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  • 101.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Holistic modeling of time sensitive networking in component-based vehicular embedded systems2019In: Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 131-139, article id 8906692Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first holistic modeling approach for Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) communication that integrates into a model- and component-based software development framework for distributed embedded systems. Based on these new models, we also present an end-to-end timing model for TSN-interconnected distributed embedded systems. Our approach is expressive enough to model the timing information of TSN and the timing behaviour of software that communicates over TSN, hence allowing end-to-end timing analysis. A proof of concept for the proposed approach is provided by implementing it for a component model and tool suite used in the vehicle industry. Moreover, a use case from the vehicle industry is modeled and analyzed with the proposed approach to demonstrate its usability.

  • 102.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems AB.
    Gålnander, Mattias
    Arcticus Systems AB.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems AB.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lawson, Harold
    Lawson Konsult AB, Lidingö, Sweden.
    Academic-industrial Collaboration in the Vehicle Software Domain: Experiences and End-user Perspective2016In: 4th International Workshop on Critical Automotive Applications: Robustness & Safety CARS-2016, Göteborg, Sweden, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a success story of academic-industrial collaboration in the vehicular domain. The collaboration has resulted in the development and evolution of a model- and component-based software development tool chain that is used to develop safety-critical, robust, and certified, control software for vehicles. The tool chain has been successfully used in the vehicle industry for about 20 years. The sustained development of the tool chain is based one a unique collaboration, described in this paper, where the collaborators form a clear value chain from academia, through tool-developer, to the end-users of the technology. We describe experiences of each collaborator with a focus on the end-user's perspective. Moreover, we highlight some ongoing and future works within this collaboration.

  • 103.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Communications-oriented development of component-based vehicular distributed real-time embedded systems2014In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 207-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a novel model- and component-based technique to support communications-oriented development of software for vehicular distributed real-time embedded systems. The proposed technique supports modeling of legacy nodes and communication protocols by encapsulating and abstracting the internal implementation details and protocols. It also allows modeling and performing timing analysis of the applications that contain network traffic originating from outside of the system such as vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-infrastructure, and cloud-based applications. Furthermore, we present a method to extract end-to-end timing models to support end-to-end timing analysis. We also discuss and solve the issues involved during the extraction of these models. As a proof of concept, we implement our technique in the Rubus Component Model which is used for the development of software for vehicular embedded systems by several international companies. We also conduct an application-case study to validate our approach.

  • 104.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Component-Based Vehicular Distributed Embedded Systems: End-to-end Timing Models Extraction at Various Abstraction Levels2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to perform the end-to-end response-time and delay analyses of a system, its end-to-end timing model should be available. The majority of existing model- and component-based development approaches for vehicular distributed embedded systems extract the end-to-end timing model at an abstraction level and development phase that is close to the system implementation. We present a method to extract the end-to-end timing models from the systems at a higher abstraction level. At the higher level, the method extracts timing information from system models that are developed with EAST-ADL and Timing Augmented Description Language (TADL2) using the TIMMO methodology. At the lower level, the method exploits the Rubus component model to extract the timing information that cannot be clearly specified at the higher level such as trigger paths in distributed chains. We also discuss challenges and issues faced during extraction of the timing models. Further, we present guidelines and solutions to address these challenges.

  • 105.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    End-to-end Timing Challenges in Seamless Tool Chain Development for Vehicular Embedded Real-Time Systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Often, there exists mismatch among tools that are used for structural, functional, and execution modeling of vehicular embedded real-time systems in the industry. Building a seamless tool chain to support model- and component-based development of these systems with different, and sometimes independent, tools is challenging. Within this context, we investigate the challenges related to modeling, analyzing, and exchanging end-to-end timing information. We target domain specific models like EAST-ADL supplemented by the Timing Augmented Description Language; and component and execution models that are already used in the industry such as the Rubus Component Model.

  • 106.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Exploring options for modeling of real-time network communication in an industrial component model for distributed embedded systems2011In: Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, vol 102, Springer, 2011, p. 441-458Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate various options for modeling real-time network communication in an existing industrial component model, the rubus component model (RCM). RCM is used to develop resource-constrained real-time and embedded systems in many domains, especially automotive. Our goal is to extend RCM for the development of distributed embedded and real-time systems that employ real-time networks for communication among nodes (processors). The aim of exploring modeling options is to develop generic component types for RCM capable of modeling real-time networks used in the industry today. The selection of new component types is based on many factors including compliance with the industrial modeling standards, compatibility with the existing modeling objects in RCM, capability of modeling legacy systems and legacy communications, ability to model and specify timing related information (properties, requirements and constraints), ease of implementation and automatic generation of new components, and ability of the modeled application to render itself to early timing analysis. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  • 107.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Extending Offset-Based Response-Time Analysis for Mixed Messages in Controller Area Network2013In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. Article number 6648056-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing offset-based response-time analysis for mixed messages in Controller Area Network (CAN) assumes the jitter and deadline of a message to be smaller or equal to the transmission period. However, practical systems may contain messages whose release jitter and deadlines can be greater than their periods, e.g., in the gateway nodes. We extend the existing response-time analysis for mixed messages in CAN that are scheduled with offsets and have arbitrary jitter and deadlines. Mixed messages are implemented by several higher-level protocols for CAN that are used in the automotive industry. The extended analysis is applicable to any higher-level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic and mixed transmission modes.

