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  • 1001.
    Xiong, Ning
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Integrating Case-Based Inference and Approximate Reasoning for Decision Making under Uncertainty2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a novel approach to decision analysis with uncertainty based on integrated case-based inference and approximate reasoning. The strength of case-based inference is utilized for building a situation dependent decision model without complete domain knowledge. This is achieved by deriving states probabilities and general utility estimates from the subset of retrieved cases and the case library given a situation in query. In particular, the derivation of state probabilities is realized through an approximate reasoning process which comprises evidence (case) combination using the Dempster-Shafer theory and Bayesian probabilistic computation. The decision model learnt from previous cases is further exploited using decision theory to identify the most promising, secured, and rational choices. We have also studied the issue of imprecise representations of utility in individual cases and explained how fuzzy decision analysis can be conducted when case specific utilities are assigned with fuzzy data.

  • 1002.
    Xiong, Ning
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Towards a probabilistic method for longitudinal monitoring in health care2016Ingår i: The 3rd EAI International Conference on IoT Technologies for HealthCare HealthyIoT'16, 2016, Vol. 187, s. 30-35Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The advances in IoT and wearable sensors enable long term monitoring, which promotes earlier and more reliable diagnosis in health care. This position paper proposes a probabilistic method to address the challenges in handling longitudinal sensor signals that are subject to stochastic uncertainty in health monitoring. We first explain how a longitudinal signal can be transformed into a Markov model represented as a matrix of conditional probabilities. Further, discussions are made on how the derived models of signals can be utilized for anomaly detection and classification for medical diagnosis.

  • 1003.
    Xiong, Ning
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Zhang, Defu
    Xiamen Univ, Xiamen, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Libo
    Taiyuan Univ Technol, Coll Informat Engn, Taiyuan, Peoples R China.
    Special Issue: Bridging Nature-Inspired Learning and Neural Information Processing2016Ingår i: Neural Processing Letters, ISSN 1370-4621, E-ISSN 1573-773X, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 1-3Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1004.
    Yehui, Wang
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Bin, Wu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    An Evaluation Framework on Telecommunication System Test Suites2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 1005.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Borde, Etienne
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Composable mode switch for component-based systems2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Component based software development (CBD) reduces development time and effort by allowing systems to be built from pre-developed reusable components. A classical approach to reduce embedded systems design and run-time complexity is to partition the behavior into a set of major system modes. In supporting system modes in CBD, a key issue is seamless composition of multi-mode components into systems. In addressing this issue, we present a mode switch logic and algorithm for component-based multi-mode systems. The algorithm implements seamless coordination and synchronization of mode switch in systems composed of independently developed components. The paper provides formally defined semantics covering aspects relevant for mode switch, together with algorithms implementing mode switch rules for different types of components. The approach is illustrated by a simple example.

  • 1006.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A mode mapping mechanism for component-based multi-mode systems2011Ingår i: 4th Workshop on Compositional Theory and Technology for Real-Time Embedded Systems(CRTS 2011), 2011, s. 38-45Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-Based Development (CBD) reduces development time and effort by allowing systems to be built from pre-developed reusable components. A classical approach to reduce embedded systems design and run-time complexity is to partition the behavior into a set of major system modes. In supporting system modes in CBD, a key issue is seamless composition of multi-mode components into systems. In addressing this issue, we previously developed a Mode Switch Logic (MSL) for component-based multi-mode systems. Our MSL implements seamless coordination and synchronization of mode switch in systems composed of independently developed components. However, our original MSL is based on the, in a setting of reusable components, unrealistic assumption, that all the components of a system support the same modes. This considerably limits the feasibility of our MSL. In this paper we lift this assumption and propose a mode mapping mechanism that enables assembly of components supporting different sets of modes. We demonstrate our mode mapping mechanism by a simple example application.

