development of such systems is a complex task, since embedded systems often need to fulfill extra-functional requirements, on top of functional ones, within constrained amounts of platform resources. Some embedded systems are mission critical; hence, they are not allowed to fail during the mission. One way to ensure that a system works in accordance to its specification is to define the system in an Architecture Description Language (ADL) and apply formal verification methods. The Architecture Design and Analysis Language (AADL) has become popular in the avionic and automobile industry, and is equipped with several annexes, among them the Behavior Annex. However, AADL still misses a formal semantics, which prevents the possibility to prove correctness of architecture features by performing model checking on AADL models. Moreover, AADL does not support time annotations, which prevents modeling of real-time systems in AADL.

    In this thesis, we address these issues by presenting a formal analysis framework including a denotationalsemantics for a subset of the AADL and its Behavior Annex, which evaluates properties defined in Computation Tree Logic (CTL) by providing model checking. Model checking is a formal verification method that has proved to be powerful as well as effective. Our AADL-semantics is supported by a tool with an implementation of the semantics in Standard ML, which in turn is encapsulated in an Eclipse plugin.We also present a time annotation extension of AADL, implemented in a tool translating time annotated AADL and its Behavior Annex into the Timed Abstract State Machine (TASM) for simulation of real-time features. Another closely related problem is how to achieve optimal component distribution; in order to address this issue we have developed a tool that perform near-optional component distribution in regard to a series of parameters.

    The research results, which have been validated thought case studies, provides the possibility for a system engineer to model a system and prove its correctness. The research has been conducted in the context of the PROGRESS research center, for predictable embedded software systems.

  • 124.
    Björnander, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Grunske, Lars
    Faculty of ICT, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn VIC 3122, Australia.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Timed Simulation of Extended AADL-Based Architecture Specifications with Timed Abstract State Machines2009Inngår i: Architectures for Adaptive Software Systems: 5th International Conference on the Quality of Software Architectures, QoSA 2009, East Stroudsburg, PA, USA, June 24-26, 2009 Proceedings, Berlin: Springer, 2009, s. 101-115Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) is a popular language for architectural modeling and analysis of software intensive systems in application domains such as automotive, avionics, railway and medical systems. These systems often have stringent real-time requirements. This paper presents an extension to AADL's behavior model using time annotations in order to improve the evaluation of timing properties in AADL. The translational semantics of this extension is based on mappings to the Timed Abstract State Machines (TASM) language. As a result, timing analysis with timed simulation or timed model checking is possible. The translation is supported by art Eclipse-based plug-in and the approach is validated with a case study of an industrial production cell system.

  • 125.
    Björnander, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    ABV: A Verifier for the Architecture Analysis and Description Language (AADL)2011Inngår i: 16th IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems (ICECCS), 2011, 2011, s. 355-360Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 126.
    Björnhager, Jens
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    CRL2ALF: En översättare från PowerPC till ALF2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Realtidssystem ställer hårda krav på dess ingående mjukvaras temporala beteende. Programmen måste bete sig deterministiskt och ge svar inom satta tidsgränser. Med hårda krav följer större behov av verktyg att testa koden med. WCET (Worst Case Execution Time)-analys har som mål att finna en övre gräns för ett programs exekveringstid. SWEET (SWEdish Execution Time) är ett verktyg för WCET-analys utvecklat av en forskargrupp vid Mälardalens Högskola.

    PowerPC är en klassisk processorarkitektur som utvecklades av Apple, Motorola och IBM och släpptes 1991. Den har bland annat använts av Apple i äldre versioner av deras Macintosh-datorer och i TV-spelskonsoler såsom Nintendo GameCube och är stor inom inbyggda system.

    Tidigare har endast analys av källkod, C, varit möjlig i SWEET. Målet för detta examensarbete var att möjliggöra analys av körbara program för vilka källkoden ej är tillgänglig, Detta gjordes genom att konstruera en översättare från PowerPC-binärer till det programformat som SWEET använder för sina statiska analyser, ALF, med hjälp av tredjepartsverktyget aiT från AbsInt GmbH.

