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  • 101. Jin, H.
    et al.
    Lin, G.
    Han, W.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    A Novel Coal-Based Polygeneration System of Power and Liquid Fuel with CO2 Capture2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 102.
    Jin, Hongguang
    et al.
    nstitute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Gao, L.
    nstitute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China.
    Han, W.
    nstitute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    A new approach integrating CO2 capture into a coal-based polygeneration system of power and liquid fuel2007In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, 2007, p. 311-321Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the energy penalty for CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) is a challenge. Most of previous studies for CCS have been focused on power generation system. When CCS is included in the polygeneration system, a new methodology that jointly considering CCS and liquid fuel production should be introduced. In this paper, we proposed a new approach integrating CCS into a coal-based polygeneration system for power generation and methanol production: the syngas produced from the coal gasifier, without adjusting the composition (CO/H2 ratio) by shift reaction, is used to synthesis methanol directly. Moreover, the partial-recycle scheme, in which a part of unreacted gas is recycled back to the synthesis reactor, is adopted in the synthesis unit. Another part of unreacted gas is treated to remove CO2, and then is used as clean fuel for the power generation subsystem. Compared to the conventional CCS approaches adopted by the power generation systems, the new approach is mainly characterized by two features: firstly, the combination of the removal of the composition adjustment process and a partial-recycle scheme can not only reduces the energy consumption for methanol production, but also obtains a high concentration of COx (CO and CO2) in the unreacted gas; secondly, the CO2 is captured from the unreacted gas, instead of from syngas generated by the gasifier. Due to increment of CO x concentration, the new approach can reduce the energy consumption for CO2 capture compared to conventional pre-combustion CO 2 capture. In the conventional coal based IGCC systems, the thermal efficiency is around 34-36% for a case with CO2 capture and around 44% for a case without CO2 capture. However, with the innovative approach integrating CCS, the polygeneration system in this paper can achieve the equivalent thermal efficiency as high as 47% when 72% of CO2 is recovered, which provides a significant improvement for CO2 capture. It's clearly that the new approach can increase the thermal efficiency, instead of incurring an energy penalty for CO2 capture. The results achieved in this study have provided a new methodology integrating CO2 capture into the polygeneration system, which reveals the different characteristics compared to power-generation system that has been overlooked by the previous studies.

  • 103.
    Jin, Ming
    et al.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Ind Engn & Operat Res, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Jain, Rishee
    Stanford Univ, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Spanos, Costas
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Jia, Qingshan
    Tsinghua Univ, Dept Automat, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Norford, Leslie K.
    MIT, Dept Architecture, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Kjaergaard, Mikkel
    Univ Southern Denmark, Maersk McKinney Moller Inst, Odense, Denmark..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Energy-cyber-physical systems2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 256, article id UNSP 113939Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 104.
    Lam, H. L.
    et al.
    Hon Loong Lam Centre of Excellence for Green Technologies, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Malaysia.
    Varbanov, P. S.
    University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary.
    Klemeš, J. J.
    University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Green Applied Energy for sustainable development2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 161, p. 601-604Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue of Applied Energy contains articles developed from initial ideas related to the 17th Conference Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction (PRES 2014) held in Prague, Czech Republic, during 23-27 August 2014. The conference has been organised jointly with CHISA 2014. Both events have benefitted from the shared pool of participants as well as the expanded opportunities for exchanging ideas. From all contributions presented at the conference, high-quality ones suitable for Applied Energy, have been invited. Overall, 37 extended manuscripts have been invited as candidate articles. Of those, after a thorough review procedure, 11 articles have been selected to be published. The topics attained in the focus of this Special Issue include Process Integration and Energy Management, CO2 capture, and Green Energy Applications. 

  • 105.
    Lee, Duu-Jong
    et al.
    Natl Taiwan Univ Sci & Technol, Taiwan.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chou, Siaw-Kiang
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore.
    Desideri, Umberto
    Univ Perugia, Perugia, Italy.
    Clean, efficient, affordable and reliable energy for a sustainable future Preface2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 102, p. 1-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 106.
    Lee, M.
    et al.
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Keller, A. A.
    University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, United States.
    Chiang, P. -C
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Den, W.
    Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Wang, H.
    Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Hou, C. -H
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Wu, J.
    Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Wang, X.
    Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tongji University, Shanghai, China; Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Water-energy nexus for urban water systems: A comparative review on energy intensity and environmental impacts in relation to global water risks2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 205, p. 589-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the interdependence between water and energy, also known as the water-energy nexus, is well recognized. The water-energy nexus is typically characterized in resource use efficiency terms such as energy intensity. This study aims to explore the quantitative results of the nexus in terms of energy intensity and environmental impacts (mainly greenhouse gas emissions) on existing water systems within urban water cycles. We also characterized the influence of water risks on the water-energy nexus, including baseline water stress (a water quantity indicator) and return flow ratio (a water quality indicator). For the 20 regions and 4 countries surveyed (including regions with low to extremely high water risks that are geographically located in Africa, Australia, Asia, Europe, and North America), their energy intensities were positively related to the water risks. Regions with higher water risks were observed to have relatively higher energy and GHG intensities associated with their water supply systems. This mainly reflected the major influence of source water accessibility on the nexus, particularly for regions requiring energy-intensive imported or groundwater supplies, or desalination. Regions that use tertiary treatment (for water reclamation or environmental protection) for their wastewater treatment systems also had relatively higher energy and GHG emission intensities, but the intensities seemed to be independent from the water risks. On-site energy recovery (e.g., biogas or waste heat) in the wastewater treatment systems offered a great opportunity for reducing overall energy demand and its associated environmental impacts. Future policy making for the water and energy sectors should carefully consider the water-energy nexus at the regional or local level to achieve maximum environmental and economic benefits. The results from this study can provide a better understanding of the water-energy nexus and informative recommendations for future policy directions for the effective management of water and energy.

