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  • 101.
    Liu, S.
    et al.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Lu, F.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Dai, B.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Nian, V.
    Energy Studies Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Qi, H.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Li, J.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Performance analysis of two-stage compression transcritical CO2 refrigeration system with R290 mechanical subcooling unit2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 189, article id 116143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as refrigerant is driven by the need to phase down the traditional synthetic refrigerant so as to mitigate the warming climate. In this study, the thermal performance of a two-stage compression transcritical CO2 refrigeration system with R290 mechanical subcooling unit is conducted. The goal is to obtain the maximum coefficient of performance (COP) of five different mechanical subcooling systems under the optimal subcooling temperature and compressor discharge pressure. The two-throttling and two-stage compression high-pressure mechanical subcooling system is found to have a higher COP. When the evaporation temperature is −30 °C, the COP of the two-throttling and two-stage compression high-pressure mechanical subcooling system is improved by 76.74%. The COP of the two-throttling and two-stage compression high-pressure mechanical subcooling system is 1.52 at an ambient temperature of 40 °C, which is 21.87% higher than that of the two-throttling and two-stage compression low-pressure mechanical subcooling system. The power consumption ratio of one-throttling and two-stage compression low-pressure mechanical subcooling system is significantly higher than that of other systems. From a comprehensive analysis of the proposed four systems, the two-throttling and two-stage compression high-pressure mechanical subcooling system has the best performance over all other systems. 

  • 102.
    Liu, S.
    et al.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Sun, Z.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dai, B.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Chen, Y.
    R&D Center, VECK (Tianjin) Co. Ltd, Tianjin, China.
    Thermodynamic analysis of CO2 transcritical two-stage compression refrigeration cycle systems with expanders2017In: HKIE Transactions Hong Kong Institution of Engineers, ISSN 1023-697X, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 70-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The key to improving the efficiency of carbon dioxide (CO2) transcritical refrigeration systems is to select an appropriate two-stage compression system. In this study, the thermodynamic performance of six different CO2 transcritical two-stage refrigeration systems with expanders is compared. The design parameters are analysed to determine their respective impacts on the system coefficient of performance (COP) in order to ascertain which system configuration produces the maximum system COP. It is concluded that the system with a two-stage expander and incomplete intercooling has great advantages in terms of performance and equipment selection for the high-pressure stage in certain circumstances. Under the given conditions, the design parameters including the evaporating temperature, the condensing temperature, the compressor efficiency of the high-pressure stage, and the compressor efficiency of the low-pressure stage impact on the system performance. It should be noted that the gas cooler outlet temperature and the compressor efficiency of the low-pressure stage are the major factors which affect the efficiency of the system; thus, the system design and equipment selection should minimise the gas cooler outlet temperature and select a high-efficiency compressor for the low-pressure stage to ensure efficient and safe operation. 

  • 103.
    Liu, Shengchun
    et al.
    Tianjin University of Commerce.
    Li, Zheng
    Tianjin University of Commerce.
    Dai, Baomin
    Tianjin University of Commerce.
    Zhong, Zhifeng
    Tianjin University of Commerce.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Song, Mengjie
    Sun, Zhili
    Energetic, economic and environmental analysis of air source transcritical CO2 heat pump system for residential heating in China2019In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 148, p. 1425-1439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using air source heat pump system for residential heating is a practical way to replace coal-fired boiler in China to alleviate the haze problem, and CO2 is a promising candidate to replace hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) or hydrofluorocarbon (HFCs) charged into the system. A mathematical model is developed to comprehensively evaluate the energetic, economical and environmental performances of CO2 heat pump system compared with other three traditional heating methods. The results indicate that the primary energy ratio of CO2 heat pump is the highest and it is a rational way to utilize renewable energy with the renewable energy contribution ratio of 0.60–0.69. The initial capital cost of CO2 heat pump is much higher due to the dominant compressor cost. The emission of CO2 heat pump is lower than that of coal-fired boiler at seasonal performance factor above 2.44. The initial and operation cost can be gradually reduced with the mass production and energy efficiency improvement of CO2 heat pump. It is believe that air source CO2 heat pump system can be employed for home heating in China, especial for the hot summer and cold winter region.

  • 104.
    Liu, Shengchun
    et al.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Wu, Sicheng
    Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Hu, Yukun
    University College London, UK.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Comparative analysis of air and CO2 as working fluids for compressed and liquefied gas energy storage technologies2019In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. feb, p. 608-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the large-scale use of intermittent renewable energy worldwide, such as wind energy and solar energy, energy storage systems are urgently needed and have been rapidly developed. Technologies of compressed gas energy storage (CGES) and liquefied gas energy storage (LGES) are playing an important role, and air has been commonly used as working fluid. CO2 is another potential working fluid and attracting more and more attention due to the rise of CO2 capture and utilization. However, it is still unclear which is the better working fluid. This paper comparatively analyzed the performance of CGES and LGES systems using air and CO2 as working fluids. Both diabatic and adiabatic CGES are considered. Simulation results show that except diabatic CGES systems, using CO2 could achieve a similar or even higher round-trip efficiency than using air. In addition, the use of CO2 instead of air as a working fluid has additional advantages, such as a lower storage temperature can be achieved at the same storage pressure for the adiabatic CGES system; and a higher condensing temperature can be achieved at the same condensing pressure for the LGES system, which can benefit the system design and operation.

  • 105.
    Liu, Z.
    et al.
    Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266061, China.
    Yang, X.
    Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.
    Jia, W.
    Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266061, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Justification of CO2 as the working fluid for a compressed gas energy storage system: A thermodynamic and economic study2020In: Journal of Energy Storage, E-ISSN 2352-152X, Vol. 27, article id 101132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The compressed carbon dioxide (CO2) energy storage (CCES) system has been attracting more and more attentions in recent years. The CCES system leads the way of green solutions to accommodating the intermittency of renewable power generation systems in a large-scale energy storage pattern. Particularly, the usage of CO2 as the working medium for CCES successfully offers a green solution to massive carbon capture and storage. This paper aims to further analyze the applicability and feasibility of a novel CCES system with the merit of efficiently and economically utilizing pressure energy and thermal energy. Thermodynamic and cost evaluation on the energy conversion cycle were carried out. Genetic algorithm was employed to perform multi-objective optimization on the novel energy conversion cycle with thermal energy storage towards maximizing exergy efficiency and economic profits. Results reveal that the net output power monotonously increases with turbine inlet temperature, but the unit product cost monotonously decreases with turbine inlet temperature. The multi-objective optimization recommends a 60.5% for the overall exergy efficiency and 0.23 $/kWh for the unit product cost. Moreover, scattered distribution of decision variables suggests always a higher outlet pressure for compressor. 

