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  • 101.
    Edoff, Petra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Srinivasan, Jayakanth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Transfer Management for Global Product Development Organization2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global product development has become integral to the way enterprises work today. The drivers for distribution work to global locations such India and China began with a focus on the significant cost differentials when compared to executing the work in western countries (Mao et al. 2008). Since then, the availability of talent (Lewin et al, 2009; Quelin & Duhamel, 2003) and accessibility of markets (Goldbrunner et al, 2006; Mao et al. 2008) have become equally important motivators.

     

    The use of offshoring adds an additional layer of complexity to the already complex product development governance processes that companies use. Current literature discuss the offshoring or outsourcing decision (Levina & Su, 2008), describing organizational objectives for offshoring (Quelin & Duhamel, 2003; Lewin et al, 2009), guidelines for location choices (Cohen et al, 2009), deciding what functions to send offshore (Contractor et al, 2010) coupled with core competencies, as well as risks associated with offshoring (Lewin and Peeters, 2006; Aron & Singh, 2005). The offshoring process itself can be framed in terms of the decision to send functions (components, products, or services) overseas, progressing to planning and executing a transfer and iterating through the governance associated with operations. Since the vast majority of the literature focus on the decision stage of the offshoring process, or the governance perspective on existing globally distributed teams, there is still a need for understanding the process of transferring components and whole products. This papers aims to shed further light on that gap by describing the actual process of executing a successful transfer.

     The empirical foundation of this paper is a single in-depth case study of a new product development organization being established in China. We used an inductive approach that relied on qualitative and archival data to truly understand the dynamics of managing the offshoring of complex products and uncover the underlying mechanisms and structures. Given the paucity of literature and experience reports on transfers, an exploratory approach for collecting qualitative data was used. The primary source of data collection in this paper was interviews with key stakeholders within the projects at the general management and project management levels. We interviewed 15 managers from the Swedish and Chinese centres, and analysed archival data to gain a deeper understanding into both the sending and receiving side.

     The case enterprise, called Eurosoft, has a rich history of outsourcing to other suppliers, and was beginning to establish its presence in China. A strategic decision was taken by senior leadership to create an offshore organization in China that would assume complete ownership of one of their flagship products. Contrary to the conventional wisdom of having the same organizational structure replicated on the European and Chinese sites, Eurosoft chose to establish a product-centred organization on the China side. This paper will give insight to the context of transferring entire product responsibility for a mature product. While the strategies and motivations of distributing work across the product development life cycle have been debated in the literature, the question remains – how do you implement it?

     The case highlighted the key challenges that organizations face when handing an offshoring scenario. Even though Eurosoft Swedish centre was transitioning work to a sister organization within the larger Eurosoft enterprise, they faced hurdles with respect to establishing a common framework for carrying out the product transfer; communicating across cultural and national boundaries; having the receiving team demonstrate and feel comfortable with their competence; and dealing with the mismatch of organizational priorities in the two organizations. Eurosoft found that it was challenging to adhere to the transfer model when key resources from the sending side were often also focused on development projects unrelated to the transfer. When those projects ran into problems, the mentors from the sending side were unavailable to the receiving side. This introduces variability in the transfer process. While everyone recognized the importance of defining and locking the scope of the transfer, they found that scope creep occurred because a strategic roadmap was not articulated to the whole team. Furthermore, the number of interdependencies within a given product and between the products in the portfolio made it difficult to get consensus on the scope. The challenges that emerged in the case are consistent with that faced by project managers studied by Lacity and Rottman (2008). While none of these challenges in and of themselves are unique, the combination of the challenges in the context of a transfer project provides useful insights to both theory and practice.

     Based on the study, our recommendations to the practicing manager are to:

    -          Establish a standard transfer model that clarifies transfer scope up front, and develop a governance mechanism to assess progress.

    -          Ensure communication modes and interface mechanisms are articulated and agreed upon, and that training has been provided to address soft issues such as culture.

    -          Provide dedicated resources to ensure effective knowledge transfer to the receiving team

    -          Develop competencies in the receiving team across the four areas of technical, product governance, ways of working, and cultural commonality.

  • 102.
    Eklund, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Materials Supply, Measurability and Guidelines towards efficiency2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Measurability in production is a cornerstone in all production, but to determine if chosen key performance indicators (KPI’s) are right and in the right amount, to be of help in the daily work, is a challenge. In materials supply processes, there are in some companies not easy to manage KPI’s, resulting in the end in overcapacity in different areas. The question is whether this is acceptable, or if it is a source of cost that has significant improvement potential? In many companies, you do not really know, since there is a lack of facts to draw conclusions from.

    Today materials supply is becoming more and more in focus within production development with many theses and ongoing research and development projects. In global companies, management has recognized the importance of the development of this area with new methods and routines for production improvements in the materials supply area.

    In this thesis, the author will try to deal with these challenges and give the reader some proposals and solutions. The first area is KPI’s and the author proposes some measurements to be used in the daily work within materials supply. The second area in the thesis is to develop guidelines for materials supply concepts to be used in different types of production set-ups.

    The author has made several case studies, in one case company as well as in three reference companies, as well as literature and document studies.

  • 103.
    Eklund, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Internal Materials Handling in a Lean Manufacturing Environment: Challenges and a Design Process from an Industrial Perspective2009In: Proceedings of The International 3'rd Swedish Production Symposium, SPS '09, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 104.
    Ekman, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Design av laddstation för elbilar2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Projektet påbörjades med en förstudie som skulle resultera i ett koncept och en fysisk modell.Projektet går ut på att designa en laddstation för elbilar och på det sättet bidra till samhälletsomställning till förnyelsebara energikällor. Produkten är tänkt att placeras i Mälardalen påallmänna parkeringar, shoppingcenter, privata parkeringar för bostads- och hyresrätter,parkeringshus och liknande.Jag började med att genomföra en marknadsundersökning där jag undersökte existerandelösningar på marknaden. Deras styrkor och svagheter analyserades från olika perspektiv t.ex.design och användarvänlighet. Vidare försökte jag ta reda på vad Mälardalens var känt för,detta för att kunna hitta en gemensam nämnare och införliva det i designen. Här upprättades enfunktionsanalys, en QFD och en kravspecifikation.Med det avklarat fortsatte jag med konceptutvecklingen. Enkla skisser togs fram ochförverkligades i SolidWorks för att få en bättre känsla för designen. De utvärderades två gångeroch till slut valdes ett koncept ut. Jag valde att utveckla det valda konceptet vidare för att fåfram den slutliga designen. Det bästa konceptet förverkligades sen i en fysisk modell ihögskolans verkstad.