  • 1007.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Zenuity, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Fighting CPS Complexity by Component-Based Software Development of Multi-Mode Systems2018Ingår i: Designs, ISSN 2411-9660, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 39-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing software complexity is an increasing challenge for the software development of modern cyber-physical systems. A classical strategy for taming this complexity is to partition system behaviors into different operational modes specified at design time. Such a multi-mode system can change behavior by switching between modes at run-time. A complementary approach for reducing software complexity is provided by component-based software engineering (CBSE), which reduces complexity by building systems from composable, reusable and independently developed software components. CBSE and the multi-mode approach are fundamentally conflicting in that component-based development conceptually is a bottom-up approach, whereas partitioning systems into operational modes is a top-down approach with its starting point from a system-wide perspective. In this article, we show that it is possible to combine and integrate these two fundamentally conflicting approaches. The key to simultaneously benefiting from the advantages of both approaches lies in the introduction of a hierarchical mode concept that provides a conceptual linkage between the bottom-up component-based approach and system level modes. As a result, systems including modes can be developed from reusable mode-aware components. The conceptual drawback of the approach—the need for extensive message exchange between components to coordinate mode-switches—is eliminated by an algorithm that collapses the component hierarchy and thereby eliminates the need for inter-component coordination. As this algorithm is used from the design to implementation level (“compilation”), the CBSE design flexibility can be combined with efficiently implemented mode handling, thereby providing the complexity reduction of both approaches, without inducing any additional design or run-time costs. At the more specific level, this article presents (1) a mode mapping mechanism that formally specifies the mode relation between composable multi-mode components and (2) a mode transformation technique that transforms component modes to system-wide modes to achieve efficient implementation.

  • 1008.
    Yin, Hang
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Timing analysis for a composable mode switch2011Ingår i: ACM SIGBED Review, ISSN 1551-3688, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 15-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Component based software development (CBD) reduces development time and effort by allowing systems to be built from pre-developed reusable components. A classical approach to reduce embedded systems design and run-time complexity is to partition the behavior into a set of major system modes. In supporting system modes in CBD, a key issue is seamless composition of multi-mode components into systems. In addressing this issue, we have developed a mode switch logic and algorithm for component-based multi-mode systems. In this paper we introduce timing analysis for our composable mode switch.

  • 1009.
    Yrjölä, Kristian
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Larsson, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Real-time Generation of Plausible Surface Waves2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a fast and flexible algorithm for the simulation and rendering of ocean waves. The method is designed to support efficient view frustum culling and various simple wave effects such as choppy waves, capillary waves, wave refraction, round waves, and wave-land interaction, which makes the model suitable in, e.g., computer games. The waves are numerically robust, and the execution time of the generated waves can be controlled dynamically. Finally, experimental results illustrate the interactive performance and the visual quality of the generated waves.

  • 1010.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Performance Evaluations and Measurements of the REALFLOW Routing Protocol in Wireless Industrial Networks2017Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, s. 1410-1420, artikel-id 7506102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (IWSANs) offer significant advantages to industrial automation. However, high reliability demands and hard communication deadlines pose challenges to its practical applications. To achieve this goal, flooding is considered as a promising approach due to multipath diversity and simplicity. In this paper, an enhanced version of REALFLOW, a flooding-based routing protocol for IWSANs is presented. Compared to the original REALFLOW, network management and network stability are improved. REALFLOW is compared with four other flooding protocols via simulations. The simulation results show that REALFLOW has better performance in terms of reliability and consecutive transmission errors when considering deadlines. Compared with normal flooding, REALFLOW achieves comparable reliability performance with decreased redundancy. Measurements from a prototype implementation conducted in an industrial manufacturing workshop reveal that high reliability and low application failure rates can be achieved, giving more confidence in providing reliable wireless sensing and actuating for industrial automation

  • 1011.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Yue, Jing
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Lin, Z.
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, M.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Achieving reliable and efficient transmission by using network coding solution in industrial wireless sensor networks2016Ingår i: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 2016, s. 1162-1167Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When deploying wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for industrial applications, to provide reliable data transmission as a stringent requirement must be fulfilled. However, due to dynamic industrial environments, interferences and node failures, to achieve this goal faces a number of challenges. Moreover, reliable transmission solution should also be resource efficient, so more wireless sensor nodes can be supported in a network especially when network resources are limited. In this paper, we applied network coding techniques based on a controlled flooding transmission scheme for industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs). Network and channel coding are joint designed for data transmission. We analyzed the theoretical performance of the proposed scheme and compared the performance of our method with the original transmission method in terms of reliability and efficiency. Comparison results showed that by using our proposed network coding solution, the reliability gain can be achieved and the network resource efficiency can be improved.