  • 106.
    Liu, ZY
    et al.
    Tianjin Univ.
    Zhao, Li
    Tianjin Univ.
    Zhao, Xuezheng
    Tianjin Univ.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    The occurrence of pinch point and its effects on the performance of high temperature heat pump2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 97, no SI, p. 869-875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Zeotropic mixtures are popular alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in the high temperature heat pump system. Zeotropic mixtures exhibit two major characteristics during phase change: temperature gliding and a nonlinear relationship between temperature and enthalpy. The theory proposed by Venkatarathnam that the nonlinear relationship between temperature and enthalpy in the two phase region for zeotropic mixtures can cause pinch points were verified experimentally. Results also show that the variations of the maximum temperature difference and the minimum temperature difference change the mean temperature difference in the same way, and further change the exergy loss in the same way. Therefore, when selecting zeotropic mixtures as working fluids in the high temperature heat pump, it is of great importance to check the pinch points occurring in condenser and evaporator. The zeotropic mixture that has a smaller maximum temperature difference in condenser and a smaller minimum temperature difference in evaporator can give a higher COP.

  • 107.
    Lu, F.
    et al.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134, China.
    Liu, S.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134, China.
    Dai, B.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134, China.
    Zhong, Z.
    Foreign Economic Cooperation Office, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Beijing 100035, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Future Energy Center, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås SE-72123, Sweden; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134, China.
    Sun, Z.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134, China.
    Experimental study on thermal performance of transcritical CO 2 air source heat pump for space heating2019In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, p. 5913-5919Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employing transcritical CO 2 heat pump system for space heating is an effective way to solve the issue of air pollution during the heating season in China. Thus, an experimental setup is developed to study the thermal performance of the transcritical CO 2 air source heat pump system used for space heating. The test results show that a maximum coefficient of performance (COP) of 2.88 is obtained at the optimum discharge pressure and the ambient temperature of 10 o C. The optimal high pressure is nearly a constant with the value of about 8.5 MPa for the ambient temperature in the range of -15~10 o C. The system COP increases with the ambient temperature increasing, and the outlet temperature of the gas cooler is a dominant influencing factor on the thermal performance of the heat pump system. Little difference can be found between the gas cooler outlet temperatures with the variation in ambient temperatures.

  • 108.
    Lu, H.
    et al.
    School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Yu, X.
    School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Tu, S. -T
    School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Accurately measurement and efficiently recovery of ionic liquid in energy utilization of microalgae2019In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, p. 1337-1341Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorella vulgais, a kind of micro-alagae, is an attracting feedstock for bioenergy production, such as biodiesel and biogas. But its tough cell wall structure is the main obstacle to efficiently extracting lipids and other biomass. Ionic liquid (IL) can be used to hydrolyze its cell-wall. However, due to its high cost and toxicity, it is important to recover IL as much as possible. Therefore, a method that can accurately measure the content of ILs, is urgently needed. In this work, two common methods that are used to measure the content of ILs: equimolar titration method and ultraviolet absorbance spectra were compared. The results show that equimolar titration method is not available for trace quantity analysis of ionic liquids as the endpoint of titration is hard to be identified at low IL content (<10 mg/L); while UV absorbance spectra method can be used at low IL contents, whereas, it may result in big deviations. To further improve the accuracy of UV absorbance spectra method, concentrating the sample could be a potential solution.

  • 109.
    Lu, H.
    et al.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Yu, X.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Tu, S. -T
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lipids extraction from wet Chlorella pyrenoidosa sludge using recycled [BMIM]Cl2019In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 291, article id 121819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, experiments on pretreating one species of microalgae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) using one kind of ionic liquid (IL) of [BMIM]Cl were conducted. The aim of this work is to evaluate the recycling efficacy of expensive IL solvent for effective cell disruption. It was indicated that the molecular structure of IL was stable during the recycling test. Five times antisolvent precipitation of microalgae debris after lipid extraction using methanol recovered 99.8% IL with the energy consumption of 4.46 MJ per kg dry Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The chromatography was used to separate IL and hydrolysates, resulting in the IL loss below 1.97 g per kg dry Chlorella pyrenoidosa. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 110.
    Luyao, Liu
    et al.
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Qinxing, Wang
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Haiyang, Lin
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Qie, Sun
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Wennersten, Roland
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Power Generation Efficiency and Prospects of Floating Photovoltaic Systems2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1136-1142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, China's economic and social development is restricted by many factors, such as environmental pollution and the supply of energy, land resources and water resources. Compared with traditional terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) systems, floating PV systems can save a lot of land and water resources and obtain higher power generation efficiency. Although the academics have reached a general consensus about the advantages of floating systems, very few in-depth studies focus on the specifications of floating PV systems. Therefore, this study first discusses the development of PV technology, then studies the power generation efficiency of floating PV systems, and finally comprehensively analyzes the advantages and potential of floating PV systems in China.

  • 111.
    Ma, Z.
    et al.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Sun, Q.
    Shandong University, Jinan, China .
    Wang, C.
    Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Yan, A.
    Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction, Tianjin, China .
    Starfelt, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Statistical analysis of energy consumption patterns on the heat demand of buildings in district heating systems2014In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 85, p. 664-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise prediction of heat demand is crucial for optimising district heating (DH) systems. Energy consumption patterns (ECPs) represent a key parameter in developing a good mathematical model to predict heat demand. This study quantitatively investigated the impacts of ECPs on heat consumption. Two key factors, namely, time and type of buildings, were used to reflect various ECPs in DH systems, and a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) was developed to examine their impacts on heat consumption. The model was trained and validated using the measured data from a real DH system. Results show that the factor of time does not represent a good reflection of ECP. In contrast, categorising buildings according to their function is an effective way to reflect ECPs. Based on the defined building types, i.e., commercial, apartment and office, the average absolute deviation of the predicted heat load was about 4-8%.

