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  • 101.
    Torstensson, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Exploring the perception for demand response among residential consumers2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 2797-2800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart Grids are often seen as an enabler for an electricity market with increased benefits for both consumers and environment. From a system level perspective, many advantages could be achieved by implementing these innovative technologies. Furthermore, implementing smart metering could give consumers possibilities to obtain a better understanding of their own electricity consumption. The information could also help consumers to react on price signals by adjusting their consumption patterns. Increased knowledge usually increase awareness and could therefore be positive for energy efficiency activities. In order to investigate the potential for increased consumer participation in the electricity market with respect to demand-response and micro generation, a questionnaire was sent out to the households in the town Sala. The purpose of this paper is to describe the interest for demand response among households. Furthermore attitudes for demand response have been investigated.

  • 102.
    Torstensson, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Potential and barriers for demand response at household customers2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 1189-1196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart Grids are often seen as an enabler for an electricity market with increased benefits for both consumers and environment. From a system level perspective, many advantages could be achieved by implementing these innovative technologies. Furthermore, implementing smart metering could give consumers possibilities to obtain a better understanding of their own electricity consumption. The information could also help consumers to react on price signals by adjusting their consumption patterns. Increased knowledge usually increase awareness and could therefore be positive for energy efficiency activities. In order to investigate the potential for increased consumer participation in the electricity market with respect to demand-response and micro generation, a questionnaire was sent out to the households in the town Eskilstuna. The purpose of this it paper is to describe the potential for demand response among households. Furthermore attitudes and enabler for demand response have been investigated. The household shows a quite positive attitude towards participation in demand response in this study. It was clear that households that live in houses are generally more interested in demand response compared to those living in apartments. In order to better understand how these positive attitudes could be realized for a more flexible electricity demand, the study pointed out that both economic incentives and environmental concerns were important drivers that motivates various consumer groups. It was noted that households living in apartment where more concerned of the environmental effects as compared to households in houses, which may influence on how business models may need to be adjusted when offered to different customer groups. The study also shows that relatively small economic compensation is required in order to realize demand response in apartments, wheras consumers in detached house requires more. Hence the potential for demand response based on price incentives seems promising for some households, however barriers were also identified such as distrust to the functioning of electricity market. 

  • 103.
    Törnwall, Elin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Pettersson, Hanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Post-treatment of biogas digestate – An evaluation of ammonium recovery, energy use and sanitation2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 957-963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The utilization of digestate from anaerobic digestion (AD) processes offers the possibility to recycle nutrient from organic wastematerials back to the food chain. However, digestates are characterized by a high water content resulting in high storagecapacities and transportation costs. Various organic wastes such as organic municipal solid waste (oMSW) require sanitation withat least one hour hydraulic retention time (HRT) at 70°C to inactivate pathogens for the safe release of the material.Consequently, the sanitation process is one of the largest energy consumers in the whole AD process chain. In this study, a posttreatmentof the biogas digestate was evaluated regarding the potential for energy savings and nutrient recovery via nitrogenstripping in comparison to the conventional pre-sanitation of the organic waste. With increasing HRT (one to three hours) andaeration flow (0.0-5.3 L air per L digestate and minute) more condensate and ammonia was removed from the digestate. The totalammonia removal from the digestate after one and three hours with the highest aeration flow rate reached 42% and 80%,respectively. However, energy requirement for aeration exceeded energy savings from the lower volume for sanitation after thedigestion substantially. On a system level, a positive energy balance could still be achieved by taking energy savings from thereplacement of mineral fertilizer (36 GJ per ton NH4) into account. Moreover, the digestate as fertilizer could be applied in amore demand-oriented way by adding ammonium sulphate obtained by the ammonia stripping during the post-treatment.