    Resultatet blev en med undantag för flyttalsinstruktioner komplett översättare av PowerPC-program till ALF-kod. De flesta genererade programfiler som har testats i SWEET har gett lyckat resultat. 

  • 127. Blanco, Angeles
    et al.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Kappen, Johannes
    Manninen, Jussi
    Negro, Carlos
    Rittala, Risto
    Chapter 12: Modelling and simulation in the Pulp and Paper Industry: Current state and future perspectives2006Inngår i: Handbook of Control Room Design and Ergonomics: A Perspective for the Future / [ed] Toni Ivergård and Brian Hunt, Taylor & Francis Group, 2006, 2nd, s. 311-326Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 128.
    Blomqvist, Simon
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Improvement Proposal for Wireless Office Networks2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless networks nowadays are more affordable and faster than ever and thus many companies incorporate wireless solutions into their networks. However, a lot of challenges are introduced with wireless implementations and knowing how to make the best use of one’s equipment can lead to increased quality of experience, higher security, and improved manageability. The Stockholm based company NetEnt has recently moved into a new office and enhancements on its new wireless network are to be implemented throughout the year. Wireless networks are complex to implement and even if the installation works properly there are still improvements that could be made. The presumption is that such improvements could lead to increased delivery quality for NetEnt. Thus, the main goal of this thesis work is to create a proposal of improvements based on best practices for NetEnt. During the thesis work, an investigation has been conducted to find general wireless network recommendations and vendor specific best practices. Recommendations were found in areas such as 802.11 frequency bands and standards, forwarding architecture, security, and management. The study showed that few recommendations alone would make a significant difference, but together they could make a noticeable boost to the network. The recommendations were compared to NetEnt’s network and an analysis of the differences was performed. The study showed that some advocated proposals were already met while other were planned to be implemented in a near future. The conducted analysis includes the remainder of best practices and is to be seen as a proposal of improvements, which is expected to help NetEnt’s IT department to increase the overall condition of the network. 

  • 129.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A Study of Combinatorial Optimization Problems in Industrial Computer Systems2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A combinatorial optimization problem is an optimization problem where the number of possible solutions are finite and grow combinatorially with the problem size. Combinatorial problems exist everywhere in industrial systems. This thesis focuses on solving three such problems which arise within two different areas where industrial computer systems are often used. Within embedded systems and real-time systems, we investigate the problems of allocating stack memory for an system where a shared stacks may be used, and of estimating the highest response time of a task in a system of industrial complexity. We propose a number of different algorithms to compute safe upper bounds on run-time stack usage whenever the system supports stack sharing. The algorithms have in common that they can exploit commonly-available information regarding timing behaviour of the tasks in the system. Given upper bounds on the individual stack usage of the tasks, it is possible to estimate the worst-case stack behaviour by analysing the possible and impossible preemption patterns. Using relations on offset and precedences, we form a preemption graph, which is further analysed to find safe upper-bounds on the maximal preemptions chain in the system. For the special case where all tasks exist in a single static schedule and share a single stack, we propose a polynomial algorithm to solve the problem. For generalizations of this problem, we propose an exact branch-and-bound algorithm for smaller problems and a polynomial heuristic algorithm for cases where the branch-and-bound algorithm fails to find a solution in reasonable time. All algorithms are evaluated in comprehensive experimental studies. The polynomial algorithm is implemented and shipped in the developer tool set for a commercial real-time operating system, Rubus OS. The second problem we study in the thesis is how to estimate the highest response time of a specified task in a complex industrial real-time system. The response-time analysis is done using a best-effort approach, where a detailed model of the system is simulated on input constructed using a local search procedure. In an evaluation on three different systems we can see that the new algorithm were able to produce higher response times much faster than what has previously been possible. Since the analysis is based on simulation and measurement, the results are not safe in the sense that they are always higher or equal to the true response time of the system. The value of the method lies instead in that it makes it possible to analyse complex industrial systems which cannot be analysed accurately using existing safe approaches. The third problem is in the area of maintenance planning, and focus on how to dynamically plan maintenance for industrial systems. Within this area we have focused on industrial gas turbines and rail vehicles.  We have developed algorithms and a planning tool which can be used to plan maintenance for gas turbines and other stationary machinery. In such problems, it is often the case that performing several maintenance actions at the same time is beneficial, since many of these jobs can be done in parallel, which reduces the total downtime of the unit. The core of the problem is therefore how to (or how not to) group maintenance activities so that a composite cost due to spare parts, labor and loss of production due to downtime is minimized. We allow each machine to have individual schedules for each component in the system. For rail vehicles, we have evaluated the effect of replanning maintenance in the case where the component maintenance deadline is set to reflect a maximum risk of breakdown in a Gaussian failure distribution. In such a model, we show by simulation that replanning of maintenance can reduce the number of maintenance stops when the variance and expected value of the distribution are increased.  For the gas turbine maintenance planning problem, we have evaluated the planning software on a real-world scenario from the oil and gas industry and compared it to the solutions obtained from a commercial integer programming solver. It is estimated that the availability increase from using our planning software is between 0.5 to 1.0 %, which is substantial considering that availability is currently already at 97-98 %.