  • 107. Leung, Dennis Y. C.
    et al.
    Yang, Hongxing
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Editorial for Special Issue of the First International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE'09, Hong Kong, January 5-7, 2009 at the journal, Applied Energy2010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 9, p. 2861-2861Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Leung, Dennis Y. C.
    et al.
    Univ Hong Kong.
    Yang, Hongxing
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Novel studies on hydrogen, fuel cell and battery energy systems2011In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 1-1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 109.
    Li, C.
    et al.
    Hunan Academy of Forestry, Changsha, China.
    Liu, D.
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Ramaswamy, S.
    University of Minnesota, United States.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Biomass energy and products: Advanced technologies and applications2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 157, p. 489-490Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Li, H.
    et al.
    SINTEF Energy.
    Jakobsen, J. P.
    SINTEF Energy.
    Wilhelmsen, Ø.
    SINTEF Energy.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Responses to 'Comments on PVTxy properties of CO 2 mixtures relevant for CO 2 capture, transport and storage: Review of available experimental data and theoretical models'2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 93, p. 753-754Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 111.
    Li, H.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ji, X.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    A new modification on RK EOS for gaseous carbon dioxide2005In: ECOS 2005 - Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation, and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, 2005, p. 733-739Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitigation technologies including CO2 capture and storage in various energy conversion systems have been intensively developed in recent years. However, it is of importance to develop an equation of state (EOS) with simple structure and reasonable accuracy for engineering application for both pure CO2 and CO2 mixtures. In this paper, Redlich-Kwong equation of state was modified for gaseous CO2. In the new modification, parameter 'a' was correlated as a function of temperature and pressure from reliable experimental data in the range: 220K to 750K and 0.1MPa to 400MPa. To verify the accuracy of the new parameters, densities were calculated and compared with experimental data. The average error is 1.68 %. Other thermodynamic properties of CO2, such as enthalpy and heat capacities, were also calculated; results fit experimental data well except critical region. This method can be further developed for CO2 mixture systems.

  • 112.
    Li, H.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ji, X.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A new modification on RK EOS for gaseous CO2 and gaseous mixtures of CO2 and H2O2006In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 135-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To develop an equation of state with simple structure and reasonable accuracy for engineering application, Redlich-Kwong equation of state was modified for gaseous CO2 and CO2-H2O mixtures. In the new modification, parameter a of gaseous CO2 was regressed as a function of temperature and pressure from recent reliable experimental data in the range: 220-750 K and 0.1-400 MPa. Moreover, a new mixing rule was proposed for gaseous CO2-H2O mixtures. To verify the accuracy of the new modification, densities were calculated and compared with experimental data. The average error is 1.68% for gaseous CO2 and 0.93% for gaseous mixtures of CO2 and H2O. Other thermodynamic properties, such as enthalpy and heat capacities of CO2 and excess enthalpy of gaseous CO2-H2O mixtures, were also calculated; results fit experimental data well, except for the critical region.

  • 113.
    Li, H.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ji, X.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Quantitative evaluations on available models for calculating thermodynamic properties of humid air2005In: ECOS 2005 - Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation, and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, 2005, p. 889-896Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering calculation of the thermodynamic properties for cycle simulation and design requires simple but reliable models. This has been proved to be of importance for the research and development on humidified gas turbines, such as humid air turbine (HAT) cycles and compressed air energy storage (CAES). This paper has made a comprehensive review and comparison among different models for calculating thermodynamic properties of the humid air mixtures, including ideal gas model (IG), ideal mixing model (IM), and real gas model (RG); and based on temperature and pressure range, gave quantitative evaluations on saturated water vapor composition and enthalpy. Based on performance conditions of an HAT cycle, several suggestions were given for the use of the today's available models for engineering cycle calculations, which can provide accurate results for cycle performance analysis and design while keeping the methods straightforward.

  • 114.
    Li, H.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Yan, J.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Anheden, M
    Vattenfall Research and Development AB.
    Impurity impacts on the purification process in oxy-fuel combustion based CO2 capture and storage system2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 202-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Basedon the requirements of CO2 transportation and storage, non-condensable gases, such as O2, N2 and Ar should be removed from the CO2-stream captured from an oxy-fuel combustion process. For a purification process, impurities have great impacts on the design, operation and optimization through their impacts on the thermodynamic properties of CO2-streams. Study results show that the increments of impurities will make the energy consumption of purification increase; and make CO2 purity of separation product and CO2 recovery rate decrease. In addition, under the same operating conditions, energy consumptions have different sensitivities to the variation of the impurity mole fraction of feed fluids. The isothermal compression work is more sensitive to the variation of SO2; while the isentropic compression work is more sensitive to the variation of Ar. In the flash system, the energy consumption of condensation in is more sensitive to the variation of Ar; but in the distillation system, the energy consumption of condensation is more sensitive to the variation of SO2, and CO2 purity of separation is more sensitive to the variation of SO2. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 115. Li, H.
    et al.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Comparative study of equations of state (EOS) for CO2 transportation in pipeline2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Li, H.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Impact of Impurities in CO2-fluids on CO2 Transport Process2006In: Proceedings of GT2006, AMSE Turbo Expo 2006:Power for Land,Sea and Air, 2006, p. 367-375Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are four possible transportation means that could be used to deliver CO2: motor carriers, railway carriers, water carriers, and pipeline. The impurities in CO2-fluids have significant impacts on the thermodynamic properties that will further affect the design, operation and cost of CO2transport. This paper focuses on how impurities in CO 2-fluids affect thermodynamic properties, and how the changes of properties affect CO2transport process. Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLB), critical point and densities are essential thermodynamic properties for designing a CO2 transportprocess. Studies on these properties will be carried out for CO2-mixtures based on the combinations of the common impurities such as SO2, H2S, CH4, Ar, O2 and N2. Moreover with a real case of pipeline for CO2 transport, the impact of impurities on transport process will be demonstrated in more details.

