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  • 101.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Solution for Industrial Device Commissioning along with the Initial Trust Establishment2013In: IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference), 2013, p. 5570-5575Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial device commissioning along with the initial distribution of keying material is an important step for the security of industrial plants. An efficient key management system is required in cryptography for both symmetric key or public/private key encryption. Most of the key management system use either pre-installed shared keys or install keys using out-of-band channels. In addition to that, the sensor devices both wired and wireless need to be verified whether it is connected to the correct physical entity since these devices are linked with the physical world. Therefore in industrial plants there is a requirement to automate the trust bootstrapping process, where the devices from upper level in communication network will be aware that the communication device from below level is trusted. In this work, we present a workflow that uses the existing trust mechanism on employees to enable the initial bootstrap of trust in the devices, and also optionally support the commissioning engineer to download the required configuration data in the device as well. Thus, this approach presents a unique solution to the initial trust distribution problem reusing the existing features and facilities in industrial plants

  • 102.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Tremlet, Christophe
    Maxim Integrated.
    Reusability assessment of financial card readers’ security mechanisms in process control devices2013In: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, 2013, p. 494-499Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The security of industrial plants has gained a lot of importance since the last decade. The reason is that the different components from different network layers of automation systems have become inter-connected to support fast and cost-effective decisions at the management level. This inter-connectivity has posed many security challenges in this industrial segment. To achieve effective security mechanisms in industrial plants, there is a need to learn from other existing domains, matured in terms of security, whether existing matured security solutions can be reused in the industrial automation domain. The financial sector is a segment where security has been carefully managed since a long time, as security is very important for that sector. Therefore it would be beneficial to evaluate the security mechanisms present in financial card readers which are involved in financial transactions because these card readers have many similar characteristics with industrial process control devices. In this paper, the security requirements for both the field devices of industrial plants and card reader terminals of the financial sector have been evaluated to understand the security gap so that we can identify the areas where the security needs of industrial plants must be improved and where some of the existing security features of card reader terminals can be reused in field devices of industrial plants.

  • 103.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    IoT enabled monitoring of patients’ environmental parameters supported by OpenWSN, OpenMote, and relational databases2018In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2018 MTD 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 104.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Data flow and collection for remote patients monitoring: From wireless sensors through a relational database to a web interface in real time2017In: IFMBE Proceedings, Springer Verlag , 2017, p. 89-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reliable, secure, and real-time data collection from sensor devices to the end-user is an open research problem. Many research works have been focusing on the wireless communication level to obtain quality of service. This paper widens the problem, and provides a comprehensive system design, where it covers all the elements in a remote health monitoring application. The system collects measurements in a relational database, either through a C#.NET or a LabVIEW program. The end-user is able to observe either real-time data (i.e. with insignificant delay) or processed historical data on any web browser. We have shown that the inclusion of the relational database may impose a need for the data to be buffered before inserting into the database within a single transaction, but the buffering does not entail delays bigger than 50 ms. 

  • 105.
    Tran, Hung Vinh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB, Corp Res, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Malardalen Univ, Sch Innovat Design & Engn, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Tran, Ha-Vu
    Univ Quebec, ETS Engn Sch, LACIME Lab, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    RF energy harvesting: an analysis of wireless sensor networks for reliable communication2019In: Wireless networks, ISSN 1022-0038, E-ISSN 1572-8196, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 185-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider a wireless energy harvesting network consisting of one hybrid access point (HAP) having multiple antennas, and multiple sensor nodes each equipped with a single antenna. In contrast to conventional uplink wireless networks, the sensor nodes in the considered network have no embedded energy supply. They need to recharge the energy from the wireless signals broadcasted by the HAP in order to communicate. Based on the point-to-point and multipoints-to-point model, we propose two medium access control protocols, namely harvesting at the header of timeslot (HHT) and harvesting at the dedicated timeslot (HDT), in which the sensor nodes harvest energy from the HAP in the downlink, and then transform its stored packet into bit streams to send to the HAP in the uplink. Considering a deadline for each packet, the cumulative distribution functions of packet transmission time of the proposed protocols are derived for the selection combining and maximal ratio combining (MRC) techniques at the HAP. Subsequently, analytical expressions for the packet timeout probability and system reliability are obtained to analyze the performance of proposed protocols. Analytical results are validated by numerical simulations. The impacts of the system parameters, such as energy harvesting efficiency coefficient, sensor positions, transmit signal-to-noise ratio, and the length of energy harvesting time on the packet timeout probability and the system reliability are extensively investigated. Our results show that the performance of the HDT protocol outperforms the one using the HHT protocol, and the HDT protocol with the MRC technique has the best performance and it can be a potential solution to enhance the reliability for wireless sensor networks.