  • 108.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Extending Response-Time Analysis for Mixed Messages with Offsets in Controller Area Network2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing offset-aware response-time analysis of Controller Area Network (CAN) for mixed messages has certain practical limitations. It is based on the assumption that the jitter and deadline of a message are smaller or equal to the transmission period. However, practical systems may contain messages with release jitter greater than the period. Consequently, the deadlines specified for such messages are also greater than their periods. In this paper, we extend the existing response-time analysis for mixed messages in CAN that are scheduled with offsets and have arbitrary jitter and deadlines. Mixed messages are implemented by several higher-level protocols based on CAN that are used in the automotive industry. The extended analysis is applicable to any higher-level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic and mixed transmission modes.

  • 109.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Extending Response-Time Analysis of Controller Area Network (CAN) with FIFO Queues for Mixed Messages2011In: the 16th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), 2011, WIP / [ed] Mammeri, Z., New York: IEEE , 2011, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing response-time analysis for Controller Area Network (CAN) messages in networks where some nodes implement FIFO queues while others implement priority queues, assumes that at every node, CAN messages are queued for transmission periodically or sporadically. However, there are a few high level protocols for CAN such as CANopen and Hagglunds Controller Area Network (HCAN) that support the transmission of mixed messages as well. A mixed message can be queued for transmission both periodically and sporadically. The existing analysis of CAN with FIFO queues does not support the analysis of mixed messages. We extend the existing response-time analysis of mixed-type CAN messages. The extended analysis can compute the response-times of mixed (periodic/ sporadic) messages in the CAN network where some nodes use FIFO queues while others use priority queues.

  • 110.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Extending Response-Time Analysis of Mixed Messages in CAN with Controllers Implementing Non-Abortable Transmit Buffers2012In: 2012 IEEE 17th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA), 2012, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing response-time analysis for messages in Controller Area Network (CAN) with controllers implementing non-abortable transmit buffers does not support mixed messages that are implemented by several high-level protocols used in the automotive industry. We present the work in progress on the extension of the existing analysis for mixed messages. The extended analysis will be applicable to any high-level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic and mixed transmission modes and implements non-abortable transmit buffers in CAN controllers.

  • 111.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Extending schedulability analysis of Controller Area Network (CAN) for mixed (periodic/sporadic) messages2011In: Proceedings of  2011 IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA)  2011, Toulouse, France: I-Tech Education and Publishing KG, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The schedulability analysis of Controller Area Network (CAN) developed by the research community is able to compute the response times of CAN messages that are queued for transmission periodically or sporadically. However, there are a few high level protocols for CAN such as CANopen and HCAN (Hagglunds Controller Area Network) that support the transmission of mixed messages as well. A mixed message can be queued for transmission both periodically and sporadically. Thus, it does not exhibit a periodic activation pattern. The existing analysis of CAN does not support the analysis of mixed messages. We extend the existing analysis to compute the response times of mixed messages. The extended analysis is generally applicable to any high level protocol for CAN that uses any combination of periodic, event and mixed (periodic/event) transmission of messages.

  • 112.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Extending Worst-Case Response-Time Analysis for Mixed Messages in Controller Area Network with Priority and FIFO Queues2014In: IEEE Access, ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 2, p. 365-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing worst case response-time analysis for controller area network (CAN) with nodesimplementing priority and First In First Out (FIFO) queues does not support mixed messages. It assumesthat a message is queued for transmission either periodically or sporadically. However, a message canalso be queued both periodically and sporadically using mixed transmission mode implemented by severalhigher level protocols for CAN that are used in the automotive industry. We extend the existing analysisfor CAN to support any higher level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic, and mixed transmissionof messages in the systems where some nodes implement priority queues, whereas others implement FIFOqueues. In order to provide a proof of concept, we implement the extended analysis in a free tool, conductan automotive-application case study, and perform comparative evaluation of the extended analysis with theexisting analysis.

  • 113.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Extracting End-to-End Timing Models from Component-Based Distributed Embedded Systems2014In: Embedded Systems Development: From Functional Models to Implementations / [ed] Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Haibo Zeng, Marco Di Natale, Peter Marwedel, Springer New York , 2014, p. 155-169Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to facilitate the end-to-end timing analysis, we present a method to extract end-to-end timing models from component-based distributed embedded systems that are developed using the existing industrial component model, Rubus Component Model (RCM). RCM is used for the development of software for vehicular embedded systems by several international companies. We discuss and solve the issues involved during the model extraction such as extraction of timing information from all nodes and networks in the system and linking of trigger and data chains in distributed transactions. We also discuss the implementation of the method for the extraction of end-to-end timing models in the Rubus Analysis Framework.