  • 105.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Enterprise Systems & Business Relationships: The Utilization of IT in the Business with Customers and Suppliers2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with how companies utilize their enterprise systems in their business relationships. The study’s starting point is enterprise systems that basically are standardised information systems that the company can acquire from software vendors like SAP, Oracle and Microsoft. Enterprise systems aim to integrate and manage all the company’s data and it can also be linked to its business partners.

    The thesis contains two case studies of how a focal company utilizes its enterprise system in their business relationships. To accomplish this, an analytical framework based upon the combination of an information systems (IS) and a business relationship perspective is developed and applied. The IS perspective follows an ‘ensemble view of technology’ approach which describes the use of information systems as embedded in a both technical and social context. The business relationship perspective is founded in empirical studies of industrial companies. Basically, business relationships are unique and based on the companies’ exchanges. It also involves behavioural elements as trust, commitment, adaptations and interdependencies between the partners.

    The two case studies cover the business relationships between ten companies and the character of the studied business relationships varies. The results show that enterprise systems are mainly focused on the companies’ internal activities. The exchanges in the business relationships are either carried out without the enterprise system or are supported by some complementary information system. Enterprise systems are thus mainly seen as production systems. This can be explained by the heritage from former material and resource planning (MRP) systems. An alternative explanation can be that business relationships are unique and require continuous adaptations and a mutual orientation. Enterprise systems require structural data rendering them difficult to use for the activities of a business relationship. The users then develop other, individual, applications that handle what is needed in their ongoing business. The threat is that information can be lost on a company level. The challenge is therefore to investigate the complementary information systems functions to see if it is possible to extend the enterprise system to include them. To be worth its epithet, the enterprise system must facilitate all the business activities found in the companies business relationships.

  • 106.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Erixon, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Lind, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Révay, Péter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Information Systems Use as a Result of External Influences2006In: microCAD 2006 International Scientific Conference: Applied Information Engineering, 2006, p. 73-78Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of an information system (IS) can be studied as a result of all the efforts that an organization has put on the introduction of IS, as for example change management, user training, support training and proper technical infrastructure. The description takes its starting point in the organization per se, whilst the one in this paper is external. In this paper, a complementary perspective is offered that can explain the final use of an IS, illustrated by three empirical papers. The use of an IS can be a result of the interorganizational influences as customers, suppliers or other stakeholders. The paper shows that the external environment has a direct effect on how the user experiences an IS and uses it.

  • 107.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Erixon, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Révay, Péter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    'Supra-System': A Bigger Picture on Information Systems Use2007In: microCAD 2007 International Scientific Conference: Applied Information Engineering, 2007, p. 51-56Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 108.
    Elassar, Ghada
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Risk Management and Logistic Improvement of Oil Handling in Gear Manufacturing2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, safety and environmental awareness about the increased industrial accidents have become a critical issue that concerns both, individuals and governmental policies. This leads to higher demands on the manufacturing industry to be safer and more environmentally friendly. Recently, there has been a number of industrial accidents and serious fires in the world that have increased because of using plastic composite IBC containers in industrial manufacturing. And this becomes a common important issue for all manufacturers that strive to improve their environmental performance.

    The main purpose of this thesis is to investigate different available options of oil fluid storage and transportation in the industry, and to identify the most crucial factors related to each storage and transportation mode. Those factors are investigated and highlighted regarding to their effect on quality, environment and work environment. The thesis also aims to investigate and analyse the hazards associated with oil storage in the plant and in the warehouse and to use risk management strategies in order to identify and mitigate risks in the early stages.

    The work is carried out at GKN Driveline Köping AB that required a study of the methods used in industry for oil storage and transportation. Therefore the work focuses on identifying suppliers’ different transportation processes including different packaging options.

    This report includes an explanation of the methodology that is used to perform the task that the company has entrusted, and also contains a review of the comprehensive literature study. The method used to investigate hazards associated with oil transportation and storage is risk management that includes risk assessment tools, FMEA analysis and Ishikawa diagram. FMEA is performed to analyse both, the company’s current process and the process of filling oil by tank trucks regarding quality, environment and work environment. Benchmarking is another analysing tool used to analyse Volvo Power train and GKN Driveline different performances. The empirical findings are analysed by utilizing the JIT philosophy to identify the non value added activities and then determine the inconsistency with JIT philosophy. Kaizen and possible improvements are identified as well, with the help of the visual map VSM.

    The results that have been achieved are presented and modified according to what suppliers can provide, what the law demands, what the insurance requires and even what fits with the plant structure. The conclusion includes a description of the relation between internal and external logistics and how the synergy between them affects the choice for different transportation processes. It also includes a suggestion for possible improvement regarding logistical costs and transportation costs.

  • 109.
    Elfving, Sofi
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Understanding Complexity of Product Development in Small Companies: A Case Study2004In: DS 34: Proceedings EDIProD 2004, Zielona Gora, Poland, 07.-09.10.2004, 2004, p. 149-158Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Elfving, Sofi
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Fagerström, Björn
    Efficient Collaborative Product Development: Critical Aspects and Parameters Influencing the Outcome of Collaboration2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Elfving, Sofi
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Jackson, Mats
    A Model for Evaluating and Improving Collaborative Product Development2005In: Proceedings ICED 05, the 15th International Conference on Engineering Design, Volume DS 35, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Ericson Öberg, A.
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Arvika, Sweden.
    Hammersberg, P.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Factors influencing control charts usage of operational measures2017In: Measuring Business Excellence, ISSN 1368-3047, E-ISSN 1758-8057, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 225-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing implementation of control charts on key performance indicators (KPIs). Design/methodology/approach: Factors driving organizational change described in literature are analyzed inspired by the affinity-interrelationship method. A holistic multiple-case design is used to conduct six workshops to affect the usage of control charts on KPIs at a global company in the automotive industry. The theoretical factors are compared with the result from the case study. Findings: The important factors for implementation success differ to some extent between the theoretical and empirical studies. High-level commitment and a clear definition of the goal of change could be most important when creating a motivation for change. Thereafter, having a dedicated change agent, choosing an important KPI and being able to describe the gain in financial terms becomes more important. Practical implications: By using control charts on KPIs, the organization in the case study has become more proactive, addressing the right issues upstream in the process, in the right way, cross-functionally. Originality/value: Factors affecting the implementation of already available solutions in the industry are highlighted. This potentially provides a basis for improved decision making, which has a significant value. 

  • 113.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Music, Anes
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Identifying factors that cause inventory build-ups and how to solve it2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies have put much focus on production systems to generate and maintain competitiveness which has contributed in less focus to logistics. The material flow is the process after the main processes and has therefore been regarded as “unimportant”. If the material flow fails, there can be consequences such as inventory-build ups or undersupply of material. Lean thinking is one strategy that may be applied to analyze and identify wastes, but the identification of problems has been harder to detect, while the ability to solve them has not improved at the same rate.