  • 106.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    FIREWORK: Fog orchestration for secure IoT networks2019In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, vol 284, 2019, p. 311-317Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in Internet of Things (IoT) connectivity have made IoT devices prone to Cyber attacks. Moreover, vendors are eager to provide autonomous and open source device, which in turn adds more security threat to the system. In this paper, we consider network traffic attack, and provide a Fog-assisted solution, dubbed as FIRE- WORK, that reduces risk of security attacks by periodically monitor- ing network traffic, and applying traffic isolation techniques to overcome network congestion and performance degradation.

  • 107.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Network Management in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network Applications2016In: 3rd Smart Cloud Networks & Systems Conference SCNS'16, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing demand in designing heterogeneous networks, where various low-power wireless radios such as ZigBee and Bluetooth devices coexist, while sensing devices may generate traffic with different intervals. In this work, we devise an architecture of a cross layer controller, encompassing a software defined radio at the data plane to manage radio access, and a software defined networking at the control plane to manage data flow, while considering the application requirements. The overall architecture aims at simplifying system management and network re-configuration, while providing better network performance.

  • 108.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Evaluating a Remote Health Monitoring Application Powered by Bluetooth2019In: 11th International Conference on e-Health e-Health'19, 2019, p. 67-74-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has become widely accepted that the Internet of Things (IoT) devices and technologies are the key enablers for many emerging applications including remote health monitoring. Various physiological sensing devices have been designed and equipped with different radio technologies. The choice of radio hardware plays an important role on the overall performance of the system since it imposes some limitations on the delivered quality of service. Hence, it is critical to properly evaluate the embedded radio technology based on the application requirements. In this paper, we perform extensive experiments on Shimmer physiological sensors that is one of the leading providers of wearable wireless sensor products powered by Bluetooth classic radio. Shimmer sensors are designed and used for monitoring various human health information such as temperature, heart rate, movement, etc. We review and investigate different scenarios in which Shimmer devices are used by medical practitioners to monitor the ECG signal and the movement of a human. This study shows that the Shimmer device can provide reliable data delivery by using a specific configuration. For instance, employing a maximum number of seven Shimmer devices attached on a body at home environment within the range of at most 5 m and with the sampling rate of 512 Hz would result in a reasonable quality of service, while varying these parameters may degrade the overall performance. Mobility of human body, noisy environment, and higher packet transmission rates are some examples that will reduce the system quality. © Copyright 2019 IADIS Press All rights reserved.

  • 109.
    Valero, Miguel Ángel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Velasco, J. R.
    Universidad de Alcalá, Spain.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Personalisation of intelligent homecare services adapted to children with motor impairments2014In: Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence. Personalisation and User Adapted Services: 8th International Conference, UCAmI 2014, Belfast, UK, December 2-5, 2014. Proceedings, 2014, p. 476-479Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambient Intelligence could support innovative application domains like motor impairments´ detection at the home environment. This research aims to prevent neurodevelopmental disorders through the natural interaction of the children with embedded intelligence daily life objects, like home furniture and toys. Designed system uses an interoperable platform to provide two intelligent interrelated home healthcare services: monitoring of children´s abilities and completion of early stimulation activities. A set of sensors, which are embedded within the rooms, toys and furniture, allows private data gathering about the child´s interaction with the environment. This information feeds a reasoning subsystem, which encloses an ontology of neurodevelopment items, and adapts the service to the age and acquisition of expected abilities. Next, the platform proposes customized stimulation services by taking advantage of the existing facilities at the child´s environment. The result integrates Embedded Sensor Systems for Health at Mälardalen University with UPM Smart Home, for adapted services delivery.