  • 114.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Extraction of End-to-end Timing Model from Component-Based Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems2011In: Time Analysis and Model-Based Design, from Functional Models to Distributed Deployments (TiMoBD) workshop located at Embedded Systems Week, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to facilitate the end-to-end timing analysis early during the development of component-based distributed real-time embedded (DRE) systems, we present the extraction of end-to-end timing models using the existing industrial component model, Rubus Component Model (RCM). Moreover, we discuss and solve the issues involved during the model extraction such as, extraction of timing information from all nodes and networks in the system, tracing of event chains in distributed transactions, and modeling of exit and entry points for RCM models to provide timing bounds for extra-model medium. We also describe the implementation of end-to-end timing model extraction in the Rubus Analysis Framework.

  • 115.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    High Precision Response Time Analysis of Tasks with Precedence Chains2010In: 22nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2010), WIP Session, Brussels, Belgium, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Response-Time Analysis (RTA) is a powerful, mature and well established schedulability analysis technique for real-time systems. In order to get better utilization of system resources, RTA should not overestimate the response time of tasks in the system. This paper addresses the problem of losing system wide information about precedence chains and overestimation found in response time of tasks when current RTA is applied to a system where precedence chain dependencies among tasks exist. We show that when there are precedence chains with one activating event in a real-time system, a task under analysis cannot experience Worst Case Execution Time of all interfering tasks at the same time when they all experience their maximum release jitter.

  • 116.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Implementation of End-to-End Latency Analysis for Component-Based Multi-Rate Real-Time Systems in Rubus-ICE2012In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, 2012, p. 165-168Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important activities during the development of multi-rate real-time systems is to analyze the end-to-end timing. In this paper, we discuss the implementation plan and preliminary work regarding the integration of end-to-end latency analysis for component-based multi-rate real-time systems (both in single-node and distributed systems) within the analysis framework of Rubus-ICE. The Rubus-ICE is an existing industrial tool suite for component-based development of distributed real-time embedded systems. Further, we present the implementation methodology to integrate two end-to-end latency semantics, i.e., data age and data reaction within the existing holistic response-time analysis plug-in of Rubus-ICE.

  • 117.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Implementation of Holistic Response-time Analysis in Rubus-ICE2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of implementing and integrating state-of-the-art real-time analysis techniques with an existing industrial tool suite for the development of Distributed Real-time Embedded (DRE) systems offers many challenges. The implementer has to not only code and implement the analysis in the tool suite, but also deal with several issues such as extraction of unambiguous timing and tracing information from the design model. A major reason behind these issues is that the models of various tools, in the tool suite, are built with different meta-models. In this paper we present an implementation of the Holistic Response-Time Analysis (HRTA) as a plug-in for an industrial tool suite Rubus-ICE that is used for the component based development of DRE systems. We discuss and solve the issues encountered and highlight the experiences gained during the process of implementation, integration and evaluation of HRTA plug-in. We provide a proof of concept by modeling an automotive application (autonomous cruise control system) using component-based development and analyzing it with HRTA plug-in.

  • 118.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Implementation of Holistic Response-Time Analysis in Rubus-ICE: Preliminary Findings, Issues and Experiences2011In: The 32nd IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS), WIP Session, Vienna, Austria, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several issues faced by a developer when holistic response-time analysis (HRTA) is implemented and integrated with a tool chain. The developer has to not only implement the analysis, but also extract unambiguous timing and tracing information from design model. We present an implementation of HRTA as a plug-in for an industrial tool suite Rubus-ICE that is used for component-based development of distributed real-time embedded systems. We present our preliminary findings about implementation issues and highlight our experiences. Moreover, we discuss our plan for testing and evaluating the integration of HRTA as a plug-in in Rubus-ICE.

  • 119.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Implementing and Evaluating Various Response-Time Analyses for Mixed Messages in CAN using MPS-CAN Analyzer2014In: 5th International Workshop on Analysis Tools and Methodologies for Embedded and Real-time Systems WATERS 2014, Madrid, Spain, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We integrate the Response Time Analysis (RTA) with offsets for mixed messages in Controller Area Network (CAN), where the CAN controllers implement abortable transmit buffers, with the MPS-CAN analyzer. Mixed messages are partly periodic and partly sporadic. They are implemented by several higher-level protocols for CAN that are used in the automotive industry. MPS-CAN analyzer is a free tool that supports several other existing RTA for periodic, sporadic and mixed messages in CAN. We perform extensive evaluation of the newly integrated analysis profile. Using the analyzer, we also perform a detailed comparative evaluation of various RTA for CAN.