  • 1012.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Realization and Measurements of Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial automation can benefit from applying wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSAN) on cost reduction, mobility and flexibility. However, wireless solutions are more prone to interferences compared to wired ones. In order to avoid production losses and to keep the revenues at an anticipated level, it is of utmost importance for WSANs to meet the stringent requirements from industrial automation, such as high reliability and real-time performance. A great number of research efforts were taken in this field based on simulations, but simulation results may not show sufficient confidence. Existing implementations and products compatible with the standards may still fail to provide reliable and real-time communication. Therefore, in this paper we built a prototype of industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks (IWSAN) and implemented a protocol stack, aiming for providing reliable and real-time communication for mission-critical industrial applications. Afterwards, we deployed our prototype and conducted measurements in real industrial environments. Our measurement results exhibited possibility of applying IWSANs for industrial applications and brought more evidence to our industry.

  • 1013.
    Zafarzadeh, Masoud
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Vedapatti Ranganathan, Hariram
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Kurdve, Martin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Sustainable supply chain management in automotive industry- Supplier company relationship and Integration management challenge2012Ingår i: International Journal of Academic Conference Proceedings, v. 1, n. 2, 2012, Institute of Management Technology, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing competition in automotive industry has forced companies to have serious attention towards the sustainability concept. Obviously environmental, social and economic challenges do not only happen inside companies, but rather involves the whole supply chain process. Most of the practical efforts are focusing on manufacturing phase and less attention has been paid to supply and distribution areas. However, it is not possible to achieve a sustainable supply chain unless the current situation is accurately mapped and long term policies toward a sustainable future state are defined. In this respect, the authors consider two major challenges, first supplier coordination with sustainability requirements and second investigating the alliance of current managerial policies. In theory, the paper aim is to represent sustainable supply chain management by focusing on supplier company relations. Integration as a vital element to meet sustainable supply chain is discussed by exploring the coherence of lean and green with sustainability. In practice, three leading automotive companies’ Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) systems (TOYOTA, VOLVO and Volkswagen) are investigated in order to figure out their perspective toward SSCM.

  • 1014.
    Zakupszki, Andras
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pichetpongsa, Nuttapon
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Extending ABB’s WirelessHART Tool2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Within this decade, wireless technology has been used in process control in various industries. WirelessHART is one of the standards, used for creating communication networks for such purpose. Since the technology is relatively new, there are many known and unknown risks in deploying it in real life applications.ABB’s WirelessHART Tool is used for generating simulation scenarios that can be used for evaluating the performance of WirelessHART networks under different conditions.This paper describes in detail, how ABB’s WirelessHART Tool was extended by adding various new functionalities. The topics cover what obstacles we have faced, which solutions were used and why, how our solutions were evaluated and the outcomes. Furthermore, the paper documents the application structure of WirelessHART Tool.

  • 1015.
    Zamansky, A.
    et al.
    University of Haifa, Carmel Mountain, Haifa, Israel .
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Adams, M.
    Proof Technologies Ltd., Worcester, United Kingdom.
    Spichkova, M.
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia .
    Formal methods in collaborative projects2016Ingår i: ENASE 2016 - Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Software Approaches to Software Engineering, 2016, s. 396-402Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we address particular aspects of integration of formal methods in large-scale industrial projects, namely collaborative aspects. We review recent works addressing such aspects, identify some current trends and discuss directions for further research. 