  • 104.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The citizens' role in energy smart city development2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 88, p. 200-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper was to investigate citizens' experiences and feedback related to strategies and products targeting energy savings and emission reduction in Sweden. Survey results presented in this paper showed that consumers did not make use of the advantages of the smart meters and that tailored feedback is necessary to help them save electricity. Moreover, despite the high satisfaction levels among electric vehicles owners, additional improvements (e.g. reliable charging infrastructure) and information are needed to attract potential owners. Effective information dissemination is thus a crucial part of increasing urban sustainability. 

  • 105.
    Vieites, Esteban
    et al.
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Arias, Juan
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    European initiatives towards improving the energy efficiency in existing and historic buildings2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 1679-1685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the building sector's energy efficiency while reducing CO2 emissions, constitute the main challenge that most European cities need to tackle. In Europe the building sector is responsible for nearly 40% of the total energy consumption. Considering the slow rates of constructing new buildings, a lot of attention needs to be paid to the already existing building stock. This paper presents some of the major projects carried out in Europe and their achievements regarding the integration of innovative technologies and use of different sources of renewable energy in existing buildings. Special attention has been paid to projects targeting historic buildings, since their significant cultural and historic values make their refurbishment and retrofitting process more complex.

  • 106.
    Wang, C.
    et al.
    Shandong University, China.
    He, Z.
    Shandong University, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wennerstern, R.
    Shandong University, China.
    Sun, Q.
    Shandong University, China.
    Evaluation on Performance of a Phase Change Material Based Cold Storage House2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 3947-3952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology of phase change materials used in cold storage house has great potential in energy storage and cost saving under the background of peak and valley price of electricity. A kind of cold storage house based on water/ice as phase change material was set up and studied. Performance of this cold storage house was experimentally tested and numerical simulated. The results showed that water/ice is a promising material for its high latent heat density. Cold storage house with water/ice PCM shifts electricity load to off-peak load and then increase operating cost due to peak load power pricing. In addition, water/ice PCM increases the insulation effect and then reduces the cold energy needed. The payback period of water/ice PCM in a laboratory scale is about 4.1 years in this study. 

  • 107.
    Wang, Fu
    et al.
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Jun
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Hao
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhao, Li
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China; Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Experimental study of solar assisted post-combustion carbon capture2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2246-2252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar-assisted post-combustion carbon capture system is studied to compensate the energy penalty of coal-fired plant due to absorbent regeneration. The system is highly integrated with the amine-based carbon capture process coupled with solar thermal sub-system. The dynamic performance is largely affected by the variations of parameters and the fluctuations in solar collectors. An experimental facility of solar-assisted chemical absorption pilot with two types of collectors (parabolic trough and linear Fresnel) was constructed in this study. The impacts on the absorbent regeneration performance were studied on the dynamic variation of the solar heat and the operating temperature of the reboiler. The results show that an optimum ration of liquid-to-gas of 2.5-3.0 was determined at the lowest of the required regeneration energy. The study suggests that a better understanding of the key parameters associated with both capture process as well as the solar assisted sub-system if of importance for the overall operation and control.

  • 108.
    Wang, Ge
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Qi
    China Univ Petr, Peoples R China.
    Tian, Ruijie
    China Univ Petr, Peoples R China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Combined Impacts of RTP and FIT on Optimal Management for a Residential Micro-Grid2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 1666-1672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential micro-grid can reduce the household's electricity expense as well as shift the electricity demand from peak time to valley time. Optimal management of a typical residential smart micro-grid is conducted using a proposed model in the present study. In the optimal management, the real-time pricing mechanism, feed-in-tariff for Photovoltaics (PV) power as residential electricity generators, and residential appliances are considered. Four scenarios are studied and the result shows that the real-time pricing mechanism shifts effectively the electricity consumption from time peak time to valley time, and different feed-in-tariff of Photovoltaic (PV) can shift the energy consumption of micro-grid between periods with strong solar irradiation and weak solar irradiation.