  • 130.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Sweden.
    Dahms, FlorianRWTH Aachen, Chair of Operations Research, Germany.Flier, HolgerETH Zürich, Institute of Theoretical Computer Science, Switzerland.Sara, GestreliusSwedish Institute of Computer Science, Sweden.
    Optimal Freight Train Classification using Column Generation2012Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 131.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Dahms, Florian
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Mihalák, Matúš
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Flier, Holger
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Optimization Methods for Multistage Freight Train Formation2015Inngår i: Transportation Science, ISSN 0041-1655, E-ISSN 1526-5447, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 823-840Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 132.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    SICS Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
    Fahimeh, Khoshniyat
    SICS Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
    Simulation of planning strategies for track allocation at marshalling yards2013Inngår i: WIT Transactions on Modelling and Simulation, Volume 55, 2013, Ashurst, Southampton: WIT Press, 2013, Vol. 55, s. 465-475Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning the operational procedures in a railway marshalling yard is a complex problem. When a train arrives at a marshalling yard, it is uncoupled at an arrival yard and then its cars are rolled to a classification yard. All cars should eventually be rolled to the classification track that has been assigned to the train they're supposed to depart with. However, there is normally not enough capacity to compound all trains at once. In Sweden, cars arriving before a track has been assigned to their train can be stored on separate tracks called mixing tracks. All cars on mixing tracks will be pulled back to the arrival yard, and then rolled to the classification yard again to allow for reclassification. Today all procedures are planned by experienced dispatchers, but there are no documented strategies or guidelines for efficient manual planning. The aim of this paper is to examine operational planning strategies that could help dispatchers find a feasible marshalling schedule that minimizes unnecessary mixing. In order to achieve this goal, two different online planning strategies have been tested using deterministic and stochastic simulation. The Hallsberg marshalling yard was used as a case study, and was simulated for the time period between December 2010 and May 2011. The first tested strategy simply assigns tracks to trains on a first come-first served basis, while the second strategy uses time limits to determine when tracks should be assigned to departing trains. The online planning algorithms have been compared with an offline optimized track allocation. The results from both the deterministic and the stochastic simulation show that the optimized allocation is better than all online strategies and that the second strategy with a time limit of 32 hours is the best online method.