  • 1016.
    Zamansky, A.
    et al.
    University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.
    Spichkova, M.
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Herrmann, P.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Blech, J. O.
    BHTC GmbH, Lippstadt, Germany.
    Towards classification of lightweight formal methods2018Ingår i: ENASE 2018 - Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, SciTePress , 2018, s. 305-313Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of lightweight formal methods (LFM) for the development of industrial applications has become a major trend. Although the term “lightweight formal methods” has been used for over ten years now, there seems to be no common agreement on what “lightweight” actually means, and different communities apply the term in all kinds of ways. In this paper, we explore the recent trends in the use of LFM, and establish our opinion that cost-effectiveness is the driving force to deploy LFM. Further, we propose a simple framework that should help to classify different LFM approaches and to estimate which of them are most cost-effective for a certain software engineering project. We demonstrate our framework using some examples. 

  • 1017.
    Zamli, Kamal
    et al.
    Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia.
    Ahmed, Bestoun
    Czech Technical University, Czech republic.
    Mahmoud, Thair
    Edith Cowan University, Australia.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Fuzzy adaptive tuning of a particle swarm optimization algorithm for variable-strength combinatorial test suite generation2018Ingår i: Swarm Intelligence Volume 3: Applications / [ed] Dr Ying Tan, Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2018Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1018.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lu, Yue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    A Hazard Domain Ontology for Preliminary Hazard Analysis in Reuse Scenarios2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1019.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Hazard Modeling Language for Safety-Critical Systems Based on the Hazard Ontology2017Ingår i: 43rd Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA'17, 2017, s. 301-304Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) is a key safety-concerned activity, applied during the early stages of safety-critical systems development process, aiming to provide stakeholders with a general understanding of potential hazards. The identified hazards will be described and serve as a basis to further identify mitigation mechanisms in the subsequent development process. However, since various stakeholders will be involved in the identification process, a common understanding of the nature of hazards among stakeholders, such as what a hazard consists of and how to describe it without ambiguities, is of crucial importance to achieve the goal of PHA. In this work, we propose a hazard modeling language (HML) based on a hazard domain ontology, i.e., the Hazard Ontology, in order to facilitate the specification of identified hazards. In addition, we present an approach to the transformation from natural language hazard descriptions into the HML specification. Finally, an industrial PHA example is used to illustrate the usefulness of our work.

  • 1020.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lu, Yue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    Bombardier Transportation AB, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Kristina
    Saab AB, Sweden.
    An Environment-Driven Ontological Approach to Requirements Elicitation for Safety-Critical Systems2015Ingår i: 23rd IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference RE'15, 2015, s. 247-251Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The environment, where a safety critical system (SCS) operates, is an important source from which safety requirements of the SCS can originate. By treating the system under construction as a black box, the environment is typically documented as a number of assumptions, based on which a set of environmental safety requirements will be elicited. However, it is not a trivial task in practice to capture the environmental assumptions to elicit safety requirements. The lack of certain assumptions or too strict assumptions will either result in incomplete environmental safety requirements or waste many efforts on eliciting incorrect requirements. Moreover, the variety of operating environment for an SCS will further complicate the task, since the captured assumptions are at risk of invalidity, and consequently the elicited requirements need to be revisited to ensure safety has not been compromised by the change. This short paper presents an on-going work aiming to 1) systematically organize the knowledge of system operating environment and, 2) facilitate the elicitation of environmental safety requirements. We propose an ontological approach to achieve the objectives. In particular, we utilize conceptual ontologies to organize the environment knowledge in terms of relevant environment concepts, relations among them and axioms. Environmental assumptions are captured by instantiating the environment ontology. An ontological reasoning mechanism is also provided to support elicitation of safety requirements from the captured assumptions.

  • 1021.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    An Ontological Approach to Identify the Causes of Hazards for Safety-Critical Systems2017Ingår i: 2017 2nd International Conference on System Reliability and Safety ICSRS'17, 2017, s. 405-413Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) is a key safety-concerned technique, applied in early stages of safety critical systems development, aiming to provide stakeholders with a general understanding of potential hazards together with their causes. Various studies have asserted that most significant flaws in hazard analysis techniques are related to the omission of causes associated with the identified hazards. In addition, identified causes are sometimes described in too generic terms to provide useful guidance for subsequent activities. In this paper, we propose an approach to explore and identify the causes associated with the hazards from a PHA, aiming to improve the results of hazard causes identification in terms of completeness and usefulness. To achieve the goal, the proposed approach utilizes the hazard-related concepts and relations defined in a hazard domain ontology presented in our previous work. Furthermore, an application scenario of a train control system is used to evaluate our approach.