    Following two research questions has been asked to identify how companies should proceed to improve their inventory management but also what factors contribute to the inventory build-ups. 

    ·        What may cause excess inventory in manufacturing companies?

    • How can a manufacturing company reduce WIP´s?

    The research method is based on a qualitative approach with an interpretivist research methodology to help answer the questions. A case study was done at a manufacturing company to help answer the research questions. The data has been collected by observations trough section B1 and unstructured interviews with both management and operators. The collected data was later compared to the literature according to the inductive reasoning to be able to make suggestions for improvements. The DMAIC tool has been a central point of this research regarding the mapping of the current state and suggestion of a future state.

    The case study was conducted at Company X AB in the middle of Sweden which is a company that manufactures components and complete solutions. The focus on production has resulted in less focus on the internal logistics. With the low focus on the internal logistics, inventory build-ups have occurred.

    The results point to the OEE being a contributing factor to the inventory build-up. The availability of both machines was low and therefore caused the OEE to be low. The low availability was caused by long changeovers, staff shortages, and emergency reparations. The conclusions are that Company X must make improvements so that the factors of the low availability decrease in frequency and severity to reduce the work-in-process (WIP). The improvements should be approached with different lean-tools such as SMED, KANBAN, FIFO and 5S.

  • 114.
    Eriksson, Emil
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Personlig uppvärmning: Produktutvecklingsprocess av en produkt som löser personlig uppvärmning i en utomhusmiljö2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work is about a new product concept that can warm up persons in an outside hiking environment where you do not have access to electricity in abundance. As a secondary objective for this product it should minimize or prevent thermal signature when used. The product should be small enough to be stored in the backpack of the soldier or the hiker. The interface and functions of the product should be simple enough to be operated in the dark by everyone no matter what condition they are in.This work is done with guidance from The Swedish armed forces. The Swedish armed forces are the major authority in Sweden with over 13000 employees all around Sweden, most of them working and sleeping outside and in need of heat gear. Since the authority’s objective is unique due to their ability to use armed combat they often do not want to be spotted by their enemy.The basic goal of this work is to provide a concept design on how a product like this would look and operate.The markets are both the civilian hiking community and the military authorities.Many product development tools will be used to ensure that the finished product meet the objectives and goals defined.The finished product will be presented in CAD-models, drawings and a presentation.The finished product consists of a Sodium acetate pad inside a heat-insulating polyester container. The product is used on the inside of the thigh and is secured with Velcro tape.

  • 115.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Collaborative Product Development: A collaborative decision-making approach2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 116.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Videography as Design Nexus: Critical Inquires into the Affordances and Efficacies of Live-action Video Instructions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about live-action instructional videos (LAVs). By addressing design problems with respect to the how-to video genre, the thesis asks fundamental questions about mediated instructional communication efficacies and the factors that either obstruct or augment them. 

    The analysis presented in this thesis is based on the notion that videography is a design nexus and key focal point of the connections that make live-action video instructional efforts possible. This Design Nexus is explored by defining and illuminating key ontological dimensions, medium specificities and the video users’ cognitive capacities. This is to acknowledge that the users of instructions in this thesis are center stage, both as biological and cultural beings.

    The methods used in this thesis and its associated papers are eye-tracking, video observations, questionnaires, self-reports, focus group interviews and YouTube analytics. Hence, both numerical data and non-numerical data are analyzed in this study.

    The results of the analyses indicate that pre-production planning is key in live-action video instructional endeavors, but not at the expense of the videographer’s status as designer. Moreover, the analyses show that users’ cognitive processing and visual decoding depend on the power of the live-action format to show actual human behavior and action. Other presented evidence seems to infer that LAV-instructions are a little less demanding if users apply a focused decoding style when interacting with them. Nevertheless, physiological engagement of this kind is likely not to fully compensate for users’ psychological engagement.

    This thesis contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of humans’ abilities to interpret the actions of others via medial means. By relating this to video medium-specific affordances, this thesis also furthers important efficacy distinctions and boundary conditions. This understanding is considered important for live-action video makers and designers of visual instructions as well as scholars who need to develop better methods to assess users’ behavioral engagement when they interact with digital instructional media.

  • 117.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Technologically mature but with limited capabilities2016In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 9754, 2016, p. 3-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing population of elderly people with an extensive knowledge of ICT is to be expected - a generation that has several decades of daily experience from using computers, cell phones and other devices at work situations and in their spare time. Today the discussion of elderly people and technology is dominated by the perception that the elderly are comparatively inexperienced with regard to digital technology. The challenge for the future is, however, to overcome the gradual loss of the senses with the help of technical devices that fulfill the needs of older technologically mature users. 

  • 118.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    The perception of aging and use of robots2018In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 10926, 2018, p. 30-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implications of robots’ design for their acceptance in nursing settings, particularly for elderly people and those involved in their care, have not been thoroughly considered from an information design perspective. This research gap is addressed here, as such a perspective enables consideration of several important socio-cultural aspects of robots, including potentially significant elements of visual culture. Since all these aspects influence views of robots as aids for elderly people, there is a need to understand how robots’ design (in terms of appearance) and perceptions of aging influence intended elderly users, their relatives, caregivers and decision-makers. Robots materialize digital technology, both metaphorically and literally. AI and embedded systems enable robots to act, but the shape and materials selected to make them influence our interactions with them. Thus, as shown in this paper, application of an information design perspective can provide deeper insights about the influences of current and historical culture and media on both the perceptions and experiences of aging, and relations of these perceptions and experiences to the acceptance (or lack of acceptance) of robots as tools for nursing old people. 

  • 119.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Sjölinder, M.
    RISE SICS, Sweden.
    Söderberg, J.
    RISE SICS, Sweden.
    Using VR to improve the design of assembly tasks and increase task efficiency2018In: Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, NordDesign 2018, The Design Society , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss how theories of vision, touch, sound, and learning behavior can form a basis for the development of a testbed through which real-life task performance can be compared with task performance in a Virtual Reality (VR) environment. By taking a multisensory approach, it will be possible to simulate the functionalities of a real training setting in a VR environment. Approaching this problem from a theoretical perspective, we will view it from a new angle and discuss whether we can enhance and nuance feedback in the virtual experience through the use of ambient media like sound, scent, heat, and wind. Sound may hold a great potential here. For visual perception, it is not only crucial that we can see relationships but that we are also able to search for patterns that we recognize. If an object is taken outside its context, its meaning can easily shift. To see is to search for patterns, but vision is also dependent on our experience of other senses. We can imagine how a given surface might feel by looking at a representation of the object, and this is because of previous tactile experiences with similar objects. From a technical perspective, integrating sound in a virtual environment is a straightforward process. Research shows that the process of learning a series of physical actions can be enhanced when it occurs in parallel with verbal or written information. In the literature, this phenomenon is described in terms of enactment or subject-performed tasks. Based on theories regarding vision, touch, sound and learning behavior, we suggest the design of a testbed that can be used in a pilot study aimed at increasing knowledge on how VR and AR can support learning in an assembly or installation context in order to produce guidelines for such an environment.