  • 110.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Filip, Barac
    Mid Sweden University.
    Mikael, Gidlund
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Mats, Björkman
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Flexible Error Correction Scheme for IEEE 802.15.4-based Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2012In: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 2012, p. 1172-1177Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise and interference make a substantial impacton wireless transmissions in industrial environments, resulting infrequent erroneous packet deliveries. Existing industrial communication standards adopt the IEEE 802.15.4 specification, which provides no means to correct the detected errors. We propose an IEEE 802.15.4-compliant Forward Error Correction-basedapproach that can be easily retrofitted into the standard withoutthe need for any kind of interaction with chip manufacturers orstandardization bodies. We evaluate the approach on link- and network-level scenarios. Improvement of reliability by using FEC can yield multiple benefits: a reduced number of retransmissions,and lower average latency, to name a few. With respect to the uncoded system, the proposed solution provides identical codinggain as the traditional FEC method, at a significantly lower computational load of decoding.

  • 111.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gidlund, M.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Åkerberg, J.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Reliable real-time routing protocol for industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks2013In: Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE 8th Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, ICIEA 2013, 2013, p. 1895-1901Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The control applications of Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (IWSANs) are subject to strict requirements in terms of reliability and end-to-end delay. Transmission failures or deadline misses may seriously degrade the quality of control. In this paper, we propose a reliable real-time routing protocol in IWSANs for industrial control purpose. Node weight values and related node lists are utilized to provide directional information. Packet forwarding is based on a controlled flooding mechanism with several forwarding criteria. Performance evaluations via simulations show that significant improvements of reliability, real-time performance, network recovery time, and resource utilization efficiency can be achieved by our proposed routing protocol, compared with traditional routing protocols.

  • 112.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB, Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB, Corporate Research.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Low Jitter Scheduling for Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks2013In: 39TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY (IECON 2013): 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2013, p. 5594-5599Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (IWSANs) in the industrial automation is a growing trend due to flexibility, mobility and low cost. According to the current standards, such as WirelessHART and ISA100.11a, multi-channel TDMA transmission is included for reliable and deterministic communication. In this paper, we clarify the dependence of TDMA scheduling for sensors and actuators and point out the low correlation between the scheduling delay and the overall quality of control, and focus on reducing jitter in scheduling for improving quality of control and system stability. We propose a scheduling algorithm, aiming for lowing jitter and compare it with two traditional real-time scheduling schemes. Our simulation results exhibit significantly lower jitters by applying our scheduling policy than those two traditional scheduling schemes.

  • 113.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Performance Evaluations and Measurements of the REALFLOW Routing Protocol in Wireless Industrial Networks2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, p. 1410-1420, article id 7506102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (IWSANs) offer significant advantages to industrial automation. However, high reliability demands and hard communication deadlines pose challenges to its practical applications. To achieve this goal, flooding is considered as a promising approach due to multipath diversity and simplicity. In this paper, an enhanced version of REALFLOW, a flooding-based routing protocol for IWSANs is presented. Compared to the original REALFLOW, network management and network stability are improved. REALFLOW is compared with four other flooding protocols via simulations. The simulation results show that REALFLOW has better performance in terms of reliability and consecutive transmission errors when considering deadlines. Compared with normal flooding, REALFLOW achieves comparable reliability performance with decreased redundancy. Measurements from a prototype implementation conducted in an industrial manufacturing workshop reveal that high reliability and low application failure rates can be achieved, giving more confidence in providing reliable wireless sensing and actuating for industrial automation

  • 114.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Reliable and Low Latency Transmission in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2011In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 5, p. 866-873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major advantages with Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) in process automation are cable cost reduction, enhanced flexibility and enabling new emerging applications such as wireless control. However, transmission over the wireless channel is prone to noise and interference which causes packets to be erroneous received at the receiver node. To improve the link reliability in lossy channels, error correcting codes are commonly used. In this paper we discuss the use of forward error correction (FEC) codes in IWSN in order not only to improve the link reliability but also to reduce the number of retransmissions in harsh industrial environments. We propose a FEC scheme suitable for MAC level protection where the packet is divided into groups and encoded using systematic FEC codes. We have implemented different FEC codes in a typical IWSN chip to evaluate memory consumption and to ensure that we are not violating the strict timing rules for acknowledgment. Our results show that some FEC codes are suitable to be implemented in a typical IWSN node while several fails due to large memory footprint or to long encoding and decoding time.