  • 112.
    Ma, Z.
    et al.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China.
    Xie, J.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Sun, Q.
    Shandong University, China.
    Si, Z.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China.
    Zhang, J.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China.
    Guo, J.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China.
    The role of data analysis in the development of intelligent energy networks2017In: IEEE Network, ISSN 0890-8044, E-ISSN 1558-156X, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 88-95, article id 8053484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data analysis plays an important role in the development of intelligent energy networks (IENs). This article reviews and discusses the application of data analysis methods for energy big data. The installation of smart energy meters has provided a huge volume of data at different time resolutions, suggesting data analysis is required for clustering, demand forecasting, energy generation optimization, energy pricing, monitoring and diagnostics. The currently adopted data analysis technologies for IENs include pattern recognition, machine learning, data mining, statistics methods, and so on. However, existing methods for data analysis cannot fully meet the requirements for processing the big data produced by IENs, therefore more comprehensive data analysis methods are needed to handle the increasing amount of data and to mine more valuable information.

  • 113.
    Ma, Z.
    et al.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Xie, J
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Sun, Q.
    Shandong University, 12589 Jinan, Shandong China.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Si, Z
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Guo, J
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Deep Neural Network-based Impacts Analysis of Multimodal Factors on Heat Demand Prediction2019In: IEEE Transactions on Big Data, ISSN 2372-2096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prediction of heat demand using artificial neural networks has attracted enormous research attention. Weather conditions, such as direct solar irradiance and wind speed, have been identified as key parameters affecting heat demand. This paper employs an Elman neural network to investigate the impacts of direct solar irradiance and wind speed on the heat demand from the perspective of the entire district heating network. Results of the overall mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) show that direct solar irradiance and wind speed have quite similar impacts. However, the involvement of direct solar irradiance can clearly reduce the maximum absolute deviation when only involving direct solar irradiance and wind speed, respectively. In addition, the simultaneous involvement of both wind speed and direct solar irradiance does not show an obvious improvement of MAPE. Moreover, the prediction accuracy can also be affected by other factors like data discontinuity and outliers.

  • 114.
    Md Lokman, Hosain
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Bel Fdhila, Rebei
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Sand, U.
    Engdahl, J.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    CFD Modeling of Real Scale Slab Reheating FurnaceConference paper (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Mirmoshtaghi, Guilnaz
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    BIO-METHANE PRODUCTION THROUGH DIFFERENT BIOMASS GASIFIERS2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering sustainability of energy resources and environmental concerns have led to activities all over the world seeking alternatives for current methods of fuel production. Gasification of biomass to supply bio-methane is one of those options. Bio-methane is carbon neutral and meets the needs of combustion engines in vehicles.Focusing on vehicle fuel production reveals the need for wide research to understand different types of gasifiers in order to find the possibilities for more methane production.In this paper data collected from different experimental setups are summarized and analyzed.Fluidized bed gasifiers show higher methane concentrations in the produced gas while entrained flow and downdraft gasifiers may be the least suitable types for high methane yields.Heating value of the product gas and cold gas efficiency are also studied as the important parameters for evaluating the characteristics of the product gas. This analysis shows that by increasing the equivalence ratio, the heating value of the product gas decreases while the efficiency may not follow the same trend.

  • 116.
    Mirmoshtaghi, Guilnaz
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Mälardalen Högskola.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT BIOMASS GASIFICATION MODELING APPROACHES FOR FLUIDIZED BED GASIFIERS2016In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 91, p. 69-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To develop a model for biomass gasification in fluidized bed gasifiers with high accuracy and generality that could be used under various operating conditions, the equilibrium model (EM) is chosen as a general and case-independent modeling method. However, EM lacks sufficient accuracy in predicting the content (volume fraction) of four major components (H2, CO, CO2 and CH4) in product gas. In this paper, three approaches—MODEL I, which restricts equilibrium to a specific temperature (QET method); MODEL II, which uses empirical correlations for carbon, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6 and NH3 conversion; and MODEL III, which includes kinetic and hydrodynamic equations—have been studied and compared to map the barriers and complexities involved in developing an accurate and generic model for the gasification of biomass.

    This study indicates that existing empirical correlations can be further improved by considering more experimental data. The updated model features better accuracy in the prediction of product gas composition in a larger range of operating conditions. Additionally, combining the QET method with a kinetic and hydrodynamic approach results in a model that features less overall error than the original model based on a kinetic and hydrodynamic approach.

  • 117.
    Mirmoshtaghi, Guilnaz
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Mälardalen Högskola.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    THE EFFECT OF INCLUDING HYDRODYNAMICS FOR MODELING ATMOSPHERIC BUBBLING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFIERS2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Mirmoshtaghi, Guilnaz
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Skvaril, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The influence of different parameters on biomass gasification in circulating fluidized bed gasifiers2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 126, p. 110-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism of biomass gasification has been studied for decades. However, for circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifiers, the impacts of different parameters on the gas quality and gasifiers performance have still not been fully investigated. In this paper, different CFB gasifiers have been analyzed by multivariate analysis statistical tools to identify the hidden interrelation between operating parameters and product gas quality, the most influencing input parameters and the optimum points for operation. The results show that equivalence ratio (ER), bed material, temperature, particle size and carbon content of the biomass are the input parameters influencing the output of the gasifier the most. Investigating among the input parameters with opposite impact on product gas quality, cases with optimal gas quality can result in high tar yield and low carbon conversion while low tar yield and high carbon conversion can result in product gas with low quality. However using Olivine as the bed material and setting ER value around 0.3, steam to biomass ratio to 0.7 and using biomass with 3 mm particle size and 9 wt% moisture content can result in optimal product gas with low tar yield.