  • 117.
    Li, H.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Impacts of impurities in CO2-fluids on CO2 transport process2006In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, 2006, p. 367-375Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are four possible transportation means that could be used to deliver CO2: motor carriers, railway carriers, water carriers, and pipeline. The impurities in CO2-fluids have significant impacts on the thermodynamic properties that will further affect the design, operation and cost of CO2 transport. This paper focuses on how impurities in CO 2-fluids affect thermodynamic properties, and how the changes of properties affect CO2 transport process. Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLB), critical point and densities are essential thermodynamic properties for designing a CO2 transport process. Studies on these properties will be carried out for CO2-mixtures based on the combinations of the common impurities such as SO2, H2S, CH4, Ar, O2 and N2. Moreover with a real case of pipeline for CO2 transport, the impact of impurities on transport process will be demonstrated in more details.

  • 118.
    Li, H.
    et al.
    Chemical Engineering and Technology /Energy Processes, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Chemical Engineering and Technology /Energy Processes, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Preliminary Study on CO2 Processing in CO2 Capture from Oxy-fuel Combustion2007In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME TURBO EXPO: VOL 3, 2007, Vol. 3, p. 353-361Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 119. Li, H.
    et al.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Anheden, M.
    Study of Impurity Impacts on Purification Process in Oxy-Fuel Combustion Based CO2 Capture and Storage System2007In: The 3rd International Green Energy Conference, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 120.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Ningbo RX New Materials Tch. Co. Ltd., China; KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Ningbo RX New Materials Tch. Co. Ltd., China.
    Berretta, Sara
    Tan, Yuting
    Ningbo RX New Materials Tch. Co. Ltd., China; KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dynamic performance of the standalone wind power driven heat pump2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 103, p. 40-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing energy consumption and increasing use of renewable energy in the building sector is crucial to the mitigationof climate change. Wind power driven heat pumps have been considered as a sustainable measure to supply heat forthe detached houses, especially those that even don’t have access to the grid. This work is to investigate the dynamic performance of a heat pump system directly driven by a wind turbine. The heat demand of a detached single familyhouse was simulated in details. To handle the intermittent characteristic of wind power, an electric energy storage system was included. According to the simulations, the wind turbine itself cannot always satisfy the electricity demand of the heat pump, and a larger size of the energy storage system can reduce the probability of load loss. However, it is different from the energy storage system that increasing the capacity of wind turbines may increase the probability of load loss instead, due to the different start-up speed of wind turbines. In order to maximize the system benefit, the capacity of the wind turbine and the size of the energy storage system should be optimized simultaneously based on dynamic simulations.

  • 121.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Ningbo RX New Materials Tch. Co. Ltd., Ningbo, China.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Ningbo RX New Materials Tch. Co. Ltd., Ningbo, China.
    Tan, Y.
    Ningbo RX New Materials Tch. Co. Ltd., Ningbo, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Department of Chemical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Feasibility study about using a stand-alone wind power driven heat pump for space heating2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 228, p. 1486-1498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing energy consumption and increasing the use of renewable energy in the building sector are crucial to the mitigation of climate change. Wind power driven heat pumps have been considered as a sustainable measure to supply heat to the detached houses, especially those that even do not have access to the electricity grid. This work is to investigate the dynamic performance of a heat pump system driven by wind turbine through dynamic simulations. In order to understand the influence on the thermal comfort, which is the primary purpose of space heating, the variation of indoor temperature has been simulated in details. Results show that the wind turbine is not able to provide the electricity required by the heat pump during the heating season due to the intermittent characteristic of wind power. To improve the system performance, the influences of the capacity of wind turbine, the size of battery and the setpoint of indoor temperature were assessed. It is found that increasing the capacity of wind turbines is not necessary to reduce the loss of load probability; while on the contrary, increasing the size of battery can always reduce the loss of load probability. The setpoint temperature clearly affects the loss of load probability. A higher setpoint temperature results in a higher loss of thermal comfort probability. In addition, it is also found that the time interval used in the dynamic simulation has significant influence on the result. In order to have more accurate results, it is of great importance to choose a high resolution time step to capture the dynamic behaviour of the heat supply and its effect on the indoor temperature.

  • 122. Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Dynamic Modeling of a PV Pumping System with Special Consideration on Water Demand2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 123.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ditaranto, Mario
    SINTEF Energy Res,Trondheim, Norway.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Carbon capture with low energy penalty: Supplementary fired natural gas combined cycles2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 97, no SI, p. 164-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhancing CO2 concentration in exhaust gas has been considered as a potentially effective method to reduce the penalty of electrical efficiency caused by CO2 chemical absorption in post-combustion carbon capture systems. Supplementary firing is an option that inherently has an increased CO2 concentration in the exhaust gas, albeit a relatively low electrical efficiency due to its increased mass flow of exhaust gas to treat and large temperature difference in heat recovery steam generator. This paper focuses on the methods that can improve the electrical efficiency of the supplementary fired combined cycles (SFCs) integrated with MEA-based CO2 capture. Three modifications have been evaluated: (I) integration of exhaust gas reheating, (II) integration of exhaust gas recirculation, and (III) integration of supercritical bottoming cycle. It is further showed that combining all three modifications results in a significant increase in electrical efficiency which is raised from 43.3% to 54.1% based on Lower Heating Value (LHV) of natural gas when compared to the original SFC. Compared with a conventional combined cycle with a subcritical bottoming cycle and without CO2 capture (56.7% of LHV), the efficiency penalty caused by CO2 capture is only 2.6% of LHV.