  • 109.
    Wang, T.
    et al.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Liu, T.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Luan, W.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Tu, S. -T
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Performance Improvement of High-temperature Silicone Oil Based Thermoelectric Generator2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1211-1218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent advances in waste heat recovery technologies have provided great opportunities for energy conversion efficiency improvement. This paper proposed a metal foam filled thermoelectric generator (TEG) for the utilization of liquid waste heat resource. A prototype was designed and constructed to study the performance enhancement due to metal foam inserts. High-temperature oil based experiment was conducted to investigate the TEG performance in higher liquid temperature. The influences of hot oil inlet temperature and cold water flow rate were proved to be key operating parameters for the TEG performance. Specially, net power output and net power enhancement ratio were presented to assess the overall net power output performance. The metal foam filled TEG was demonstrated to outperform the unfilled TEG both in power generation efficiency and net power performance. In the experiments, the maximum power generation efficiency and net power enhancement ratio of metal foam inserted TEG were 2.49% and 1.33, respectively. 

  • 110.
    Weidong, Wang
    et al.
    Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Shiquan, He
    Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Jing, Ding
    Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Jianping, Yang
    South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.
    Numerical Evaluation on a Direct-contact Thermal Energy Storage System2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 4389-4394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates numerically various configurations of direct-contact PCM thermal energy storage devices, regarding inlet location, inlet flow directions, pre-heating and inlet tubes with straight fins. The direct-contact conjugate heat transfer between the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and PCM during melting process, is solved numerically by enthalpy-porosity formulation in the computational fluid dynamic approach. The results indicate that pre-heating could form channels in a short time, which improve heat transfer rate for charging stages. To further enhance heat transfer performance, inlet tubes embedded with straight fins. Compared to pre-heating method, the electric power can be saved. Each design are evaluated with respect to their heat transfer performance vis-à-vis heat storage ratio.

  • 111.
    Winn, Olivia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Sivaram, Kiran Thekkemadathil
    Mälardalen University.
    Aslanidou, Ioanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Skvaril, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Near-infrared spectral measurements and multivariate analysis for predicting glass contamination of refuse-derived fuel2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 943-949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how glass contamination in refuse-derived fuel can be quantitatively detected using near-infrared spectroscopy. Near-infrared spectral data of glass in four different background materials were collected, each material chosen to represent a main component in municipal solid waste; actual refuse-derived fuel was not tested. The resulting spectra were pre- processed and used to develop multi-variate predictive models using partial least squares regression. It was shown that predictive models for coloured glass content are reasonably accurate, while models for mixed glass or clear glass content are not; the validated model for coloured glass content had a coefficient of determination of 0.83 between the predicted and reference data, and a root- mean-square error of validation of 0.64. The methods investigated in this paper show potential in predicting coloured glass content in different types of background material, but a different approach would be needed for predicting mixed type glass contamination in refuse-derived fuel. 

  • 112.
    Wu, T.
    et al.
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yu, Z.
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Optimizing the Energy Structure for Space Heating - An Approach Based on External Cost2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 3194-3199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coal is the dominating fuel for heating, resulting in serious air pollution in China especially in winter. To mitigate the problem, Chinese government has issued policies to motivate consumers to use natural gas to replace coal. Considering the high price of natural gas, in order to further promote the utilization of natural gas, this paper has proposed a new method that considers the external cost of fuel when optimizing the energy structure for space heating. The external cost is commonly used to reflect the impacts of pollutant emissions to measure social benefit. The proposed method has been applied to a case study for the regions of Beijing and Tianjin. Results show that optimizing the fuel consumption in Beijing and Tianjin as a whole can reduce the external cost by 36 million dollars. 