  • 120.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Integrating Mixed Transmission and Practical Limitations with the Worst-Case Response-Time Analysis for Controller Area Network2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 99, p. 66-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing worst-case response-time analysis for Controller Area Network (CAN) calculates upper bounds on the response times of messages that are queued for transmission either periodically or sporadically. However, it does not support the analysis of mixed messages. These messages do not exhibit a periodic activation pattern and can be queued for transmission both periodically and sporadically. They are implemented by several higher-level protocols based on CAN that are used in the automotive industry. We extend the existing analysis to support worst-case response-time calculations for periodic and sporadic as well as mixed messages. Moreover, we integrate the effect of hardware and software limitations in the CAN controllers and device drivers such as abortable and non-abortable transmit buffers with the extended analysis. The extended analysis is applicable to any higher-level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic and mixed transmission modes.

  • 121.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Investigating techniques to model real-time network communication for the industrial component model2013In: Journal of Information, ISSN 1343-4500, E-ISSN 1344-8994, Vol. 16, no 7 B, p. 5183-5196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate several techniques to provide model- and componentbased support for real-time network communication in the industrial component model, the Rubus Component Model (RCM). RCM is used for the development of software for real-time embedded systems in the automotive domain. We select and introduce new components in RCM that will support state-of-the-practice development of Distributed Real-time Embedded (DRE) systems. We also show the applicability of our approach by modeling the automotive distributed real-time application, i.e., steerby-wire system. 

  • 122.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Many-in-one Response-Time Analyzer for Controller Area Network2013In: / [ed] Julio Medina and Tommaso Cucinotta, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing tools for the response-time analysis of Controller Area Network (CAN) support only periodic and sporadic messages. They do not analyze mixed messages which are implemented by several higher-level protocols based on CAN that are used in the automotive industry. We present a new response-time analyzer for CAN that supports periodic and sporadic as well as mixed messages. Moreover, it supports the analysis of the system where periodic and mixed messages are scheduled with offsets. It will support the analysis of all types of messages while taking into account several queueing policies and buffer limitations in the CAN controllers.

  • 123.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Modeling of Legacy Communication in Distributed Embedded Systems2011In: 2nd Workshop on Model Based Engineering for Embedded Systems Design (M-BED 2011), located at Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE) Conference, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose the addition of special purpose component types to a commercially existing component model, the Rubus Component Model (RCM). The purpose of the new component types is to encapsulate and abstract the communications protocol and configuration in a component based and model based software engineering setting. With the addition of these new component types, RCM will be able to support state-of-the practice development processes of distributed embedded systems where communication rules are defined early in the development process. We also show how an end-to-end timing model can be extracted from a distributed embedded system, modeled with RCM, to perform end-to-end timing analysis.

  • 124.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    MPS-CAN Analyzer: Integrated Implementation of Response-Time Analyses for Controller Area Network2014In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 60, no 10, p. 828-841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new response-time analyzer for Controller Area Network (CAN) that integrates and implements a number of response-time analyses which address various transmission modes and practical limitations in the CAN controllers. The existing tools for the response-time analysis of CAN support only periodic and sporadic messages. They do not analyze mixed messages which are partly periodic and partly sporadic. These messages are implemented by several higher-level protocols based on CAN that are used in the automotive industry. The new analyzer supports periodic, sporadic as well as mixed messages. It can analyze the systems where periodic and mixed messages are scheduled with offsets. It also supports the analysis of all types of messages while taking into account several queueing policies and buffer limitations in the CAN controllers such as abortable or non-abortable transmit buffers. Moreover, the tool supports the analysis of mixed, periodic and sporadic messages in the heterogeneous systems where Electronic Control Units (ECUs) implement different types of queueing policies and have different types of buffer limitations in the CAN controllers. We conduct a case study of a heterogeneous application from the automotive domain to show the usability of the tool. Moreover, we perform a detailed evaluation of the implemented analyses.

  • 125.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Response Time Analysis for Mixed Messages in CAN Supporting Transmission Abort Requests2012In: 7th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2012 - Conference Proceedings, 2012, p. 291-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing response-time analysis for messages in Controller Area Network (CAN) with CAN controllers facilitating transmission abort requests in transmission buffers does not support mixed messages. The existing analysis assumes that a message is queued for transmission either periodically or sporadically. However, a message can also be queued both periodically and sporadically using a mixed transmission mode implemented by several high-level protocols for CAN used in the industry today. We extend the existing analysis for mixed messages in CAN which is generally applicable to any high-level protocol that uses periodic, sporadic and mixed transmission modes and supports transmission abort requests in CAN controllers.

  • 126.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Response Time Analysis with Offsets for Mixed Messages in CAN Supporting Transmission Abort Requests2014In: The 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA'14, 2014, p. Article number 7005167-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing worst-case response-time analysis for Controller Area Network (CAN) does not support mixed messages that are scheduled with offsets in the systems where the CAN controllers implement abortable transmit buffers. Mixed messages are partly periodic and partly sporadic. These messages are implemented by several higher-level protocols based on CAN that are used in the automotive industry. Moreover, most of the CAN controllers implement abortable transmit buffers. We extend the existing analysis with offsets for mixed messages in CAN. The extended analysis is applicable to any higher-level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic, and mixed transmission of messages where periodic and mixed messages can be scheduled with offsets in the systems that implement abortable transmit buffers in the CAN controllers. The extended analysis also supports gateway nodes in CAN by considering arbitrary jitter and deadlines for the messages. We also perform comparative evaluation of the existing and extended analyses.