  • 124.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology of Tianjin, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, 300134, China.
    Dong, B.
    Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology of Tianjin, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, 300134, China.
    Yu, Z.
    Department of Energy and Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, 4036, Norway.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhu, K.
    Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology of Tianjin, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, 300134, China.
    Thermo-physical properties of CO2 mixtures and their impacts on CO2 capture, transport and storage: Progress since 20112019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 255, article id 113789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge of accurate thermo-physical properties is crucial for the development and deployment of CO2 capture, transport and storage (CCS). The progress on the experimental data and theoretical models regarding thermo-physical properties of CO2 mixtures as well as the property impact on the design and operation of different CCS processes has been updated. The newly published experimental data since 2011 have been collected and reviewed based on which the new knowledge gaps regarding measurements have been identified. There have also been some advanced models proposed recently, which have shown good performances. The collected model performances don't show there exist a model that is superior to others; but they still provide a good guideline regarding model selection. However, developing more-complex models as the complexity may not necessarily improve the accuracy when empirical parameters were included and well-tuned. By comparing the importance of the properties and the accuracy of existing models, suggestions were given regarding the development of property models that should be prioritized. 

  • 125.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Chemical Engineering and Technology/Energy Processes, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Flores, S.
    Chemical Engineering and Technology/Energy Processes, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Hu, Y.
    Chemical Engineering and Technology/Energy Processes, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Simulation and Optimization of Evaporative Gas Turbine with Chemical Absorption for Carbon Dioxide Capture2009In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 527-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studied the integration of an evaporative gas turbine (EvGT) cycle with chemical absorption for CO2 capture. Two systems of EvGT cycle without CO2 capture and EvGT cycle with CO2 capture were simulated and optimized. The impacts of key parameters such as the water/air ratio (W/A), the stripper pressure, and the flue-gas condensing temperature were studied regarding the electrical efficiency and CO2 reduction. Simulation results show that (1) there always exists an optimum point of W/A for both EvGT and EvGT combined with CCS; (2) although lowering the stripper pressure would lower the heat quality requirement of reboiler, it increases the quantity more obviously. Therefore increasing the operating pressure of stripper would help to increase the total electrical efficiency; but the efficiency improvement becomes smaller if stripper pressure is high; (3) adding a flue-gas condenser to condense out the excessive water is another method to increase the total electrical efficiency. There is also an optimum point of condensing temperature considering the concentration of mono ethanol amine (MEA) and inlet temperature of stripper; and (4) comparatively the combined cycle has a higher gross electricity generation and electrical efficiency than the EvGT cycle no matter if combined with CO2 capture or not.

  • 126.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Han, Song
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Potentials of energy saving and efficiency improvement from lighting and space heating: a case study of SAAB2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 127.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hu, Yukun
    KTH, Sweden.
    Ditaranto, Mario
    SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway .
    Willson, D
    Stanbridge Capital, New York, United States.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Optimization of cryogenic CO2 purification for oxy-coal combustion2013In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 37, p. 1341-1347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxyfuel combustion is a leading potential CO2 capture technology for power plants. As the flue gas (FG) consists of mainly H2O and CO2, a simpler and more energy-efficient CO2 purification method can be used instead of the standard amine-based chemical absorption approach. For the system of oxyfuel combustion with cryogenic CO2 purification, decreasing the oxygen purity reduces the energy consumption of the Air Separation Unit (ASU) but increases the energy consumption for the downstream cryogenic purification. Thus there exists a trade-off between the energy consumption of the ASU and that for cryogenic purification. This paper investigates the potential efficiency improvement by optimizing this trade-off. The simulated results show that there exists an optimum flue gas condensing pressure for the cryogenic purification, which is affected by the flue gas composition. In addition, decreasing the oxygen purity reduces the combined energy consumption of the ASU and the cryogenic purification, and therefore can improve the electrical efficiency. In summary, prior oxyfuel combustion analyses have assumed a high oxygen purity level of 95 mol% or 99 mol% for the combustion air, which achieves a high CO2 concentration in the flue gases. In this Paper, we demonstrate that a lower level of oxygen purity, such as 80 mol%, in conjunction with a more extensive cryogenic purification of the flue gases can lower the total energy consumption, thereby yielding a significant benefit. However, for oxygen purity levels lower than 75 mol%, it may not be possible to still use the two-stage flash system shown here to achieve a CO2 purity of 95 mol% and a CO2 recovery rate of 90% simultaneously.

  • 128.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Jakobsen, Jana P
    SINTEF Energy.
    Wilhelmsen, Øivind
    SINTEF Energy.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    PVTxy properties of CO2 mixtures relevant for CO2 capture, transport and storage: Review of available experimental data and theoretical models2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 11, p. 3567-3579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge about pressure–volume–temperature–composition (PVTxy) properties plays an importantrole in the design and operation of many processes involved in CO2 capture and storage (CCS) systems.A literature survey was conducted on both the available experimental data and the theoreticalmodels associated with the thermodynamic properties of CO2 mixtures within the operation windowof CCS. Some gaps were identified between available experimental data and requirements of the systemdesign and operation. The major concerns are: for the vapour–liquid equilibrium, there are no data aboutCO2/COS and few data about the CO2/N2O4 mixture. For the volume property, there are no publishedexperimental data for CO2/O2, CO2/CO, CO2/N2O4, CO2/COS and CO2/NH3 and the liquid volume of CO2/H2. The experimental data available for multi-component CO2 mixtures are also scarce. Many equationsof state are available for thermodynamic calculations of CO2 mixtures. The cubic equations of state havethe simplest structure and are capable of giving reasonable results for the PVTxy properties. More complexequations of state such as Lee–Kesler, SAFT and GERG typically give better results for the volumeproperty, but not necessarily for the vapour–liquid equilibrium. None of the equations of state evaluatedin the literature show any clear advantage in CCS applications for the calculation of all PVTxy properties.A reference equation of state for CCS should, thus, be a future goal.