  • 1022.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    Bombardier Transportation, Sweden.
    An Ontological Interpretation of the Hazard Concept for Safety-Critical Systems2017Ingår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 27TH EUROPEAN SAFETY AND RELIABILITY CONFERENCE (ESREL 2017), PORTOROZ , SLOVENIA, 18–22 JUNE 2017, 2017, s. 183-185Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The hazard concept has been extensively used in the literature and defined in an informal way, which serves as a guidance on identifying the potential hazards during the development of safety-critical systems. Intuitively, the definitions seem to be consistent and easy to understand. However, when we take a closer look at these definitions, ambiguities may arise, and real-world semantics need to be defined. In this work, we propose a hazard domain ontology, i.e., the Hazard Ontology (HO), to provide an ontological interpretation of hazard. To tackle the aforementioned issues, the HO is grounded in the Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO) to utilize the benefits provided by taking foundational concepts into account. Finally, we show some useful findings when we use the proposed ontology to analyze the hazard descriptions from an industrial passenger train project.

  • 1023.
    Zimmerman, Marc
    et al.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA.
    Leveson, Nancy
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA.
    Investigating the readability of state-based formal requirements specification languages2002Ingår i: Proc. 24th International Conference on Software Engineering ICSE02, 2002, s. 33-43, artikel-id 7Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1024.
    Åberg, Christian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Automated Deployment of Customer-Premises Equipment2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Zero touch deployment tools perform installation and configuration of computer networking devices without human interaction. Modern zero touch deployment tools generally lack support for routers and are platform dependent. This forces Internet Service Providers to rely on manual node deployment methods when deploying Customer-Premise Equipment which is time consuming and error prone. This thesis investigates how the process of deploying Customer-Premises Equipment can be automated and optimized. State-of-the-art is discussed to point out requirements and possible improvements. Based on that, a tool is implemented performing deployment of Customer-Premises Equipment while minimizing manual intervention. As Internet Service Providers typically work with equipment from various vendors, multivendor support is implemented. This thesis studies common methods for initial Customer-Premises Equipment configuration. Request for Comments and Technical manuals are consulted regarding network protocols, zero touch deployment tools and router operating systems.

  • 1025.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    et al.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Exploring Network Security in PROFIsafe2009Ingår i: Lecture Notes In Computer Science: Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag , 2009, s. 67-80Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety critical systems are used to reduce the probability of failure that could cause danger to person, equipment or environment. The increasing level of vertical and horizontal integration increases the security risks in automation. Since the risk of security attacks can not be treated as negligible anymore, there is a need to investigate possible security attacks on safety critical communication.

    In this paper we show that it is possible to attack PROFIsafe and change the safety-related process data without any of the safety measures in the protocol detecting the attack. As a countermeasure to network security attacks, the concept of security modules in combination with PROFIsafe will reduce the risk of security attacks, and is in line with the security concept defense-in-depth.