  • 119.
    Mirmoshtaghi, Guilnaz
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Mälardalen Högskola.
    Skvaril, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    INVESTIGATION OF EFFECTIVE PARAMETERS ON BIOMASS GASIFICATION IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFIERS2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 120.
    Mirmoshtaghi, Guilnaz
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Skvaril, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Investigation of Most Effective Parameters on Biomass Gasufication in Circulating Fluidized bed Gasifiers2015In: Forest and Plant Bioproducts Division 2015 - Core Programming Area at the 2015 AIChE Annual Meeting, 2015, p. 189-200Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 121.
    Mokgonyana, L.
    et al.
    University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom.
    Zhang, J.
    University of Technology Sydney, Australia.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Hu, Y.
    University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Optimal location and capacity planning for distributed generation with independent power production and self-generation2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 188, p. 140-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a planning model for power distribution companies (DISCOs) to maximize profit. The model determines optimal network location and capacity for renewable energy source, which are categorized as independent power production (IPP) and self-generation (SG). IPP refers to generators owned by third-party investors and linked to a quota obligation mechanism. SG encompasses smaller generators, supported by feed-in tariffs, that produce energy for local consumption, exporting any surplus generation to the distribution network. The obtained optimal planning model is able to evaluate network capacity to maximize profit when the DISCO is obliged to provide network access to SG and IPP. Distinct parts of the objective function, owing to the definition of SG, are revenue erosion, recovery as well as the cost of excess energy. Together with the quota mechanism for IPP, the combination of all profit components creates a connection trade-off between IPP and SG for networks with limited capacity. The effectiveness of the model is tested on 33- and 69-bus test distribution systems and compared to standard models that maximize generation capacity with predefined capacity diffusion. Simulation results demonstrate the model outperforms the standard models in satisfying the following binding constraints: minimum IPP capacity and SG net energy. It is further revealed that integrating SG and IPP with the proposed model increases profit by up to 23.7%, adding an improvement of 8% over a feasible standard model.

  • 122.
    Nian, V.
    et al.
    Energy Studies Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Jindal, G.
    Energy Studies Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    A feasibility study on integrating large-scale battery energy storage systems with combined cycle power generation – Setting the bottom line2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 185, p. 396-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strong attention has been given to the costs and benefits of integrating battery energy storage systems (BESS) with intermittent renewable energy systems. What's neglected is the feasibility of integrating BESS into the existing fossil-dominated power generation system to achieve economic and environmental objectives. In response, a life cycle cost-benefit analysis method is introduced in this study taking into consideration three types of battery technologies, namely, vanadium redox flow battery, zinc bromine flow battery, and lithium-iron-phosphate battery. The objective is to evaluate the life cycle carbon emissions and cost of electricity production by combined cycle power generation with grid-connected BESS. Findings from the Singapore case study suggest a potential 3–5% reduction in the life cycle carbon emission factors which could translate to a cumulative carbon emission reduction of 9–16 million tonnes from 2018 to 2030 from electricity generation. Grid-connected BESS could reduce the levelized cost of electricity by 4–7%. A synergistic planning of CCGT and BESS could theoretically reduce the system level power generation capacity by 26% albeit a potential increase in the overall capital cost at the current cost of batteries. The projected battery cost reduction is critical in improving the feasibility of large-scale deployment. 

  • 123.
    Nian, V.
    et al.
    Energy Studies Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Sun, Q.
    Institute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, China.
    Ma, Z.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    A Comparative Cost Assessment of Energy Production from Central Heating Plant or Combined Heat and Power Plant2016In: Energy Procedia, 2016, p. 556-561Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is a common approach in evaluating the economic competitiveness of a power generation technology. The same approach can be applied for evaluating the levelized cost of heat (LCOH) production. There are a number of approaches in calculating the LCOE and or LCOH from a combined heat and power (CHP) plant. In this study, we explore three alternative methods in calculating the LCOE and LCOH of a CHP and compare the results with that those of a heating only plant. The results can be used as indicators for identifying a suitable pricing mechanisms for the heating market.

  • 124.
    Nookuea, Worrada
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Tan, Y.
    School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Impacts of thermo-physical properties of gas and liquid phases on design of absorber for CO2 capture using monoethanolamine2016In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 52, p. 190-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Absorption of CO2 with aqueous amines in post-combustion capture is characterized as a heat and mass transfer processes with chemical reaction, which is sensitively affected by the thermo-physical properties of fluids. In order to optimize the design of the absorber of CO2 capture process, in this paper, the impacts of thermo-physical properties on the column design were investigated. Furthermore, the property impacts on the capital cost of the absorber unit were also identified and analyzed. Results show that the gas phase density has the most significant effect on the column diameter. Underestimation of the gas phase density of 10% may result in an increase of about 6% of the column diameter. For the packing height, the liquid phase density has the most significant effect. 10% underestimation of the liquid phase density may result in an increase of 8% of the packing height. Moreover, the effect from the liquid phase viscosity is also significant. For the annual capital cost, the liquid phase density also shows the most significant effect. Underestimation of the liquid phase density of 10% leads to the cost overestimation of $1.4 million for the absorption column for a 400 MW coal-fired power plant. Therefore, the development of the flue gas density model and liquid phase density and viscosity models of the aqueous amine solution with CO2 loading should be prioritized.

  • 125.
    Nookuea, Worrada
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Tan, Yuting
    Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Sensitivity study of thermo-physical properties of gas phase on absorber design for CO2 capture using monoethanolamine2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2305-2310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Absorption of CO2 with aqueous amines in post-combustion capture is characterized as mass transfer process with chemical reaction. Hydrodynamics and mass transfer in gas and liquid phases in a packed column have significant influences on absorber design especially for the design of packing height. In this paper, the sensitivity study has been conducted to investigate the impacts of gas phase density, viscosity and diffusivity on the hydrodynamics and mass transfer and further the total packing height of a countercurrent flow with random packing column, using reactive absorption process and integral rate-based models. Results show that density and diffusivity have opposite effect to viscosity. Amongst various properties, diffusivity has the most significant effect on the packing height compared to density and viscosity. Overestimation of diffusivity of 5% may result in decrease of 3.2% of packing height. Moreover, developing more accurate diffusivity model should be prioritized for more accurate absorber design. 