  • 129.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wang, Bin
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salman, Chaudhary Awais
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Performance of flue gas quench and its influence on biomass fueled CHP2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 180, p. 934-945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For biomass/waste fueled power plants, stricter regulations require a further reduction of the negative impacts on the environment caused by the release of pollutants and withdrawal of fresh water externally. Flue gas quench (FGQ) is playing an important role in biomass or waste fueled combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as it can link the flue gas (FG) cleaning, energy recovery and wastewater treatment. Enhancing water evaporation can benefit the concentrating of pollutant in the quench water; however, when FG condenser (FGC) is not in use, it results in a large consumption of fresh water. In order to deeply understand the operation of FGQ, a mathematic model was developed and validated against the measurements. Based on simulation results key parameters affecting FGQ have been identified, such as the flow rate and temperature of recycling water and the moisture content of FG. A guideline about how to reduce the discharge of wastewater to the external and the withdrawal of external water can be proposed. The mathematic model was also implemented into an ASPEN Plus model about a CHP plant to assess the impacts of FGQ on CHP. Results show that when the FGC was running, increasing the flow rate and decreasing the temperature of recycling water can result in a lower total energy efficiency. 

  • 130.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wilhelmsen, Øivind
    SINTEF Energy Research.
    Lv, Yuexia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wang, Weilong
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Viscosities, thermal conductivities and diffusion coefficients of CO2 mixtures:Review of experimental data and theoretical models2011In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 1119-1139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate experimental data on the thermo-physical properties of CO2-mixtures are pre-requisites fordevelopment of more accurate models and hence, more precise design of CO2 capture and storage (CCS)processes. A literature survey was conducted on both the available experimental data and the theoreticalmodels associated with the transport properties of CO2-mixtures within the operation windows ofCCS. Gaps were identified between the available knowledge and requirements of the system design andoperation. For the experimental gas-phase measurements, there are no available data about any transportproperties of CO2/H2S, CO2/COS and CO2/NH3; and except for CO2/H2O(/NaCl) and CO2/amine/H2Omixtures, there are no available measurements regarding the transport properties of any liquid-phasemixtures. In the prediction of gas-phase viscosities using Chapman–Enskog theory, deviations are typically<2% at atmospheric pressure and moderate temperatures. The deviations increase with increasingtemperatures and pressures. Using both the Rigorous Kinetic Theory (RKT) and empirical models in theprediction of gas-phase thermal conductivities, typical deviations are 2.2–9%. Comparison of popularempirical models for estimation of gas-phase diffusion coefficients with newer experimental data forCO2/H2O shows deviations of up to 20%. For many mixtures relevant for CCS, the diffusion coefficientmodels based on the RKT show predictions within the experimental uncertainty. Typical reported deviationsof the CO2/H2O system using empirical models are below 3% for the viscosity and the thermalconductivity and between 5 and 20% for the diffusion coefficients. The research community knows littleabout the effect of other impurities in liquid CO2 than water, and this is an important area to focus infuture work.

  • 131.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wilhelmsen, Øivind
    SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Properties of CO2-mixtures and impacts on Carbon Capture2015In: Handbook of Clean Energy Systems / [ed] Jinyue Yan, John Wiley & Sons, 2015, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 132.
    LI, Hailong
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Energiteknik.
    Evaluating cubic equations of state for calculation of vapor-liquid equilibrium of CO(2) and CO(2)-mixtures for CO(2) capture and storage processes2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 6, p. 826-836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proper solution of vapor liquid equilibrium (VLE) is essential to the design and operation of CO2 capture and storage system (CCS). According to the requirements of engineering applications, cubic equations of state (EOS) are preferable to predict VLE properties. This paper evaluates the reliabilities of five cubic EOSs, including PR, PT, RK, SRK and 3P1T for predicting VLE of CO2 and binary CO2-mixtures containing CH4, H2S, SO2, Ar, N2 or O2, based on the comparisons with the collected experimental data. Results show that SRK is superior in the calculations about the saturated pressure of pure CO2; while for the VLE properties of binary CO2-mixtures, PR, PT and SRK are generally superior to RK and 3P1T. The impacts of binary interaction parameter kij were also analyzed. kij has very clear effects on the calculating accuracy of an EOS in the property calculations of CO2-mixtures. In order to improve the calculation accuracy, the binary interaction parameter was calibrated for all of the studied EOSs regarding every binary CO2-mixture.

  • 133.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Chemical Engineering and Technology/Energy Processes, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Impacts of equations of state (EOS) and impurities on the volume calculation of CO2 mixtures in the applications of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) processes2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 12, p. 2760-2770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volume property is the necessary thermodynamic property in the design and operation of the CO2 capture and storage system (CCS). Because of their simple structures, cubic equations of state (EOS) are preferable to be applied in predicting volumes for engineering applications. This paper evaluates the reliabilities of seven cubic EOS, including PR, PT, RK, SRK, MPR, MSRK and ISRK for predicting volumes of binary CO2 mixtures containing CH4, H2S, SO2, Ar and N2, based on the comparisons with the collected experimental data. Results show that for calculations on the volume properties of binary CO2 mixtures, PR and PT are generally superior to others for all of the studied mixtures. In addition, it was found that the binary interaction parameter has clear effects on the calculating accuracy of an EOS in the volume calculations of CO2 mixtures. In order to improve the accuracy, kij was calibrated for all of the EOS regarding the gas and liquid phases of all the studied binary CO2 mixtures, respectively

  • 134.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    KTH.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Performance Comparison on the Evaporative Gas Turbine Cycles Combined with Different CO2-Capture Options2009In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 512-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studied the integration of CO2 capture with evaporative gas turbine (EvGT) cycles. Two CO2 capture technologies are involved: MEA-based (monoethanolamine-based) chemical-absorption capture and O2/CO2 recycle combustion capture. Based on them, three system configurations were analyzed: (1) EvGT cycle without CO2 capture, (2) EvGT cycle with chemical-absorption capture, and (3) EvGT cycle with O2/CO2 recycle combustion capture. Simulation results show that the EvGT cycle with chemical-absorption capture has a higher electrical efficiency (39.73%) than the EvGT cycle with O2/CO2 recycle combustion capture (37.45%). Compared with the EvGT cycle without CO2 capture, the penalty on electrical efficiency caused by CO2 capture is 11.91% if EvGT is combined with chemical-absorption capture, and 14.19% if EvGT is combined with O2/CO2 recycle combustion capture. Moreover compared with combined cycles, EvGT cycles have a smaller gross electricity generation and a lower electrical efficiency no matter if they are combined with CO2 capture or not. Based on the analysis results of this article, several suggestions are also proposed to improve the net electrical efficiency of EvGT cycles with CO2 capture.