  • 1026.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Lennvall, Tomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Landernäs, Krister
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Design Challenges and Objectives in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2013Ingår i: Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Protocols, and Standards / [ed] V. Çağrı Güngör, CRC Press, 2013Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1027.
    Åkerblom, Jacob
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    UTVÄRDERING AV UTVALDA SD-WAN PRODUKTER2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna jämförelsestudie ämnar att undersöka marknadens leverantörer av nätverksutrustning de- finierade som Software Defined Wide Area Networks(SD-WAN). SD-WAN är en innovativ teknik som applicerar virtualisering och Software defined networking koncept i Wide Area Networks (WAN) för att skapa kostnadseffektiva nätverk. Studien har utförts på företaget Curitiba som idag arbetar med konsulttjänster inom utvalda WAN-optimering och SD-WAN-produkter. Arbetets syfte är att utvärdera SD-WAN-lösningar och specificera i vilken typ av företagsnätverk lösningen bäst appliceras. Undersökningen börjar med en utredning av dagens organisationsnätverk för att kunna utföra en jämförelse mot SD-WAN. Därefter utvärderas fem leverantörer av nätverksutrustning definierade som SD-WAN, dessa är: Cisco IWAN, CloudGenix, Riverbed Steelconnect, Talari och Viptela. Produkter från Viptela utvärderas i ett test som undersöker komplexiteten i konfiguration av produkten. Utöver SD-WAN jämförelsen undersöks dagens state of practice och vilka fördelar samt nackdelar denna har över SD-WAN. Cisco IWAN är en sammanslagning av Ciscos tidigare funktioner som tillammans bildar en komplett SD-WAN-lösning, för att uppnå detta behöver produkterna kompletteras med programvarulicenser. CloudGenix är en nystartad nätverksleverantör som erbjuder en SD-WAN-produkt som liknar många andra aktörer men utmärker sig med avancerad applikationsidentifikation. Riverbed SteelConnect är intressant för organisationer som söker en simplifierad helhetslösning med ett centraliserat gränssnitt. Talari var en av de första SDWAN-leverantörerna och fokuserar på applikationsprestanda och pålitlighet men saknar några av funktionerna som de andra aktörerna erbjuder. Viptela erbjuder en simplifierad SD-WAN-lösning med hög skalbarhet. SD-WAN som teknik har många spännande funktioner, organisationer som planerar att investera i en uppgradering av WAN-infrastruktur bör undersöka SD-WAN alternativ.

  • 1028.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Fredriksson, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Håkansson, John
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Möller, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Tivoli, Massimo
    University of L'Aquila, Italy.
    The SAVE approach to component-based development of vehicular systems2007Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 80, nr 5, s. 655-667Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The component-based strategy aims at managing complexity, shortening time-to-market, and reducing maintenance requirements by building systems with existing components. The full potential of this strategy has not yet been demonstrated for embedded software, mainly because of specific requirements in the domain, e.g., those related to timing, dependability, and resource consumption. We present SaveCCT - a component technology intended for vehicular systems, show the applicability of SaveCCT in the engineering process, and demonstrate its suitability for vehicular systems in an industrial case-study. Our experiments indicate that SaveCCT provides appropriate expressiveness, resource efficiency, analysis and verification support for component-based development of vehicular software. 

  • 1029.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Håkansson, John
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    The SaveCCM Language Reference Manual2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This language reference describes the syntax and semantics of SaveCCM, a

    component modeling language for embedded systems designed with vehicle applications and safety concerns in focus. The SaveCCM component model was

    defined within the SAVE project. The SAVE components are influenced mainly

    by the Rubus component technology, with a switch concept similar to that

    in Koala. The semantics is defined by a transformation into timed automata

    with tasks, a formalism that explicitly models timing and real-time task scheduling.

    The purpose of this document is to describe a semantics of the SAVE component modeling language, which can be used to describe timing and functional behavior of components. The model of a system is in some cases an over approximation of the actual system behavior. An implementation of a model can resolve non-determinism e.g. by merging tasks or assigning a scheduling policy (such as static scheduling or fixed priority, preemptive or not) that will resolve

    the non-determinism.

  • 1030.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Möller, Anders
    Hansson, Hans
    Nolin, Mikael
    Towards a Dependable Component Technology for Embedded System ApplicationsManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1031.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Kato, Shinpei
    Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, United States.
    A Loadable Task Execution Recorder for Hierarchical Scheduling in Linux2011Ingår i: Proceedings - 17th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, RTCSA 2011, 2011, s. 380-387Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a Hierarchical Scheduling Framework (HSF) recorder for Linux-based operating systems. The HSF-recorder is a loadable kernel module that is capable of recording tasks and servers without requiring any kernel modifications. Hence, it complies with the reliability and stability requirements in the area of embedded systems where proven versions of Linux are preferred. The recorder is built upon the loadable real-time scheduler framework RESCH (REal-time SCHed- uler). We evaluate our recorder by comparing the overhead of this solu- tion against two other recorders. Also, the tracing accuracy of the HSF- recorder is tested by running a media-processing task together with periodic real-time Linux tasks in combination with servers. We experiment with different task parameters and scheduling strategies and measure the performance of the media-processing task. The tests are recorded with the HSF-recorder, and the Ftrace recorder, in order to show the correctness of the experiments and the HSF-recorder itself.