  • 133.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Sweden.
    Wärja, Mathias
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Maintenance optimization with duration-dependent costs2015Inngår i: Annals of Operations Research, ISSN 0254-5330, E-ISSN 1572-9338, Vol. 224, nr 1, s. 1-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High levels of availability and reliability are essential in many industries where production is subject to high costs due to downtime. Examples include the mechanical drive in natural gas pipelines and power generation on oil platforms, where gas turbines are commonly used as a power source. To mitigate the effects of service outages and increase overall reliability, it is also possible to use one or more redundant units serving as cold standby backup units. In this paper, we consider preventive maintenance optimization for parallel k-out-of-n multi-unit systems, where production at a reduced level is possible when some of the units are still operational. In such systems, there are both positive and negative effects of grouping activities together. The positive effects come from parallel execution of maintenance activities and shared setup costs, while the negative effects come from the limited number of units which can be maintained at the same time. To show the possible economic effects, we evaluate the approach on models of two production environments under a no-fault assumption. We conclude that savings were substantial in our experiments on preventive maintenance, compared to a traditional preventive maintenance plan. For single-unit systems, costs were on average 39 % lower when using optimization. For multi-unit systems, average savings were 19 %. We also used the optimization models to evaluate the effects of re-planning at breakdown and effects due to modeling of inclusion relations. Breakdown re-planning saved between 0 and 11 % of the maintenance costs, depending on which component failed, while inclusion relation modeling resulted in an 7 % average cost reduction.

  • 134.
    Bonner, Richard
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Freivalds, R.
    University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Lapins, J.
    University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Lukjanska, A.
    University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Nonstochastic languages as projections of 2-tape quasideterministic languages1998Inngår i: Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 1998: 23rd International Symposium, MFCS'98 Brno, Czech Republic, August 24–28, 1998 Proceedings, 1998, Vol. 1450, s. 213-219Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A language L(n) of n-tuples of words which is recognized by a n-tape rational finite-probabilistic automaton with probability 1-ε, for arbitrary ε > 0, is called quasideterministic. It is proved in [Fr 81], that each rational stochastic language is a projection of a quasideterministic language L(n) of n-tuples of words. Had projections of quasideterministic languages on one tape always been rational stochastic languages, we would have a good characterization of the class of the rational stochastic languages. However we prove the opposite in this paper. A two-tapequasideterministic language exists, the projection of which on the first tape is a nonstochastic language.

  • 135.
    Bonner, Richard
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Mamchych, T.
    Can One Learn Too Much for One's Own Good?: Rational choice, learning, and their interplay2005Inngår i: Scientific Bulletin of The Wroclaw University of Economics, nr 1064, s. 353-366Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Authors have considered a learning problem, which occurs when changes in the knowledge system of a firm (learning) alter its business objectives (preference). Grounds for evaluating learning may become known only after the learning. The article presents a review of current learning theories and the rational choice.

  • 136.
    Boqvist, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Gyllhag, Oscar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    IPv6 in WeOS: Initial support for IPv6 in WeOS2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Westermo is a company that develops industrial standardized network equipment for harsh environments. Our task was to help the company prepare for future demands regarding IP communication. Westermo has customers and branches around the world, in order to meet market demands and competitor development IP version 6 support is of great interest.Next generation of IP communication is IPv6 and to prepare for the future and present market demands IPv6 support is needed in Westermo´s products. This thesis assignment is meant to investigate and give a proof of concept solution for basic IPv6 support in Westermo Operating System (WeOS).The areas of interest this thesis involves are IP settings and routing support. IP settings include ability to activate IPv6, assigning address to interface and related tasks. Routing support imply creation of routes and default-gateway, that gives the switches basic IPv6 routing capabilities. Switches should be capable of sending IPv6 router advertisement messages, and perform static IPv6 routing.Performing changes in IPv6 support means that modifications in the Command Line Interface (CLI)-context are necessary, in order to make configuration user-friendly. Therefore a proposed extension of the CLI-syntax is required. Implementations of the proposed CLI-syntax are done into Westermo´s main operating system WeOS.Our work has fulfilled the general expectations and placed a foundation for IPv6 support. Through proof of concept tests and implementations, WeOS is close to reach and meet the primary functionality with IPv6.Westermo is a company that develops industrial standardized network equipment for harsh environments. Our task was to help the company prepare for future demands regarding IP communication. Westermo has customers and branches around the world, in order to meet market demands and competitor development IP version 6 support is of great interest.Next generation of IP communication is IPv6 and to prepare for the future and present market demands IPv6 support is needed in Westermo´s products. This thesis assignment is meant to investigate and give a proof of concept solution for basic IPv6 support in Westermo Operating System (WeOS).The areas of interest this thesis involves are IP settings and routing support. IP settings include ability to activate IPv6, assigning address to interface and related tasks. Routing support imply creation of routes and default-gateway, that gives the switches basic IPv6 routing capabilities. Switches should be capable of sending IPv6 router advertisement messages, and perform static IPv6 routing.Performing changes in IPv6 support means that modifications in the Command Line Interface (CLI)-context are necessary, in order to make configuration user-friendly. Therefore a proposed extension of the CLI-syntax is required. Implementations of the proposed CLI-syntax are done into Westermo´s main operating system WeOS.Our work has fulfilled the general expectations and placed a foundation for IPv6 support. Through proof of concept tests and implementations, WeOS is close to reach and meet the primary functionality with IPv6.