  • 120.
    Etxagibel Larrañaga, Asier
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Flores García, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Approaching the Reduction of Uncertainty in Production System Design through Discrete-Event Simulation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of uncertainties associated to the introduction of novelty and significant change challenge manufacturing competitiveness. Addressing this issue, the purpose of this qualitative case study is to examine the uncertainties reduced by Discrete Event Simulation (DES) use during the design of a production system when significant changes are introduced at a manufacturing company. The results of this paper, based on empirical findings from a Swedish manufacturing company, reveal the presence of eight different uncertainties affecting the design of a production system including state, technical, environmental, systemic, temporal, structural, epistemic, and definitional. Empirical results also show how DES contributed to reducing technical, structural, epistemic, and definitional uncertainties. This paper contributes to existing knowledge by proposing a model that aids decision makers anticipate the type of uncertainty faced and the suitability of DES use as an uncertainty reducing activity during significant change introduction in the design of a production system.

  • 121.
    Fagerström, Björn
    et al.
    Envirotainer Engineering AB, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Efficient collaboration between main and sub-suppliers2002In: Computers in industry, ISSN 0166-3615, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 25-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many sub-suppliers are interested in closer integration with main suppliers for product development. However, main suppliers have much work that needs to be coordinated, and close integration with suppliers is used only when it is required, and when additional value is created through integration. The main objective of this paper, is therefore, to discuss different supplier roles and increase the understanding of how suppliers can be integrated with the main supplier. The result is based on a case study with one main supplier and nine of its sub-suppliers, where the main supplier develops, assembles, and delivers a complete, complex product to the customer, and the sub-suppliers develop and manufacture sub-systems for the main supplier. The results give new insights into what the sub-suppliers could do in order to improve integration with the main supplier.

  • 122.
    Flores Avalos, Beatriz
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Zufic, Marlene
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    VR-teknologi för utvärdering av monteringslina2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 123.
    Flores-García, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Decision Making in Production System Design – Approaches and ChallengesIn: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Flores-García, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Supporting Decision-Making in the Design of Production Systems: A Discrete Event Simulation perspective2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies are introducing process innovations, namely new production processes or technologies, to achieve increased competitiveness. Production systems design can ensure the fulfillment of process innovations. However, literature shows that the staff responsible for the design of production systems face unfamiliar circumstances, lack of consensus or understanding (equivocality), and absence of information (uncertainty). Hence, manufacturing companies find it difficult to support decision-making in the design of production systems leading to increased competitiveness. One way to support decision-making during production systems design is through discrete-event simulation (DES). However, there is limited understanding of the application of DES in decision-making support, in this context.

    Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to support decision-making through DES in the design of production systems involving process innovations. To this end, the thesis reviews the current understanding of production system design, including decision-making and DES. This thesis adopts a qualitative case study method to extract empirical data from three production systems design projects of a manufacturing company in the heavy vehicle industry.

    The thesis offers several contributions. Firstly, the findings identify the conditions of use, challenges, requirements, and activities essential for the utilization of DES during production system design related to process innovations. These important findings are critical for supporting decision-making when manufacturing companies renew their production processes. Secondly, this thesis reveals that determining the conditions of use of DES for supporting decision-making rests on the structuredness of a decision (e.g. its degree of equivocality or analyzability), and the quantitative or qualitative nature or DES models. Thirdly, the results describe four novel findings about the challenges undermining the use of DES including equivocality, uncertainty, and the lack of a structured approach and the absence of resources for DES use. Fourthly, the results reveal three requirements necessary for the use of DES including analyzing information consensus, specifying the activities of conceptual models, and coordinating DES models with the information needs. Fifthly, this thesis provides three valuable findings describing additional activities in the design of production systems related to defining the objectives of DES models, and facilitating a structured approach and the management of resources for the use of DES.

    This thesis present a framework that contributes to the use of DES for decision-making support at manufacturing companies. Based on this framework, managers of those companies can supervise formal activities involving the use of DES in production systems design.

  • 125.
    Flores-García, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Supporting Production System Design Decisions through Discrete Event Simulation2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies are increasingly required to deal with and introduce significant changes in their production systems to gain a competitive advantage. The production system design process is widely considered a means of introducing such changes, and decisions made during design are viewed as critical to its characterization and performance. However, this presents a problem because committing to decisions that involve significant changes implies not only dealing with requirements, products, challenges, or expectations that are different from what currently exists, but also addressing uncertainties regarding both the information necessary for committing to a production system design decision and the actual benefits that can be achieved as a result of these changes. One way to support the production system design decisions in this context is through the use of Discrete Event Simulation (DES). However, understanding of DES use when supporting production system design decisions in this domain remains limited.    

    Therefore, the objective of this thesis is to explore the use of DES in support of production system design decisions when significant changes are introduced. Data are collected through a multiple case study method and DES from three real-time production system design projects at one manufacturing company. All production system design projects studied involved the introduction of significant production system changes for which limited experience existed. The cases and results are presented in three appended publications.

    The findings establish the purpose of DES use when supporting production system design decisions in this context. To this end three groups of DES model objectives are identified: communicating decisions and visualizing results, evaluating a production system design concept focused on operational performance, and experimenting with what-if scenarios while predicting production system outputs. The points of DES use when supporting production system design decisions are specified in relation to current theoretical understanding of a production system design process. Then, challenges and contributions of DES use supporting production system design decisions are identified.

    A framework is presented to facilitate the use of DES supporting production system design decisions when significant changes are introduced. The framework is based on the identification of high-level strategic objectives and relates these to production system design decisions. It defines DES use in support of these decisions and establishes milestones for DES use during production system design. Based on an analysis of the challenges and contributions of DES use, the framework helps formulate the purpose of DES use to achieve production system design decision support. 