  • 126.
    Nookuea, Worrada
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wang, Fu
    Tianjin University, China.
    Yang, Jie
    University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Tan, Yuting
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden .
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yu, Xinhai
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Viscosity data of aqueous MDEA–[Bmim][BF4] solutions within carbon capture operating conditions2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 4581-4586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Post–combustion capture with chemical absorption shows higher potential for commercial scale application compared with other technologies. To capture CO2 from the industrial and power plant’s flue gases, aqueous alkanolamine solutions are widely used. However, several drawbacks from utilizing the aqueous alkanolamines such as MEA still need to be solved. For example, alkanolamine solutions require intensive energy for regeneration and cause severe corrosion to the equipment though they have high reactivity in capturing CO2. Ionic liquids have been of interest in the recent development of chemical absorption according to their unique characteristics including wide liquid range, negligible volatility and thermal stability. However, due to their high price, high viscosity and low absorption capacity compared to alkanolamines, ionic liquids are still non–desirable for industrial applications.

    One possible solution to improve the performance of ionic liquids is to use mixtures of ionic liquids and alkanolamines. For a better understanding of the absorption using the mixture of aqueous alkanolamines and ionic liquids, the knowledge of thermo–physical properties of the solutions, especially the viscosity and density are of importance. This paper reports the measured viscosity of MDEA–[Bmim][BF4] aqueous mixtures at various temperatures and concentrations. It was found that the viscosity increase with an increase in [Bmim][BF4] concentration, but decrease with an increase in temperature. Moreover, the impact of temperature on the viscosity is more significant at low temperature range.

  • 127.
    Nookuea, Worrada
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zambrano, Jesús
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Tan, Yuting
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comparison of Mass Transfer Models on Rate-Based Simulations of CO2 Absorption and Desorption Processes2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 3747-3752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the keys available options for the large scale carbon capture and storage is the solvent-based post-combustion capture. Due to the high reactivity between CO2 and aqueous amine solutions, chemical absorption is suitable for capturing the CO2 at low concentration such as from the flue gas. From techno-economic analyses of the CO2 chemical absorption plant, absorber and desorber columns are the main cost of the purchased equipment. Since the process involves complex reactive separations, the accurate calculation of hydrodynamic properties, mass and energy transfer are of importance for the design of the columns. Several studies have been done on the impact of different process and property models on the equilibrium and rate-based simulation of the absorption site. However, the impact study of process and property models on the desorption site are still lacking. This paper performs rate-based simulations of CO2 absorption by Monoethanolamine. The software Aspen Plus was used for the simulations. Different mass transfer models were implemented for the mass transfer calculation in gas and liquid phases. The temperature and concentration profiles along the columns are reported and discussed.

  • 128.
    Qi, Zhang
    et al.
    Academy of China Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Ge, Wang
    Academy of China Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Li
    Academy of China Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Siyuan, Chen
    Academy of China Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Study on the Implementation Pathways and Key Impacts of RPS Target in China using a Dynamic Game-Theoretical Equilibrium Power Market Model2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 3844-3849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China's 2020 Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) target has been published by the government in early 2016. In the present study, in order to find its implementation pathways and estimate the key impacts of PRS target out to 2030, a multi-region power market model is proposed to investigate different RPS policy scenarios. Results show that RPS policy can promote the development of renewable energy efficiently, and Renewable Energy Certification (REC) trade can reduce the cost of electricity generated from renewable energy. However, a national wide free REC trade tends to result in a dilemma that renewable energy will be developed centralizedly in regions where the renewable resource is plenty. Therefore, detailed REC trade regulations need to be developed from more comprehensive viewpoints when adopting RPS policy. 

  • 129.
    Qi, Zhang
    et al.
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Ge, Wang
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Yan, Li
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Benjamin, McLellan
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Siyuan, Chen
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Substitution effect of renewable portfolio standards and renewable energy certificate trading for feed-in tariff2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, p. 426-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Feed-in Tariff (FIT) has been successfully used to promote the development of renewable energy; nevertheless, it may cause financial burden on the governments at the same time. Compared with FIT, Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and the Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) trading have been considered to reduce the government's expenditure caused by the subsidization. To examine the effectiveness of RPS and REC trading, the development of renewable energy and the environmental and economic benefits under different policies have been quantitatively investigated by using a multi-region power market model and China has been chosen as a case study. The obtained results show that: (i) REC trading can efficiently reduce the government's expenditure on subsidies for the development of renewable energy; (ii) Compared to FIT, RPS and REC trading will reduce the power sectors' profit; and (iii) RPS and REC trading may not be enough to achieve the target on renewable energy especially when the capital cost is high, therefore, RPS, REC trade and FIT subsidy should be implemented as complementary policies, not independent.

  • 130.
    Qinxing, Wang
    et al.
    Shandong University, China..
    Nianzhi, Huang
    Shandong University, China.
    Haiyang, Lin
    Shandong University, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ronald, Wennersten
    Shandong University, China.
    Qie, Sun
    Shandong University, China.
    Potential of energy saving in a data center – application of an agent-based modelling2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 3903-3908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional approaches for modelling energy consumption for data center are limited to deal with the randomness, emergence and interdependence in energy systems. To fill the gap, an agent-based method was proposed and implemented to simulate the electricity consumption of a data center and to explore the potential of energy saving. The study found that a large amount of energy can be saved by dynamically operating the cooling load according to the practical load of the servers, namely 13% of the total energy consumption can be saved in the dynamic energy saving case (DESC) and 17% in the enhanced dynamic energy saving case (EDESC). The power usage effectiveness (PUE) of the data center can decrease from 1.71 in the original situation to 1.49 in the DESC and 1.42 in the EDESC. By contrast, the frequency of data backup has a heavy impact on the electricity consumption of the data center, while the frequency of computing tasks do not. 