  • 113.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Feitz, D. A.
    Geoscience Australia, Australia.
    Li, D. X.
    Institute of Soil and Rock Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Zhang, D. X.
    Administrative Centre for China Agenda 21, China.
    Preface2018In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 154, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 114.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kaldellis, P. J. K.
    University of West Attica, Greece.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    REM2018: Renewable Energy Integration with Mini/Microgrid2019In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 159Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 115.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Shamim, T.
    Masdar Inst Sci & Technol, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.
    Choud, S. K.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Clean, Efficient and Affordable Energy for a Sustainable Future - The Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2015)2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 116.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Wang, C.
    Tianjin University, China.
    Yu, J.
    State Grid Tianjin Electric Power Co., China.
    Jia, H.
    Tianjin University, China.
    Wu, J.
    Cardiff University, United Kingdom.
    Xu, T.
    Tianjin University, China.
    Zhang, Yang
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Renewable Energy Integration with Mini/Microgrid2018In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 145, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 117.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Applied Energy, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Wennersten, R.
    Shandong University, China.
    Chen, B.
    Beijing Normal University, China.
    Yang, J.
    China University of Geosciences, China.
    Lv, Y.
    Qilu University of Technology, China.
    Sun, Q.
    Applied Energy, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Editorial2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 104, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wu, J.
    Cardiff University, United Kingdom.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Applied Energy2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wu, J.
    Tongji University, China.
    Yang, Ying
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wang, H.
    Tongji University, China.
    Wang, X.
    Tongji University, China.
    Editorial cleaner energy for cleaner city2018In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 152, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 120.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yang, H.
    Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Chen, X.
    Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
    Innovative solutions for energy transitions: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018)2019In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 158, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhai, Y.
    Asian Development Bank, Philippines .
    Wijayatunga, P.
    Asian Development Bank, Philippines .
    Mohamed, A. M.
    Minister of State for Environment and Energy, Maldives.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Renewable Energy Integration with Mini/Microgrid2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 103, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 122.
    Yang, J.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, A.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Chen, B.
    Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China .
    A hybrid life-cycle assessment of CO2 Emissions of a PV water pumping system in China2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, p. 2871-2875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve both water conservation and climate change mitigation benefits, photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) system, which employs solar energy to fuel the water pumping system, has been a widely adopted solar energy technology in the last two decades. Although the PVWP system is driven by direct renewable flux, and has no onsite CO2 emissions, there must be energy consumed during the production of PV modules and the operation of water pumping system. Thus, we estimated the CO2 emissions of a PVWP system in Inner Mongolia, China in a life cycle perspective. A hybrid Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), which combines process-sum and economic input-out analysis was employed to reduce uncertainty. Results show that PVWP is a good choice for carbon emission reduction with carbon sequestration benefit much higher than the lifetime carbon emissions. The largest emitters are PV module and engineering, which should be the focus of carbon management of PVWP system.

  • 123.
    Yang, J.
    et al.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Yu, X.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Tu, S. -T
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Xu, M.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    CO2 capture using absorbents of mixed ionic and amine solutions2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 2849-2853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have been conducted to find new absorbents for post-combustion CO2 capture. To overcome the ILs' limits and meanwhile take their advantages, the mixed amine + IL + H2O solutions as CO2 capture absorbent were investigated in a CO2 absorption/desorption loop setup. It was found that with an increase in IL concentration, the viscosity of the mixed solution rose while the energy required for absorbent regeneration decreased. In addition, no IL loss was detected and the amine loss per ton of captured CO2 was considerably lower than that of aqueous amine solution. The viscosity of the best candidate of 30 wt% MEA + 40 wt% [bmim][BF4] + 30 wt% H2O is close to the value of aqueous amine solution, indicating that the ionic liquid disadvantage of high viscosity can be overcome for absorbent delivery of CO2 capture.

  • 124.
    Yang, Xueqin
    et al.
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Wang, Zhen
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China.
    Impacts of Emission Reduction Target and External Costs on Provincial Natural Gas Distribution in China2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 3326-3331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural gas is playing a more and more important role in emission reduction, and it is regarded as inevitable choice for the future energy consumption. In this study, a mathematical model was developed to identify an optimal solution for natural gas distribution in China. In line with previous research studies, the economic cost is the most important criterion that was considered. Additionally, the external cost of emissions was included as a second criterion. In order to satisfy the energy conservation and emission reduction target, the paper contributes with an optimization approach of the provincial distribution of natural gas with the aim to minimize the comprehensive costs. The problem was solved using Lingo software. An important contribution of the paper is that external costs was considered in the optimization of natural gas distribution from a provincial level perspective.