  • 126.
    Flores-García, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. IPR (Innovation and Product Realisation).
    Decision Making Approaches in Process Innovations: An Explorative Case StudyIn: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management JMTM, ISSN 1741-038XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the selection of decision-making approaches at manufacturing companies when implementing process innovations.Design/methodology/approach: This study reviews the current understanding of decision structuredness for determining a decision-making approach, and conducts a case study based on an interactive research approach at a global manufacturer. Findings: The findings show the correspondence of intuitive, normative, and combined intuitive and normative decision-making approaches in relation to varying degrees of equivocality and analyzability. Accordingly, the conditions for determining a decision-making choice when implementing process innovations are revealed. Research limitations/implications: This study contributes to increased understanding of the combined use of intuitive and normative decision-making in production system design. Practical implications: Empirical data are drawn from two projects in the heavy-vehicle industry. The study describes decisions, from start to finish, and the corresponding decision-making approaches when implementing process innovations. These findings are of value to staff responsible for the design of production systems. Originality/value: Unlike prior conceptual studies, this study considers normative, intuitive, and combined intuitive and normative decision-making. In addition, this study extends the current understanding of decision structuredness, and discloses the correspondence of decision-making approaches to varying degrees of equivocality and analyzability.

  • 127.
    Flores-García, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. IPR (Innovation and Product Realisation).
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Towards a Reduction of Uncertainty in Production System Design Decisions2016In: Swedish Production Symposium 2016 SPS 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A tenet of production system design is to increase a manufacturing company’s competitiveness by introducing novel processes, technologies, and products. However, uncertainties exist regarding the actual benefits that can be attained when novelty and change are introduced into a production system. Addressing this issue, this paper explores how manufacturing companies can reduce uncertainties that challenge production system design decisions when significant changes are introduced into the production system. A real-time case study at a Swedish manufacturing company that decided to change its existing product specific assembly system to a multi-product assembly one was performed. Empirical results identify uncertainties challenging production system design configuration, and the activities targeting reduction of uncertainty. To extend current theory, empirical case study data is synthesized with current findings in production system design decisions, and uncertainty reduction in product design decisions. The paper concludes that information acquisition, uncertainty prioritization, project member background, and complexity of change influence uncertainty reduction in production system design decisions. Managerial implications highlight the importance of information acquisition and a structured approach when reducing uncertainties necessary to achieve an efficient and effective production system design. Thus, academic approaches to uncertainty reduction could benefit manufacturing practice.

  • 128.
    Flores-García, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    What guides information consensus? Approaching the reduction of equivocality in process innovationsIn: International Journal of Manufacturing Research IJMR, ISSN 1750-0591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the achievement of information consensus and the reduction of equivocality in process innovations. Drawing on the operations management literature, a new framework to guide information consensus in the reduction of equivocality in process innovations is proposed. The analysis is based on a real-time case study in the heavy vehicle industry. The results show that information consensus is not achieved by a single event, but active work towards this goal is necessary, and a clear set of pre-requisites is needed for achieving information consensus. The concepts of strategic objective, decision areas, and external and internal fit are identified as pre-requisites for achieving information consensus about the purpose, characteristics, and functionalities of process innovations.

  • 129.
    Flores-García, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Urenda Moris, Matias
    University of Uppsala, Sweden.
    Syberfeldtb, Anna
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Simulation-based Optimization for Facility Layout Design in Conditions of High Uncertainty2018In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 72, p. -339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increased use of Simulation based Optimization, the design of facility layout is challenged by high levels of uncertainty associated with new production processes. Addressing this issue, this paper aims to understand the conceptual modeling activities of Simulation-based Optimization for facility layout design in conditions of high uncertainty. Based on three in-depth case studies, the results of this paper show how characterization criteria of production systems can be used in conceptual modelling to reduce uncertainty. These results may be essential to support managers and stakeholders during the introduction of new production processes in the design of facility layouts.

  • 130.
    Flores-García, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. KTH, Sweden.
    Bruch, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Revisiting challenges in using Discrete Event Simulation in early stages of Production System Design2018In: International conference of advances in production management systems APMS, Springer, 2018, Vol. 535, p. 534-540Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents challenges of using discrete event simulation when supporting decision in early stages of production system design, when significant changes are introduced. It was based on three real-time case studies performed at one manufacturing company during 2014-2016. Challenges in the cases were mapped to previous literature, pointing out discrepancies and highlighting three additional challenges, specifically related to issues in the early stages of the pro-duction system design process. The significant change introduced to the assembly system, and the early phases of evaluation put significant challenges to the use of discrete event simulation and the study points out further efforts needed to support manufacturing companies under change, with an established industrial structure and legacy systems to consider.

  • 131.
    Florin, Ulrika
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Mäkelä, Esko
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Learning via “Nattljus” 2018: A report on co-creation and learning in Spatial Design-Information Design education, developed as part of the activities produced in conjunction with Mälardalen University Living Lab2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning via “Nattljus” 2018 reports an example of co-creation and learning, developed as part of the activities produced in conjunction with MDH Living Lab in 2018. This project was designed as an integrated part of the Bachelor’s course Ljus och ljud (Light and Sound), 7.5 credits, that was given at Mälardalen University in the autumn. The project was initiated by Eskilstuna Municipality and is a part of the biennial light festival, running for its third time.

    The collaboration included a LED light specialist company from Stockholm, Zumbotel Group, the Municipality of Eskilstuna and an independent external light designer with connections to KTH (the Royal Institute of Technology). The methods for the collaborative project were mainly practical, based on workshops and labs in a studio environment, as well as on site. It was mixed with experience-based lectures given by external experts: from the municipality, the lighting company and a light designer, this was iterated with integrated design and theory lectures on site, by the course leader and the involved researcher, connected to MDH LL.

    This led to a comprehensive integration of the course content and practice-driven processes enabling collaborative learning in a real setting that information designers with spatial design skills might encounter in their coming professional lives.

  • 132.
    Florin, Ulrika
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Söderlund, Carina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Re-Designing Information Boards: Interwoven Design Thinking and Doing2018In: OR60, Conference Handbook, 2018, p. 212-212Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 133.
    Friberg, Caroline
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkell, Mattias
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Processer och metoder som möjliggör för en effektiv produktframtagning2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The high level of competition and the rapidly growing technology development has created new challenges for today's businesses where they are forced to deliver more customized products at a lower price and a shorter time period. This places high demands on the companies' ability to design and develop better products in a more efficient way. In addition to developing products, the design process focuses on securing long-term success for the company by developing nourishing skills. However, to achieve an effective design process the companies must improve their ability to plan as well as use their knowledge base in a more efficient manner. Toyota's product development system is a critical component for companies to address challenges that they’re facing and offers a great potential to create significant competitive advantages. Toyota's product development system is designed to streamline the design of processes and products, as they often create restrictions on business and describes the importance of making use of a coordinated effort by several functions, and strives to integrate processes, people, technology and tools in an effective manner.