  • 131. Rui, Xiong
    et al.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Xuan, Zhou
    Advanced Energy Storage Technologies and Their Applications (AESA2017)2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 132.
    Salman, Chaudhary Awais
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH.
    Identification of thermochemical pathways for the energy and nutrient recovery from digested sludge in wastewater treatment plants2019In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, p. 1317-1322Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several restrictions and limitations on the emissions and disposal of materials and pollutants related to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) emphasizing improvement of current processes and development of new methods. Process integration is one way to use all fractions of waste for improved efficiency. WWTPs produces sludge which is usually anaerobically digested to produce biogas and a byproduct called digestate. Digestate is an organic material that contains macro and micronutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium and also contains heavy metals. Digestate is mainly used for agricultural applications because of the presence of nutrients. However, digestate also contains energy in the form of carbon and hydrogen which can be harnessed through various processes and integrated with nitrogen recovery process. This study aims to recover the energy and nutrients from digestate through thermochemical treatment processes. Combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification are assessed and compared in this work. An ammonia stripping method is assumed to recover nitrogen from digestate. The thermochemical processes are heat integrated with ammonia stripping through modeling and simulation. Results show that almost half of the energy present in digested sludge is required for its drying. Moreover, nitrogen recovery also requires much energy. The combustion and gasification of digested sludge give better results than pyrolysis. The heat integration becomes feasible when the auxiliary biogas is also burned along with products from the thermochemical treatment of sludge.

  • 133.
    Sandberg, Alexander
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Maher, Azaza
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    An analyze of long-term hourly district heat demand forecasting of a commercial building using neural networks2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, p. 3784-3790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the building sector standing for a major part of the world's energy usage it of utmost importance to develop new ways of reduce the consumption in the sector. This paper discusses the evolution of the regulations and policies of the Swedish electric and district heating metering markets followed by the development of a nonlinear autoregressive neural network with external input (NARX), with the purpose of performing heat demand forecasts for a commercial building in Sweden. The model contains 13 input parameters including; calendar, weather, energy and social behavior parameters. The result revealed that these input parameters can predict the building heat demand to 96% accuracy on an hourly basis for the period of a whole year. Further analysis of the result indicates that the current data resolution of the district heat measuring system limits the future possibilities for services compared to the electric metering system. This is something to consider when new regulation and policies is formulated in the future.

  • 134.
    Shengchun, L.
    et al.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Xueqiang, L.
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Mengjie, S.
    Department of Human and Engineered Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Zhili, S.
    ianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Experimental investigation on drying performance of an existed enclosed fixed frequency air source heat pump drying system2018In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 130, p. 735-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the quick development of industry drying technology, different heat pump drying systems were proposed in recent decades. Enclosed heat pump drying system was considered as the most widely used system. For an existed enclosed fixed frequency heat pump drying system, drying time could be decreased by increasing air temperature at inlet of drying chamber. However, as a fundamental problem, system drying performance influenced by air flow ratio was not tested and reported in open literatures. Therefore, basing on adding an air bypass duct, drying performance of an enclosed system was experimental investigated in this study, with 15 mm thickness fresh carrot chips used. Furthermore, qualitatively and quantitatively comparisons and discussions on experimental results were conducted. A whole drying process were firstly divided into three stages by different water content ratios, preheating stage at 98–100%, fast drying stage at 20–98%, and later drying stage at 0–20%, respectively. For the inlet air temperature of drying chamber is fixed at 40 °C, material drying time for water content ratio reaching 20% could be effectively decreased as much as 42 min, or 15.0%, by the strategy of hot air bypassed. After the drying time shortened, the calculated energy consumption for compressor was also decreased from 4.27 kWh for AFR at 1.0 to 3.63 kWh for AFR at 0.6. Contributions of this study can guide low temperature material drying process. Clearly, system control optimization and energy saving were both expected.

  • 135.
    Shengchun, Liu
    et al.
    The University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Song, Mengjie
    Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Dai, Baomin
    Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Sun, Zhili
    Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Impacts on the solidification of water on plate surface for cold energy storage using ice slurry2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, p. 284-293Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 136.
    Siyuan, C.
    et al.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Qi, Z.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Yanyan, T.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Boyu, L.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Investment strategy for shallow geothermal resource based on real option model2019In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, p. 6118-6125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shallow geothermal resource has been considered as a new and promising form for clean heating in some areas in China, such as Xiong'an New Area. In this paper, a real option model is established to explore the optimal investment timing and investment scale of shallow geothermal resources. According to numerical results, we found that in the reference scenario the critical value of marginal revenue is 4.30 yuan / m 2 , and the optimal investment scale is 1.28 million square meters. Simultaneously, the investors are advised to invest after 1.05 years and they will get the unit investment return of 39.34 yuan / m 2

  • 137.
    Song, C.
    et al.
    Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin, China.
    Liu, Q.
    Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin, China.
    Deng, S.
    Ministry of Education, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kitamura, Y.
    University of Tsukuba, Japan.
    Cryogenic-based CO2 capture technologies: State-of-the-art developments and current challenges2019In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 101, p. 265-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CO2 capture, utilization and storage has been recognized as a primary option to mitigate the issue of climate change caused by the utilization of fossil fuels. Several CO2 capture strategies have been developed, such as absorption, adsorption, membrane, chemical looping, hydrating and biofixation. Among different technologies, particular attention has been given to cryogenic CO2 capture by phase change. The aim of this study is to improve interest in cryogenic technologies for CO2 capture by providing an overview of the actual status of CCS. To reach this goal, the major strategies and technologies for CO2 capture from fossil fuel combustion have been reviewed. Simultaneously, the characteristics of cryogenic technologies for CO2 capture are summarized. The existing challenges that need to be overcome in cryogenic technology include cold energy sources, capture costs and impurities, etc. Finally, opportunities for the future development of cryogenic-based technologies are discussed. The results of this investigation indicated that cryogenic CO2 capture processes can be easily retrofitted to the existing industrial emission facilities and avoid the challenges associated with chemical solvents or physical sorbents. 

  • 138.
    Song, C.
    et al.
    Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Liu, Q.
    Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Ji, N.
    Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Deng, S.
    Ministry of Education, Tianjin, China.
    Zhao, J.
    Ministry of Education, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Y.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin, China.
    Song, Y.
    Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Alternative pathways for efficient CO2 capture by hybrid processes—A review2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 82, p. 215-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CO2 capture and storage technologies have been recognized as the primary option to mitigate the issue of climate change caused by the utilization of fossil fuels. In the last decades, several CO2 capture approaches have been developed, such as absorption, adsorption, membrane, cryogenic, hydrate and chemical looping combustion etc. However, the energy penalty is a general challenge for each technology. To overcome the disadvantages of standalone technology, the combination of two or more approaches (namely hybrid CO2 capture processes) has been considered as a potential option. In this work, the status and development of hybrid CO2 capture processes is presented in a classification of primary technology as absorption-based, adsorption-based, membrane-based and cryogenic-based. The detail configuration of each hybrid process is introduced. Simultaneously, the characteristics, advantages and potential challenges of each hybrid process are also summarized. Compared to the standalone methods, hybrid processes showed the superiority not only in CO2 recovery and energy penalty, but also in the installation investment. Therefore, hybrid processes can be a promising alternative to conventional CO2 capture technologies in future.