  • 127.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Response Time Analysis with Offsets for Mixed Messages in CAN with Buffer Limitations2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing worst-case response-time analysis for Controller Area Network (CAN) does not support mixed messages that are scheduled with offsets in the systems where the CAN controllers implement abortable transmit buffers. Mixed messages are partly periodic and partly sporadic. These messages are implemented by several higher-level protocols based on CAN that are used in the automotive industry. Moreover, most of the CAN controllers implement abortable transmit buffers.We extend the existing analysis with offsets for mixed messages in CAN. The extended analysis is applicable to any higher-level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic, and mixed transmission of messages where periodic and mixed messages can be scheduled with offsets in the systems that implement abortable transmit buffers in the CAN controllers.

  • 128.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Response-Time Analysis of Mixed Messages in Controller Area Network with Priority- and FIFO-Queued Nodes2012In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, 2012, p. 23-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Controller Area Network (CAN) is a widely used real-time network in automotive domain. We identify that the existing response-time analysis for messages in CAN with some of the connected nodes implementing priority queues while others implementing FIFO queues does not support the analysis of mixed messages. The existing analysis assumes that a message is queued for transmission either periodically or sporadically. However, a message can also be queued both periodically and sporadically using a mixed transmission mode implemented by several high-level protocols for CAN used in the industry today. We extend the existing analysis which is generally applicable to any high-level protocol for CAN (with priority- and FIFO-queued nodes) that uses periodic, sporadic, and mixed transmission of messages.

  • 129.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Response-Time Analysis of Mixed-Type Controller Area Network (CAN) Messages2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing response-time analysis of Controller Area Network (CAN) can compute the response times of CAN messages that are queued for transmission periodically or sporadically. However, there are a few high level protocols for CAN such as CANopen and Hagglunds Controller Area Network (HCAN) that support the transmission of mixed messages as well. A mixed message can be queued for transmission both periodically and sporadically. Thus, it does not exhibit a periodic activation pattern. The existing analysis of CAN does not support mixed messages. We extend the existing analysis to compute the response times of mixed messages. The extended analysis is generally applicable to any high level protocol for CAN that uses any combination of periodic, event and mixed (periodic/ sporadic) transmission of CAN messages.

  • 130.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Support for End-to-End Response-Time and Delay Analysis in the Industrial Tool Suite: Implementation Issues, Experiences and a Case Study2013In: Computer Science and Information Systems, ISSN 1820-0214, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 453-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss the implementation of the state-of-the-art end-to-end response-time and delay analysis as two individual plug-ins for the existing industrial tool suite Rubus-ICE. The tool suite is used for the development of software for vehicular embedded systems by several international companies. We describe and solve the problems encoun-tered and highlight the experiences gained during the process of imple-mentation, integration and evaluation of the analysis plug-ins. Finally, we provide a proof of concept by modeling the automotive-application case study with the existing industrial model (the Rubus Component Model), and analyzing it with the implemented analysis plug-ins.

  • 131.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Support for Holistic Response-time Analysis in an Industrial Tool Suite: Implementation Issues, Experiences and a Case Study2012In: Proceedings - 2012 IEEE 19th International Conference and Workshops on Engineering of Computer-Based Systems, ECBS 2012, IEEE Computer Society, 2012, p. 210-221Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of implementing and integrating state-of-the-art real-time analysis techniques with an existing industrial tool suite for the development of Distributed Real-time Embedded (DRE) systems offers many challenges. The implementer has to not only code and implement the analysis in the tool suite, but also deal with several issues such as extraction of unambiguous timing and tracing information from the design model. In this paper we present an implementation of the Holistic Response-Time Analysis (HRTA) as a plug-in for an industrial tool suite Rubus-ICE that is used for component-based development of DRE systems. We discuss and solve the issues encountered and highlight the experiences gained during the process of implementation, integration and evaluation of HRTA plug-in. We also provide a proof of concept by modeling an automotive application (autonomous cruise control system) using component-based development and analyzing it with HRTA plug-in.

  • 132.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards Extraction of Interoperable Timing Models from Component-Based Vehicular Distributed Embedded Systems2014In: Proceedings, International Conference on Information Technology: ITNG 2014, IEEE , 2014, p. 655-659Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to support the end-to-end timing analysis at various abstraction levels and development phases, the end-to-end timing models should be extracted from models of the applications in such a way that they are interoperable. We discuss the challenges and issues that are faced when the timingmodels are extracted at various abstraction levels during model-and component-based development ofvehicular distributed embedded systems. We also present preliminary guidelines and solutions to address these challenges.