  • 125.
    Yang, Ying
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhang, Y.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Peak-shaving and profit-sharing model by Aggregators in residential buildings with PV- a case study in Eskilstuna, Sweden2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 3182-3193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, photovoltaic (PV) system combined with energy storage systems is playing increasing significant role in residential buildings in Sweden. At the same time it brings reliability problems because of the intermittency of electricity production and exceptionally distributed reservoir which is followed by the peak-valley electricity prices and power grid fluctuations. There is an increasing need for new business model and economic paradigm for a third party aggregator to bridge the gap between Power Grid and end-users. Providing the valuable electricity services at scale and breaking regulatory arbitrage, aggregators help to deliver desired levels of residents’ engagements, value-added services and feasible level of unbundling of electricity market. This paper analyzes how the aggregators grab the indisputable business opportunity to interact between residents and Power Grid from the perspective of physical electricity flows and benefits share of peak-shaving. We employ a real case in Eskilstuna in Sweden to design new business model and validate using data. And the result indicates the compatibility of the aggregator service and its business model. It further sheds light on the pricing model of generated electricity by PV system, and benefits share ratio design.

  • 126.
    Yuting, Tan
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nookuea, Worrada
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Property Impacts on Plate-fin Multi-stream Heat Exchanger (Cold Box) Design in CO2 Cryogenic Process: Part II. Evaluation of Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity Models2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 4595-4600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Viscosity and thermal conductivity are key transport properties in the design of plate-fin multi-stream heat exchanger in CO2 cryogenic processes. It is necessary to evaluate the reliabilities of viscosity and thermal conductivity models. In addition, the differences in design of multi-stream heat exchanger by using different property models need to be studied as well. In this paper, viscosity models and thermal conductivity models of CO2 mixtures with non-condensable gas impurities were evaluated separately by comparison with existing experimental data. Recommendations were given on model selections and their impact on the design of plate-finmulti-stream heat exchanger were analyzed.

    The results show that for viscosity, the uncertainty range of Wilke’s model is the smallest with a maximum absolute deviation of 6.1%. This model is therefore recommended to be used. For thermal conductivity, GERG model, with a maximum absolute deviation of 8.7% is preferred. The choice of thermal conductivity model has a noticeabl eimpact on the plate-fin multi-stream heat exchanger design, and the maximum deviation by using different thermal conductivity models is 7.5%

  • 127.
    Zambrano, Jesús
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Light and duty cycle optimization of a photo-bioreactor in batch mode2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 773-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is focused on optimizing the amount of light duty cycle of a photo-bioreactor operating in batch mode. The mathematical model used is confined to one dissolved substrate, one biomass (algae), one internal cell quota, and the irradiance for photo-acclimated culture. The model has been previously published and validated with experimental data. The following optimization problem is studied: minimize the effluent substrate concentration subject to: maximum and minimum amount of light to be used, the time of the light/dark illumination and the total time of the batch experiment. Analytical solution for this optimization problem seems difficult to obtain. However, numerical results obtained from simulations show that it is possible to find solutions which satisfy the problem requirements.