  • 1032.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Modelling, Verification and Synthesis of Two-Tier Hierarchical Fixed-Priority Preemptive Scheduling2011Ingår i: Proceedings - 23rd EUROMICRO Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS'11), 2011, s. 172-181Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hierarchical scheduling has major benefits when it comes to integrating hard real-time applications. One of those benefits is that it gives a clear runtime separation of applications in the time domain. This in turn gives a protection against timing error propagation in between applications. However, these benefits rely on the assumption that the scheduler itself schedules applications correctly according to the scheduling parameters and the chosen scheduling policy. A faulty scheduler can affect all applications in a negative way. Hence, being able to guarantee that the scheduler is correct is of great importance. Therefore, in this paper, we study how properties of hierarchical scheduling can be verified. We model a hierarchically scheduled system using task automata, and we conduct verification with model checking using the Times tool. Further, we generate C-code from the model and we execute the hierarchical scheduler in the Vx Works kernel. The CPU and memory overhead of the modelled scheduler is compared against an equivalent manually coded two-level hierarchical scheduler. We show that the worst-case memory consumption is similar and that there is a considerable difference in CPU overhead.

  • 1033.
    Åstrand, Elaine
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Wardak, C.
    Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Ben Hamed, S.
    Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Neuronal population correlates of target selection and distractor filtering2020Ingår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 209, artikel-id 116517Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Frontal Eye Field (FEF) neurons discriminate between relevant and irrelevant visual stimuli and their response magnitude predicts conscious perception. How this is reflected in the spatial representation of a visual stimulus at the neuronal population level is unknown. We recorded neuronal population activity in the FEF while monkeys were performing a forced choice cued detection task with identical target and distractor stimuli. We quantified, using machine learning techniques, estimates of target and distractor location from FEF population multiunit activities. We found that the FEF population activity provides a precise single trial estimate of reported stimuli locations. Importantly, the closer this prefrontal population single trial estimate is to the veridical stimulus location, the higher the probability that the target or the distractor is reported as perceived. We show that stimulus perception is rescued by the estimate of attention allocation specifically when the latter is close enough to the actual stimulus location, thus indicating a partial independence between attention and perception. Overall, we thus show that how and what we perceive of our environment depends on the spatial precision with which this environment is coded by prefrontal neuronal populations. 

  • 1034.
    Åstrand, Elaine
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Wardak, Claire
    Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Baraduc, Pierre
    Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Ben Hamed, Suliann
    Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Direct Two-Dimensional Access to the Spatial Location of Covert Attention in Macaque Prefrontal Cortex.2016Ingår i: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 26, nr 13, s. 1699-1704Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct access to motor cortical information now enables tetraplegic patients to precisely control neuroprostheses and recover some autonomy. Incontrast, explicit access to higher cortical cognitive functions, such as covert attention, has been missing. Indeed, this cognitive information, known only to the subject, can solely be inferred by an observer from the subject's overt behavior. Here, we present direct two-dimensional real-time access to where monkeys are covertly paying attention, using machine-learning decoding methods applied to their ongoing prefrontal cortical activity. Decoded attention was highly predictive of overt behavior in a cued target-detection task. Indeed, monkeys had a higher probability of detecting a visual stimulus as the distance between decoded attention and stimulus location decreased. This was true whether the visual stimulus was presented at the cued target location or at another distractor location. In error trials, in which the animals failed to detect the cued target stimulus, both the locations of attention and visual cue were misencoded. This misencoding coincided with a specific state of the prefrontal cortical population in which the shared variability between its different neurons (or noise correlations) was high, even before trial onset. This observation strongly suggests a functional link between high noise-correlation states and attentional failure. Overall, this real-time access to the attentional spotlight, as well as the identification of a neural signature of attentional lapses, open new perspectives both to the study of the neural bases of attention and to the remediation or enhancement of the attentional function using neurofeedback.