  • 133.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards modeling and holistic timing analysis of industrial component-based DRE systems2012In: Proceedings - 2012 IEEE 19th International Conference and Workshops on Engineering of Computer-Based Systems, ECBS 2012, 2012, p. 283-292Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a model- and component-based approach for communications- oriented development of Distributed Real-time Embedded (DRE) systems with a support for legacy communication protocols, legacy nodes and Holistic Response Time Analysis (HRTA). Because an end-to-end timing model should be available to perform HRTA, we also present a method to extract such models from component-based DRE systems. Moreover, we extend the existing analysis of Controller Area Network to support mixed messages in the system with priority- and FIFO-queued nodes. A mixed message represents a common transmission pattern implemented by some high-level protocols used in the industry. We also provide a proof of concept by extending the existing industrial model, i.e., Rubus Component Model, implementing the HRTA along with the extended analysis in an industrial tool suite, i.e., Rubus-ICE, and conducting an automotive-application case study.

  • 134.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards Translation of Timing Constraints during Vehicular Embedded Systems Development2014In: Component-Based Software Engineering and Software Architecture CompArch, Lille, France, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the vehicular industry, different models are used at various abstraction levels and phases during the development of embedded real-time systems. Among other artifacts, timing requirements and specified timing constraints should be unambiguously translated among these models at various abstraction levels. In this context, we aim to provide unambiguous translation of timing constraints among various models, methodologies and languages for vehicular embedded real-time systems. This allows the holistic timing analysis to be performed not only at the implementation level but also at higher abstraction levels. As a first step, we propose translation of timing constraints, that are specified at higher abstraction levels using the Timing Augmented Description Language (TADL2), to an industrial model the Rubus Component Model.

  • 135.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Tracing Event Chains for Holistic Response-Time Analysis of Component-Based Distributed Real-Time Systems2011In: ACM SIGBED Review, ISSN 1551-3688, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 48-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss the problem of tracing event chains (distributed transactions) while extracting an end-to-end timing model from an existing industrial component model, the Rubus Component Model (RCM). RCM supports component-based development of distributed embedded and real-time systems. The purpose of extracting an end-to-end timing model is to perform the holistic response-time analysis of the modeled distributed real-time application. We present a solution for RCM by introducing special-purpose generic components to it. We believe that the solution is also suitable for other component models that use a pipe-and-filter style for component interconnection.

  • 136.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Translating End-to-End Timing Requirements to Timing Analysis Model in Component-Based Distributed Real-Time Systems2012In: ACM SIGBED Review, ISSN 1551-3688, Vol. 9, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Often, component-based real-time systems are modeled with trigger and data chains. The end-to-end timing requirements on trigger chains are different from those on data chains. For a trigger chain, the interest lies in the calculation of holistic response time and its comparison with end-to-end deadline. Whereas, the schedulability of a data chain requires a comparison between its end-to-end latencies and corresponding deadlines. We discuss the problem of translating end-to-end timing requirements unambiguously from component-based real-time systems into timing analysis models which are required as input by the analysis tools. We also provide preliminary guidelines for such translations in the existing industrial tool suite.

  • 137.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Worst-Case Response-Time Analysis for Mixed Messages with Offsets in Controller Area Network2012In: IEEE 17th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA), 2012, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing response-time analysis for Controller Area Network (CAN) does not support mixed messages that are scheduled with offsets. Mixed messages are implemented by several high-level protocols for CAN that are used in the automotive industry. We extend the existing offset-based analysis which is applicable to any high-level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic and mixed transmission of messages. Moreover, we implement the extended analysis as a standalone simulator that will be integrated as a plug-in with the existing industrial tool suite (Rubus-ICE). The experiments, that we performed, indicate that it is possible to achieve up to 4.48% improvement in schedulability when mixed messages are scheduled with offsets.

  • 138.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Analyzable Modeling of Legacy Communication in Component-Based Distributed Embedded Systems2011In: Proceedings of the 37th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2011; Oulu; 30 August 2011 through 2 September 2011 / [ed] Stefan Biffl, Mika Koivuluoma, Pekka Abrahamsson, Markku Oivo, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present extensions to the existing industrial component model Rubus Component Model (RCM). By introducing special purpose components to encapsulate and abstract the communication protocols in distributed embedded systems we allow use of legacy nodes and legacy protocols in a component-based and model-based software engineering environment. With the addition of these components, RCM will be able to support state-of-the-practice development processes of distributed embedded systems where communication rules are defined early in the development process. The proposed extension also allows model-based and component-based development of new nodes that are deployed in the legacy systems that use predefined communication rules. We also demonstrate how an end-to-end timing model can be extracted from a distributed embedded system modeled with extended RCM. The extracted model is then used to perform an end-to-end timing analysis that we implemented in the Rubus Analysis Framework.