  • 139.
    Song, Jingjing
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Cost comparison between district heating and alternatives during the price model restructuring process2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 3922-3927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating (DH) has been considered as a resource- and cost-efficient way of supplying heat and a promising method to mitigate climate change, yet it also facing growing competition from alternative technical solutions, such as heat pumps. Many DH companies are under price model restructuring process to enhance their competitiveness. This study investigated the competitiveness of DH among users which would encounter significant cost increase during the price model restructuring process through comparing the cost of different DH price models with three alternative technical solutions. The result shows that for the invested DH user, instead of DH, the most economic preferable choice is to install ground source heat pump combining with direct electrical heating.

  • 140.
    Song, Jingjing
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    District heating cost fluctuation caused by price model shift2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 194, p. 715-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating companies are facing multiple challenges nowadays, including increased investment and maintenance cost and critique from customers regarding opaque price model. Hence there is an urgent need to develop new price models. In this paper, a survey was carried out and identified four basic components in the price model. Three price models that represent the current situation and future trend have been extracted from the survey as well. Based on those price models, investigation was performed to study the impacts of different components in price models on customers’ cost. The result shows that customers with flatter consumption profiles can benefit from the price model that has a higher share of load demand component and use consumers’ real-time consumption data for charging. On the contrary, when a price model that has a higher share of energy component is adopted, customers with flatter consumption profiles may experience an increase in the cost.  

  • 141.
    Song, Jingjing
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Effectiveness of introducing heat storage to repress cost increase2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating companies have been adapting their price models to reflect the changes in production cost caused by penetration of renewable fuels, and promote the applications of energy conservation measures that benefit the system efficiency. One of the approaches is to introduce a peak demand component in the price model, which has been proved to be effective to benefit users with lower peak demand. Whereas, this approach also significantly increase the cost for users with high peak demand. One of the measures that could help with high peak demand is installing energy storage on the demand side. In order to understand how the energy storage could change the users’ cost and help DH users to make informed decision, this study analyses the economic benefits of demand-side heat storage, namely if installing low-investment, low-tech, short-term hot-water storage on demand side could effectively repress the cost increase caused by new price models. Five types of building are considered here: multifamily house, commercial building, hospital and social services, industrial building, and office and school. One user of each type, whose costs increased the most during the price model transition process have been included. The result shows that heat storage could efficiently repress the cost increase, and all the investments will be paid back within 3 years, which means introducing heat storage is an efficient measure for cost saving under the circumstances.

  • 142.
    Song, Jingjing
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Price models of district heating in Sweden2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 88, p. 100-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional pricing scheme of district heating is based on previous experience of system operation. This strategy does not work well under the circumstances of decreasing demand and shifting consumption pattern. Therefore new pricing strategies are needed. To have a comprehensive view on existing price models in Sweden, a price model survey was carried out among all members of the district heating quality system REKO. Four basic price components and multiple variants of them are detected in the survey. The result also shows that most of the district heating companies still use traditional methods and do not consider their customers’ consumption pattern while charging them.

  • 143.
    Stangeland, Kristian
    et al.
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Kalai, Dori
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yu, Zhixin
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    CO 2 Methanation: The Effect of Catalysts and Reaction Conditions2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 2022-2027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Great attention has been paid to develop non-fossil fuel energy sources to reduce carbon emissions and create a sustainable energy system for the future. Storing the intermittent energy is one of the challenges related to electricity production from renewable energy resources. The Sabatier reaction produces methane from carbon dioxide and hydrogen, with the latter produced by electrolysis. Methane could be stored and transported through the natural gas infrastructure already in place, and be a viable option for renewable energy storage. Current technology for biogas upgrading focuses on removing carbon dioxide from the biogas. However, the biogas could potentially be used directly as feed gas for the Sabatier reaction, thereby removing the cost associated with carbon dioxide removal and increasing the methane yield and carbon utilization from biological sources. Carbon dioxide methanation requires a catalyst to be active at relatively low temperatures and selective towards methane. Nickel based catalyst are most widely investigated, and commercial catalysts are typically nickel on alumina support. Focus on catalyst development for carbon dioxide methanation is predominantly related to support modification, promoter addition, as well as utilizing new class of materials such as hydrotalcite-derived catalysts.

  • 144.
    Stangeland, Kristian
    et al.
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway..
    Kalai, Dori
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yu, Zhixin
    The effect of temperature and initial methane concentration on carbon dioxide methanation on Ni based catalysts2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 2016-2021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of Ni based catalysts prepared by incipient wetness method were characterized by chemisorption and studied for CO2 methanation. Ru had apparently a positive effect on the active metal surface area, and thus the catalytic activity. The CO2 conversion was greatly affected by temperature where the conversion ranged from 12%-85% at temperatures of 300 to 400 oC on the 12% Ni/Al2O3 catalyst. At 350 oC, higher Ni loading resulted in increased activity. The incorporation of 0.5% Ru lead to a drastic increase in catalytic activity, which can be explained by increased reducibility and a synergetic effect between Ni and Ru, and was further enhanced by increased Ni loading. Addition of CH4 at twice the initial concentration of CO2 to the feed gas mixture was found to decrease the conversion from 52% to 48% at 350 oC on the 20% Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, whereas only a slight reduction in selectivity was observed. The results preliminary demonstrate that high methane purity can be achieved from a biogas feed stream over Ni based catalysts. 

