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  • 101.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Puri, Stefano
    Intecs SpA, Italy.
    A Method to Generate Reusable Safety Case Argument-Fragments from Compositional Safety Analysis2017In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 131, p. 570-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety-critical systems usually need to be accompanied by an explained and well-founded body of evidence to show that the system is acceptably safe. While reuse within such systems covers mainly code, reusing accompanying safety artefacts is limited due to a wide range of context dependencies that need to be satisfied for safety evidence to be valid in a different context. Currently, the most commonly used approaches that facilitate reuse lack support for systematic reuse of safety artefacts. To facilitate systematic reuse of safety artefacts we provide a method to generate reusable safety case argument-fragments that include supporting evidence related to compositional safety analysis. The generation is performed from safety contracts that capture safety-relevant behaviour of components in assumption/guarantee pairs backed up by the supporting evidence. We evaluate the feasibility of our approach in a real-world case study where a safety related component developed in isolation is reused within a wheel-loader.

  • 102.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Puri, Stefano
    Intecs SpA, Italy.
    A Method to Generate Reusable Safety Case Fragments from Compositional Safety Analysis2014In: Software Reuse for Dynamic Systems in the Cloud and Beyond,: 14th International Conference on Software Reuse, ICSR 2015, Miami, FL, USA, January 4-6, 2015. Proceedings, Miami, Florida, United States: Springer International Publishing , 2014, p. 253-268Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety-critical systems usually need to be accompanied by an explained and well-founded body of evidence to show that the system is acceptably safe. While reuse within such systems covers mainly code, reusing accompanying safety artefacts is limited due to a wide range of context dependencies that need to be satisfied for safety evidence to be valid in a different context. Currently the most commonly used approaches that facilitate reuse lack support for reuse of safety artefacts. To facilitate reuse of safety artefacts we provide a method to generate reusable safety case argument-fragments that include supporting evidence related to safety analysis. The generation is performed from safety contracts that capture safety-relevant behaviour of components within assumption/guarantee pairs backed up by the supporting evidence. We illustrate our approach by applying it to an airplane wheel braking system example.

  • 103.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Puri, Stefano
    Intecs SpA, Italy.
    Tool-Supported Safety-Relevant Component Reuse: From Specification to Argumentation2018In: 23rd International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies - Ada-Europe 2018 Ada-Europe-2018, 2018, Vol. 10873, p. 19-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contracts are envisaged to support compositional verification of a system as well as reuse and independent development of their implementations. But reuse of safety-relevant components in safety-critical systems needs to cover more than just the implementations. As many safety-relevant artefacts related to the component as possible should be reused together with the implementation to assist the integrator in assuring that the system they are developing is acceptably safe. Furthermore, the reused assurance information related to the contracts should be structured clearly to communicate the confidence in the component. In this work we present a tool-supported methodology for contract-driven assurance and reuse. We define the variability on the contract level in the scope of a trace-based approach to contract-based design. With awareness of the hierarchical nature of systems subject to compositional verification, we propose assurance patterns for arguing confidence in satisfaction of requirements and contracts. We present an implementation extending the AMASS platform to support automated instantiation of the proposed patterns, and evaluate its adequacy for assurance and reuse in a real-world case study.

  • 104.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Kaiser, B.
    Berner & Mattner Systemtechnik GmbH, Munich, Germany.
    Assuring degradation cascades of car platoons via contracts2017In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 10489, Springer Verlag , 2017, p. 317-329Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated cooperation is arriving in practice, for instance in vehicular automation like platoon driving. The development and safety assurance of those systems poses new challenges, as the participating nodes are not known at design time; they engage in communication at runtime and the system behaviour can be distorted at any time by failures in some participant or in the communication itself. When running on a highway, simply switching off the function is not an option, as this would also result in hazardous situations. Graceful degradation offer a systematic approach to define a partial-order of less and less acceptable operation modes, of which the best achievable is selected in presence of failures. In this work we propose an approach for assurance of the degradation cascades based on mode-specific assertions, captured by assumption/guarantee contracts. More specifically, we share our experiences and methodology for specifying the contracts for both the nominal safe behaviour as well as the less safe but acceptable behaviour in presence of failures. Furthermore, we present an argument pattern for adequacy of the degradation cascades for meeting the global safety goals based on the contracts. We illustrate our approach by a car platooning case study.