  • 135.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Feasibility of integrating solar energy into a power plant with amine-based chemical absorption for CO2 capture2012In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 9, p. 272-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar thermal energy has the potential to supply the thermal demand of stripper reboiler in the power plant with amine-based post combustion CO2 capture. The performance of a power plant integrated with solar assisted post combustion CO2 capture (SCC) is largely affected by the local climatic conditions, such as solar irradiation, sunshine hours and ambient temperature, the type of solar thermal collector and CO2 recovery ratio. The feasibility evaluation results about such a power plant show that the cost of electricity (COE) and cost of CO2 avoidance (COA) are mainly determined by the local climatic conditions. For the locations having higher solar irradiation, longer sunshine hours and higher ambient temperature, the power plant with SCC has lower COE and COA. COE and COA are sensitive to the prices of solar thermal collectors. In order to achieve lower COE and COA compared to the power plant integrated with non-solar assisted post combustion capture, the price of solar thermal collector has to be lower than 150 USD/m(2) and 90 USD/m(2) for the solar trough and vacuum tube, respectively.

  • 136.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Economic assessment of the mobilized thermal energy storage (M-TES) system for distributed heat supply2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 104, p. 178-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A conceptual system, mobilized thermal energy storage system (M-TES), was proposed for distributed heat supply. The economic evaluation that is essential to identify the key issues and provide guidelines regarding system improvement was conducted in this paper. Results show that the cost using M-TES to supply heat (COH) is primarily determined by the transport distance and the heat demand. The variation of COH is proportional to the transport distance, but inversely proportional to the heat demand. According to the sensitivity study, COH is more sensitive to the price of phase change material (PCM) than other parameters, such as the transport cost. Moreover, it is possible for an M-TES system to compete with other heat supply methods, such as pellet/bio-oil/biogas/oil boiler systems and electrical air-source heat pump. When using M-TES to replace the existing system, the payback time is mainly determined by the transport distance and the heat demand. Water is another potential working fluid for M-TES system. Comparatively, using PCM is more suitable for cases with larger heat demand or longer transport distance.

  • 137.
    Li, Xueqiang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tianjin University, Tianjin, China; Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhu, K.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Energy storage systems for refrigerated warehouses2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 143, p. 94-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce the peak load, dynamic electricity price schemes have been widely used. Refrigerated warehouses consume a large amount of energy, most of which happens during the daytime due to the higher ambient temperature. This work evaluated the potential benefits of integrating energy storage in the refrigerated warehouses. Two types of energy storage systems have been considered, including a cold energy storage system and an electrical energy storage system. A dynamic model has been developed in TRNSYS to study the performance of those two energy storage systems and assess the benefits. Results show that using the cold energy storage to shift power consumption from daytime to nighttime can increase the energy efficiency of the refrigeration system. However, as the electrical energy storage system can shift more power consumption, it can achieve a large cost saving. Compared to the reference system without energy storage, the introductions of a cold energy storage system and an electrical energy storage system can reduce the operational cost by 10 and 53.7% respectively. 

  • 138.
    Liang, X.
    et al.
    China United Northwest Institute for Engineering Design and Research Co., Ltd, Xi'an, China.
    Tian, W.
    China United Northwest Institute for Engineering Design and Research Co., Ltd, Xi'an, China.
    Li, R.
    Shaanxi Energy environmental and Building Energy Conservation Engineering Technology Research Center, Xi'an, China.
    Niu, Z.
    Shaanxi Energy environmental and Building Energy Conservation Engineering Technology Research Center, Xi'an, China.
    Yang, X.
    Shaanxi Energy environmental and Building Energy Conservation Engineering Technology Research Center, Xi'an, China.
    Meng, X.
    Shaanxi Energy environmental and Building Energy Conservation Engineering Technology Research Center, Xi'an, China.
    Jin, L.
    Shaanxi Energy environmental and Building Energy Conservation Engineering Technology Research Center, Xi'an, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH.
    Numerical investigations on outdoor thermal comfort for built environment: Case study of a Northwest campus in China2019In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, p. 6557-6563Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Outdoor thermal comfort has been receiving more and more attentions due to the increased demand of outdoor activities during last decades. People require good thermal comfort when they are exposed to the outdoor thermal environment. However, the natural environment is severely suffering from the pollution of air, water as well as the extremely hot weather. Therefore, construction of ecological living environment is of great importance. To evaluate and improve the built environment, a campus area located in Northwest China was selected. Numerical simulations based on the software ENVI-met V4.0 were conducted and the effect of growing plants upon the outdoor thermal comfort was analyzed. Numerical results were compared using different thermal Indexes: Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Results demonstrated that UTCI gave a lower prediction than that of PET and was more suitable for evaluating the outdoor thermal comfort. Growing trees can significantly reduce the uncomfortable hours during hot summer but the improvement will reach the limitation after growing amount of trees.