     

    The concept of Concurrent Engineering includes parallel efforts rather than a time-consuming serial work and seeks to minimize delays in the product development process. Concurrent Engineering enables for quality products, to reach the market faster at a lower cost and allows the company to quickly and flexibly adapt to changing demands and conditions through parallel efforts. Like Toyota’s product development system, Concurrent Engineering promotes an integrated approach where multifunctional teams work towards a common goal striving to solve problems at an early stage.

     

    Propulsion and Control in Västerås, a division within Bombardier Transportation, is currently suffering from extensive engineering changes and struggles to uphold time plans and budgets. The thesis will therefore cover the complete product development process where focus has been directed towards the processes and conditions that could enable for an effective product development process. During the thesis work the underlying causes for the problems mentioned above, have been identified. Internal documents regarding the company's current process has been reviewed and interviews have been carried out in order to evaluate the company’s current situation. During the thesis work a comparative study has been conducted at a large company within the Mälardalen-region. This study has been used as a practical example to reinforce the theoretical reasoning and has additionally allowed for further examination of a company's product development process.

     

    The thesis has resulted in a number of suggestions for improvements, where the main action areas are covered by cross-functionality, routines, follow-up, supplier involvement and prototypes. Another action area that has been identified is front-loading which aims at examining several alternatives and solving problems as well as creating countermeasures at an early stage. These six areas were found to have a significant role in creating an effective product development process and are considered to be relevant for the company's current situation.

  • 134.
    Fridholm, Louise
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Brogren, Max
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Supporting Production Ramp-Up with Knowledge Management & Competency Modeling: A study on how to support higher productivity and better employee working conditions2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to describe how competency modeling and knowledge management can support a ramp-up of an existing complex production.

    An abductive study approach is used, to keep the study open for new directions to generate new theories. A case study is done at ABB Machine, followed by two reference cases at Scania and Volvo. Semi-structured interviews are used together with observations to get qualitative data. A conceptual framework is used in the interviews to easier connect the data to the theoretical framework. The data is compiled and analyzed with a thematic approach. Empirical and theoretical data is separately analyzed, followed by a discussion how they could support a ramp-up process.

    Results showed that competency modeling and knowledge management together support a ramp-up better by improving knowledge transfer and flexibility. Flexibility is created from strategic modeling where personnel hold several competencies which enable for greater adoption to existing production. With proper knowledge transfer, new staff can be introduced more efficiently, and experienced ones can broaden their competencies furthermore. Also, it gives effects such as better work mood, new approaches on matters and less ergonomic injuries. The results also showed the importance of time required for transfer, which if not respected can effect ramp-up quality negatively. The recommendations for complex factory production is to use more competence broadening, comply with the time needed, have skilled trainers, and collective goals for the whole organization. 

  • 135.
    Friedler, Niklas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Salonen, Antti
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Johansson, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    The automation equipment acquisition process – experienced users’ perspective2013In: International Conference on Production Research: 22nd International Conference on Production Research, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation technology can increase company’s competiveness if it is used correctly. One step on the way to achieve this is to acquire proper automation technology. This paper describes how nine manufacturing companies in Sweden work when they acquire advanced manufacturing technologies (AMT) with automation investments in focus. These nine companies are located all over Sweden and they are considered to be amongst the most experienced in Sweden, running automation investments. The respectively companies way of working is described and analyzed. Most of the companies had a quite extensive model for their acquisition process. Main reason for investing in automation, key factors for successful implementation of automation equipment and suggested improvements to the described acquisition models, are discussed in the paper.

  • 136.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Strategies for emergent quality management2018In: Participatory Innovation Conference 2018 PIN-C 2018, 2018, p. 14-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores strategies for emergent quality improvement, which involve managing both efficiency and effectiveness, or the 'quality dilemma'. An empirical investigation is conducted with seventeen quality managers, representing organisations in ten private companies and one organisation in the public sector. The results indicate five distinct themes of importance to manage the quality dilemma: 1) leadership, 2) the quality organisation, 3) prioritisation, 4) knowledge and competence, and 5) the quality profession. While the dilemmas are categorised into five distinct and critical themes, the second part of the results present tactics regarding how to move positions towards emergent quality management: perspectives, processes, and decision support. The conclusions imply that the current method of organising quality improvement must be revised.

  • 137.
    Fundin, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Johansson, Peter E
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Exploring the emergent quality management paradigm2018In: The Excellence summit Excellence sum, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 138.
    Fundin, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Johansson, Peter E.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Exploring the emergent quality management paradigm2019In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of successful production systems is affected by conflicting forces, that is, initiatives seemingly conducive for one line of work can be a constraint for another. Consequently, this paper presents an alternative perspective on how these issues could be managed in organisations. There are a number of key challenges in terms of the involved dichotomies for future innovative quality improvements in operations. These dichotomies are part of four interrelated processes that are the central elements of a production system. As such, aiming for stability or change is a production process dilemma in terms of the production and distribution of offerings and solutions. Control and creativity are the main dilemmas of the innovation process, that is, the creation and implementation of new offerings and solutions, while exploitation and exploration are the dilemmas of the knowledge creation process and efficiency and effectiveness of the value creation process. As the simultaneous existence of both parts of the dichotomy seems to be a paradox, this paper suggests the emergent quality management paradigm as an alternative perspective providing the guidance, examples, and practical solutions necessary to solve these dilemmas by recognising the dichotomies as mutually dependent.

  • 139.
    Fundin, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bergman, B.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Elg, M.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    The quality dilemma: Combining development and stability2017In: International Series in Operations Research & Management Science, Volume 255, Springer New York LLC , 2017, p. 9-33Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this chapter is to problematize the strategic management of both efficiency and effectiveness through quality management. First, the chapter describes five cases with lessons learned from the dichotomy of efficiency and effectiveness on how quality management could be turned into either a constructive or a destructive dilemma. Then, the history of the quality movement and how it has developed during the last century is discussed briefly. Quality management will be considered in relation to organization theory regarding exploration, exploitation, and dual organizational capabilities. Finally, the chapter concludes with proposals on ways forward for quality management as a strategy for both short-term efficiency and long-term effectiveness and survival. 

  • 140.
    Fundin, Anders
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University.
    Continuous learning using dissatisfaction feedback in new product development contexts2010In: International journal of quality and reliability management, ISSN 0265-671X, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 860-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how various dissatisfaction feedback transferrals contribute to the decision-making process in product development contexts. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents the results from a qualitative interview-based study of 16 product development organizations and their customer dissatisfaction feedback systems; 84 percent of the companies within a machine industry segment in Sweden are covered. Findings – Based on the empirical investigation, a taxonomy of five decisions based upon dissatisfaction feedback is developed: reactive, preventive and developmental decisions are connected with exploitation of products, while future developmental and future preventive decisions are connected with exploration of future products. Originality/value – The project is essentially managerial, aiming to provide managers and other decision makers with a framework that displays how various dissatisfaction feedback transferrals contribute to various decisions in product development contexts. The paper highlights that despite costly investigations in customer feedback systems, very few customer dissatisfaction feedback transferrals are connected to explorative future developmental actions.