  • 115.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Reliable RSS-based Routing Protocol for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2012In: IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society: Proceeding, 2012, p. 3231-3237Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High reliability and real-time performance are main research challenges in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs). Existing routing protocols applied in IWSNs are either overcomplicated or fail to fulfill the stringent requirements. In this paper, we propose a reliable and flexible Received Signal Strength-based routing scheme. Our proposed solution can achieve a seamless transition in the event of topology change and can be applied in different industrial environments. The simulation results show that our solution outperforms conventional routing protocols in both reliability and latency. Furthermore, the result also proves that the changes of the network topology have no impact on data transmissions of other nodes by our scheme, whereas conventional routing protocols are shown to fail to recover the network in a short time. Finally, due to dynamic weighting mechanism, the proposed scheme is verified to achieve significantly higher reliability in scenarios with obstacles and avoid installation troubles, compared to location-based flooding scheme. Thus, our proposed scheme is considered to be more suitable for IWSNs than other routing protocols.

  • 116.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pang, ZB
    Corp Res, ABB AB, Sweden.
    Gidlund, M
    Corp Res, ABB AB, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Corp Res, ABB AB, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    REALFLOW: Reliable Real-Time Flooding-Based Routing Protocol for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2014In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, p. art. nbr: 936379-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless technologies have been increasingly applied in industrial automation systems due to flexible installation, mobility, and cost reduction. Unlike traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs), industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs), when expanding from wireless monitoring to wireless control, have more stringent requirements on reliability, real-time performance, and robustness in a number of industrial applications. Successive transmission failures or deadline misses in these applications may severely degrade the control quality and result in serious economic losses and safety problems. Therefore, when deploying IWSNs in harsh industrial environments, to achieve reliable and deterministic end-to-end transmissions is critically important. In this paper, we explain the primary challenges of designing appropriate routing protocols and present a reliable real-time flooding-based routing protocol for IWSNs (REALFLOW). Instead of traditional routing tables, related node lists are generated in a simple distributed manner, serving for packet forwarding. A controlled flooding mechanism is applied to improve both reliability and real-time performance. A seamless transition in the event of topology change can be achieved by REALFLOW. Performance evaluations via simulations verify that significant improvements of reliability, real-time performance, and network recovery time can be achieved by REALFLOW, compared with traditional routing protocols.

  • 117.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Zheng, T.
    Beijing Jiaotong University.
    Pang, Z.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Gidlund, M.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Åkerberg, J.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Reliable flooding-based downlink transmissions for Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks2013In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2013, p. 1377-1384Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable downlink transmissions from the sink to actuators for control data in Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (IWSANs) are extremely important for industrial control applications. However, on the network layer, existing routing protocols fail to fully support downlink transmissions for actuators, due to the insufficiency of reliability, robustness and real-time performance. In this paper, we propose a reliable flooding-based routing scheme focusing on downlink transmissions. Packets are forwarded to actuators according to weight values and the related node lists in intermediate nodes. Performance evaluations via simulations show that our protocol significantly outperforms traditional routing protocols in terms of reliability, transmission latency, network recovery time and network resource usage. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 118.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Corp Res, ABB AB, Sweden.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Corp Res, ABB AB, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Performance Evaluation and Measurement of REALFLOW Routing Protocol in WirelessIndustrial NetworksIn: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks(IWSAN) offer significant advantages to industrial automationsystems. Requirements on reliability are highly demanding formany industrial applications. Due to multipath diversity andsimplicity, flooding is an promising approach to provide reliabletransmissions.

    In this paper, a flooding-based routing protocol for IWSAN(REALFLOW) is upgraded based on previous research, aimingfor high reliability. To provide efficient and directionaltransmission, a controlled flooding-based mechanism is applied.Network management is further improved for better efficiencyand stability. REALFLOW is first compared with other fourflooding protocols via simulation. The results exhibit that REALFLOWoutperforms other advanced flooding protocols interms of reliability and consecutive transmission errors. Evencompared with pure flooding, REALFLOW achieves comparablereliability performance with decreased forwarding redundancy.To demonstrate the solution promising in reality, a workableIWSAN prototype is built, as well as the full implementation ofthe whole protocol stack including REALFLOW. A measurementconducted in a industrial manufacturing workshop reveals thathigh reliability and low application failure probability can beachieved, which brings more confidence of providing both reliablewireless sensing and actuating for industrial automation systems.