  • 139.
    Lindberg, Carl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB Corp Res, Västerås, Sweden..
    Tan, SieTing
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Univ Teknol Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia.
    Yan, JinYue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Starfelt, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. MälarEnergi, Västerås, Sweden.
    Key performance indicators improve industrial performance2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 1785-1790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are important for monitoring the performance in the industry. They can be used to identify poor performance and the improvement potential. KPIs can be defined for individual equipment, sub-processes, and whole plants. Different types of performances can be measured by KPIs, for example energy, raw-material, control & operation, maintenance, etc. Benchmarking KPIs with KPIs from similar equipment and plants is one method of identifying poor performing areas and estimating improvement potential. Actions for performance improvements can then be developed, prioritized and implemented based on the KPIs and the benchmarking results. An alternative to benchmarking, which is described in this paper, is to identify the process signals that are strongest correlated with the KPI and then change these process signals in the direction that improves the KPI. This method has been applied to data from a combined heat and power plant and a suggestion are given on how to improve boiler efficiency. 

  • 140.
    Liu, J.
    et al.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Chen, S.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Wang, H.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Evolution of China's urban energy consumption structure-a case study in Beijing2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 88, p. 88-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China is a coal-based energy consuming country. The proportion of coal is up to 70% in the energy consumption structure in 1990s. In the past 20 years, driven by energy saving policy, China's energy consumption structure has undergone great changes, especially in urban areas. This paper explores the evolution of energy-use structure at the national level and the level of Beijing City in China. Four major energy sources were considered, including coal, oil, natural gas and electricity. The dataset was collected from 1990 to 2012. The results show that the proportion of coal consumption decreased by approximately 20% from 1990 to 2012 at the national level in compare with nearly 50% at the level of Beijing City. Furthermore, the proportion of natural gas consumption and other clean energies rose. In Beijing the natural gas and other clean energies account for over 60% of the total energy in 2012, which played an important role in improving the local environment.

  • 141.
    Liu, J.
    et al.
    South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen, China.
    Mao, G.
    South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen, China.
    Hoekstra, A.Y.
    University of Twente, Netherlands.
    Wang, D.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Wang, J.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Zheng, C.
    South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen, China.
    van Vliet, M.T.H
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Wu, M.
    Argonne National Laboratory, United States.
    Ruddell, B.
    Northern Arizona University, US.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Managing the energy-water-food nexus for sustainable development2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 210, p. 377-381Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 142.
    Liu, M.
    et al.
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, China.
    Zhu, C.
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, China.
    Zhang, H.
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, China.
    Zheng, W.
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, China.
    You, S.
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, China.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The environment and energy consumption of a subway tunnel by the influence of piston wind2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 246, p. 11-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the flourishing development of the subway construction, it becomes increasingly urgent to improve the subway tunnel environment and reduce the energy consumption of the tunnel ventilation system. The tunnel environment is significantly affected by the piston wind, which is influenced by the train speed. In this paper, a three-dimensional computational model of a subway tunnel is developed and validated through experiments. The model is used to study the carbon dioxide concentration and thermal environment of the subway tunnel. The optimal train speed is proposed with the aim to minimize the volume of mechanical supply air and to optimize the carbon dioxide concentration and thermal environment of the tunnel. In parallel with the considerations of tunnel environment, the subways in 25 cities of China are analyzed to study the energy conservation of the tunnel ventilation system by making full use of piston wind. The results indicate that the optimal train speed is 30 m/s based on the carbon dioxide concentration and thermal environment. The effective utilization of the piston wind can reduce 13%∼32% of the energy consumption for tunnel ventilation. The calculation method of the optimal train speed developed in this paper is also applicable to ordinary railway tunnels and high-speed railway tunnels.

  • 143.
    Liu, Y.
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.
    Chen, L.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.
    Wang, T.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.
    Zhang, Q.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.
    Wang, C.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ma, L.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.
    One-Pot Catalytic Conversion of Raw Lignocellulosic Biomass into Gasoline Alkanes and Chemicals over LiTaMoO6 and Ru/C in Aqueous Phosphoric Acid2015In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 3, no 8, p. 1745-1755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable feedstock that has the potential to replace the diminishing fossil fuels. Herein, we reported the simultaneous conversion of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin from raw biomass into gasoline alkanes (hexanes and pentanes) and monophenols and related hydrocarbons over layered LiTaMoO<inf>6</inf> and Ru/C in aqueous phosphoric acid medium. Specifically, gasoline alkanes were directly yielded from the carbohydrate components, based on hemicellulose and cellulose, and the total yield could be up to 82.4%. Notably, the lignin fraction could also be transformed into monophenols, related alcohols and hydrocarbons by the one-pot reaction. It suggested that the hydrocracking of monophenol fraction could be performed in this catalytic system. The total yield of volatile products was 53% based on the lignin fraction. In this paper, the influences of phosphoric acid concentration, substrate ash and the amino acids derived from the biogenic impurities were investigated and different raw biomass substrates were tested. Furthermore, the catalysts could be reused for several runs to convert raw biomass without pretreatment.

  • 144.
    Liu, Z.
    et al.
    John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States.
    Davis, S. J.
    University of California, Irvine, Department of Earth System Science, Irvine, CA, United States.
    Feng, K.
    Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States.
    Hubacek, K.
    Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States.
    Liang, S.
    School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.
    Anadon, L. D.
    John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States.
    Chen, B.
    Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States.
    Liu, J.
    State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Guan, D.
    Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Targeted opportunities to address the climate-trade dilemma in China2016In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 201-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International trade has become the fastest growing driver of global carbon emissions, with large quantities of emissions embodied in exports from emerging economies. International trade with emerging economies poses a dilemma for climate and trade policy: to the extent emerging markets have comparative advantages in manufacturing, such trade is economically efficient and desirable. However, if carbon-intensive manufacturing in emerging countries such as China entails drastically more CO 2 emissions than making the same product elsewhere, then trade increases global CO 2 emissions. Here we show that the emissions embodied in Chinese exports, which are larger than the annual emissions of Japan or Germany, are primarily the result of China's coal-based energy mix and the very high emissions intensity (emission per unit of economic value) in a few provinces and industry sectors. Exports from these provinces and sectors therefore represent targeted opportunities to address the climate-trade dilemma by either improving production technologies and decarbonizing the underlying energy systems or else reducing trade volumes.