  • 137.
    Borde, E.
    et al.
    Institut TELECOM, TELECOM ParisTech.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Towards verified synthesis of ProCom, a component model for real-time embedded systems2011Inngår i: CompArch - Proceedings of the 2011 Federated Events on Component-Based Software Engineering and Software Architecture - CBSE'11, 2011, s. 129-138Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To take advantage of component-based software engineering, software designers need a component framework that automates the assemblage and integration of developed components. It is then of prime importance to ensure that the synthesized code respects the definition of the component model's semantics. This is all the more difficult in the domain of embedded systems since the considered semantics usually aims at characterizing both functional properties (e.g. data and control dependencies) and non-functional properties such as timing and memory consumption. The component model considered in this paper, called ProCom, relies on an asynchronous operational semantics and a formal hypothesis of atomic and instantaneous interactions between components. The asynchronous approach targets higher exibility in the deployment and analysis process, while the formal hypothesis helps in reducing the combinatory problems of formal verification. In this paper, we present a code generation strategy to synthesize ProCom components, and a formalization of this generated code. This formalization extends the verification possibilities of ProCom architectures, and constitutes a step toward the verification that the produced code respects the operational semantics of ProCom. © 2011 ACM.

  • 138.
    Borde, Etienne
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Feljan, Juraj
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lednicki, Luka
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Leveque, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Maras, Josip
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Petricic, Ana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    PRIDE - an Environment for Component-based Development of Distributed Real-time Embedded Systems2011Inngår i: 9th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2011, s. 351-354Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Settling down the software architecture for embedded system is a complex and time consuming task. Specific concerns that are generally issued from implementation details must be captured in the software architecture and assessed to ensure system correctness. The matter is further complicated by the inherent complexity and heterogeneity of the targeted systems, platforms and concerns. In addition, tools capable of conjointly catering for the complete design-verificationdeployment cycle, extra-functional properties and reuse are currently lacking. To address this, we have developed Pride, an integrated development environment for component-based development of embedded systems. Pride is based on an architecture relying on components with well-defined semantics that serve as the central development entity, and as means to support and aggregate various analysis and verification techniques throughout the development - from early specification to synthesis and deployment. Pride also provides generic support for integrating extra-functional properties into architectural definitions.

  • 139.
    Bosnic, Ivana
    et al.
    University of Zagreb.
    Cavrak, Igor
    University of Zagreb.
    Orlic, Marin
    University of Zagreb.
    Zagar, Mario
    University of Zagreb.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Avoiding Scylla and Charybdis in Distributed Software Development Course2011Inngår i: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering 2011, 2011, s. 26-30Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching Distributed Software Development (DSD) is a challenging task. A convincing simulation of distributed environment in a local environment is practically impossible. Teaching DSD in distributed environment is more realistic since the students directly experience all its specifics. However, teaching in distributed environment, in which several geographically separated teams participate, is very demanding. Different types of obstacles occur, from administrative and organizational to technical ones. This paper describes some of the challenges, lessons learned, but also success stories of the DSD course performed now eight year in a row.