  • 1035.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lansner, Anders
    Configuration-specific facilitation phenomena explained by layer 2/3 summation pools in V12009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1036.
    Čaušević, Adnan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Appreciate the journey not the destination - Using video assignments in software testing education2018Ingår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073, E-ISSN 1613-0073, Vol. 2066, s. 4-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Courses related to software testing education, at the university level, in most cases have a learning outcome requiring from students to understand and apply a set of test design techniques upon completing the course. The problem, however, remains on how to both effectively and efficiently evaluate if a student has accomplished the stated outcome. By purely looking at the final resulting set of the test cases provided by a student, it is not evident which, if any, test design technique was used to derive them. In this paper, we are presenting a rather simple but effective method of collecting video assignment submissions from students instead of a traditional source code and tests solution. This way, the teacher could rather quickly and in detail gather evidence that student indeed obtained the knowledge needed for passing the stated learning outcome. 

  • 1037.
    Čaušević, Adnan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Land, Rikard
    Maximatecc AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sellin, Ola
    Bombardier Transportation, Väserås, Sweden.
    Automated Regression Test Generation Using Record & Replay Approach: A Case Study on Train Control Management System2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations tend to limit their investment in test automation due to the lack of information on the actual tests reuse and when will automated tests really pay off. However, to perform efficient regression testing of software systems, it is expected from a development team to posses a certain level of test automation infrastructure in place, where at the minimum the test execution is scripted and automated. In this paper we are proposing the usage of record & replay approach to observe the functional usage of a component under test, while its being invoked as part of the whole system or only in a certain portion of it. Afterwords, executable tests are automatically derived, containing both test inputs and test verdict, allowing its later usage as part of a regression testing. With as minimal effort as one manual test execution, developers are provided with automated tests, minimizing any concerns on the investment in automation. A case study from Bombardier Transportation is provided showing how the proposed approach substantially reduced the test effort needed when performing regression testing of the train control management system for the Stockholm C30 metro train.

  • 1038.
    Šljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lisova, Elena
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Afshar, Sara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Agent-centred Approach for Assuring Ethics in Dependable Service Systems2017Ingår i: 13th IEEE World Congress on Services SERVICES 2017, 2017, s. 51-58, artikel-id 8036721Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the world enters the information era, more and more dependable services controlling and even making our decisions are moved to the ubiquitous smart devices. While various standards are in place to impose the societal ethical norms on decision-making of those devices, the rights of the individuals to satisfy their own moral norms are not addressed with the same scrutiny. Hence, the right of the individuals to reason on their own and evaluate morality of certain decisions is at stake, as many decisions are outsourced from the user to the service providers and third party stakeholders without the user's full awareness of all the aspects of those decisions. In this work we propose an agent-centred approach for assuring ethics in dependable technological service systems. We build upon assurance of safety and security and propose the notion of ethics assurance case as a way to assure that individual users have been made aware of all the ethically challenging decisions that might be performed or enabled by the service provider. We propose a framework for identifying and categorising ethically challenging decisions, and documenting the ethics assurance case. We apply the framework on an illustrative example.

  • 1039. Šurković, A.
    et al.
    Hanić, D.
    Lisova, Elena
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Causevic, Adnan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Wenslandt, D.
    Knightec AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Falk, C.
    Knightec AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Incorporating attacks modeling into safety process2018Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 11094, s. 31-41Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems of systems (SoS) are built as a collection of systems capable of fulfilling their own function, as well as contributing to other functionalities. They are expected to increase production efficiency and possibly decrease human involvement in harmful environments, and in many cases such systems are safety-critical. For SoS it is a paramount to provide both safety and security assurance. It is not sufficient to analyze and provide assurance of these properties independently due to their mutual connection. Hence, a joint effort addressing safety and security that provides joint guarantees on both properties, is required. In this paper we provide a safety and security assurance argument by incorporating an adversary point of view, and identify potential failures coming from the security domain that might lead to an already identified set of hazards. In this way system assets, vulnerabilities and ways to exploit them can be assessed. As an outcome mitigation strategies coming from security considerations can be captured by the safety requirements. The approach is illustrated on an autonomous quarry.

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