  • 119.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Realization and Measurements of Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial automation can benefit from applying wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSAN) on cost reduction, mobility and flexibility. However, wireless solutions are more prone to interferences compared to wired ones. In order to avoid production losses and to keep the revenues at an anticipated level, it is of utmost importance for WSANs to meet the stringent requirements from industrial automation, such as high reliability and real-time performance. A great number of research efforts were taken in this field based on simulations, but simulation results may not show sufficient confidence. Existing implementations and products compatible with the standards may still fail to provide reliable and real-time communication. Therefore, in this paper we built a prototype of industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks (IWSAN) and implemented a protocol stack, aiming for providing reliable and real-time communication for mission-critical industrial applications. Afterwards, we deployed our prototype and conducted measurements in real industrial environments. Our measurement results exhibited possibility of applying IWSANs for industrial applications and brought more evidence to our industry.

  • 120.
    Yue, Jing
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Information Engineering, The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Girs, Svetlana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Lin, Zihuai
    School of Electrical and Information Engineering, The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Network coding for reliable downlink transmissions in industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks2016In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems, Poznan, Poland, 2016, Vol. oct, p. 560-565, article id 7600967Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Benefits, such as significant reduction of cost and complexity, brought by wireless communication make wireless networks more and more appealing for industrial applications. However, before wireless systems can be deployed in industrial networks, strict industrial requirements on reliability and timeliness must be fulfilled and thus protocols increasing the performance of wireless communication are needed. Data in industrial systems is typically transmitted in two directions: from sensor nodes to a controller (uplink transmission) and from the controller to actuators (downlink transmission). Several previous studies have looked at possibilities of performance increase in uplink transmissions from the sensors, while not that much work focused on downlink transmissions, which are equally important. Thus, this paper addresses the downlink transmission scenario and presents a new protocol introducing network coding into packet forwarding scheme. Simulation results show that packet reception rate can be increased when network coding is applied.

  • 121.
    Åkerberg, J.
    et al.
    ABB.
    Gidlund, M.
    ABB.
    Reichenbach, F.
    ABBAS, Corporate Research, 1375 Billingstad, Norway.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Measurements on an industrial wireless HART network supporting PROFIsafe: A case study2011In: IEEE Symposium on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, 2011, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the various theoretic publications on safety-critical communication over wireless, this paper will show the actual performance of safety-critical communication in a real plant with all its environmental influences. We used PROFIsafe as a functional safety profile on top of the WirelessHART protocol. Separately these technologies are widely used in industry for safety and wireless communication respectively, but it has never been shown that the combination of them is feasible for safety-critical communication. The main focus of this work is to measure and analyze the round-trip time and the bit error rate of the safety-critical communication in order to identify whether the certification requirements of PROFIsafe holds. We will show that it is technically feasible to run safety-critical data over wireless links. However, long round trip times and high noise in the channel at certain locations in the plant are unacceptable with respect to certification and need further investigations.

  • 122.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    et al.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Exploring Network Security in PROFIsafe2009In: Lecture Notes In Computer Science: Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag , 2009, p. 67-80Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety critical systems are used to reduce the probability of failure that could cause danger to person, equipment or environment. The increasing level of vertical and horizontal integration increases the security risks in automation. Since the risk of security attacks can not be treated as negligible anymore, there is a need to investigate possible security attacks on safety critical communication.

    In this paper we show that it is possible to attack PROFIsafe and change the safety-related process data without any of the safety measures in the protocol detecting the attack. As a countermeasure to network security attacks, the concept of security modules in combination with PROFIsafe will reduce the risk of security attacks, and is in line with the security concept defense-in-depth.

  • 123.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    et al.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Exploring Security in PROFINET IO2009In: Proceedings - International Computer Software and Applications Conference, vol. 1, 2009, , p. 7p. 406-412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we show that it is possible to attack and gain control over PROFINET IO nodes and also that this can be done without any of the communicating peers detecting the attack. Analysis of attacks in both shared and packet switched networks show that the attacker can control the process data and thus the state of the machines connected to the I/O modules.

    As the security risks are increasing in automation with the level of vertical and horizontal integration, the concept of security modules is proposed towards a method to retrofit security in PROFINET IO. The concept of security modules can be applied without changing anything in the underlying transmission system and is extendable if and when new security threats are identified.