  • 105.
    UL Muram, Faiz
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Kanwal, Samina
    National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    A Tool-supported Model-based Method for Facilitating the EN50129-compliant Safety Approval Process2019In: Reliability, Safety, and Security of Railway Systems. Modelling, Analysis, Verification, and Certification, RSSRail 2019, 2019, p. 125-141Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compliance with the CENELEC series is mandatory during the planning of as well as development of railway systems. For compliance purposes, the creation of safety plans, which define safety-related activities and all other process elements relevant at the planning phase, is also needed. These plans are expected to be executed during the development phase. Specifically, EN 50129 defines the safety plan acceptance and approval process, where interactions between the applicant and the certification body are recommended: after the planning phase, to ensure the compliance between plans and standards, and after the development phase, to ensure the effective and not-deviating-unless-justified execution of plans. In this paper, we provide a tool-supported method for facilitating the safety approval processes/certification liaison processes. More specifically, the facilitation consists in guidance for modelling planned processes and the requirements listed in the standards in order to enable the automatic generation of baselines, post-planning processes and evidence models, needed during the execution phase and change impact tracking for manual monitoring of the compatibility between plans and their execution. The applicability of the proposed method is illustrated in the context of EN 50126-1 and EN 50129 standards.

  • 106.
    UL Muram, Faiz
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rodriguez, Laura Gomez
    Mälardalen University.
    Preventing Omission of Key Evidence Fallacy in Process-based Argumentations2018In: 2018 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE QUALITY OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (QUATIC), 2018, p. 65-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process-based argumentations argue that a safety-critical system has been developed in compliance with the development process defined in the standards and provide the evidence for certification of compliance. However, the process-based argumentations cannot ensure that the evidences are sufficient to support the claim. If the argumentations are insufficient (i.e., fallacious) they may result in a loss of confidence on system's safety. It is thus crucial to prevent or detect fallacies in the process-based argumentations. Currently, argumentations review process to detect fallacies largely depends on the reviewers' expertise, which is a labour-intensive and error prone task. This paper presents an approach that validates the process models (compliant with Process Engineering Metamodel 2.0), and prevent the occurrence of fallacy, specifically, omission of key evidence in process-based argumentations. If fallacies are detected in the process models, the approach develops the recommendations to resolve them; afterwards the process and/or safety engineers modify the process models based on the provided recommendations. Finally, the approach generates the safety argumentations (compliant with Structured Assurance Case Metamodel) from the modified process models by using model-driven engineering principles that are free from the fallacies. The applicability of the proposed approach is illustrated in the context of ECSS-E-ST-40C (Space engineering-Software) standard.

  • 107.
    Varkoi, Timo
    et al.
    Finnish Software Measurement Association – FiSMA ry, Espoo, Finland.
    Mäkinen, Timo
    Tampere University of Technology, Pori, Finland.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cameron, Frank
    Tampere University of Technology, Pori, Finland.
    Nevalainen, Risto
    Finnish Software Measurement Association – FiSMA ry, Espoo, Finland.
    Towards Systematic Compliance Evaluation Using Safety-oriented Process Lines and Evidence Mapping2017In: 24th European & Asian Systems, Software & Service Process Improvement & Innovation EuroAsiaSPI2 '17, Springer, 2017, p. 83-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of software is growing in safety related systems. This under-lines the need for software process assessment in many safety-critical domains. For example, the nuclear power industry has strict safety requirements for control systems and many methods are applied to evaluate compliance to domain specific standards and requirements. This paper discusses the needs of the nuclear domain and presents alternatives to develop a process assessment method that takes into account domain specific requirements. The aim is to provide an approach that facilitates the use of assessment findings in evaluating compliance with the do-main requirements and supports other assurance needs. Safety-oriented Process Line Engineering (SoPLE) is studied as a method for mapping assessment criteria to domain specific requirements. A binary distance metric is used to evaluate, how far a process mapping based method would solve problems found in com-pliance evaluation. Based on the results, SoPLE is applicable in this case, but process mapping is not adequate to facilitate compliance evaluation.

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