  • 128.
    Zhang, C.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yang, J.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Analysis of Distributed Photovoltaic Financing: A Case Study Approach of Crowd-funding with Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in Microgrids2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 103, p. 387-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed photovoltaic (PV) system is playing an increasingly significant role in the fast growing global PV market, as a renewable power supply source. In rural and remote areas, the integrated PV technology with remote micro-grid offers a potential solution for agriculture and small businesses to access to clean, reliable and efficient energy source. As the cost of solar PV modules continues to show a downward tendency, the distributed PV systems with remote micro-grid are capable to meet growing energy demand with affordable price. Meanwhile, a series of policies and actions have been enacted in China since 2013, to motivate the distributed-generation PV development as equal as large-scale PV development. However, compared to coal-fired power plants or large-scale PV systems, a barrier exists in securing financing of distributed PV systems, which has high up-front costs and the risk of commercializing renewable energy initiatives. Under current market incentives and barriers, this paper studies the existing financing methods in distributed PV systems with remote distributed micro-grids. In comparison with other financing sources, a case study approach is employed with distributed PV water pumping system in China to introduce crowd-funding as a new source of financing in distributed PV systems. Through the SWOT analysis, this paper identifies a capacity for new financial approach of crowd-funding with PVWP deployment. The scenario is modelled for different stakeholders and organization forms that target social network interactions in crowd-funding, and the results provide insights for incentives and policy.

  • 129.
    Zhang, C.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yang, J.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, J.
    China Petroleum Daily, Jia NO.3, AnHuali 2, ChaoYang District, Beijing, China Petroleum Daily, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Can Solar Energy be an Alternative Choice of Milk Production in Dairy Farms?: -A Case study of Integrated PVWP System with Alfalfa and Milk Production in Dairy Farms in China2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 3953-3959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As China's dairy consumption grows, both the domestic milk production and the importation of dairy products are increasing to meet market demands. The objective of this study was to quantify electricity usage and cost of milk production with data analysis of dairy farms and evaluate the potential alternative energy supply-solar energy generated by PV water pumping system (PVWP). We collected data in milk production processes from 11 dairy farms in China. By selecting the optimal dairy farm, we simulate the scenario of solar power generation with PVWP system to provide power both for milk and alfalfa production. With estimations of electricity saving, economic cost saving and CO2 saving on every kg milk produced under PVWP system, we conclude that scenario PVWP with alfalfa and milk production can results in value add-ins, new sources of revenue, energy supply and emission reductions. 

  • 130.
    Zhang, Q.
    et al.
    Academy of China Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Li, Y.
    Academy of China Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wang, G.
    Academy of China Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Chen, S.
    Academy of China Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Study on the Impacts of the LNG Market Reform in China using a SVM based Rolling Horizon Stochastic Game Analysis2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 3850-3855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural gas is expected to play a much more important role in China in future decades and its market reform is crucial for its fast market penetration. At present, the main gas fields, pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) infrastructure are monopolized by the state owned big companies, and one of the important market reform policies is to open the LNG import rights to small private companies or traders. Therefore, in the present study, a Game Analysis Model is proposed to analyze and compare the impacts of different market structures on infrastructure deployment and social welfare. Moreover, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based rolling horizon stochastic method has been adopted in the model to simulate the real LNG price fluctuations. The results indicate that, with the third part access (TPA) entrance into LNG market, the construction of LNG infrastructure will be promoted and more gas will be provided with lower prices, and thus the total social welfare will be improved greatly. 

  • 131.
    Zhang, X.
    et al.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Lindberg, T.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Vyatkin, V.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mousavi, A.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Cooling Energy Consumption Investigation of Data Center IT Room with Vertical Placed Server2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 2047-2052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As energy consumption by cooling data center IT equipment can be over 40% of total energy consumption, efficient cooling for large data centers is essential for reducing operation costs. Modern data centers are complex systems involving IT facilities, power system, cooling and ventilation systems. In our previous work, literature study was made to investigate available data center energy consumption models; and energy consumption models for data center IT room with distributed air flow control were developed. In this paper, the models are further extended and developed to cover the combined distributed air flow control and vertical placed servers in raised floor ventilation system. Simulation of the three types of ventilation systems with Even load, Idle server and Uneven load scenarios showed that significant cooling energy consumed by a traditional ventilation system can be saved by applying the proposed new concept and method. 