  • 145.
    Stangeland, Kristian
    et al.
    University of Stavanger.
    Kalai, Dori Yosef
    University of Stavanger.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yu, Zhixin
    Universitetet i Stavanger.
    Active and stable Ni based catalysts and processes for biogas upgrading: The effect of temperature and initial methane concentration on CO2 methanation2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, p. 206-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CO2 hydrogenation to methane (CO2 methanation) is gaining increasing interest as a major chemical synthesis process for chemical storage of fluctuating renewable energy and producing synthetic natural gas by providing an effective process for biogas upgrading. In this study, a series of 12 and 20 wt% Ni/Al2O3 catalysts, either unpromoted or promoted by 0.5 wt% Ru, were prepared by the incipient wetness method for the CO2 methanation reaction from a feed of pure CO2 or biogas. The catalysts were characterized by N-2 physisorption, XRD, TPR and H-2 chemisorption. The activity for the 12 wt% Ni catalyst increased continuously in the temperature range from 250 degrees C to 400 degrees C. Increasing the Ni loading and Ru promotion greatly improved the activity of the catalyst. At 350 degrees C, the highest CO2 conversion of 82% and CH4 selectivity of 100% was achieved over the 20Ni0.5Ru/Al2O3 catalyst. Thereafter, methanation of a simulated biogas mixture was investigated over the 20Ni/Al2O3 and 20Ni0.5Ru/Al2O3 catalysts. The results showed that the CO2 conversion and CH4 selectivity were only mildly affected by the feed composition. Furthermore, the stability of the catalysts was similar regardless of the feed composition. This study demonstrates that high purity CH4 can be achieved from a biogas feed over our Ni based catalysts.

  • 146.
    Stangeland, Kristian
    et al.
    University of Stavanger.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yu, Zhixin
    Universitetet i Stavanger.
    Thermodynamic Analysis of Chemical and Phase Equilibria in CO2 Hydrogenation to Methanol, Dimethyl Ether, and Higher Alcohols2018In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 57, no 11, p. 4081-4094Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CO2 hydrogenation can lead to the formation of various products, of which methanol, dimethyl ether (DME) and ethanol have received great attention. In this study, a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of CO2 hydrogenation in binary (methanol/CO) and ternary product systems (methanol/CO with DME or ethanol) is conducted in Aspen Plus by the Gibbs free energy minimization method combined with phase equilibrium calculations. It is demonstrated that product condensation can be utilized to circumvent thermodynamic restrictions on product yield. Significant improvements in CO2 conversion can be achieved by operating at conditions favorable for product condensation, whereas the selectivity is mildly affected. The relevance of the results herein is discussed with regards to recent advances in catalysis and process design for CO2 hydrogenation. Our study highlights the importance of obtaining a thorough understanding of the thermodynamics of CO2 hydrogenation processes, which will be critical for developing potential breakthrough technology applicable at the industrial scale.

  • 147.
    Starfelt, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Tomas Aparicio, Elena
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Integration of torrefaction in CHP plants - A case study2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 90, p. 427-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Torrefied biomass shows characteristics that resemble those of coal. Therefore, torrefied biomass can be co-combusted with coal in existing coal mills and burners. This paper presents simulation results of a case study where a torrefaction reactor was integrated in an existing combined heat and power plant and sized to replace 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% of the fossil coal in one of the boilers. The simulations show that a torrefaction reactor can be integrated with existing plants without compromising heat or electricity production. Economic and sensitivity analysis show that the additional cost for integrating a torrefaction reactor is low which means that with an emission allowance cost of 37 €/ton CO2, the proposed integrated system can be profitable and use 100% renewable fuels. The development of subsidies will affect the process economy. The determinant parameters are electricity and fuel prices.

  • 148.
    Su, Difei
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Qi
    China Univ Petr, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Ge
    China Univ Petr, Peoples R China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Market Analysis of Natural Gas for District Heating in China2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2713-2717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural gas (NG) is expected to be used broadly in China to replace coal in district heating sector in order to reduce air pollution due to coal burning. However, it is difficult for natural gas to penetrate district heating market due to its relatively high cost. In the present study, a market simulation method is proposed to find the marginal conditions and policy to promote natural gas utilization for district heating. In the proposed method, technology improvement, pricing mechanism, carbon tax and user's pricing response are considered. The prerequisite of the market simulation is that the heating expenses of end-users won't increase and the benefit of heat producers won't decrease when using NG to replace coal. Based on the obtained analysis results, gas pricing revolution, heating pricing revolution and carbon tax mechanism are discussed in order to promote the gas-fired heating through market mechanism.

  • 149.
    Sun, Q.
    et al.
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ma, Z.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Wang, C.
    Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhang, Q.
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Guo, J.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    A Comprehensive Review of Smart Energy Meters in Intelligent Energy Networks2016In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 464-479, article id 7365417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The significant increase in energy consumption and the rapid development of renewable energy, such as solar power and wind power, have brought huge challenges to energy security and the environment, which, in the meantime, stimulate the development of energy networks toward a more intelligent direction. Smart meters are the most fundamental components in the intelligent energy networks (IENs). In addition to measuring energy flows, smart energy meters can exchange the information on energy consumption and the status of energy networks between utility companies and consumers. Furthermore, smart energy meters can also be used to monitor and control home appliances and other devices according to the individual consumer's instruction. This paper systematically reviews the development and deployment of smart energy meters, including smart electricity meters, smart heat meters, and smart gas meters. By examining various functions and applications of smart energy meters, as well as associated benefits and costs, this paper provides insights and guidelines regarding the future development of smart meters. 

  • 150.
    Sun, Q.
    et al.
    nstitute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, J.
    VattenFall AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liu, L.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yu, Z.
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Yu, X.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Selection of appropriate biogas upgrading technology-a review of biogas cleaning, upgrading and utilisation2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 51, p. 521-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is experiencing a period of rapid development and biogas upgrading is attracting increasing attention. Consequently, the market for biogas upgrading is facing significant challenges in terms of energy consumption and operating costs. Selection of upgrading technology is site-specific, case-sensitive and dependent on the biogas utilisation requirements and local circumstances. Therefore, matching the technology selected for use to specific requirements is significantly important. This paper systematically reviews the state-of-the-art of biogas cleaning and upgrading technologies, including product purity and impurities, methane recovery and loss, upgrading efficiency and the investment and operating costs. In addition, the potential utilisation of biogas and the corresponding requirements on gas quality are investigated in depth. Based on the results of comparisons between the technical features of upgrading technologies, the specific requirements for different gas utilizations and the relevant investment and operating costs, recommendations are made regarding appropriate technology.

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