  • 124.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Safety and Security Experiences from Process Automation Applied to Healthcare and Medical Applications2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    et al.
    ABB.
    Gidlund, M.
    ABB.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Future research challenges in wireless sensor and actuator networks targeting industrial automation2011In: IEEE Int. Conf. Ind. Informatics (INDIN), 2011, p. 410-415Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing trend in the automation industry is to use wireless technologies to reduce cable cost, deployment time, unlocking of stranded information in previously deployed devices, and enabling wireless control applications. Despite a huge research effort in the area of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), there are several issues that have not been addressed properly such that WSNs can be adopted properly in the process automation domain. This article presents the major requirements for typical applications in process automation and we also aim to outline the research direction for industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) in industrial automation. The major issues that need to be addressed are safety, security and availability before industrial wireless sensor networks will be adopted in full scale in process automation. © 2011 IEEE.

  • 126.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Lennvall, Tomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Landernäs, Krister
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Design Challenges and Objectives in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2013In: Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Protocols, and Standards / [ed] V. Çağrı Güngör, CRC Press, 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    et al.
    ABB, Västerås, Sweden .
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB, Västerås, Sweden .
    Lennvall, Tomas
    ABB, Västerås, Sweden .
    Neander, Jonas
    ABB, Västerås, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Efficient Integration of Secure and Safety Critical Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2011In: EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, ISSN 1687-1472, E-ISSN 1687-1499, no 1, article id 100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communication has gained more interest in industrial automation due to flexibility, mobility, and cost reduction. Wireless systems, in general, require additional and different engineering and maintenance tasks, for example cryptographic key management. This is an important aspect that needs to be addressed before wireless systems can be deployed and maintained efficiently in the industry. In this paper, we take an holistic approach that addresses safety and security regardless of the underlying media. In our proposed framework we introduce security modules which can be retrofitted to provide end-to-end integrity and authentication measures by utilizing the black channel concept. With the proposed approach, we can extend and provide end-to-end security as well as functional safety using existing automation equipment and standards, such as Profisafe, Profinet IO, and WirelessHART. Furthermore, we improve the WirelessHART standard with periodic and deterministic downlink transmissions to enable efficient usage of wireless actuators, as well as improving the performance of functional safety protocols.

  • 128.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lennvall, Tomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Neander, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Integration of WirelessHART Networks in Distributed Control Systems using PROFINET IO2010In: 8th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Osaka, Japan, 2010, p. 154-159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe a method to integrate WirelessHART networks in Distributed Control Systems (DCS)using PROFINET IO. By modeling the WirelessHART network in the Generic Station Description file, that describes a PROFINET IO device, the WirelessHART related configuration can be distributed from the central engineering stations. In this way, both process controller configuration and WirelessHART network configuration is engineered and maintained from a central location. Thus the end-user do not need any additional tool-specific training, as the existing tools are used to engineer the WirelessHART networks. We base the method of integration on the keywords simple deployment and maintenance, and flexible topology. A proof-of-concept implementation of the proposed method shows that it is possible to download WirelessHART configuration both to the WirelessHART network managers, as well as the WirelessHART sensors. By integrating WirelessHART in this way, maintenance is greatly simplified as the actual configuration will be downloaded automatically by the DCS when faulty field devices are replaced.

  • 129.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Neander, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lennvall, Tomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Deterministic Downlink Transmission in WirelessHART Networks enabling Wireless Control Applications2010In: The 36th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON), Phoenix, USA, 2010, p. 2120-2125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor and actuator networks bring many benefits to industrial automation systems. However, unreliable wireless and multihop communications among sensors and actuators cause challenges in designing such systems. In this paper we focus on WirelessHART and propose a periodic and deterministic downlink transmission functionality which enables efficient usage of actuators and enabling control applications. Furthermore, we define new HART commands extending the interface, without affecting available services.

  • 130.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Reichenbach, Frank
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Enabling Safety-Critical Communication using WirelessHART and PROFIsafe2010In: 15th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technology and Factory Automation (ETFA), Bilbau, Spain, 2010, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two major trends can be recognized in industrial automation. One of them is that Ethernet is replacing traditional fieldbus networks continuously, because it combines flexibility, reliability, and introduces fast data rates, which allow beside others quality of services. This is pushed even further when field devices use wireless communication to connect to the control system. Beside that another trend is seen in functional safety due to rising customer demands and evolving regulations in industry. That leads necessarily to a consolidation of both technologies, where safety must be guaranteed in the same manner over wireless channels as it is handled over Ethernet. This paper addresses safety issues emerging when PROFIsafe, as one of various safety protocols on the market, is used on top of a black channel layer, which is comprised by non safe protocols including WirelessHART.

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