  • 132.
    Zhang, X.
    et al.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Vasteras, Sweden.
    Yan, J.
    Vattenfall AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Chekani, S.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Liu, L.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Energy saving for biogas production and upgrading - Thermal integration2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 121-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal integration of anaerobic digestion (AD) biogas production with amine based biogas upgrading has been studied for improving the overall thermal efficiencies of the two systems. The thermal characteristics have been investigated for typical AD raw biogas generation and MEA absorption biogas upgrading. The investigation provides a basic understanding of energy saving for both industrial scale biogas production and upgrading processes. The thermal integration is carried out based on the thermal characteristics of the two systems by well-defined case studies, which take the following factors into account such as important thermal conditions of sub-systems, material and energy balances, the efficiencies of heat exchange and heat transfer, necessary integration optimization and ambient conditions. The results show that the thermal integration is achievable with very positive effects for overall energy efficiency and water usage.

  • 133.
    Zhang, Y.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lundblad, A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, L.
    Chongqing University, Chongqing, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Swed.
    The Influence of Photovoltaic Models and Battery Models in System Simulation and Optimization2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1184-1191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting accurate and robust models is important for simulation and optimization of a clean energy system. This paper compares two photovoltaic (PV) models and two battery models in an open-source code, Opti-CE. The PV models are single diode model and its simplified model. The battery models are Improved Shepherd model and energy balance model. The models are compared from a perspective of overall system simulation and optimization in particular on both accuracy and computational time. The results indicate that simplified PV model causes 0.86% normalized root mean square error (nRMSE) compared with the single diode model, while decreases the simulation time from more than 800s to less than 0.01s. The energy balance battery model reduces simulation time from more than 5s to less than 0.03s. The energy balance model tends to underestimate the battery State of Charge (SOC) compared with the Improved Shepherd model. However, the error is not accumulative during the simulation. Compared to the Pareto front with single diode model and Improved Shepherd model, the simplified PV model increases the Pareto front values and result in both higher Self Sufficiency Ratio (SSR) and Net Present Value (NPV), while the energy balance battery model decreases the part of Pareto front, where individuals have low NPV. 

  • 134.
    Zhang, Y.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundblad, A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comparative Study of Battery Storage and Hydrogen Storage to Increase Photovoltaic Self-sufficiency in a Residential Building of Sweden2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 103, p. 268-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic (PV) is promising to supply power for residential buildings. Battery is the most widely employed storage method to mitigate the intermittence of PV and to overcome the mismatch between production and load. Hydrogen storage is another promising method that it is suitable for long-term storage. This study focuses on the comparison of self-sufficiency ratio and cost performance between battery storage and hydrogen storage for a residential building in Sweden. The results show that battery storage is superior to the hydrogen storage in the studied case. Sensitivity study of the component cost within the hydrogen storage system is also carried out. Electrolyzer cost is the most sensitive factor for improving system performance. A hybrid battery and hydrogen storage system, which can harness the advantages of both battery and hydrogen storages, is proposed in the last place.

  • 135.
    Zhang, Y.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Employing battery storage to increase photovoltaic self-sufficiency in a residential building of Sweden2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 88, p. 455-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic (PV) or hybrid PV-battery systems are promising to supply power for residential buildings. In this study, the load profile of a multi apartment building in Gothenburg and the PV production profile under local weather conditions are compared and analyzed. Three different types of batteries, including lead acid, NaNiCl (Sodium-Nickel-Chloride) and Lithium ion, are studied in combination with the PV systems. It is found that Lithium ion battery system is superior in achieving higher Self-Sufficiency Ratio (SSR) with the same Life Cycle Cost (LCC). Achieving high SSR with the hybrid PV-battery system is unrealistic because of the seasonal mismatch between the load and electricity production profile. The capacity match between the PV and battery to maximize SSR was investigated, showing different trends under system LCC range of 0.1-40 Million SEK (1SEK≈0.12USD). The system LCC should be lower than 10.6 Million SEK (at the SSR of 36%) in order to keep the payback time positive. 