  • 141.
    Funk, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Experience based diagnostic and condition based maintenence within production systems2005In: Proceedings of COMADEM 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 142.
    Ganta, Sathvik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    A Framework to Incorporate Industry 4.0 into SME to Enhance Resource Planning2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) have grown steadily in recent years.  SMEs generate 59.7 % of value-added and 65.5 % of employment in the ‘non-financial business economy’ in Sweden. It's important for the success of SMEs to be ready to provide high product availability to customers at minimal operation costs. The challenges faced by SMEs are tougher in global competition. There is a rapid growth in the industrial revolution to deal with the challenges as well as competition. This work mainly focuses on implementing resource planning (RP) and adapting to the latest technologies of Industry 4.0 into SMEs to face the challenges. But incorporating Industry 4.0 in a major struggle in the SMEs. 

    The thesis provides a view of Resource Planning implementation. The authors describe the resource planning implementation techniques and define the requirements for its successful implementation. Resource Planning (RP) adoption factors have been studied quite extensively over the years. However, this master thesis tries to investigate the less explored area of resource planning. Relatively a smaller amount of research has been conducted, when it comes to implementation of Industry 4.0 technologies especially in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). 

    Industry 4.0 provides new paradigms for the industrial management of SMEs. Supported by a growing number of new technologies, this concept appears more flexible and less expensive than traditional enterprise information systems. This paper presents a literature review of existing applied research covering different Industry 4.0 issues about SMEs.

    Furthermore, the analysis is done to understand the correlation between the identified factors of Industry 4.0 technologies. The research findings indicate that the use of IoT and Cloud computing are major advantages for resource planning in an SME. The results from the analysis are presented in a framework designed for the future adaptation of these technologies. Despite the research limitations, the findings show a high advantage. Finally, the author suggests a future scope of research.

  • 143.
    Gopalakrishnan, Maheshwaran
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Ind & Mat Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Skoogh, Anders
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Ind & Mat Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Salonen, Antti
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Asp, Martin
    Volvo Grp Truck Operat, Skövde, Sweden..
    Machine criticality assessment for productivity improvement Smart maintenance decision support2019In: International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, ISSN 1741-0401, E-ISSN 1758-6658, Vol. 68, no 5, p. 858-878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to increase productivity through smart maintenance planning by including productivity as one of the objectives of the maintenance organization. Therefore, the goals of the paper are to investigate existing machine criticality assessment and identify components of the criticality assessment tool to increase productivity. Design/methodology/approach An embedded multiple case study research design was adopted in this paper. Six different cases were chosen from six different production sites operated by three multi-national manufacturing companies. Data collection was carried out in the form of interviews, focus groups and archival records. More than one source of data was collected in each of the cases. The cases included different production layouts such as machining, assembly and foundry, which ensured data variety. Findings The main finding of the paper is a deeper understanding of how manufacturing companies assess machine criticality and plan maintenance activities. The empirical findings showed that there is a lack of trust regarding existing criticality assessment tools. As a result, necessary changes within the maintenance organizations in order to increase productivity were identified. These are technological advancements, i.e. a dynamic and data-driven approach and organizational changes, i.e. approaching with a systems perspective when performing maintenance prioritization. Originality/value Machine criticality assessment studies are rare, especially empirical research. The originality of this paper lies in the empirical research conducted on smart maintenance planning for productivity improvement. In addition, identifying the components for machine criticality assessment is equally important for research and industries to efficient planning of maintenance activities.

  • 144.
    Gopinath, V.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ore, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Johansen, K.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Safe Assembly Cell Layout through Risk Assessment - An Application with Hand Guided Industrial Robot2017In: Procedia CIRP, vol. 63, Elsevier B.V. , 2017, p. 430-435Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment is a systematic and iterative process which involves risk analysis where the probable hazards are identified and corresponding risks are evaluated along with solutions to mitigate the effect of these risks. In this article the outcome of a risk assessment process will be detailed where a large industrial robot is being used as a intelligent and flexible lifting tool that can aid operators in assembly tasks. The realization of a collaborative assembly station has several benefits such as increased productivity and improved ergonomic work environment. The article will detail the design of the layout of a collaborative assembly cell which takes into account the safety and productivity concerns of automotive assembly plants. 

  • 145.
    Gottlieb, Laura
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Exploratory workshop using abstract collaging to reflect on university-society collaborations2018In: Participatory Innovation Conference 2018 PIN-C 2018, 2018, p. 303-309Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborating with society (businesses, industry and municipalities) is a common practice for many universities today. To support such collaborations, there is a need to share and evaluate these practices. This research explores the use of creative and visual methods from Participatory Design to support reflective practice in university-society collaborations. The paper describes an exploratory workshop consisting of an abstract collage-making exercise and a list of questions. The purpose of this workshop is to see how the visual exercise could support discussions about university- society collaborations and to develop future studies. The results from the workshop show that using abstract collages generated multiple interpretations and metaphors about the visualized collaborations. The collage-making exercise prompted discussions about the interrelationship between collaboration, innovation processes and knowledge creation. It also stimulated playful interactions between participants. Moreover, the workshop participants gave valuable feedback on how to develop materials and questions to discuss university- society collaborations.

  • 146.
    Grahn, Sten
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Swerea IVF AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Safety Assessment Strategy for Collaborative Robot Installations2017In: Robots Operating in Hazardous Environments / [ed] Hüseyin Canbolat, INTECH, 2017, p. 111-129Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial resource efficiency can be improved if the safety barrier between humans and robots is removed, as this enables operators and robots to work side by side or in direct collaboration to solve a task, usually referred to as a collaborative robot installation. Even though technology development makes the barrier removal ever more feasible from a safety perspective, this still produces a possible hazardous working environment, and safety assessment strategies are crucial. A wide area of knowledge is required to assess all fields that can help ensure safe human-machine interaction. Here the focus is primarily on providing a description of the key fields identified, including how operators psychologically accept working with robots, and providing a cursory description of the research front for each individual field. In addition to covering a large number of parameters, the assessment strategy also needs to be cost-effective. A significant part of all parameters that can be considered when attempting to produce optimized and cost-effective collaborative robot installations will also have a direct impact on operator safety. Hence, assessments for safety, and assessments for cost-effectiveness, cannot be separated, and are treated as two objectives that need to be viewed in sync

  • 147.
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Competitive Internal Logistics Systems through Automation2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing demand for products and services puts great pressure on logistics performance and enhances the role that logistics plays in determining a company’s competitiveness.