  • 139.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Gålnander, Mattias
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt Lennart
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Modeling of Legacy Distributed Embedded Systems at Vehicle Abstraction Level2016In: Proceedings - 2016 19th International ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on Component-Based Software Engineering, CBSE 2016, 2016, p. 7-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large majority of existing software development approaches in the vehicle industrial domain have a limited or no modeling support to fully reuse legacy nodes at the highest abstraction, called the vehicle level. In this paper, we introduce a new technique for model-and component-based development of vehicular distributed embedded systems at the vehicle level. The proposed technique supports not only modeling of crude nodes or Electronic Control Units but also modeling of legacy nodes whose software architectures can be partially or completely reused. As a proof of concept, we implement the modeling technique in an industrial model, the Rubus Component Model. In order to show the usability of our approach, we model a vehicular application using the extended component model and its tool suite.

  • 140.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Tomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Kurt-Lennart, Lundbäck
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Supporting timing analysis of vehicular embedded systems through the refinement of timing constraints2017In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The collective use of several models and tools at various abstraction levels and phases during the development of vehicular distributed embedded systems poses many challenges. Within this context, this paper targets the challenges that are concerned with the unambiguous refinement of timing requirements, constraints and other timing information among various abstraction levels. Such information is required by the end-to-end timing analysis engines to provide pre-run-time verification about the predictability of these systems. The paper proposes an approach to represent and refine such information among various abstraction levels. As a proof of concept, the approach provides a representation of the timing information at the higher levels using the models that are developed with EAST-ADL and Timing Augmented Description Language. The approach then refines the timing information for the lower abstraction levels. The approach exploits the Rubus Component Model at the lower level to represent the timing information that cannot be clearly specified at the higher levels, such as trigger paths in distributed chains. A vehicular-application case study is conducted to show the applicability of the proposed approach.

  • 141. Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Supporting Early Modeling and End-to-end Timing Analysis of Vehicular Distributed Real-Time Applications2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current model- and component-based development approaches for automotive distributed real-time systems have non-existing, or limited, support for modeling network traffic originating from outside the vehicle, i.e., vehicle-to- vehicle, vehicle-to-infrastructure, and cloud-based applications. We present novel modeling and analysis techniques to allow early end-to-end timing analysis of distributed applications based on their models and simple models of network traffic that originates from outside of the model. As a proof of concept, we implement these techniques in the existing industrial tool suite Rubus- ICE which is used for the development of software for vehicular embedded systems by several international companies. We also conduct an application-case study to validate our techniques.

  • 142.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Translating timing constraints during vehicular distributed embedded systems development2014In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 1281, 2014, p. 57-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The end-to-end response-time and delay analysis can verify timing requirements specified on vehicular distributed embedded systems without performing exhaustive testing. For this purpose, the timing requirements and constraints should be unambiguously translated among several models, methodologies and tools that are used at various abstraction levels and phases during the industrial development of these systems. Within this context, we translate timing constraints that are specified at higher abstraction levels using the Timing Augmented Description Language (TADL2) to an industrial model the Rubus Component Model (RCM). We also discuss corresponding extensions in RCM and perform a case study to validate our approach.

  • 143.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems.
    Wallin, Peter
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Automated Model Translations for Vehicular Real-Time Embedded Systems with Preserved Semantics2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are investigating how research oriented and/or standardized component models intended for real-time embedded systems in the segment of construction-equipment vehicles can be used together with the component models actually used in the industry today. Our aim is to provide both a functional description of the system as well as an analyzable and a resource-efficient model. We seek to bridge the semantic gap that exists among models like EAST-ADL, AUTOSAR, SysML, Rubus Component Model (RCM), Simulink, TADL and TIMMO.

  • 144.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Gålnander, Mattias
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    End-to-end Timing Analysis of Black-box Models in Legacy Vehicular Distributed Embedded Systems2015In: 21st IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications RTCSA'15, 2015, p. 149-158Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of existing techniques and tools, used in the vehicular industry, support the extraction of end-to-end timing models. Such models are used to perform timing analysis of distributed embedded systems at an abstraction level that is close to their implementation. This paper takes a first initiative to provide such a support at a higher level of abstraction. At such a level, the system can be modeled with inter-connected black-box models of nodes whose internal software architectures may not be available. However, most of the design decisions about network communication are available. This represents a typical scenario in the vehicular industry where most of the artifacts are reused from either legacy systems, other projects or previous releases of the vehicle. In this paper we present an approach for the extraction of end-to-end timing models at the highest level of abstraction used in the vehicular domain. Using these models, end-to-end path delay analysis of the systems can be performed at a higher abstraction level and at an early phase during the development. As a proof of concept we implement this technique in an industrial tool suite, Rubus-ICE, that is used for the development of these systems by several international companies. Using the extended tool, we conduct a vehicular-application case study.

  • 145.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Towards Efficient Development of Embedded Real-Time Systems, the Component Based Approach2006In: The 2006 International Conference on Embedded Systems & Applications (ESA'06), 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present our joint view for efficient development of efficient and dependable ERTS (Embedded Real-Time Systems). This view is based on the three main viewpoints of (1) the software designer, (2) the analysis tools, and (3) the code synthesis tools/run-time environment.

    Our position is that any approach that is to achieve (i) decreased development effort, (ii) increased software quality, and (iii) efficient resource utilization, needs to take all three viewpoints into consideration.