  • 136.
    Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yang, Ying
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lundblad, Anders
    Division Safety and Transport/Electronics, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, SE-50462 Borås, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Energy Flexibility through the Integrated Energy Supply System in Buildings: A Case Study in Sweden2018In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 145, p. 564-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing penetration level of renewable energies requires more flexibility measures at the consumption side. Flexible energy prices have been placed by energy providers to promote flexibility measures from energy users. However, because of the current energy supply system in buildings, these flexible energy prices haven’t been fully taken advantage of. This study focuses on the integrated energy supply system in buildings. A Swedish office building is used as the case study. The integrated energy supply system is built by installing new components, including battery, heat pump and electrical heater, and hot water tank. Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problems are solved to determine the optimal component capacities and operation profiles. The results indicate that all the studied system configurations achieve lower net present cost (NPC) than the current system. It suggests that the integrated energy supply system can take advantage of the flexible energy prices and lower the overall energy cost in the building. Among the studied configurations, the combination of air source heat pump (ASHP) and electrical heater (EH) has the lowest investment cost. This combination also has the lowest NPC except in the scenario with low borehole cost.

  • 137.
    Zhanga, C.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Business model innovation on the photovoltaic water pumping systems for grassland and farmland conservation in China2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 1483-1486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Penetration of the renewable market of Photovoltaic PV technologies calls for the extension of the additional values generated from the technology including climate and social co-benefits as radical innovations in a new business model. Compared with existing PV business models, this paper extends the value proposition into operation system and customer segmentation, investigated by a pilot demonstration of PV water pumping (PVWP) systems for the conservation of grassland and farmland in China. The paper suggests that the integrated PVWP systems can combine the implementation of technology with environmental co-benefits, agricultural products by developing an interactive interface to link a social network. This can further disseminate benefits to stimulate the active participations of investments from individuals and corporations. Discounted cash flow (DCF) model and net present value (NPV) evaluations have been conducted on the traditional PV roof, PVWP pilot and PVWP scale up scenarios. The results show that the scenario of integrated PVWP system with social network products can significantly improve the payback period (PP) and increase internal rate of return (IRR). Based on the PVWP pilots and relevant industrial environments, the results in this paper provide how the innovative PV business model innovation can improve the present practices and policies on PV technologies implementation.

  • 138.
    Zhu, K.
    et al.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Li, X.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Wang, Y.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Chen, X.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dynamic performance of loop heat pipes for cooling of electronics2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 4163-4168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the performance improvement of electronics, the recent trends in electronic industry pose a big challenge on heat dissipation. Conventional methods, i.e. air cooling, may not be able to handle the fast increasing heat flux. Using heat pipes, which have numerous advantages such as high heat transfer coefficient, non-movable components, longer transport distance, and compact structures, emerges to be one competitive option for electronics cooling. Based on the node analysis method and the conservation of energy and mass, this work develops a mathematic model to simulate the operation of heat pipes. After it is validated against experimental data, it is further applied to evaluate the dynamic performance of using a heat pipe for electronics cooling. Results show that the operation temperature of evaporator ranges from 47.5°C to73.1°C, which implies that the heat pipe can effectively cool down the CPU at different running status. The charging ratio of working fluid is identified as a key parameter and exists an optimal value. When keeping the charging ratio constant, a larger evaporator area can achieve a lower operating temperature. 

  • 139.
    Zimmerman, Nathan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Towards On-line Fault Detection and Diagnostics in District Heating Systems2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1960-1966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction for detecting faults in pressure sensors and diagnostics in a district heating network.  Proper pressure throughout the network is essential in maintaining the requirements for the end-user.  A district heating network library has been constructed in OpenModelica for the purpose of developing a district heating network representation of Skultuna, Sweden.  The use of object-oriented program will give the ease of expanding the network to encompass the entire network distribution from Mälarenergi AB, Västerås, Sweden. The physical model can then be used in conjunction with sensor data to calculate residual values.  These residuals are then used as input into a Bayesian Network to determine the possibility of three different operating outcomes. This approach will allow for operators to evaluate a systems performance, help in decision support mechanisms, and can provide assistance in scheduling maintenance.  

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