    This research focuses on internal logistics systems, which includes all logistics activities and processes within the physical limits of an isolated company. Internal logistics is vital for the overall function of many companies. However, despite its importance, this part of logistics has traditionally not been viewed or developed in a strategic way. Since internal logistics activities are often characterized by a high degree of manual handling and hence strongly affect the cost of operations, there is a large incentive for improvements in this area.  

    One possible way to improve an internal logistics system is with the help of automation. In many areas, automation is a well-known means to increase productivity and cut costs, thus improving competitiveness. However, automation is not commonly used within internal logistics activities, and there is a lack of knowledge and research within this new application area. The main objective of this research, therefore, is to contribute to an increased understanding of how automation can be used to develop competitive internal logistics systems.

    Four empirical studies have been performed to investigate how companies perceive and work with their internal logistics systems, specifically in terms of improvements using automation. The empirical studies also aimed at identifying and describing how the studied companies could benefit from automation within internal logistics activities.

    From the studies, the importance of assessing and being aware of the current state of logistics performance was discovered as a basic requirement that needs to be fulfilled before conducting improvement work. Further, one of the main overall conclusions from this research is the need for a logistics strategy that includes goals and plans for the operation and development of an internal logistics system. As a result of the research, a structure and procedure for the development of a logistics strategy and a framework for conducting an improvement process in internal logistics using automation were developed.

  • 148.
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Resource Efficiency in Internal Logistics: a Survey on Objectives and Performance2011In: Proceedings of the 4th International Swedish Production Symposium, 3rd-5th of May, Lund, Sweden / [ed] Jan-Eric Ståhl, 2011, p. 303-311Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing need for flexible supply chains and low cost make logistics more complex and critical for competition. Internal logistics is a crucial function in manufacturing industries but despite its potential as a competitive strategy it has not been in focus when discussing performance and efficiency. The aim of this paper is to show and discuss how manufacturing companies work with, perceive, and develop their internal logistic system. The paper is based on the results from a survey study of Swedish manufacturing companies, intended to give an outlook of the current situation and views. The results show that system performances and information aspects together with a balanced flow and committed staff are the most important success factors for a well functioning internal logistic system. The most important performance criteria are delivery precision and dependability together with customer service and quality degree. Competence and manpower are considered the most critical resources, but desired and ongoing improvement work rarely relate to these areas. Many lack extensive performance measurement systems for logistics, risking sub optimization. Most also lack a vision and strategy with their internal logistic system and many do not have anyone who is strategically responsible for operating and developing it.

  • 149.
    Granlund, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Hallin, Christian
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Förändringar inom materialförsörjning till följd av globala inköp: En fallstudie på ABB Robotics, Västerås2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens hårda konkurrenssituation har lett till att många svenska företag i jakten på att sänka sina kostnader söker nya leverantörer i lågkostnadsländer. Den globala handeln har ökat markant de senaste åren men utredningar gällande hur verksamheters materialförsörjning påverkas av långväga inköp har ej hunnit med i samma utsträckning.

    ABB Robotics som i sin verksamhet i Västerås utvecklar och tillverkar industrirobotsystem är ett av de företag som satsar på global handel. Som ett led i detta står verksamheten under andra halvåret av 2007 inför stora förändringar då en del av företagets leverantörsbas skall bytas från europeiska till asiatiska tillverkare. Detta examensarbete syftar till att kartlägga hur ABB Robotics materialförsörjning kommer att påverkas av bytet av leverantörsbas. Det övergripande målet är att utreda och ta fram en modell för hur verksamheter ur ett materialförsörjningsperspektiv påverkas av global handel.

    Två Microsoft Excel-baserade simuleringsverktyg har tagits fram under detta examensarbete för att möjliggöra kartläggning av leverantörsbytenas inverkan hos ABB Robotics. Det ena av dessa verktyg beräknar hur säkerhetslagernivån kommer att förändras till följd av bytet av leverantörs-bas. Resultatet visar bl.a. på en markant genomsnittlig ökning med ca 700 % jämfört med dagsläget under de förutsättningar ABB Robotics angivit. Modellen är dock konstruerad så att vissa parametrar som täckningstid, servicegrad etc. enkelt kan ställas om för att undersöka dess inverkan på säkerhetslagernivån.

    Det andra verktyget simulerar inleveransmönstret under utfasningen av de nuvarande leverantörerna respektive upprampningen av den nya leverantörsbasen. Resultatet av verktyget ger en bra bild av hur de inkommande lagervolymerna kommer att variera under leverantörsbytena, när topparna kommer att inträffa samt hur stora de kan förväntas bli.

    I examensarbetet har ABB Robotics arbetssätt och planer inför den stundande globala handeln utvärderats och analyserats. De parametrar inom materialförsörjningen som påverkas av de globala inköpen har kartlagts liksom dess förändringar. En lista på rekommendationer från författarna gällande hur ABB Robotics bör agera vid det stundande bytet av leverantörsbas har också tagits fram.

    Författarna har även som resultat av detta examensarbete arbetat fram tre generella modeller för att påvisa hur verksamheter ur ett materialförsörjningsperspektiv påverkas av globala inköp. Två av modellerna har fokuserat på förändringar hos mätbara respektive icke mätbara parametrar och dess inbördes förhållanden medan den tredje modellen påvisar korrelationer mellan två varierande parametrar.

  • 150.
    Granlund, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Managing automation development projects: A comparison of industrial needs and existing theoretical suppor2013In: Advances in Sustainable and Competitive Manufacturing Systems: 23rd International Conference on Flexible Automation & Intelligent Manufacturing, Springer , 2013, p. 761-774Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of automation can increase competitiveness but does not guarantee advantageous results. The right choice of technology and correct implementation and use is the key to a successful outcome. This in turn puts great demands on how automation development projects are managed. The aim of this paper is to make a comparison between industrial needs and existing theoretical support associated with managing automation development projects. Through a multiple case study, challenges and success factors related to managing automation projects have been identified. The empirical findings are compared with automation development support found in literature. The results from the empirical study indicate the need for improved process models and clear strategy connected to automation development. The importance of an overall view and planning during automation projects is highlighted as a success factor while difficulties in collaborating with third parties is identified as existing challenges. It is concluded that the support in literature deals with many of the identified challenges and success factors and offers some support for specific parts of the automation development project. There is however still need for an overall framework connecting existing theoretical support, and suggesting how strategy can be connected to the process of developing automation.

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