  • 140.
    Bosnic, Ivana
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Cavrak, Igor
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Orlic, Marin
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Zagar, Mario
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Student Motivation in Distributed Software Development Projects2011Inngår i: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering 2011, 2011, s. 31-35Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss challenges faced in conducting distributed student projects within a scope of a distributed software development university course. Student motivation and demotivation factors, along with perceived cultural differences, are identified and analyzed on the basis of data collected from a number of student projects.

  • 141.
    Brahneborg, D.
    et al.
    Infoflex Connect AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Causevic, Adnan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Towards a more reliable store-and-forward protocol for mobile text messages2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, Association for Computing Machinery , 2018, s. 13-20Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Businesses often use mobile text messages (SMS) as a cost effective and universal way of communicating concise information to their customers. Today, these messages are usually sent via SMS brokers, which forward them further to the next stakeholder, typically the various mobile operators, and then the messages eventually reach the intended recipients. Infoflex Connect AB delivers an SMS gateway application to the brokers with the main responsibility of reliable message delivery within set quality thresholds. However, the protocols used for SMS communication are not designed for reliability and thus messages may be lost. In this position paper we deduce requirements for a new protocol for routing messages through the SMS gateway application running at a set of broker nodes, in order to increase the reliability. The requirements cover important topics for the required communication protocol such as event ordering, message handling and system membership. The specification of such requirements sets the foundation for the forthcoming design and implementation of such a protocol and its evaluation.

  • 142.
    Brestovac, Goran
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Grgurina, Robi
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Applying Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Methods in Embedded Systems Design2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In several types of embedded systems the applications are deployed both as software and as hardware components. For such systems, the partitioning decision is highly important since the implementation in software or hardware heavily influences the system properties. In the industry, it is rather common practice to take deployment decisions in an early stage of the design phase and based on a limited number of aspects. Often such decisions are taken based on hardware and software designers‟ expertise and do not account the requirements of the entire system and the project and business development constraints. This approach leads to several disadvantages such as redesign, interruption, etc. In this scenario, we see the need of approaching the partitioning process from a multiple decision perspective. As a consequence, we start by presenting an analysis of the most important and popular Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methods and tools. We also identify the key requirements on the partitioning process. Subsequently, we evaluate all of the MCDA methods and tools with respect to the key partitioning requirements. By using the key partitioning requirements the methods and tools that the best suits the partitioning are selected. Finally, we propose two MCDA-based partitioning processes and validate their feasibility thorough an industrial case study.

  • 143.
    Bril, Reinder J.
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (TU/e), Netherlands.
    Altmeyer, Sebastian
    University of Amsterdam (UvA), The Netherlands.
    van den Heuvel, Martijn
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (TU/e), Netherlands.
    Davis, Rob
    University of York, UK.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Integrating Cache-Related Pre-emption Delays into Analysis of Fixed Priority Scheduling with Pre-emption Thresholds2014Inngår i: Proceedings - Real-Time Systems Symposium, 2014, Vol. January, s. 161-172Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cache-related pre-emption delays (CRPD) have been integrated into the schedulability analysis of sporadic tasks with constrained deadlines for fixed-priority pre-emptive scheduling (FPPS). This paper generalizes that work by integrating CRPD into the schedulability analysis of tasks with arbitrary deadlines for fixed-priority pre-emption threshold scheduling (FPTS). The analysis is complemented by an optimal threshold assignment algorithm that minimizes CRPD. The paper includes a comparative evaluation of the schedulability ratios of FPPS and FPTS, for constrained-deadline tasks, taking CRPD into account.