    We exemplify how our work with execution-model independent software components fits into this joint view and outline some research directions.

  • 146.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Efficient Resonse-Time Analysis for Tasks with Offset2004In: Proceedings - IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, 2004, p. 462-471Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method that enables an efficient implementation of the approximative response-timeanalysis (RTA) for tasks with offsets presented by Tindell [(1992)] and Palencia Gutierrez et al. [(1998)]. The method allows for significantly faster implementations of schedulability tools using RTA. Furthermore, reducing computation time, from tens of milliseconds to just a fraction of a millisecond, as we show, is a step towards online RTA in for example admission control systems. We formally prove that our reformulation of earlier presented equations is correct and allow us to statically represent parts of the equation, reducing the calculations during fix-point iteration. We show by simulations that the speedup when using our method is substantial. When task sets grow beyond a trivial number of tasksand/or transactions a speed-up of more than 100 times (10 transactions and 10 tasks/transaction) compared to the original analysis can be obtained.

  • 147.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Response-Time Analysis for Transactions with Execution-Time Dependencies2011In: 19th International Conference on Real-Time and Network Systems (RTNS), 2011, p. 139-146Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mature scientific research results in the area of schedulability analysis have had a very limited impact on real industrial applications. This, we believe, is that current models are not able to accurately capture the complex temporal behavior of actual systems. In this paper we address a common assumption made in schedulability analysis methods that tasks can experience their worst case execution time independently from each other. This assumption is not very realistic for real systems since tasks collaboratively often perform certain functionality and thus depend on each other. Our aim, in this paper, is to capture execution time dependencies between tasks and to take advantage of this information when performing response time analysis. We introduce the concept of execution modes to the task model with offsets (transactional task model). The execution modes are used as a generic way to specify temporal dependencies between tasks that execute within a transaction. We then present extensions to the Response-Time Analysis (RTA) theory to analyze transactions with execution modes.

  • 148.
    Möller, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fredriksson, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Industrial Requirements on Component Technologies for Vehicular Control Systems2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software component technologies for automotive applications are desired due to the envisioned benefits in reuse, variant handling, and porting; thus, facilitating both efficient development and increased quality of software products. Component based software development has had success in the PC application domain, but requirements are different in the embedded domain and existing technologies does not match. Hence, software component technologies have not yet been generally accepted by embedded-systems industries.

    In order to better understand why this is the case, we present two separate case-studies together with an evaluation of the existing component technologies suitable for embedded control systems.

    The first case-study presents a set of requirements based on industrial needs, which are deemed decisive for introducing a component technology. Furthermore, in the second study, we asked the companies involved to grade these requirements.

    Then, we use these requirements to compare existing component technologies suitable for embedded systems. One of our conclusions is that none of the studied technologies is a perfect match for the industrial requirements. Furthermore, no single technology stands out as being a significantly better choice than the others; each technology has its own pros and cons.

    The results can be used to guide modifications and/or extensions to existing component technologies in order to make them better suited for industrial deployment in the automotive domain. The results can also serve to guide other software engineering research by showing the most desired areas within component-based software engineering.

  • 149.
    Nazari, Najmeh
    et al.
    University of Tehran, Tehran , Iran.
    Loni, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ES (Embedded Systems).
    E. Salehi, Mostafa
    University of Tehran, Tehran , Iran.
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    TOT-Net: An Endeavor Toward Optimizing Ternary Neural Networks2019In: 22nd Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design DSD 2019, 2019, p. 305-312, article id 8875067Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High computation demands and big memory resources are the major implementation challenges of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) especially for low-power and resource-limited embedded devices. Many binarized neural networks are recently proposed to address these issues. Although they have significantly decreased computation and memory footprint, they have suffered from accuracy loss especially for large datasets. In this paper, we propose TOT-Net, a ternarized neural network with [-1, 0, 1] values for both weights and activation functions that has simultaneously achieved a higher level of accuracy and less computational load. In fact, first, TOT-Net introduces a simple bitwise logic for convolution computations to reduce the cost of multiply operations. To improve the accuracy, selecting proper activation function and learning rate are influential, but also difficult. As the second contribution, we propose a novel piece-wise activation function, and optimized learning rate for different datasets. Our findings first reveal that 0.01 is a preferable learning rate for the studied datasets. Third, by using an evolutionary optimization approach, we found novel piece-wise activation functions customized for TOT-Net. According to the experimental results, TOT-Net achieves 2.15%, 8.77%, and 5.7/5.52% better accuracy compared to XNOR-Net on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and ImageNet top-5/top-1 datasets, respectively.

  • 150.
    Neander, Jonas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansen, Ewa
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    A TDMA scheduler for the AROS architecture2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) scheduler for the Asymmetric communication and ROuting in Sensor networks architecture (AROS). The scheduler enables dynamic network configurations of the AROS architecture. We show that asymmetric multihop communication with dynamic network configurations in AROS prolongs the lifetime of sensor nodes in long distance networks compared to the LEACH architecture.

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