  • 145.
    Liu, Z.
    et al.
    Resnick Sustainability Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, United States.
    Feng, K.
    Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States.
    Davis, S. J.
    Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, United States.
    Guan, D.
    Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, School of International Development, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    Chen, B.
    School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.
    Hubacek, K.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Understanding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and the implication for achieving climate change mitigation targets2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 184, p. 737-741Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 146.
    Lu, Yuexia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    X., Yu
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Experimental investigation on CO2 absorption using absorbent in hollow fiber membrane contactor2008In: International Scientific Conference on "Green Energy management and IT", Stockholm, March 12-13, 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 147.
    Lu, Yuexia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Xinhai, Yu
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, Shanghai.
    Shan-Tung, Tu
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, Shanghai.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Experimental Studies on Simultaneous Removal of CO2 and SO2 in a Polypropylene Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactor2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 97, p. 283-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Membrane gas absorption technology is a promising alternative to conventional technologies for the mitigation of acid gases. In this study, simultaneous removal of SO2 and CO2 from coal-fired flue gas was studied in a polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactor using aqueous monoethanolamine as the absorbent. The influences of liquid and gas flow rates on the simultaneous absorption performance of CO2 and SO2 were investigated. The experimental results indicated that the membrane contactor could eliminate these two sour gases simultaneously and effectively. Absorption of SO2 and CO2 was enhanced by the increase in liquid flow rate and decrease in gas flow rate. It was observed that a small amount of SO2 in the flue gas had a slight influence on the absorption of CO2. In addition, the membrane contactor was continuously operated for two weeks to evaluate its duration performance. The results showed that the CO2 mass transfer rate was decreased significantly with the operating time due to partial wetting of membrane pores. After 14 days of continuous operation, the CO2 mass transfer rate of the wetted membrane contactor was decreased by 41% but could be retrieved to 86% of the fresh one by increasing the gas phase pressure.

  • 148.
    Lu, Yuexia
    et al.
    East China University of Science and Technolog.
    Xinhai, Yu
    East China University of Science and Technology.
    Shan-Tung, Tu
    East China University of Science and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wetting of polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactors2010In: Journal of Membrane Science, ISSN 0376-7388, E-ISSN 1873-3123, Vol. 362, no 1-2, p. 444-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The membrane wetting by the absorbent leads to the increase of mass transfer resistance and deterioration of CO2 absorption performance during membrane gas absorption process. In this paper, polypropylene (PP) fibers were immersed in monoethanolamine (MEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and deionized (DI) water, respectively, assuming that the immersed PP fibers would undergo similar exposure conditions as those used in hollow fiber membrane contactor. The wetting evolution of PP fibers was investigated as a function of immersion time. The characterization results confirmed that the absorbent molecules diffused into the PP polymer during the exposure process, resulting in the swelling of the membrane. The absorption-swelling wetting mechanism was proposed to explain what happened during the wetting process. A 30.8° reduction in the contact angle was observed, indicating that the membrane surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly following the immersion time. Experimental results showed that the membrane surface morphology and surface roughness suffered significant and complicated changes after being immersed in the absorbents for a certain period. It was found that the absorbent with higher surface tension is in favor of fewer changes of the membrane surface morphologies. Based on the experimental results, improving the membrane surface hydrophobicity was suggested as an effective way to overcome the wetting problem.

  • 149.
    Lu, Yuexia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Yu, X.H
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    CO2 capture by the absorption process in the membrane contactors2009In: 6th Vienna International Conference on Mathematical Modeling, MATHMOD 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Post combustion CO2 capture is corresponding to the most widely applicable option in terms of industrial sectors and is compatible to a retrofit strategy. In addition to the conventional chemical absorption process, membrane gas absorption is considered as one of the promising alternatives to conventional techniques for the CO2 separation from the flue gas of fossil fuels combustion. As a hybrid approach of chemical absorption and membrane separation, it may offer a number of important features, e.g., economical viability due to its larger interfacial area, no flooding at high flow rates, no foaming and channeling, linear scale-up with predictable performance. This paper is to describe and present the state-of-the-art of the R&D efforts on membrane contactors focused on the microporous hallow fiber structure. The operating principles, liquid absorbents selection, influence of membrane wetting phenomenon, membrane materials and module types have been intensively reviewed. Model parameters including economic performance has been evaluated with comparison of other technologies. Technical obstacles of applying membrane contactors in CO2 capture process have also been discussed. The knowledge and application gaps have been examined and identified, thus providing a recommendation for the future studies.

  • 150.
    Lu, Yuexia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yu, Xinhai
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai.
    Jia, Jingjing
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Fabrication and characterization of superhydrophobic polypropylene hollow fiber membranes for carbon dioxide absorption2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The membrane wetting by amine absorbents results in performance deterioration of membrane gas absorption system for CO2 post-combustion capture. To solve this problem, in this study, the polypropylene membrane fiber was modified by depositing a rough layer on the surface to improve its hydrophobicity. Weighing the coating homogeneity, hydrophobicity and modification process efficiency, the mixture of cyclohexanone and MEK system was considered as the best non-solvent. The contact angle increased dramatically from 122_ to 158_ by the modification, thereby obtaining superhydrophobic membrane surface. The membrane–absorbent interaction results demonstrated that the modification treatment effectively enhanced the stability and maintained the superhydrophobicity of fibers contacting with the absorbent. In addition, continuous CO2 absorption experiments for up to 20 days were carried out in untreated and modified polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactors, using 1 mol L_1 MEA solution as the absorbent. The long-term system operation results indicated that, even though additional mass transfer resistance was introduced by the surface coating, the modified polypropylene hollow fiber

    membrane contactor was still technically feasible for CO2 capture from the power stations.

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