  • 144.
    Brown, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Gustafsson Brokås, Alexander
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Hurtig, Niklas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Designing and implementing a small scale Internet Service Provider2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is to design and implement a small scaleInternet Service Provider (ISP) for the NetCenter sub department atMälardalen University. The ISP is intended to give NetCenter a networkseparate from the University’s network, providing them with a moreflexible environment for lab purposes. This will give their students anopportunity to experience a larger backbone with Internet accessibility,which has not been previously available. At the same time it will place theteachers in control of the network in the NetCenter lab premises.The network is designed with a layered approach including an Internetaccess layer, a larger core segment and a distribution layer with aseparated lab network. It also incorporates both a public and a privateserver network, housing servers running e.g. Windows Active Directory,external DNS services, monitoring tools and logging applications. TheInternet access is achieved by peering with SUNET providing a full BGPfeed.This thesis report presents methods, implementations and results involvedin successfully creating the NetCenter ISP as both a lab network and anInternet provider with a few inevitable shortcomings; the most prominentbeing an incomplete Windows Domain setup.

  • 145.
    Bruhn, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Brunberg, Kjell
    BAP, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hines, John
    Independent Consultant.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. BAP, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Introducing Radiation Tolerant Heterogeneous Computers for Small Satellites2015Inngår i: IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings, vol. 2015, 2015, Vol. 2015, s. Article number 7119158-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results and conclusions from design, manufacturing, and benchmarking of a heterogeneous computing low power fault tolerant computer, realized on an industrial Qseven® small form factor (SFF) platform. A heterogeneous computer in this context features multi-core processors (CPU), a graphical processing unit (GPU), and a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The x86 compatible CPU enables the use of vast amounts of commonly available software and operating systems, which can be used for space and harsh environments. The developed heterogeneous computer shares the same core architecture as game consoles such as Microsoft Xbox One and Sony Playstation 4 and has an aggregated computational performance in the TFLOP range. The processing power can be used for on-board intelligent data processing and higher degrees of autonomy in general. The module feature quad core 1.5 GHz 64 bit CPU (24 GFLOPs), 160 GPU shader cores (127 GFLOPs), and a 12 Mgate equivalent FPGA fabric with a safety critical ARM® Cortex-M3 MCU.

  • 146.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Model-driven Development Approach with Temporal Awareness for Vehicular Embedded Systems2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the ubiquitousness of software in modern vehicles, its increased value and development cost, an efficient software development became of paramount importance for the vehicular domain. It has been identified that early verification of non functional properties of  vehicular embedded software such as, timing, reliability and safety, is crucial to efficiency. However, early verification of non functional properties is hard to achieve with traditional software development approaches due to the abstraction and the lack of automation of these methodologies.

     

    This doctoral thesis aims at improving efficiency in vehicular embedded software development by minimising the need for late, expensive and time consuming software modifications with early design changes, identified through timing verification, which usually are cheaper and faster. To this end, we introduce a novel model-driven approach which exploits the interplay of two automotive-specific modelling languages for the representation of functional and execution models and defines a suite of model transformations for their automatic integration.

     

    Starting from a functional model (expressed by means of EAST-ADL), all the execution models (expressed by means of the Rubus Component Model) entailing unique timing configurations are derived. Schedulability analysis selects the set of the feasible execution models with respect to specified timing requirements. Eventually, a reference to the selected execution models along with their analysis results is automatically created in the related functional model to allow the engineer to investigate them.

     

    The main scientific contributions of this doctoral thesis are i) a metamodel definition for the Rubus Component Model, ii) an automatic mechanism for the generation of Rubus models from EAST-ADL, iii) an automatic mechanism for the selection and back-propagation of the analysis results and related Rubus models to design level and iv) a compact notation for visualising the selected Rubus models by means of a single execution model.

  • 147.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Arcticus Systems AB .
    Raising Abstraction of Timing Analysis through Model-Driven Engineering2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     The complexity of software running on vehicular embedded systems is constantly

    increasing and this negatively affects its development costs and time to

    market. One way to deal with these issues is to boost abstraction in the form

    of models to (i) ease the reasoning about the system architecture, (ii) automate

    certain stages of the development, (iii) early detect flaws in the system architecture

    through fundamental analysis and (iv) take appropriate countermeasures

    before the system is implemented.

    Considering the importance of timing requirements in the design of software

    for vehicular embedded systems, in this licentiate thesis we leverage

    Model-Driven Engineering for realizing a semi-automatic approach which allows

    the developer to perform end-to-end delay timing analysis on design models,

    without having to manually model timing elements and set their values.

    The proposed approach, starting from a design model of an automotive

    software functionality, automatically generates a set of models enriched with

    timing elements whose values are set at generation time. End-to-end delay timing

    analysis is run on the generated models and, based on the analysis results,

    the approach automatically selects the generated models which better meet a

    specific set of timing requirements.

  • 148.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Arcticus Systems AB.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Metamodel for the Rubus Component Model: Extensions for Timing and Model Transformation from EAST-ADL2017Inngår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, ISSN 2169-3536, s. 9005-9020Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Model-Driven Engineering paradigm, one of the entry requirements when realising a seamless tool chain for the development of software is the definition of metamodels, to regulate the specification of models, and model transformations, for automating manipulations of models. In this context, we present a metamodel definition for the Rubus Component Model, an industrial solution used for the development of vehicular embedded systems. The metamodel includes the definition of structural elements as well as elements for describing timing information. In order to show how, using Model-Driven Engineering, the integration between different modelling levels can be automated, we present a model-to-model transformation between models conforming to EAST-ADL and models described by means of the Rubus Component Model. To validate our solution, we exploit a set of industrial automotive applications to show the applicability of both the Rubus Component Model metamodel and the model transformation.

  • 149.
    Bucchiarone, A.
    et al.
    Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Trento, Italy.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Towards an adaptive city journey planner with MDE2018Inngår i: 21st ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems: Companion Proceedings, MODELS-Companion 2018, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2018, s. 7-11Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there are many city journey planners already available in the market and involving various transportation services, there is none yet that allows city mobility operators and local government municipalities to be an active part of the city's mobility. In this demonstrator, we present our first attempt towards multi-view based modelling of adaptive and multimodal city journey planners. In particular, by exploiting Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) techniques, the different stakeholders involved in the city mobility are able to provide their own updated information or promote their own challenges at higher levels of abstraction. Such information is then automatically translated into code-based artefacts that implement/ensure the desired journey planning behaviour, notably to filter travel routes and to make the city mobility more sustainable. The journey planner prototype, implementing the proposed solution, is demonstrated in the context of Trento city mobility. A supporting video illustrating the main features and a demonstration of our solution can be found at: https://youtu.be/KM21WD2dQGs, while the related artefacts and the details on how to create your own prototype are available at the demo GitHub repository, reachable at https://github.com/modelsconf2018/artifact-evaluation/tree/master/bucchiarone.

  • 150.
    Burgin, Mark
    et al.
    UCLA - University of California, Los Angeles, USA .
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg.
    A Taxonomy of Computation and Information Architecture: ECSA 2015 ASDS Workshop. In Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops (ECSAW '15). ACM, New York, NY, USA.2015Inngår i: 9th European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops ECSAW 2015, 2015, Vol. Article No. 7Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents taxonomy of models of computation. It includes Existential (Physical, Abstract and Cognitive), Organizational, Temporal, Representational, Domain/Data, Operational, Process-oriented and Level-based taxonomy. It is connected to more general notion of natural computation, intrinsic to physical systems, and particularly to cognitive computation in living organisms and artificial cognitive systems. Computation is often understood through the Turing machine model, in the fields of computability, computational complexity and even as a basis for the present-day computer hardware and software architectures. However, several aspects of computation, even those existing in today's applications, are left outside in this model, thus adequate models of real-time, distributed, self-organized, resource-aware, adaptive, learning computation systems are currently being developed.

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